The Apastamba Sutras - Prasna I

Translation by Georg Bühler



1. Now, therefore, we will declare the acts productive of merit which form part of the customs of daily life, as they have been settled by the agreement (of those who know the law). 1

2. The authority (for these duties) is the agreement of those who know the law, 2

3. And (the authorities for the latter are) the Vedas alone.

4. (There are) four castes--Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras.

5. Amongst these, each preceding (caste) is superior by birth to the one following.

6. (For all these), excepting Sûdras and those who have committed bad actions, (are ordained) the initiation, the study of the Veda, and the kindling of 6 the sacred fire; and (their) works are productive of rewards (in this world and the next).

7. To serve the other (three) castes (is ordained) for the Sûdra. 7

8. The higher the caste (which he serves) the greater is the merit.

9. The initiation is the consecration in accordance with the texts of the Veda, of a male who is desirous of (and can make use of) sacred knowledge. 9

10. A Brâhmana declares that the Gâyatrî is learnt for the sake of all the (three) Vedas. 10

11. (Coming) out of darkness, he indeed enters darkness, whom a man unlearned in the Vedas, initiates, and (so does he) who, without being learned in the Vedas, (performs the rite of initiation.) That has been declared in a Brâhmana.

12. As performer of this rite of initiation he shall seek to obtain a man in whose family sacred learning is hereditary, who himself possesses it, and who is devout (in following the law).

13. And under him the sacred science must be 13

studied until the end, provided (the teacher) does not fall off from the ordinances of the law.

14. He from whom (the pupil) gathers (âkinoti) (the knowledge of) his religious duties (dharmân) (is called) the Âkârya (teacher). 14

15. Him he should never offend. 15

16. For he causes him (the pupil) to be born (a second time) by (imparting to him) sacred learning. 16

17. This (second) birth is the best. 17

18. The father and the mother produce the body only. 18

19. Let him initiate a Brâhmana in spring, a Kshatriya in summer, a Vaisya in autumn, a Brâhmana in the eighth year after conception, a Kshatriya in the eleventh year after conception, (and) a Vaisya in the twelfth after conception. 19

20. Now (follows the enumeration of the years

to be chosen) for the fulfilment of some (particular) wish,

21. (Let him initiate) a person desirous of excellence in sacred learning in his seventh year, 21

22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth year, 22

23. A person desirous of manly vigour in his ninth year,

24. A person desirous of food in his tenth year,

25. A person desirous of strength in his eleventh year,

26. A person desirous of cattle in his twelfth year.

27. There is no dereliction (of duty, if the initiation takes place), in the case of a Brâhmana before the completion of the sixteenth year, in the case of a Kshatriya before the completion of the twenty-second year, in the case of a Vaisya before the completion of the twenty-fourth year. (Let him be initiated at such an age) that he may be able to perform the duties, which we shall declare below. 27

28. If the proper time for the initiation has passed, he shall observe for the space of two months 28 the duties of a student, as observed by those who are studying the three Vedas.

29. After that he may be initiated.

30. After that he shall bathe (daily) for one year. 30

31. After that he may be instructed.

32. He, whose father and grandfather have not been initiated, (and his two ancestors) are called 'slayers of the Brahman.' 32

33. Intercourse, eating, and intermarriage with them should be avoided. 33

34. If they wish it (they may perform the following) expiation;

35. In the same manner as for the first neglect (of the initiation, a penance of) two months (was) prescribed, so (they shall do penance for) one year. 35

36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then they must bathe (daily),


1. For as many years as there are uninitiated persons, reckoning (one year) for each ancestor (and the person to be initiated himself),

2. (They should bathe daily reciting) the seven 2 Pâvamânîs, beginning with 'If near or far,' the Yagushpavitra, ('May the waters, the mothers purify us,' &c.) the Sâmapavitra, ('With what help assists,' &c.), and the Âṅgirasapavitra ('A swan, dwelling in purity'),

3. Or also reciting the Vyâhritis (om, bhûh, bhuvah, suvah).

4. After that (such a person) may be taught (the Veda).

5. But those whose great-grandfather's (grandfather's and father's) initiation is not remembered, are called 'burial-grounds.'

6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with them should be avoided. For them, if they like, the (following) penance (is prescribed). (Such a man) shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for a student who is studying the three Vedas. Afterwards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe, reciting the Pâvamânîs and the other (texts mentioned above, I, 1, 2, 2).

7. Then he may be instructed in the duties of a householder.

8. He shall not be taught (the whole Veda), but only the sacred formulas required for the domestic ceremonies.

9. When he has finished this (study of the Grihya-mantras), he may be initiated (after having performed the penance prescribed) for the first neglect (I, 1, 1, 28).

10. Afterwards (everything is performed) as in the case of a regular initiation. 10 He who has been initiated shall dwell as a religious student in the house of his teacher, 11

12. For forty-eight years (if he learns all the four Vedas), 12

13. (Or) a quarter less (i.e. for thirty-six years),

14. (Or) less by half (i.e. for twenty-four years),

15. (Or) three quarters less (i.e. for twelve years),

16. Twelve years (should be) the shortest time (for his residence with his teacher). 16

17. A student who studies the sacred science shall not dwell with anybody else (than his teacher). 17

18. Now (follow) the rules for the studentship.

19. He shall obey his teacher, except (when ordered to commit) crimes which cause loss of caste. 19

20. He shall do what is serviceable to his teacher, he shall not contradict him. 20

21. He shall always occupy a couch or seat lower (than that of his teacher). 21

22. He shall not eat food offered (at a sacrifice to the gods or the Manes),

23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat. 23

24. He shall not sleep in the day-time.

25. He shall not use perfumes. 25

26. He shall preserve chastity. 26

27. He shall not embellish himself (by using ointments and the like). 27

28. He shall not wash his body (with hot water for pleasure).

29. But, if it is soiled by unclean things, he shall clean it (with earth or water), in a place where he is not seen by a Guru. 29

30. Let him not sport in the water whilst bathing; let him swim (motionless) like a stick. 30

31. He shall wear all his hair tied in one braid. 31

32. Or let him make a braid of the lock on the crown of the head, and shave the rest of the hair.

33. The girdle of a Brâhmana shall be made of Muñga grass, and consist of three strings; if possible, (the strings) should be twisted to the right. 33

34. A bowstring (should be the girdle) of a Kshatriya,

35. Or a string of Muñga grass in which pieces of iron have been tied.

36. A wool thread (shall be the girdle) of a Vaisya,

37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the plough, or a stringy made of Tamala-bark.

38. The staff worn by a Brâhmana should be made of Palâsa wood, that of a Kshatriya of a branch of the Banian tree, which grows downwards, that of a Vaisya of Bâdara or Udumbara wood. Some declare, without any reference to caste, that the staff of a student should be made of the wood of a tree (that is fit to be used at the sacrifice). 38

39. (He shall wear) a cloth (to cover his nakedness). 39

40. (It shall be made) of hemp for a Brâhmana, of flax (for a Kshatriya), of the skin of a (clean) animal (for a Vaisya). 40

41. Some declare that the (upper) garment (of a Brâhmana) should be dyed with red Lodh, 41


1. And that of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,

2. And that of a Vaisya dyed with turmeric.

3. (The skin),worn by a Brâhmana shall be that of a common deer or of a black doe. 3

4. If he wears a black skin, let him not spread it (on the ground) to sit or lie upon it.

5. (The skin worn) by a Kshatriya shall be that of a spotted deer.

6. (The skin worn) by a Vaisya shall be that of a he-goat.

7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all castes,

8. And a blanket made of wool.

9. He who wishes the increase of Brâhmana power shall wear skins only; he who wishes the increase of Kshatriya power shall wear cloth only; he who wishes the increase of both shall wear both (skin and cloth). Thus says a Brâhmana. 9

10. But (I, Âpastamba, say), let him wear a skin only as his upper garment. 10

11. Let him not look at dancing. 11

12. Let him not go to assemblies (for gambling, &c.), nor to crowds (assembled at festivals). 12

13. Let him not be addicted to gossiping.

14. Let him be discreet.

15. Let him not do anything for his own pleasure in places which his teacher frequents. 15

16. Let him talk with women so much (only) as his purpose requires.

17. (Let him be) forgiving.

18. Let him restrain his organs from seeking illicit objects.

19. Let him be untired in fulfilling his duties; 19

20. Modest;

21. Possessed of self-command

22. Energetic;

23. Free from anger; 23

24. (And) free from envy.

25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the evening, (and he may) beg (from everybody) except low-caste people unfit for association (with Âryas) and Abhisastas. 25 A Brâhmana declares: Since a devout student takes away from women, who refuse (to give him alms, the merit gained) by (Srauta)-sacrifices, by gifts, (and) by burnt-offerings (offered in the domestic fire), as well as their offspring, their cattle, the sacred learning (of their families), therefore, indeed, (a woman) should not refuse (alms) to the crowd of students; for amongst those (who come to beg), there might be one of that (devout) kind, one who thus (conscientiously) keeps his vow.

27. Alms (shall) not (be considered) leavings (and be rejected) by inference from their appearance), but on the strength of ocular or oral testimony (only). 27

28. A Brâhmana shall beg, prefacing (his request) by the word 'Lady'; 28

29. A Kshatriya (inserting the word) 'Lady' in the middle (between the words 'give alms');

30. A Vaisya, adding the word 'Lady' (at the end of the formula).

31. (The pupil) having taken those (alms) shall place them before his teacher and offer them to him. 31

32. He may eat (the food) after having been ordered to do so by his teacher. 32

33. If the teacher is absent, the pupil (shall offer the food) to (a member of) the teacher's family.

34. If the (family of the teacher) is (also) absent, the pupil (may offer the food) to other learned Brâhmanas (Srotriyas) also (and receive from them the permission to eat). 34

35. He shall not beg for his own sake (alone). 35

36. After he has eaten, he himself shall clean his dish. 36

37. And he shall leave no residue (in his dish).

38. If he cannot (eat all that he has taken in his dish), he shall bury (the remainder) in the ground;

39. Or he may throw it into the water;

40. Or he may place (all that remains in a pot), and put it down near an (uninitiated) Ârya; 40

41. Or (he may put it down) near a Sûdra slave (belonging to his teacher).

42. If (the pupil) is on a journey, he shall throw 42

a part of the alms into the fire and eat (the remainder).

43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food. In regard to them the teacher (holds the position which) a deity (holds in regard to food offered at a sacrifice).

44. And (the teacher holds also the place which) the Âhavanîya fire occupies (at a sacrifice, because a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his stomach). 44

45. To him (the teacher) the (student) shall offer (a portion of the alms),


1. And (having done so) eat what is left.

2. For this (remnant of food) is certainly a remnant of sacrificial food.

If he obtains other things (besides food, such as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher) as he obtains them, then those (things hold the place of) rewards (given to priests for the performance of a sacrifice).

