by Susan Elbaum Jootla
In the canonical formula for contemplation of the Buddha,
nine epithets of the Awakened One are mentioned. One of these, likely to be overlooked, is sattha
devamanussanam, "teacher of gods and humans." The present essay focuses on one
aspect of this epithet: the Buddha's role as teacher of the devas or gods. In the
pages to follow we will carefully consider the instructions and techniques he used
when teaching beings of divine stature. If we study these teachings we will gain
deeper understanding of how we should purify our own minds, and by studying the
responses of the gods we can find models for our own behavior in relation to the
Master and his teaching.
Many religious leaders consider themselves prophets whose authority stems from
an Almighty God, but as our epithet implies, the Buddha's relationship to divinity
was very different. He instructed deities, as well as humans, on how to end all
suffering (dukkha) by eradicating ignorance and other unwholesome states.
The gods came to the Buddha to request instruction and clarification, to support
his Sasana or Dispensation, to praise his incomparable qualities, and to pay homage
at his feet. Devas and brahmas are often mentioned throughout the Pali Canon. They
regularly manifest themselves on the human plane and participate in many episodes
of the Buddha's career. Some of these higher beings are foolish, some exceedingly
wise; some are barely distinguishable from well-off people, others are extremely
powerful, long-lived, and magnificent. The multiple connections between the Buddha
and beings of the higher planes can inspire meditators to develop the Noble Eightfold
Path that leads to the end of suffering.
This essay will explore: (1) the Buddha's direct instructions to devas and how
they can help human meditators practice the Dhamma; (2) how devas, out of gratitude
and faith, honor the Buddha and support his Dispensation; and (3) the process of
attaining liberation for devas, brahmas, and humans.
The Buddhist universe consists of thirty-one planes of existence (see chart below).
Every being lives on one or another of these planes. After death all beings, except
the arahants, will be reborn in a realm and under circumstances that accords with
their kamma — their volitional actions of body, speech, and mind made in that existence
or in any previous one. We will often refer to this chart to indicate where, in
the cosmic hierarchy, the deities we meet come from.
Thirty-one Planes of Existence
- Four planes of the Immaterial Brahma Realm:
- (31) Plane of Neither Perception-nor-non-Perception
- (30) Plane of Nothingness
- (29) Plane of Infinite Consciousness
- (28) Plane of Infinite Space
- Sixteen planes of the Fine Material Brahma Realm:
- 7 Fourth Jhana Planes:
- 5 Pure Abodes:
- (27) Highest (Akanittha)
- (26) Clear Sighted (Sudassi)
- (25) Beautiful (Sudassa)
- (24) Serene (Atappa)
- (23) Durable (Aviha)
- (22) Non-percipient, matter only, no mind
- (21) Great Fruit
- 3 Third Jhana Planes:
- (20) Third Jhana, highest degree
- (19) Third Jhana, medium degree
- (18) Third Jhana, minor degree
- 3 Second Jhana Planes:
- (17) Second Jhana, highest degree (Abhassara)
- (16) Second Jhana, medium degree
- (15) Second Jhana, minor degree
- 3 First Jhana Planes:
- (14) First Jhana, Maha Brahmas
- (13) First Jhana, Brahma's ministers
- (12) First Jhana, Brahma's retinue
- Eleven planes of the Sensuous Realm :
- Seven Happy Sensuous Planes:
- Six Deva planes:
- (11) Control others' creations
- (10) Rejoice in their own creations
- (9) Tusita — Delightful Plane
- (8) Yama
- (7) Realm of the Thirty-three
- (6) Catummaharajika — 4 Great Kings
- (5) Human Beings
- Four Lower Realms of Woe:
- (4) Ghosts
- (3) Asuras
- (2) Animal realm
- (1) Hell realms
The lowest area (planes 1-11) is called the sensuous realm; here sense experience
predominates. Next comes the fine-material realm (12-27) attained by practicing
the fine-material absorptions (rupa-jhanas). Above that is the immaterial
realm (28-31) attained by practicing the immaterial absorptions (arupa-jhanas).
Although humans appear to be rather low on the scale, many intelligent deities
long for rebirth on the human plane. Why? Because the best opportunity to practice
the Dhamma and attain liberation is right here on earth. On the lower four planes,
little progress can be made as suffering is gross and unrelenting and the opportunity
to perform deeds of merit is rarely gained. The very bliss of the higher planes
beclouds the universal characteristics of all phenomena: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness,
and the lack of any lasting, controlling self. And without fully comprehending these
principles, there is no motivation to develop the detachment from the world that
is essential to liberation.
Before examining the chart in detail, a few notes on terminology are in order.
We will use the word "deva" to include deva, devata, and devaputta
referred to in the Suttas, as all three terms are almost synonymous. Although "deva"
is often used in the Pali texts to refer to all super-human beings, "deva" and "brahma"
can generally be distinguished. "Deva" in its more limited sense refers to beings
in the six planes immediately above the human one (6-11), the sensuous heavens.
When "deva" refers specifically to these sense-sphere beings, the term "brahma"
is used for those residing in the fine-material planes (12-27) and immaterial planes
(28-31). If in a particular discourse "deva" is used for a being who clearly fits
into the category of brahmas (as sometimes happens), we will call him a brahma;
if the deva is actually a sense-sphere being (or if his identity is unclear) we
will retain "deva." For variety, we occasionally use "deity" and "god" as translations
for deva in all its senses.