4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily by a religious student.

5. And (the teacher) shall not give him anything that is forbidden by the revealed texts, (not even as) leavings,

6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat (and the like). 6

7. By this (last Sûtra it is) explained (that) the other restrictions (imposed upon a student, such as abstinence from perfumes, ointments, &c., are likewise not to be broken). 7

8. For (explicit) revealed texts have greater force than custom from which (the existence of a permissive passage of the revelation) may be inferred. 8

9. Besides (in this particular case) a (worldly) motive for the practice is apparent. 9

10. For pleasure is obtained (by eating or using the forbidden substances). 10

11. A residue of food left by a father and an elder brother, may be eaten.

12. If they act contrary to the law, he must not eat (their leavings). 12

13. In the evening and in the morning he shall fetch water in a vessel (for the use of his teacher). 13

14. Daily he shall fetch fuel from the forest, and place it on the floor (in his teacher's house). 14

15. He shall not go to fetch firewood after sunset.

16. After having kindled the fire, and having swept the ground around (the altar), he shall place 16 the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and evening, according to the prescription (of the Grihya-sûtra).

17. Some say that the fire is only to be worshipped in the evening.

18. He shall sweep the place around the fire after it has been made to burn (by the addition of fuel), with his hand, and not with the broom (of Kusa grass). 18

19. But, before (adding the fuel, he is free to use the broom) at his pleasure

20. He shall not perform non-religious acts with the residue of the water employed for the fire-worship, nor sip it. 20

21. He shall not sip water which has been stirred with the hand, nor such as has been received into one hand only.

22. And he shall avoid sleep (whilst his teacher is awake).

23. Then (after having risen) he shall assist his teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit and of wealth. 23

24. Having served (his teacher during the day in this manner, he shall say when going to bed): I have protected the protector of the law (my teacher). 24

25. If the teacher transgresses the law through carelessness or knowingly, he shall point it out to him privately.

26. If (the teacher) does not cease (to transgress), he himself shall perform the religious acts (which ought to be performed by the former); 26

27. Or he may return home.

28. Now of him who rises before (his teacher) and goes to rest after (him), they say that he does not sleep.

29. The student who thus entirely fixes his mind there (in the teacher's family), has thereby performed all acts which yield rewards (such as the Gyotishtoma), and also those which must be performed by a householder. 29


1. The word 'austerity' (must be understood to apply) to (the observance of) the rules (of studentship). 1

2. If they are transgressed, study drives out the knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the (offender) and from his children. 2

3. Besides he will go to hell, and his life will be shortened.

4. On account of that (transgression of the rules of studentship) no Rishis are born amongst the men of later ages. 4

5. But some in their new birth, on account of a residue of the merit acquired by their actions (in former lives), become (similar to) Rishis by their knowledge (of the Veda), 5

6. Like Svetaketu. 6

7. And whatever else besides the Veda, (a student) who obeys the rules learns from his teacher, that brings the same reward as the Veda. 7

8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something (be it good or evil), he thinks it in his mind, or pronounces it in words, or looks upon it with his eye, even so it will be; thus teach (those who know the law).

9. (The duties of a student consist in) acts to please the spiritual teacher, the observance (of rules) conducive to his own welfare, and industry in studying. 9

10. Acts other than these need not be performed by a student. 10

11. A religious student who retains what he has learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is upright and forgiving, attains perfection. 11

12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him with (this) salutation: I, N. N., ho! (salute thee.) 12

13. And (he shall salute) before the morning meal also other very aged (learned Brâhmanas) who may live in the same village.

14. If he has been on a journey, (he shall salute 14 the persons mentioned) when he meets them on his, return.

15. (He may also salute the persons mentioned at other times), if he is desirous of heaven and long life.

16. A Brâhmana. shall salute stretching forward his right arm on a level with his ear, a Kshatriya holding it on a level with the breast, a Vaisya holding it on a level with the waist, a Sûdra holding it low, (and) stretching forward the joined hands. 16

17. And when returning the salute of (a man belonging) to the first (three) castes, the (last syllable of the) name (of the person addressed) is produced to the length of three moras. 17

18. But when he meets his teacher after sunrise (coming for his lesson), he shall embrace (his feet). 18

19. On all other occasions he shall salute (him in the manner described above).

20. But some declare that he ought to embrace the (feet of his) teacher (at every occasion instead of saluting him).

21. Having stroked the teacher's right foot with his right hand below and above, he takes hold of it and of the ankle.

22. Some say, that he must press both feet, each with both hands, and embrace them. 22

23. He shall be very attentive the whole day 23 long, never allowing his mind to wander from the lesson during the (time devoted to) studying.

24. And (at other times he shall be attentive) to the business of his teacher.

25. And during the time for rest (he shall give) his mind (to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt).

26. And he shall study after having been called by the teacher (and not request the teacher to begin the lesson). 26


1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed after having washed his (teacher's) feet and after having rubbed him. 1

2. He shall retire to rest after having received (the teacher's permission). 2

3. And he shall not stretch out his feet towards him.

4. Some say, that it is not (sinful) to stretch out the feet (towards the teacher), if he be lying on a bed. 4

5. And he shall not address (the teacher), whilst he himself is in a reclining position. 5

6. But he may answer (the teacher) sitting (if the teacher himself is sitting or lying down). 6

7. And if (the teacher) stands, (he shall answer him,) after having risen also.

8. He shall walk after him, if he walks.

9. He shall run after him, if he runs.

10. He shall not approach (his teacher) with shoes on his feet, or his head covered, or holding (implements) in his hand.

11. But on a journey or occupied in work, he may approach him (with shoes on, with his head covered, or with implements in his hand),

12. Provided he does not sit down quite near (to his teacher).

13. He shall approach his teacher with the same reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories, attentive and listening eagerly to his words.

14. (He shall not sit near him). with his legs crossed.

15. If (on sitting down) the wind blows from the pupil towards the master, he shall change his place. 15

16. (He shall sit) without supporting himself with his hands (on the ground),

17. Without leaning against something (as a wall or the like).

18. If the pupil wears two garments, he shall wear the upper one after the fashion of the sacred thread at the sacrifices. 18

19. But, if he wears a (lower) garment only, he shall wrap it around the lower part of his body.

20. He shall turn his face towards his teacher though the latter does not turn his towards him. 20

21. He shall sit neither too near to, nor too far (from the teacher),

22. (But) at such a distance, that (the teacher) may be able to reach him with his arms (without rising).

23. (He shall not sit in such a position) that the wind blows from the teacher, towards himself. 23

24. (If there is) only one pupil, he shall sit at the right hand (of the teacher).

25. (If there are) many, (they may sit) as it may be convenient.

26. If the master (is not honoured with a seat and) stands, the (pupil) shall not sit down.

27. (If the master is not honoured with a couch) and sits, the (pupil) shall not lie down on a couch.

28. And if the teacher tries (to do something), then (the pupil) shall offer to do it for him, if it is in his power.

29. And, if his teacher is near, he shall not embrace (the feet of) another Guru who is inferior (in dignity), 29

30. Nor shall he praise (such a person in the teacher's presence) by (pronouncing the name of) his family.

31. Nor, shall he rise to meet such an (inferior Guru) or rise after him, 31

32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher.

33. But he shall leave his place and his seat, (in order to show him honour.)

34. Some say, that (he may address) a pupil of his teacher by (pronouncing) his name, if he is also one of his (the pupil's) own Gurus. 34

35. But towards such a person who is generally revered for some other reason than being the teacher (e.g. for his learning), the (student) should behave as towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity to the latter.

36. After having eaten in his (teacher's) presence, he shall not give away the remainder of the food without rising. 36

37. Nor shall he sip water (after having eaten in the presence of his teacher without rising).

38. (He shall rise) addressing him (with these words), 'What shall I do?'


1. Or he may rise silently.

2. Nor shall he (in going away) move around his teacher with his left hand turned towards him; he shall go away after having walked around him with his right side turned towards him.

3. He shall not look at a naked woman. 3

4. He shall not cut the (leaves or flowers) of herbs or trees, in order to smell at them. 4

5. He shall avoid (the use of) shoes, of an umbrella a chariot, and the like (luxuries). 5

6. He shall not smile.

7. If he smiles, he shall smile covering (the mouth with his hand); thus says a Brâhmana.

8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in order to inhale the fragrance of her body.

9. Nor shall he desire her in his heart.

10. Nor shall he touch (a woman at all) without a particular reason. 10

11. A Brâhmana declares, 'He shall be dusty, be shall have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.' 11

12. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in that science which he (the pupil) studies with him, (are to be considered as) spiritual teachers (by the pupil). 12

13. But if (a teacher), before the eyes of his (pupil), embraces the feet of any other persons, then he (the pupil also) must embrace their feet, (as long as he remains) in that (state of studentship). 13

14. If (a pupil) has more than one teacher, the alms (collected by him) are at the disposal of him to whom he is (just then) bound. 14

15. When (a student) has returned home (from his teacher), he shall give (whatever he may obtain by begging or otherwise) to his mother.

16. The mother shall give it to her husband;

17. (And) the husband to the (student's) teacher.

18. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies. 18

19. After having studied as many (branches of) sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a righteous manner the fee for (the teaching of) the Veda (to be given to his teacher), according to his power. 19

20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he may take (the fee) from an Ugra or from a Sûdra. 20

21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any time to take the money for the teacher from an Ugra or from a Sûdra.

22. And having paid (the fee), he shall not boast of having done so.

23. And he shall not remember what he may have done (for his teacher).

24. He shall avoid self-praise, blaming others, and the like. 24

25. If he is ordered (by his teacher to do something), he shall do just that.

26. On account of the incompetence of his teacher, (he may go) to another (and) study (there). 26

27. He shall behave towards his teacher's wife as towards the teacher himself, but he shall not embrace her feet, nor eat the residue of her food. 27

28. So also (shall he behave) towards him who teaches him at (the teacher's) command, 28

29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior (in learning and years). 29

30. He shall behave to his teacher's son (who is superior to himself in learning or years) as to his teacher, but not eat the residue of his food. 30

31. Though he may have returned home, the behaviour towards his (teacher and the rest) which is prescribed by the rule of conduct settled by the agreement (of those who know the law, must be observed by him to the end),


1. Just as by a student (actually living with his teacher). 1

2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face (with sandal), oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eyelids (with collyrium), and (his body) with oil, wear a turban, a cloth round his loins, a coat, sandals, and wooden shoes.

3. Within the sight of his (teacher or teacher's relations) he shall do none of those (actions, as putting on a garland), nor cause them to be done.

4. Nor (shall he wear garlands &c. whilst performing) acts for his pleasure,

5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, shampooing, combing the hair, and the like.

6. And the teacher shall not speak of the goods of the (pupil) with the intention to obtain them. 6

7. But some declare, that, if a pupil who has bathed (after completing his studies) is called by his teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off 7 that (garland or other ornaments) which he wears according to the law at the time (of that ceremony).

8. He shall not sit on a seat higher (than that of his teacher),

9. Nor on a seat that has more legs (than that of his teacher),

10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed (on the ground than that of his teacher), 10

11. Nor shall he sit or lie on a couch or seat which is used (by his teacher). 11

12. If he is ordered (by his teacher), he shall on journey ascend a carriage after him. 12

13. (At his teacher's command) he shall also enter an assembly, ascend a roller (which his teacher drags along), sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of straw (together with his teacher). 13

14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not speak to him, except (in order to announce) good news.

15. He shall avoid to touch a Guru (with his finger), to whisper (into his ear), to laugh (into his face), to call out to him, to pronounce his name or to give him orders and the like (acts) 15

16. In time of need he may attract attention (by any of these acts).

17. If (a pupil) resides (in the same village) with (his teacher after the completion of his studies), he shall go to see him every morning and evening, without being called. 17

18. And if he returns from a journey, he shall (go to) see him on the same day.

19. If his teacher and his teacher's teacher meet, he shall embrace the feet of his teacher's teacher, and then show his desire to do the same to his teacher.

20. The other (the teacher) shall (then) forbid it.

21. And (other marks of) respect (due to the teacher) are omitted in the presence of the (teacher's teacher).

22. And (if he does not live in the same village), he shall go frequently to his teacher's residence, in order to see him, and bring him some (present) with his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning the teeth. Thus (the duties of a student have been explained).

23. (Now) the conduct of a teacher towards his pupil (will be explained).

24. Loving him like his own son, and full of attention, he shall teach him the sacred science, without hiding anything in the whole law. 24

25. And he shall not use. him for his own purposes to the detriment of his studies except in times of distress.

26. That pupil who, attending to two (teachers), accuses his (principal and first) teacher of ignorance, remains no (longer) a pupil.

27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction (of his pupil), does no (longer) remain a teacher. 26

28. If the (pupil) commits faults, (the teacher) shall always reprove him.

29. Frightening, fasting, bathing in (cold) water, and banishment from the teacher's presence are the punishments (which are to be employed), according to the greatness (of the fault), until (the pupil) leaves off (sinning). 29

30. He shall dismiss (the pupil), after he has performed the ceremony of the Samâvartana and has finished his studentship, with these words, 'Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.'


1. After having performed the Upâkarma for studying the Veda on the full moon of the month' Srâvana (July-August), he shall for one month not study in the evening. 1

2. On the full moon of the month of Pausha (December-January), or under the constellation Rohini, he shall leave off reading the Veda. 2

3. Some declare, (that he shall study) for four months and a half. 3

4. He shall avoid to Study the Veda on a high-road. 4

5. Or he may study it (on a high-road), after having smeared (a space) with cowdung.

6. He shall never study in a burial-ground nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyâ. 6

7. If a village has been built over (a burial ground) or its surface has been cultivated as a field, the recitation of the Veda (in such a place) is not prohibited.

8. But if that place is known to have been a burial-ground he shall not study (there). 8

9. A Sûdra and an outcast are (included by the term) burial-ground, (and the rule given, Sûtra 6, applies to them). 9

10. Some declare, that (one ought to avoid only, to study) in the same house (where they dwell).

11. But if (a student and) a Sûdra woman merely look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must be interrupted,

12. Likewise, if (a student and) a woman, who has had connexion with a man of a lower caste, (look at each other).

13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes to talk to a woman during her courses, he shall first speak to a Brâhmana and then to her, then again speak to a Brâhmana, and afterwards study. Thereby the children (of that woman) will be blessed. 13

14. (He shall not study in a village) in which a corpse lies; 14

15. Nor in such a one where Kândâlas live.

16. He shall not study whilst corpses are being carried to the boundary of the village,

17. Nor in a forest, if (a corpse or Kândâla) is within sight.

18. And if outcasts have entered the village, he shall not study on that day, 18

19. Nor if good men (have come). 19

20. If it thunders in the evening, (he shall not study) during the night. 20

21. If lightning is seen (in the evening, he shall not study during that night), until he has slept.

22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn, or at the time when he may distinguish at the distance of a Samyâ-throw, whether (a cow) is black or red, be shall not study during that day, nor in the following evening.

24. If it thunders in the second part of the third watch of the night, (he shall not study during the following day or evening).

24. Some (declare, that this rule holds good, if it thunders), after the first half of the night has passed.

25. (Nor shall he study) whilst the cows are prevented from leaving (the village on account of thieves and the like),

26. Nor (on the imprisonment of criminals) whilst they are being executed.

27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts (of burden). 27

28. At the new moon, (he shall not study) for two days and two nights. 28


1. (Nor shall he study) on the days of the full moons of those months in which the Kâturmasya-sacrifice may be performed (nor on the days preceding them). 1

2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of Gurus, at the Ashlakâ-Srâddha, and at the time of the Upâkarma, (he shall not study) for three days; 2

3. Likewise if near relations have died. 3

4. (He shall not study) for twelve days, if his mother, father, or teacher have died.

5. If these (have died), he must (also) bathe for the same number of days.

6. Persons who are younger (than the relation deceased), must shave (their hair and beard), 6

7. Some declare, that students who have returned home on completion of their studentship, shall never shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a Srauta-sacrifice. 7

8. Now a Brâhmana also declares, 'Verily, an empty, uncovered (pot) is he, whose hair is shaved off entirely; the top-lock is his covering.' 8

9. But at sacrificial sessions the top-lock must be shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda. 9

10. Some declare, that, upon the death of the teacher, (the reading should be interrupted) for three days and three nights. 10

11. If (he hears of) the death of a learned Brâhmana (Srotriya) before a full year (since the death) has elapsed, (he shall interrupt his reading) for one night (and day). 11

12. Some declare, (that the deceased Srotriya must have been) a fellow-student.

13-14. If a learned Brâhmana (Srotriya) has arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually studying, (or if he is desirous of teaching or is teaching,) he may study or teach after having received permission (to do so from the Srotriya).

15-16. He may likewise study or teach in the presence of his teacher, if (the latter) has addressed him (saying), 'Ho, study! (or, Ho, teach!)' 15

17. When a student desires to study or has finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions embrace the feet of his teacher. 17

18. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words, ('Ho, study!') have been pronounced (by the newcomer). 18

19. The barking of (many) dogs, the braying of (many) asses, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of weeping, and of the Sâman melodies (are reasons for discontinuing the study of the Veda). 19

20. If another branch of the Veda (is being recited in the neighbourhood), the Sâman melodies shall not be studied.

21. And whilst other noises (are being heard, the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued), if they mix (with the voice of the person studying). 21

22. After having vomited (he shall not study) until he has slept. 22

23. Or (he may study) having eaten clarified butter (after the attack of vomiting).

24. A foul smell (is a reason for the discontinuance of study). 24

25. Food turned sour (by fermentation), which he has in his stomach, (is a reason for the discontinuance of the recitation, until the sour rising ceases). 25

26. (Nor shall he study) after having eaten in the evening, 26

27. Nor as long as his hands are wet. 27

28. (And he shall discontinue studying) for, a day and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in honour of a dead person (for whom the Sapindî-karana has not yet been performed), 28

29. Or until the food (eaten on that occasion) is digested. 29

30. But he shall (always) eat in addition (to the meal given in honour of a dead person), food which has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes. 30


1. (The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted for a day and evening if he has eaten), on beginning a fresh Kânda (of his Veda), food given by a motherless person, 1

2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the completion of a Kânda, food given by a fatherless person.

3. Some declare, that (the recitation shall be interrupted for the same space of time), if he has eaten at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were formerly men. 3

4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat (though these things may have been offered in honour of the dead), 4

5. Nor (if he has eaten at a funeral dinner) roots or fruits of herbs and trees.

6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning of a Kânda, or when he studies the index of the Anuvâkas 6 of a (Kânda), he shall not study that (Kânda) on that day (nor in that night).

7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire Veda, he shall not study that Veda (during that day). 7

8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward during a rain-shower, (then the recitation shall be interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts). 8

9. (Nor shall he study) on the boundary between a village and forest,

10. Nor on a highway.

11. If (some of his) fellow-students are on a journey, he shall not study during that day, (the passage) which they learn together. 11

12. And whilst performing acts for his pleasure,

13. Such as washing his feet, shampooing or anointing himself,

14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as he is thus occupied.

15. (He shall not study or teach) in the twilight, 15

16. Nor whilst sitting on a tree, 16

17. Nor whilst immersed in water,

18. Nor at night with open doors,

19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors.

20. During the spring festival and the festival (of Indra), in the month of Âshâdha (June-July), the study of an Anuvâka is forbidden. 20

21. (The recitation) of the daily portion of the Veda (at the Brahmayagña is likewise forbidden if done) in a manner differing from the rule (of the Veda). 21

22. (Now follows) the rule (for the daily recitation) of that (Brahmayagña).

23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go to the water-side, and having purified himself, he shall recite aloud (a portion of the Veda) in a pure 23 place, leaving out according to (the order of the) texts (what he has read the day before).

24. If a stoppage of study is enjoined (for the day, he shall recite the daily portion) mentally.

25. If lightning flashes without interruption, or, thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour of a dead person, or if hoarfrost lies on the ground, (in these cases) they forbid the mental recitation (of the daily portion of the Veda). 25

26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a funeral dinner. 26

27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen together out of season, the recitation shall be interrupted for three days. 27

28. Some (declare, that the recitation shall stop) until the ground is dry.

29. If one or two (of the phenomena mentioned in Sûtra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted) from that hour until the same hour next day.

30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a meteor, or of a fire (in the village), at whatever time these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred sciences (Vedas and Aṅgas) must be interrupted from that hour until the same hour next day. 30

31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a parhelion or a comet appears, if a (high) wind (blows), 31 a foul smell (is observed), or hoarfrost (lies on the ground, at all these occasions (the recitation of all the sacred sciences must be interrupted) during the duration (of these phenomena).

32. After the wind has ceased, (the interruption of the recitation continues) for one muhûrta. 32

33. If (the howl of) a wolf or of a solitary jackal (has been heard, he shall stop the reading) until he has slept.

34. At night (he shall not study) in a wood, where there is no fire nor gold.

35. Out of term he shall not study any part of the Veda which he has not learnt before.

36. Nor (shall he study during term some new part of the Veda) in the evening. 36

37. That which has been studied before, must never be studied (during the vacation or in the evening). 37

38. Further particulars (regarding the interruption 38 of the Veda-study may be learnt) from the (teaching and works of other) Vedic schools.