Let us now study some features of the chart. The lower beings and humans do not
have fixed lifespans, but higher beings do. As you go up the chart from the sixth
plane to the thirty-first, each successive group of deities lives longer than the
group below it. The lifespans of devas are measured in multiple centuries. The duration
of a brahma's existence can only be expressed in aeons. The Buddha defines these
extremely long periods of time by analogy. An aeon is the length of time it would
take to wear away a mountain of solid rock six miles high and six miles wide, rubbing
over it with a fine piece of muslin once every hundred years. The highest brahmas
of the immaterial sphere live for 84,000 aeons.
All beings — human, sub-human, devas, and brahmas — die. All except arahants
are reborn in one or another of the thirty-one planes. No being lasts forever. arahants
have eradicated all mental defilements and have thereby eliminated the causes for
rebirth with its attendant suffering. They are not reborn after death. Instead,
they attain Parinibbana, the complete, permanent cessation of every form of existence.
For all non-arahants, death is immediately followed by rebirth. The plane of birth
is determined by the kamma that becomes operative at the moment of death. This could
be any volition created in the present life or in any previous existence. Even the
three lower kinds of noble ones (ariya) must be reborn. They have effaced
some of the mental defilements, are assured of eventually attaining Nibbana, and
will never again be reborn in the lower planes. Noble ones of the two lower kinds
— stream-enterers and once-returners — can be reborn in the deva planes. For anyone
who is not an ariya — and this includes most devas and brahmas — the destination
of rebirth is uncertain. It may be on the same plane or on a higher one; but most
often it is on a lower plane. Rebirth is neither arbitrary nor controlled by a God.
It takes place strictly due to kamma, the deeds we have performed and continue to
perform all our lives. Brahmas too die and are reborn, and also suffer, even though
their lives are so extremely long that they may be deluded into believing they are
The devas of the sensuous sphere are said to enjoy sense pleasures in far greater
abundance than can be found in the human world. Their bodies emit light and they
have subtle sense organs, similar to ours but far more powerful and acute. That
is why the supernormal powers of seeing various realms and hearing at great distances
are referred to as deva vision and deva hearing. On the deva planes there are stream-enterers
and once-returners. For example, Sakka, king of the gods in the heaven of the Thirty-three,
became a stream-enterer while discussing the Dhamma with the Buddha, as we will
However, only few among the devas have any understanding of the Dhamma. In fact,
all that is needed to be reborn in these heavens is the meritorious kamma of generosity
and good morality. Mental development through meditation is not a prerequisite for
rebirth on the higher sensuous planes.
The fine-material brahmas have extremely subtle bodies of light; their powers
are great but not unlimited. A being is reborn among these brahmas by cultivating
the appropriate jhana, perfecting it, and retaining it at the moment of death. Jhanas
are states of deep concentration that can be attained by unifying the mind through
meditation. They are all wholesome states of a very lofty and sublime nature. But
one can get "stuck internally" in any of the jhanas and thereby block one's progress
There are four fine-material jhanas. The beings in the brahma planes spend most
of their time enjoying their respective jhanas. Brahmas experience no ill will or
hatred, but only because they have suppressed it by their jhana, not because they
have uprooted it from their mental continuum. Thus when a brahma is eventually reborn
as a deva or human being he or she can again be beset by hatred. (After one birth
as a deva or human, a former brahma can even fall to one of the lower planes of
the grossest suffering.) The brahmas also are prone to conceit and belief in a permanent
self, as well as to attachment to the bliss of meditation. Fine-material brahmas
can interact with the human plane if they so choose, but to appear to humans they
must, like the devas, deliberately assume a grosser form.4
Later we will meet a number of brahmas who converse with the Buddha.
The immaterial brahmas of the four highest planes have no material bodies whatsoever.
They consist entirely of mind. They attained this kind of birth by achieving and
maintaining the immaterial jhanas, four kinds of absorption taking non-material
objects, and it is this kamma that became operative at their death. These brahmas
can have no contact with the human or deva planes, for they have no physical bodies;
thus we will rarely mention them. They spend countless aeons in the perfect equanimity
of meditation until their lifespan ends. Then they are reborn in the same plane,
a higher immaterial plane, or as devas. After that they too can be reborn on any
plane at all. So even existence without a body is not the way to permanently eliminate
Only practicing the Noble Eightfold Path can bring suffering to an end. In fact,
immaterial brahmas are in the unfortunate position of being unable to start on the
path. This is because one has to learn the Dhamma from the Buddha or one of his
disciples to attain the first stage of awakening, to become a stream-enterer. That
is why the sage Asita, called by the Buddha's father to examine the newborn Bodhisatta,
wept after predicting that Prince Siddhattha would become a Buddha. The sage knew
he was going to die before the prince attained Buddhahood. He had cultivated these
immaterial absorptions so he would have to be reborn in the immaterial realm and
would thereby lose all contact with the human plane. This meant he would not be
able to escape samsara under Gotama Buddha. He was sorely distressed to realize
that he would miss this rare opportunity to gain deliverance and would have to remain
in the round of rebirth until another Buddha appears in the remote future. He could
see into the future and thus understood the precious opportunity a Buddha offers,
but he could neither postpone his death nor avoid rebirth into the immaterial realm.
Suggested Further Reading
From Teacher of the Devas by Susan Elbaum Jootla. Copyright © 1997 Buddhist Publication Society
Access to Insight edition © 1999 For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted, and redistributed in any medium. It is the author's wish, however, that any such republication and redistribution be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and that translations and other derivative works be clearly marked as such.