1. A Brâhmana declares, 'The daily recitation (of the Veda) is austerity.' 1

2. In the same (sacred text) it is also declared, Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs austerity thereby; for the daily recitation is austerity.' 2

3. Now the Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana declares also, 'The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows violently, these sounds take the place of the exclamations Vashat (Vaushat and Svâhâ). Therefore he shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst lightning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the wind blows violently, lest the Vashat (should be heard) in vain. 3

4. The conclusion of the passage from that (Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana is found) in another Sâkhâ (of the Veda).

5. 'Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he shall recite one Rik-verse (in case he studies the Rig-Veda), or one Yagus (in case he studies the Yagur-veda), or one Sâman (in case he studies the Sâma-veda), or (without having a regard to his particular Veda, the following Yagus), "Bhûh Bhuvah, Suvah, in faith I offer true devotion." Then, indeed, his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for that day.' 5

6. If that is done, (if the passage of the Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana is combined with that quoted in Sûtra 5, the former stands) not in contradiction with the decision of the Âryas. 6

7. For they (who know the law) teach both the continuance and the interruption (of the daily recitation of the Veda). That would be meaningless, if one paid attention to the (passage of the) Vâgasaneyi-brâhmana (alone).

8. For no (worldly) motive for the decision of those Âryas is perceptible; (and hence it must have a religious motive and be founded on a passage of the Veda). 8

9. (The proper interpretation therefore is, that) the prohibition to study (given above and by the Âryas generally) refers only to the repetition of the sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their application at sacrifices.

10. (But if you ask, why the decision of the Âryas presupposes the existence of a Vedic passage, then I answer): All precepts were (originally) taught in the Brâhmanas, (but) these texts have been lost. Their (former existence) may, however, be inferred from usage. 10

11. But it is not (permissible to infer the former existence of) a (Vedic) passage in cases where pleasure is obtained (by following a rule of the Smriti or a custom). 11

12. He who follows such (usages) becomes fit for hell.

13. Now follow (some rites and) rules that have been declared in the Brâhmanas. 13

14. By way of laudation they are called 'great sacrifices ' or 'great sacrificial sessions.' 14

15. (These rites include): The daily Bali-offering to the (seven classes of) beings; the (daily) gift of (food) to men according to one's power;


1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the exclamation Svâhâ, which may consist even of a piece of wood only; the offering to the Manes accompanied by the exclamation Svadhâ, which may consist even of a vessel with water only; the daily recitation. 1

2. Respect must be shown to those who are superior by caste, 2

3. And also to (persons of the same caste who are) venerable (on account of learning, virtue, and the like).

4. A man elated (with success) becomes proud, a proud man transgresses the law, but through the transgression of the law hell indeed (becomes his portion).

5. It has not been declared, that orders (may be addressed by the teacher) to a pupil who has returned home. 5

6. The syllable 'Om' is the door of heaven. 6 Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall begin (his lesson) by (pronouncing) it.

7. If he has spoken anything else (than what refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by repeating the word 'Om'). Thus the Veda is separated from profane speech.

8. And at sacrifices the orders (given to the priests) are headed by this word.

9. And in common life, at the occasion of ceremonies performed for the sake of welfare, the sentences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance, '(Om) an auspicious day,' '(Om) welfare,' '(Om) prosperity.' 9

10. Without a vow of obedience (a pupil) shall not study (nor a teacher teach) a difficult (new book) with the exception of (the texts called) Trihsrâvana and Tr.ihsahavakana. 10

11. Hârita declares, that the (whole) Veda must be studied under a vow of obedience until there is no doubt (regarding it in the mind of the pupil). 11

12. No obedience is due (to the teacher for teaching) works which do not belong to the Veda.

13. (A student) shall embrace the feet of a person, who teaches him at the request of his (regular teacher), as long as the instruction lasts. 13

14. Some (declare, that he shall also) always, (if the substitute is) a worthy person. 14

15. But obedience (as towards the teacher) is not required (to be shown towards such a person).

16. And (pupils) older (than their teacher need not show him obedience). 16

17. If (two persons) teach each other mutually (different redactions of) the Veda, obedience (towards each other) is not ordained for them.

18. (For) the (wise) say, 'The Veda-knowledge (of either of them) grows.'

19. Svetaketu declares, 'He who desires to study more, after having settled (as a householder), shall dwell two months every year, with collected mind, in the house of his teacher,'

20. (And he adds), 'For by this means I studied a larger part of the Veda than before, (during my studentship.)'

21. That is forbidden by the Sâstras.

22. For after the student has settled as a householder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the daily rites,


1. (That is to say) the Agnihotra, hospitality, 1

2. And what else of this kind (is ordained).

3. He whom (a student) asks for instruction, shall certainly not refuse it; 3

4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, (which disqualifies him from being taught).

5. If by chance (through the pupil's stupidity the teaching) is not completed, obedience towards the (teacher is the pupil's only refuge). 5

6. Towards a mother (grandmother and great-grandmother) and a father (grandfather and great-grandfather) the same obedience must be shown as towards a teacher. 6

7. The feet of all Gurus must be embraced (every day) by a student who has returned home; 7

8. And also on meeting them, after returning from a journey. 8

9. The feet of (elder) brothers and sisters must be embraced, according to the order of their seniority. 9

10. And respect (must) always (be shown to one's elders and betters), according to the injunction 10 (given above and according to the order of their seniority).

11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father-in-law, a father's brother, and a mother's. brother, (though they may be) younger than he himself, and (when saluting) rise to meet them. 11

12. Or he may silently embrace their feet. 12

13. A friendship kept for ten years with fellow citizens (is a reason for giving a salutation, and so is) a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted for five years. But a learned Brâhmana (known) for less than three years, must be saluted. 13

14. If the age (of several persons whom one meets) is exactly known, one must salute the eldest (first).

15. He need not salute a person, who is not a Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place than he himself.

16. Or he may descend or ascend (to the place where such a person stands) and salute him. 16

17. But every one (Gurus and others) he shall salute, after having risen (from his seat). 17

18. If he is impure, he shall not salute (anybody); 18

19. (Nor shall he salute) a person who is impure.

20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a salutation.

21. Married women (must be saluted) according to the (respective) ages of their husbands.

22. He shall not salute with his shoes on, or his head wrapped up, or his hands full.

23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vaisya he shall use a pronoun, not his name. 23

24. Some (declare, that he shall salute in this manner even) his mother and the wife of his teacher. 24

25. Know that a Brâhmana of ten years and a Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son. But between those two the Brâhmana is the father. 25

26. A younger person or one of equal age he shall ask, about his well-being (employing the word kusala). 26

27. (He shall ask under the same conditions) a Kshatriya, about his health (employing the word anâmaya);

28. A Vaisya if he has lost anything (employing the word anashta). 28

29. A Sûdra, about his health (employing the word ârogya).

30. He shall not pass a learned Brâhmana without addressing him;

31. Nor an (unprotected) woman in a forest (or any other lonely place). 31


1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation (or other sacrifice), when he murmurs prayers at dinner, when sipping water and during the (daily) recitation of the Veda, his garment (or his sacrificial thread) shall pass over his left shoulder and under his right arm. 1

2. By sipping (pure) water, that has been collected on the ground, he becomes pure. 2

3. Or he, whom a pure person causes to sip water, (becomes also pure). 3

4. He shall not sip rain-drops. 4

5. (He shall not sip water) from a (natural) cleft in the ground.

6. He shall not sip water heated (at the fire) except for a particular reason (as sickness). 6

7. He who raises his empty hands (in order to scare) birds, (becomes impure and) shall wash (his hands). 7

8. If he can (find water to sip) he shall not remain impure (even) for a muhûrta.

9. Nor (shall he remain) naked (for a muhûrta if he can help it).

10. Purification (by sipping water) shall not take place whilst he is (standing) in the water.

11. Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall purify himself by sipping water. 11

12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without having sprinkled it (with water). 12

13. (If he is seated in company with) other unclean persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider himself pure.

14. (The same rule applies, if he is seated) on grass or wood fixed in the ground. 14

15. He shall put on a dress, (even if it is clean,) only after having sprinkled it with water. 15

16. If he has been touched by a dog, he shall bathe, with his clothes on;

17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed that part (of his body) and having touched it with fire and again washed it, as well as his feet, and having sipped water. 17

18. Unpurified, he shall not approach fire, (so near that he can feel the heat). 18

19. Some declare, that (he shall not approach nearer) than the length of an arrow.

20. Nor shall he blow on fire with his breath. 20

21. Nor shall he place fire under his bedstead. 21

22. It is lawful for a Brâhmana to dwell in a village, where there is plenty of fuel and water, (and) where he may perform the rites of purification by himself. 22

23. When he has washed away the stains of urine and fæces after voiding urine or fæces, the stains of food (after dinner), the stains of the food eaten the day before (from his vessels), and the stains of semen, and has also washed his feet and afterwards has sipped water, he becomes pure. 23


1. He shall not drink water standing or bent forwards. 1

2. Sitting he shall sip water (for purification) thrice, the water penetrating to his heart. 2

3. He shall wipe his lips three times.

4. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

5. He shall then touch (his lips) once (with the three middle fingers).

6. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head and (the following three) organs, the eyes, the nose, and the ears. 7

8. Then he shall wash (his hands).

9. But if he is going to eat he shall, though pure, twice sip water, twice wipe (his mouth), and once touch (his lips). 9

10. He shall rub the gums and the inner part of his lips (with his finger or with a piece of wood) and then sip water.

11. He does not become impure by the hair (of his moustaches) getting into his mouth, as long as he does not touch them with his hand. 11

12. If (in talking), drops (of saliva) are perceived to fall from his mouth, then he shall sip water. 12

13. Some declare, that if (the saliva falls) on the ground, he need not sip water.

14. On touching during sleep or in sternutation the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching blood, hair, fire, kine, a Brâhmana, or a woman, and after having walked on the high road, and after having touched an (thing or man), and after having put on his lower garment, he shall either bathe or sip or merely touch water (until he considers himself clean). 14

15. (Or he may touch) moist cowdung, wet herbs, or moist earth.

16. He shall not eat meat which has been cut with a sword (or knife) used for killing.

17. He shall not bite off with his teeth (pieces from) cakes (roots or fruits).

18. He shall not eat in the house of a (relation within six degrees) where a person has died, before the ten days (of impurity) have elapsed. 18

19. (Nor shall he eat in a house) where a lying-in woman has not (yet) come out (of the lying-in chamber), 19

20. (Nor in a house) where a corpse lies. 20

21. Food touched by a (Brâhmana or other high-caste person) who is impure, becomes impure, but not unfit for eating. 21

22. But what has been brought (be it touched or not) by an impure Sûdra, must not be eaten, 22

23. Nor that food in which there is a hair, 23

24. Or any other unclean substance. 24

25. (Nor must that food be eaten) which has been touched with an unclean substance (such as garlic),

26. Nor (that in which) an insect living on impure substances (is found), 26

27. Nor (that in which) excrements or limbs of a mouse (are found),

28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot (even of a pure person),

29. Nor what has been (touched) with the hem of a garment,

30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog or an Apapâtra, 30

31. Nor what has been brought in the hem of a garment, (even though the garment may be clean),

32. Nor what has been brought at night by a female slave. 32

33. If during his meal,


1. A Sûdra touches him, (then he shall leave off eating). 1

2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with unworthy people. 2

3. Nor shall he eat (sitting in the same row with persons) amongst whom one, whilst they eat, rises and gives his leavings to his pupils or sips water; 3

4. Nor (shall he eat) where they give him food, reviling him. 4

5. Nor (shall he eat) what has been smelt at by men or other (beings, as cats). 5

6. He shall not eat in a ship,

7. Nor on a wooden platform.

8. He may eat sitting on ground which has been purified (by the application of cowdung and the like).

9. (If he eats) out of an earthen vessel, he shall eat out of one that has not been used (for cooking).

10. (If he can get) a used vessel (only, he shall eat from it), after having heated it thoroughly.

11. A vessel made of metal becomes pure by being scoured with ashes and the like. 11

12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being scraped. 12

13. At a sacrifice (the vessels must be cleaned) according to the precepts of the Veda.

14. He shall not eat food which has been bought or obtained ready-prepared in the market.

15. Nor (shall he eat) flavoured food (bought in the market) excepting raw meat, honey, and salt.

16. Oil and clarified butter (bought in the market) he may use, after having sprinkled them with water. 16

17. Prepared food which has stood for a night, must neither be eaten nor drunk. 17

18. Nor (should prepared food) that has turned sour (be used in any way). 18

19. (The preceding two rules do) not (hold good in regard to) the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice-grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted yava, gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees. 19

20. (Substances which have turned) sour without being mixed with anything else (are to be avoided). 20

21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden.

22. Likewise sheep's milk, 22

23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of animals that give milk while big with young, of those that bear twins, and of (one-hoofed animals), 23

24. Likewise the milk of a cow (buffalo-cow or she-goat) during the (first) ten days (after their giving birth to young ones), 24

25. Likewise (food mixed) with herbs which serve for preparing intoxicating liquors,

26. (Likewise) red garlic, onions, and leeks, 26

27. Likewise anything else which (those who are learned in the law) forbid. 27

28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten; that has been declared in a Brâhmana; 28

29. (Nor the meat) of one-hoofed animals, of camels, of the Gayal, of village pigs, of Sarabhas, and of cattle. 29

30. (But the meat) of milch-cows and oxen may be eaten.

31. The Vâgasaneyaka declares 'bull's flesh is fit for offerings.'

32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for, food, the (tame) cock (must not be eaten). 32

33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward their beak, the (heron, called) Plava (or Sakatabila, must not be eaten). 33

34. Carnivorous (birds are forbidden), 34

35. Likewise the swan, the Bhâsa, the Brâhmanî duck, and the falcon. 35

36. Common cranes and Sâras-cranes (are not to 36 be eaten) with the exception of the leather-nosed Lakshmana.

37. Five-toed animals (ought not to be eaten) with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare, and the Pûtikhasha. 37

38. Amongst fishes, the Keta ought not to be eaten,

39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator, nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which are misshaped (like) mermen. 39


1. Honey, uncooked (grain), venison, land, roots, fruits, (a promise of) safety, a pasture for cattle, a house, and fodder for a draught-ox may be accepted (even) from an Ugra. 1

2. Hârita declares, that even these (presents) are to be accepted only if they have been obtained by a pupil.

3. Or they (Brâhmana householders) may accept (from an Ugra) uncooked or (a little) unflavoured boiled food.

4. (Of such food) they shall not take a great quantity (but only so much as suffices to support life). 4

5. If (in times of distress) he is unable to keep himself, he may eat (food obtained from anybody),

6. After having touched it (once) with gold,

7. Or (having touched it with) fire.

8. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he has obtained a (lawful) livelihood. 8

9. (A student of the Brahmanic caste) who has returned home shall not eat (in the house) of people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with the Kshatriya (i. e. of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras). 9

10. He may (usually) eat (the food) of a Brâhmana on account of (the giver's) character (as a Brâhmana). It must be avoided for particular reasons only.

11. He shall not eat in a house where (the host) performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst he ought to perform a penance. 11

12. But when the penance has been performed, he may eat (in that house). 12

13. According to some (food offered by people) of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for them, except that of Sûdras, may be eaten.

14. (In times of distress) even the food of a Sûdra, who lives under one's protection for the sake of spiritual merit, (may be eaten). 14

15. He may eat it, after having touched it (once) with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he obtains a (lawful) livelihood. 15

16. Food received from a multitude of givers must not be eaten, 16

17. Nor food offered by a general invitation (to all comers). 17

18. Food offered by an artisan must not be eaten, 18

19. Nor (that of men) who live by the use of arms (with the exception of Kshatriyas), 19

20. Nor (that of men) who live by letting lodgings or land.

21. A (professional) physician is a person whose food must not be eaten, 21

22. (Also) a usurer, 22

23. (Also) a Brâhmana who has performed the Dîkshanîyeshti (or initiatory ceremony of the Soma-sacrifice) before he has bought the king (Soma). 23

24. (The food given by a person who has performed the Dîkshanîyeshti may be eaten), when the victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain.

25. Or after that the omentum of the victim (sacred to Agni and Soma) has been offered. 25

26. For a Brâhmana declares, 'Or they may eat of the remainder of the animal, after having set apart a portion for the offering.'

27. A eunuch (is a person whose food must not be eaten), 27

28. (Likewise) the (professional) messenger employed by a king (or others), 28

29. (Likewise a Brâhmana) who offers substances that are not fit for a sacrifice, 29

30. (Likewise) a spy, 30

31. (Also) a person who has become an ascetic without (being authorized thereto by) the rules (of the law), 31

32. (Also) he who forsakes the sacred fires without performing the sacrifice necessary on that occasion), 32

33. Likewise a learned Brâhmana who avoids everybody, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects the (daily) recitation of the Veda, (and) he whose (only living) wife is of the Sûdra caste. 33


1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits with his debtor (hindering the fulfilment of his duties), a debtor who thus sits (with his creditor, are persons whose food must not be eaten) as long as they are thus engaged or in that state. 1

2. Who (then) are those whose food may be eaten? 2

3. Kanva declares, that it is he who wishes to give.

4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is holy. 4

5. Vârshyâyani declares, that it is every giver (of food).

6. For if guilt remains fixed on the man (who committed a crime, then food given by a sinner) may be eaten (because the guilt cannot leave the sinner). But if guilt can leave (the sinner at any time, then food given by the sinner may be eaten because) he becomes pure by the gift (which he makes).

7. Offered food, which is pure, may be eaten, according to Eka, Kunika, Kânva, Kutsa, and Pushkarasâdi.

8. Vârshyâyani's opinion is, that (food) given unasked (may be accepted) from anybody.

9. (Food offered) willingly by a holy man may be eaten.

10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought not to be eaten. 10

11. Food offered unasked by any person whatsoever may be eaten,

12. 'But not if it be given after an express previous announcement;' thus says Hârita.

13. Now they quote also in a Purâna the following two verses: 13 'The Lord of creatures has declared, that food offered unasked and brought by the giver himself, may be eaten, though (the giver be) a sinner, provided the gift has not been announced beforehand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who spurns such food, do not eat (his oblations) for fifteen years, nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).'

14. (Another verse from a Purâna declares): 'The food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a eunuch must not be eaten.' 14

15. Now (in confirmation of this) they quote (the following verse): 'The murderer of a Brâhmana learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes false promises.' 15


1. He shall not fulfil his sacred duties merely in order to acquire these worldly objects (as fame, gain, and honour).

2. For when they ought to bring rewards, (duties thus fulfilled) become fruitless.

3. (Worldly benefits) are produced as accessories (to the fulfilment of the law), just as in the case of a mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit, shade and fragrance (are accessory advantages).

4. But if (worldly advantages) are not produced, (then at least) the sacred duties have been fulfilled.

5. Let him not become irritated at, nor be deceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of infidels, and of fools.

6. For Virtue and Sin do not go about and say, 'Here we are;' nor do gods, Gandharvas, or Manes say (to men), 'This is virtue, that is sin.'

7. But that is virtue, the practice of which wise men of the three twice-born castes praise; what they blame, is sin. 7

8. He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which in all countries is unanimously approved by men of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to avarice, nor hypocrites. 8

9. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.

10. Trade is not lawful for a Brâhmana.

11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful merchandise, avoiding the following (kinds), that are forbidden: 11

12. (Particularly) men, condiments and liquids, colours, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances 12 used for glueing (such as lac), water, young cornstalks, substances from which spirituous liquor may be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, flesh, arms, and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds.

13. Among (the various kinds of) grain he shall especially not sell sesamum or rice (except he have grown them himself). 13

14. The exchange of the one of these (abovementioned goods) for the other is likewise unlawful.

15. But food (may be exchanged) for food, and slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning. 15

16. Let him traffic with lawful merchandise which he has not bought,


1. With Muñga-grass, Balbaga-grass (and articles made of them), roots, and fruits,

2. And with (other kinds of) grass and wood which have not been worked up (into objects of use). 2

3. He shall not be too eager (after such a livelihood).

4. If he obtains (another lawful) livelihood, he shall leave off (trading). 4

5. Intercourse with fallen men is not ordained, 5

6. Nor with Apapâtras. 6

7. Now (follows the enumeration of) the actions which cause loss of caste (Patanîya).

8. (These are) stealing (gold), crimes whereby one becomes an Abhisasta, homicide, neglect of the Vedas, causing abortion, incestuous connection with relations born from the same womb as one's mother or father, and with the offspring of such persons, drinking spirituous liquor, and intercourse with persons the intercourse with whom is forbidden. 8

9. That man falls who has connection with a female friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a male Guru, or with any married woman. 9

10. Some (teachers declare), that he does not fall by having connection with any other married female except his teacher's wife. 10

11. Constant commission of (other) sins (besides those enumerated above) also causes a man to lose his caste.

12. Now follows (the enumeration of) the acts which make men impure (Asukikara).

13. (These are) the cohabitation of Aryan women with Sûdras,

14. Eating the flesh of forbidden (creatures),

15. As of a dog, a man, village cocks or pigs, carnivorous animals,

16. Eating the excrements of men,

17. Eating what is left by a Sûdra, the cohabitation of Aryans with Apapâtra women.

18. Some declare, that these acts also cause a man to lose his caste.

19. Other acts besides those (enumerated) are causes of impurity.

20. He who learns (that a man has) committed a sin, shall not be the first to make it known to others; but he shall avoid the (sinner), when performing religious ceremonies. 20


1. He shall employ the means which tend to the acquisition of (the knowledge of) the Âtman, which are attended by the consequent (destruction of the passions, and) which prevent the wandering (of the mind from its object, and fix it on the contemplation of the Âtman). 1

2. There is no higher (object) than the attainment of (the knowledge of the) Âtman. 2

3. We shall quote the verses (from the Veda) 3 which refer to the attainment of (the knowledge of) the Âtman.

4. All living creatures are the dwelling of him who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal and who is spotless. Those become immortal who worship him who is immovable and lives in a movable dwelling. 4

5. Despising all that which in this world is called an object (of the senses) a wise man shall strive after the (knowledge of the) Âtman. 5

6. O pupil, I, who had not recognised in my own self the great self-luminous, universal, (absolutely) free Âtman, which must be obtained without the mediation of anything else, desired (to find) it in others (the senses). (But now as I have obtained the pure knowledge, I do so no more.) Therefore follow thou also this good road that leads to welfare (salvation), and not the one that leads into misfortune (new births). 6

7. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures, whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchangeable, destitute of limbs, of voice, of the (subtle) body, 7 (even) of touch, exceedingly pure; he is the universe, he is the highest goal; (he dwells in the middle of the body as) the Vishuvat day is (the middle of a Sattra-sacrifice); he, indeed, is (accessible to all) like a town intersected by many streets.

8. He who meditates on him, and everywhere and always lives according to his (commandments), and who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in (his) heaven. 8


1. That Brâhmana, who is wise and recognises all creatures to be in the Âtman, who pondering (thereon) does not become bewildered, and who recognises the Âtman in every (created) thing, shines, indeed, in heaven.

2. He, who is intelligence itself and subtler than the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe, and who, unchangeable and larger than the earth, contains the universe; he, who is different from the knowledge of this world, obtained by the senses and identical with its objects, possesses the highest (form consisting of absolute knowledge). From him, who divides himself, spring all (created) bodies. He is the primary cause, he is eternal, he is unchangeable. 2

3. But the eradication of the faults is brought about in this life by the means (called Yoga). A wise man who has eradicated the (faults) which destroy the creatures, obtains salvation.

4. Now we will enumerate the faults which tend to destroy the creatures.

5. (These are) anger, exultation, grumbling, covetousness, perplexity, doing injury, hypocrisy, lying, gluttony, calumny, envy, lust, secret hatred, neglect to keep the senses in subjection, neglect to concentrate the mind. The eradication of these (faults) takes place through the means of (salvation called) Yoga.

6. Freedom from anger, from exultation, from grumbling, from covetousness, from perplexity, from hypocrisy (and) hurtfulness; truthfulness, moderation in eating, silencing a slander, freedom from envy, self-denying liberality, avoiding to accept gifts, uprightness, affability, extinction of the passions, subjection of the senses, peace with all created beings, concentration (of the mind on the contemplation of the Âtman), regulation of one's conduct according to that of the Âryas, peacefulness and contentedness;--these (good qualities) have been settled by the agreement (of the wise) for all (the four) orders; he who, according to the precepts of the sacred law, practises these, enters the universal soul.


1. He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to Brâhmanas) for the expiation of his sin. 1

2. (He shall give) a hundred cows for a Vaisya, 2

3. Ten for a Sûdra, 3

4. And in every one (of these cases) one bull (must be given) in excess (of the number of cows) for the sake of expiation.

5. And if women of the (three castes mentioned have been slain) the same (composition must be paid).

6. He who has slain a man belonging to the two (first-mentioned castes) who has studied the Veda, or had been initiated for the performance of a Soma-sacrifice, becomes an Abhisasta. 6

7. And (he is called an Abhisasta) who has slain a man belonging merely to the Brâhmana caste (though he has not studied the Veda or been initiated for a Soma-sacrifice),

8. Likewise he who has destroyed an embryo of a (Brâhmana, even though its sex be) undistinguishable,

9. Or a woman (of the Brâhmana caste) during her courses. 9

10. (Now follows) the penance for him (who is an Abhisasta).

11. He (himself) shall erect a hut in the forest, restrain his speech, carry (on his stick) the skull (of the person slain) like a flag, and cover the space from his navel to his knees with a quarter of a piece of hempen cloth. 11

12. The path for him when he goes to a village, is the space between the tracks (of the wheels).

13. And if he sees another (Ârya), he shall step out of the road (to the distance of two yards).

14. He shall go to the village, carrying a broken tray of metal of an inferior quality.

15. He may go to seven houses only, (crying,) 'Who will give alms to an Abhisasta?'

16. That is (the way in which he must gain) his livelihood.

17. If he does not obtain anything (at the seven houses), he must fast.

18. And (whilst performing this penance) he must tend cows.

19. When they leave and enter the village, that is the second occasion (on which he may enter) the village.

20. After having performed (this penance) for twelve years, he must perform) the ceremony known (by custom), through which he is re-admitted into the society of the good. 20

21. Or (after having performed the twelve years' penance), he may build a hut on the path of robbers, and live there, trying to take from them the cows of Brâhmanas. He is free (from his sin), when thrice he has been defeated by them, or when he has vanquished them. 21

22. Or he is freed (from his sin), if (after the twelve years' penance) he bathes (with the priests) at the end of a horse-sacrifice. 22

23. This very same (penance is ordained) for him who, when his duty and love of gain come into conflict, chooses the gain. 23

24. If he has slain a Guru or a Brâhmana, who has studied the Veda and finished the ceremonies of a Soma-sacrifice, he shall live according to this very same rule until his last breath. 24

25. He cannot be purified in this life. But his sin is removed (after death). 25


1. He who has had connection with a Guru's wife shall cut off his organ together with the testicles, take them into his joined hands and walk towards the south without stopping, until he falls down dead. 1

2. Or he may die embracing a heated metal image of a woman. 2

3. A drinker of spirituous liquor shall drink exceedingly hot liquor so that he dies. 3

4. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying a club on his shoulder, and tell him his deed. He (the king) shall give him a blow with that (club). If the thief dies, his sin is expiated. 4

5. If he is forgiven (by the king), the guilt falls upon him who forgives him, 5

6. Or he may throw himself into the fire, or perform repeatedly severe austerities, 6

7. Or he may kill himself by diminishing daily his portion of food,

8. Or he may perform Krikkhra penances (uninterruptedly) for one year. 8

9. Now they quote also (the following verse): 9

10. Those who have committed a theft (of gold), drunk spirituous liquor, or had connection with a Guru's wife, but not those who have slain a Brâhmana, shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, bathe at the times of the three libations (morning, noon, and evening), passing the day standing and the night sitting. After the lapse of three years they throw off their guilt.

11. (A man of any caste) excepting the first, who has slain a man of the first caste, shall go on a battle-field and place himself (between the two hostile armies). There they shall kill him (and thereby he becomes pure). 11

12. Or such a sinner may tear from his body and make the priest offer as a burnt-offering his hair, skin, flesh, and the rest, and then throw himself into the fire. 12

13. If a crow, a chameleon, a peacock, a Brâhmanî duck, a swan, the vulture called Bhâsa, a frog, an ichneumon, a musk-rat, or a dog has been killed, then the same penance as for a Sûdra must be performed13


1. (The same penance must be performed), if a milch-cow or a full-grown ox (has been slain), without a reason. 1

2. And for other animals (which have no bones), if an ox-load of them has been killed. 2

3. He who abuses a person who (on account of his venerability) ought not to be abused, or speaks an untruth (regarding any small matter) must abstain for three days from milk, pungent condiments, and salt. 3

4. (If the same sins have been committed) by a Sûdra, he must fast for seven days.

5. And the same (penances must also be performed) by women, (but not those which follow). 5

6. He who cuts off a limb of a person for whose murder he would become an Abhisasta (must perform the penance prescribed for killing a Sûdra), if the life (of the person injured) has not been endangered.

7. He who has been guilty of conduct unworthy of an Aryan, of calumniating others, of actions contrary to the rule of conduct, of eating or drinking things forbidden, of connection with a woman of the Sûdra caste, of an unnatural crime, of performing; magic rites with intent (to harm his enemies) or (of hurting others) unintentionally, shall bathe and sprinkle himself with water, reciting the (seven) verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses addressed to Varuna, or (other verses chosen from the Anuvâka, called) Pavitra, in proportion to the frequency with which the crime has been committed. 7

8. A (student) who has broken the vow of chastity, shall offer to Nirriti an ass, according to the manner of the Pâkayagña-rites. 8

9. A Sûdra shall eat (the remainder) of that (offering).

10. (Now follows) the penance for him who transgresses the rules of studentship.

11. He shall for a year serve his teacher silently, emitting speech only during the daily study (of the Veda, in announcing necessary business to) his teacher or his teacher's wife, and whilst collecting alms.

12. The following penances) which we are going to proclaim, may be performed for the same sin, and 12 also for other sinful acts, which do not cause loss of caste.

13. He may either offer oblations to Kâma and Manyu (with the following two Mantras), 'Kâma (passion) has done it; Manyu (anger) has done it.' Or he may mutter (these Mantras). 13

14. Or, after having eaten sesamum or fasted on the days of the full and new moon he may, on the following day bathe, and stopping his breath, repeat the Gâyatrî one thousand times, or he may do so without stopping his breath.


1. After having eaten sesamum or having fasted on the full moon day of the month Srâvana July-August), he may on the following day bathe in the water of a great river and offer (a burnt-oblation of) one thousand pieces of sacred fuel, whilst. reciting the Gâyatrî, or he may mutter (the Gâyatrî) as many times. 1

2. Or he may perform Ishtis and Soma-sacrifices for the sake of purifying himself (from his sins), 2

3. After having eaten forbidden food, he must fast, until his entrails are empty. 3

4. That is (generally) attained after seven days.

5. Or he may during winter and during the dewy season (November-March) bathe in cold water both morning and evening.

6. Or he may perform a Krikkhra penance, which lasts twelve days.

7. The rule for the Krikkhra penance of twelve days (is the following): For three days he must not eat in the evening, and then for three days not in the morning; for three days he must live on food which has been given unasked, and three days he must not eat anything. 7

8. If he repeats this for a year, that is called a Krikkhra penance, which lasts for a year.

9. Now follows another penance. He who has committed even a great many sins which do not cause him to fall, becomes free from guilt, if, fasting, he recites the entire Sâkhâ of his Veda three times consecutively. 9

10. He who cohabits with a non-Aryan woman, he who lends money at interest, he who drinks (other) spirituous liquors (than Surâ), he who praises everybody in a manner unworthy of a Brâhmana, shall sit on grass, allowing his back to be scorched (by the sun).

11. A Brâhmana removes the sin which he committed by serving one day and night (a man of) the black race, if he bathes for three years, eating at every fourth meal-time. 11


1. He who, under any conditions whatsoever, covets (and takes) another man's possessions is a thief; thus (teach) Kautsa and Hârita as well as Kanva and Pushkarasâdi.

2. Vârshyâyani declares, that there are exceptions to this law, in regard to some possessions.

3. (E.g.) seeds ripening in the pod, food for a draught-ox; (if these are taken), the owners (ought) not (to) forbid it. 3

4. To take even these things in too great a quantity is sinful.

5. Hârita declares, that in every case the permission (of the owner must be obtained) first.

6. He shall not go to visit a fallen teacher or blood relation.

7. Nor shall he accept the (means for procuring) enjoyments from such a person. 7

8. If he meets them accidentally he shall silently embrace (their feet) and pass on.

9. A mother does very many acts for her son, therefore he must constantly serve her, though she be fallen.

10. But (there shall be) no communion (with a fallen mother) in acts performed for the acquisition of spiritual merit.

11. Enjoyments taken unrighteously he shall give up; he shall say, 'I and sin (do not dwell together).' Clothing himself with a garment reaching from the navel down to the knee, bathing daily, morn, noon, and evening, eating food which contains neither milk nor pungent condiments, nor salt, he shall not enter a house for twelve years. 11

12. After that he (may be) purified.

13. Then he may have intercourse with Aryans.

14. This penance may also be employed in the case of the other crimes which cause loss of caste (for which no penance has been ordained above).

15. But the violator of a Guru's bed shall enter a hollow iron image and, having caused a fire to be lit on both sides, he shall burn himself. 15

16. According to Hârita, this (last-mentioned penance must) not (be performed).

17. For he who takes his own or another's life becomes an Abhisasta.

18. He (the violator of a Guru's bed) shall perform to his last breath (the penance) prescribed by that rule (Sûtra 11). He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.

19. He who has unjustly forsaken his wife shall put on an ass's skin, with the hair turned outside, and beg in seven houses, saying, 'Give alms to him who forsook his wife.' That shall be his livelihood for six months.

20. But if a wife forsakes her husband, she shall perform the twelve-night Krikkhra penance for as long a time.

21. He who has killed a Bhrûna (a man learned in the Vedas and Vedâṅgas and skilled in the performance of the rites) shall put on the skin of a dog or of an ass, with the hair turned outside, and take a human skull for his drinking-vessel,


1. And he shall take the foot of a bed instead of a staff and, proclaiming the name of his deed, he shall go about (saying), 'Who (gives) alms to the murderer of a Bhrûna?' Obtaining thus his livelihood in the village, he shall dwell in an empty house or under a tree, (knowing that) he is not allowed to have intercourse with Aryans. According to this rule he shall act until his last breath. He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.

2. He even who slays unintentionally, reaps nevertheless the result of his sin.

3. (His guilt is) greater, (if he slays) intentionally.

4. The same (principle applies) also to other sinful actions,

5. And also to good works. 5

6. A Brâhmana shall not take a weapon into his hand, though he be only desirous of examining it.

7. In a Purâna (it has been declared), that he who slays an assailant does not sin, for (in that case) wrath meets wrath.

8. But Abhisastas shall live together in dwellings (outside the village); considering this their lawful (mode of life), they shall sacrifice for each other, teach each other, and marry amongst each other.

9. If they have begot sons, let them. say to them: 'Go out from amongst us, for thus the Âryas, (throwing the guilt) upon us, will receive you (amongst their number).' 9

10. For the organs do not become impure together with the man.

11. (The truth of) that may be learned from this (parallel case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son who possesses the full number of limbs. 11

12. Hârita declares that this is wrong.

13. A wife is similar to the vessel which contains the curds (for the sacrifice). 13

14. For if one makes impure milk curdle (by mixing it with whey and water) in a milk-vessel and stirs it, no sacrificial rite can be performed with (the curds produced from) that. Just so no intercourse can be allowed with the impure seed which comes (from an Abhisasta).

15. Sorcery and curses (employed against a Brâhmana) cause a man to become impure, but not loss of caste.

16. Hârita declares that they cause loss of caste.

17. But crimes causing impurity must be expiated, (when no particular penance is prescribed,) by performing the penance enjoined for crimes causing loss of caste during twelve months, or twelve half months, or twelve twelve-nights, or twelve se’nnights, or twelve times three days, or twelve days, or seven days, or three days, or one day.

18. Thus acts causing impurity must be expiated according to the manner in which the (sinful) act has been committed (whether intentionally or unintentionally).


1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (however long or short the time of his studentship may have been). 1

2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty-four) years, (though he may not have mastered the Veda).

Some declare, that the student (shall bathe) after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda and after (the expiration of) his vow.

4. To all those persons who have bathed (In accordance with any of the above rules must be shown) the honour clue to a Snâtaka.

5. The reverence (shown to a Snâtaka) brings, however, different rewards according to the degree of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person honoured).

6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept) by a Snâtaka.

7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it by the eastern or the northern gate.

8. During the morning and evening twilights, he shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything (referring to worldly matters).

9. (But an Agnihotrî, who is occupied at home by oblations in the morning and evening, must not go out; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that enjoined by the Veda is the more important.

10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses, 10

11. And all naturally black cloth.

12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining,

13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it). 13

14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap up his head, except when voiding excrements.

15. But when voiding excrements, he shall envelop his head and place some (grass or the like) on the ground. 15

16. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of a tree, where travellers rest).

17. But he may discharge urine on his own shadow.

18. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on, nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water. 18

19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have connection with a woman in water. 19

20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire, the sun, water, a Brâhmana, cows, or (images of) the gods. 20

21. He shall avoid to clean his body from excrements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with (boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap.

22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet towards a fire, water, a Brâhmana, a cow, (iniages of) the gods, a door, or against the wind. 22

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):


1. He shall eat facing the east, void fæces facing, the south, discharge urine facing the north, and wash his feet turned towards the west.

2. He shall void excrements far from his house, having gone towards the south or south-west. 2

3. But after sunset he must not void excrements outside the village or far from his house.

4. And as long as he is impure he (shall avoid) to pronounce the names of the gods.

5. And he shall not speak evil of the gods or of the king. 5

6. He shall not touch with his foot a Brâhmana, a cow, nor any other (venerable beings).

7. (Nor shall he touch them) with his hand, except for particular reasons.

8. He shall not mention the blemishes of a cow, of sacrificial presents, or of a girl. 8

9. And he shall not announce it (to the owner) if a cow does damage (by eating corn or grass in a field).

10. (Nor shall he call attention to it) if a cow is together with her calf, except for a particular reason.

11. And of a cow which is not a milch-cow he shall not say, 'She is not a milch-cow.' He must say, 'This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.'

12. He shall not call 'lucky' that which is lucky. He shall call it 'a mercy, a blessing.' 12

13. He shall not step over a rope to which a calf (or cow) is tied. 13

14. He shall not pass between the posts from which a swing is suspended. 14

15. (In company) he shall not say, 'This person is my enemy.' If he says, 'This person is my enemy,' he will raise for himself an enemy, who will show his hatred.

16. If he sees a rainbow, he must not say to others, 'Here is Indra's bow.' 16

17. He shall not count (a flock of) birds. 17

18. He shall avoid to look at the sun when he rises or sets. 18

19. During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the night the moon. Therefore let him eagerly strive to protect himself on the night of the new moon by purity, continence, and rites adapted for the season.

20. For during that night the sun and the moon dwell together.

21. He shall not enter the village by a by path. If he enters it thus, he shall mutter this Rik-verse, 'Praise be to Rudra, the lord of the dwelling,' or some other (verse) addressed to Rudra. 21

22. He shall not (ordinarily) give the residue of his food to a person who is not a Brâhmana. When he gives it (to such a one), he shall clean his teeth and give (the food) after having placed in it (the dirt from his teeth). 22

23. And let him avoid the faults that destroy the creatures, such as anger and the like. 23


1. Let him who teaches, avoid connubial intercourse during the rainy season and in autumn. 1

2. And if he has had connection (with his wife), he shall not lie with her during the whole night 2

3. He shall not teach whilst he is lying on a bed.

4. Nor shall he teach (sitting) on that couch on which he lies (at night with his wife).

5. He shall not show himself adorned with a garland, or anointed with ointments. 5

6. At night he shall always adorn himself for his wife.

7. Let him not submerge his head together with his body (in bathing),

8. And (let him avoid) to bathe after sunset.

9. Let him avoid to use a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, (and other utensils) made of Palâsa-wood.

10. Let him avoid to praise (himself) before his teacher, saying, 'I have properly bathed or the like.'

11. Let him be awake from midnight.

12. Let him not study (or teach) in the middle of the night; but (he may point out) their duties to his pupils.

13. Or (he may) by himself mentally (repeat the sacred texts).

14. After midnight he may teach.

15. When he has risen (at midnight, and taught) during the third watch of the night, let him not lie down again (saying), 'Studying is forbidden.' 15

16. At his pleasure he may (sleep) leaning (against a post or the like).

17. Or he may mentally repeat (the sacred texts).

18. Let him not visit inferior men (such as Nishâdas), nor countries which are inhabited by them, 18

19. Nor assemblies and crowds.

20. If he has entered a crowd, he shall leave it, turning his right hand towards the crowd.

21. Nor shall he enter towns frequently.

22. Let him not answer directly a question (that is difficult to decide).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):

24. (The foolish decision) of a person who decides wrongly destroys his ancestors and his future happiness, it harms his children, cattle, and house. 'Oh Dharmaprahrâda, (this deed belongs) not to Kumâlana!' thus decided Death, weeping, the question (addressed to him by the Rishi). 24

25. Let him not ascend a carriage yoked with asses; and let him avoid to ascend or to descend from vehicles in difficult places.

26. And (let him avoid) to cross a river swimming. 26

27. And (let him avoid) ships of doubtful (solidity).

28. He shall avoid cutting grass, crushing clods of earth, and spitting, without a particular reason, 28

29. And whatever else they forbid.

Suggestions for Further Reading


1:1 1. Samaya, 'agreement, decision,' is threefold. It includes injunction, restriction, and prohibition.

Dharma, 'acts productive of merit, I usually translated by 'duty or law,' is more accurately explained as an act which produces the quality of the soul called apûrva, the cause of heavenly bliss and of final liberation.

1:2 Manu II, 6, 12 Yâgñ. I, 7; Gautama I, 1.

1:6 Manu II, 35.

2:7 Manu 1, 91, VIII, 410; and IX, 334; Yâgñ. I, 120.

2:9 The use of the masculine in the text excludes women. For though women may have occasion to use such texts as 'O fire, of the dwelling' &c. at the Agnihotra, still it is specially ordained that they shall be taught this and similar verses only just before the rite is to be performed.

2:10 The object of the Sûtra is to remove a doubt whether the ceremony of initiation ought to be repeated for each Veda, in case a man desires to study more than one Veda. This repetition is declared to be unnecessary, except, as the commentator adds, in the case of the Atharva-veda, for which, according to a passage of a Brâhmana, a fresh initiation is necessary. The latter rule is given in the Vaitâna-sûtra I, 1, 5.

2:13 Haradatta: 'But this (latter rule regarding the taking of p. 3 another teacher) does not hold good for those who have begun to study, solemnly, binding themselves, to their teacher. How so? As he (the pupil) shall consider a person who initiates and instructs him his Âkarya, and a pupil who has been once initiated cannot be initiated again, how can another man instruct him? For this reason it must be understood that the study begun with one teacher may not be completed with another, if the first die.' Compare also Haradatta on I, 2, 7, 26, and the rule given I, 1, 4, 26. In our times also pupils, who have bound themselves to a teacher by paying their respects to him and presenting a cocoa-nut, in order to learn from him a particular branch of science, must not study the same branch of science under any other teacher.

3:14 Manu II, 69; Yâgñ. I, 15.

3:15 Manu II, 144.

3:16 Manu II, 146-148.

3:17 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation.'--Haradatta.

3:18 Manu II, 147.

3:19 Yâgñ. I, 14; Manu II, 36; Âsvakâyana Gri. Sû. I, 19, 1, 4: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq.

4:21 Manu II, 37.

4:22-26. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.

4:27 The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the initiation shall be performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, expiation prescribed in the following Sûtras must be performed. The age of sixteen in the case of Brâhmanas is the latest term up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38; Yâgñ. I, 37.

4:28 The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed upon a student, as chastity, &c, but that he shall not perform the fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu II, 39; XI. 192, Yâgñ. I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101.

5:30 'If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day--morning, midday, and evening.'--Haradatta.

5:32 Brahman, apparently, here means 'Veda,' and those who neglect its study may be called metaphorically 'slayers of the Veda.'

5:33 Manu II, 40; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 8, 9; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.

5:35 Compare above, I, 1, 1, 28.


5:2 2. The seven Pâvamânîs are seven verses which occur Rig veda IX, 67, 21-27. Yagushpavitra = Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 1, 1. The Sâmapavitra is found Sâma-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5. Âṅgirasapavitra = Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.

6:10 The commentator observes that for those whose great-great-grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law.

7:11 Manu II, 164.

7:12 Manu III, 1, and Yâgñ. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.

7:16 The commentator declares that in Manu III, 1, the expression until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the pupil may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the Veda, after twelve years' study, never before. But compare also Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 3.

7:17 The commentator states that this rule refers only to a temporary, not to a professed student (naishthika). He also gives an entirely different explanation to the Sûtra, which, according to some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This rendering also is admissible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or 'heaven' and upavâsa, 'dwelling' or 'fasting.'

7:19 Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (patanîya), see below, I, 7, 21, 7.

7:20 Manu II, 108, and Yâgñ. I, 27.

7:21 Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.

8:23 Regarding the meaning of kshâra, 'pungent condiments,' see Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term differently.--Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 2.

8:25 Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33.

8:26 Manu II, 180.

8:27 Manu II, 178; Yâgñ. I, 33.

8:29 'Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru designates the father and the rest also.'--Haradatta.

8:30 Another version of the first portion of this Sûtra, proposed by Haradatta, is, 'Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sûtra 28 as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained for Brâhmanas, and refers Sûtra 29. to the naimittika snâna or 'bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sûtra 30 as a restriction of the latter.

8:31 Manu II, 2 19.

9:33 Manu II, 42-44; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 12; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

9:38 Manu II, 45; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 13; 20, 1; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sûtra, but refers back to the Grihya-sûtra, II, 16-17, where the same words occur.

9:39 The word forms a Sûtra by itself, in order to show that every one must wear this cloth.

9:40 Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if applied to animals or things,' fit to be used at the sacrifice.'

9:41 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 11; Weber, Ind. Stud X, 22.


10:3 3. Manu II, 41; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 10.

10:9 See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 4.

10:10 According to I, 1, 2, 39-I, 1, 3, 10, the rule of dress for students is the following:--According to Âpastamba, a student shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (langotî), and a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or without the addition of a deer-skin.

10:11 Manu II, 178.

10:12-13. Manu III, 179; Yâgñ. I, 33.

11:15 'Anything for his own pleasure,' i.e. keeping conversations with friends, making his toilet, &c.

11:19 The explanations of the last two terms, sânta (Sûtra 18) and dânta (Sûtra 19), are different from those given usually. Sama is usually explained as 'the exclusive direction of the mind towards God,' and dama as 'the restraining of the senses.'

11:23 Manu II, 178.

11:25 Regarding the explanation of the term Abhisasta, see below, I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: 'Apapâtras are called those born from a high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes. . . . Since Âpastamba says, In the evening and in the morning, food obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, nor food obtained in the morning for the evening meal."' Manu II, 182, 183, 185; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 4. See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 6.

12:27 To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student; see also below, I, 1, 4, 1 seq.; Manu II, 56; Yâgñ. I, 33.

12:28 The formula to be used by a Brâhmana is, 'Lady, give alms;' that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used by a Vaisya, 'Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49; Yâgñ. I, 30; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 8.

12:31 The words with which be announces the alms are, Idam ittham âhritam, 'this much have I received.' Manu II, 51; Yâgñ. I, 2, 7; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 10.

12:32 The answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhuṅkshva, 'friend, eat thou.'

13:34 Regarding the term Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6. 4.

13:35 'The meaning of this Sûtra is, that the rule given, Sûtra 42 (below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold good also for a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the permission to eat).'--Haradatta.

13:36 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by somebody else. Some say that the Sûtra refers to both vessels (the alms-pot and his own dish).'

13:40 An Ârya is a person belonging to one of the first three castes (see below). The Ârya must be a boy who is not initiated, because children are kâmabhakshâh, i.e. allowed to eat what they like, even leavings.

13:42 This rule holds good if no Srotriyas are near. If Srotriyas are to be found, Sûtra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is considered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the place of the teacher or of the Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247, p. 14 248, and the passages collected from the Brâhmanas, by Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 39.

14:44 Manu II, 231.


14:6 4. See above, I, 1, 2, 23.

15:7 See above, I, 1, 2, 24 seq.:--According to Haradatta, teachers were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden substances to their pupils, and Âpastamba gives this rule in order to show his dissent from the practice.

15:8 'Ânumânika' means "proper to be inferred from." For the existence of a text of the revelation or tradition (Smriti) is inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (however) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of the maxim "an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed (by ocular proof)." (Âpastamba), by speaking thus, ("For revealed texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt &c. is based on the existing text of a Brâhmana.' --Haradatta.

15:9 'Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings, still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from which a permissive text may be inferred, that it (the existing text), which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts which contradict each other, such as "he takes" and "he does not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted (to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea), he (Âpastamba) says (Sûtra 9), "True, that would be right if no motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat forbidden food which is given by the teacher). But a reason for this course of action exists."'--Haradatta.

16:10 'What is that (reason)? [Sûtra 10] For to eat pungent condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, 11, "That in case a custom has pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to the case in which a Brahmakârin does not receive them as leavings from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such leavings).'--Haradatta.

16:12 Another explanation of this Sûtra is given by Haradatta: 'If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the food contains salt &c.), he shall not do it.'

16:13 Manu II, 182.

16:14 The reason for placing the fuel on the ground is, according to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it should tumble down and injure the teacher's children. Others however, are of opinion that the wood which the pupil fetches daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this interpretation is, that in the Grihya-sûtra, II, 24, the daily offering of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123; Manu II, 186.

16:16 Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground around the altar,' &c., 'after having raked the scattered brands into a heap.'--Haradatta.

17:18 Âp. Gri. Sû. II, 22.

17:20 During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the altar in various ways.

17:23 Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here--collecting sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and flowers for sacrifices. Acts tending to the acquisition of wealth are--gathering fuel for cooking, &c. Manu II, 182; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.

17:24 Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, 'O law, I have protected him; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha-brâhmana, 1, 2, 4.

18:26 Compare above, I, 1, 1, 13.

18:29 The Sûtra refers to a naishthika brahmakârin or professed student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters any other order; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244; Yâgñ. I, 49, 50.


18:1 5. Manu II, 164.

18:2 The meaning of the phrase, 'Study drives out the Veda, which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing the rules prescribed for the student,' is, 'The Veda recited at the Brahmayagña (daily study), and other religious rites, produces no effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Haradatta p. 19 gives also the following three explanations of this Sûtra, adopted by other commentators:--

a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c.

b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and the Brahman leave him, &c.

c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the Brahman goes out, &c.

19:4 'Amongst the avaras means "amongst the men of modern times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No Rishis are born means "there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Mantras, Vedic texts."'--Haradatta.

19:5 'How is it then that men in our days, though they transgress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of studentship) in a former Yuga. Therefore Âpastamba says, Sûtra 6 "But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life)."'--Haradatta.

19:6 An example of this (follows, Sûtra 6): 'Like Svetaketu. For Svetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read in the Khândogya Upanishad (Prapâthaka VI, 1).'--Haradatta.

19:7 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms and the like,'--Haradatta.

20:9 'Acts to please the teacher are--washing his feet and the like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are--obedience to the prohibition to cross a river swimming, to eat pungent condiments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.'--Haradatta.

20:10 'Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.'--Haradatta.

20:11 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sûtras 7, 8.'--Haradatta.

20:12 Manu II, 122 and 124.

20:14 This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sûtras 12, 13) is to be performed daily. In the next Sûtra follows that by which the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained.--Haradatta. Manu II, 121; Yâgñ. I, 26.

21:16 'A Vaisya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level with his middle, i.e. the stomach; others say, on a level with his thigh; the Sûdra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his feet.'--Haradatta.

21:17 See also Manu II, 225.

21:18 Manu II, 71.

21:22 Manu II, 72

21:23 Manu II, 191.

22:26 Yâgñ. I, 27; Manu II, 191.


22:1 6. Manu II, 209.

22:2 Manu II, 194.

22:4 'But, in Âpastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.'--Haradatta.

22:5 Manu II, 195.

22:6 Manu II, 196.

23:15 Manu II, 203.

23:18 At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt. Âr. II, 1, 3.

23:20 Manu II, 197.

24:23 See Sûtra 15 and Manu quoted there.

24:29 The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see above), and these are inferior to the teacher. Manu II, 205.

24:31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of respect to any of his own inferior Gurus, even if the person is the Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.'--Haradatta.

25:34 'But Âpastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to address by name a (maternal uncle or other) Guru (who visits his teacher).'--Haradatta.

25:36 According to I, 1, 3, 40 seq., a student shall give what he is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in the presence of his teacher, he shall not give the food away without rising for the purpose.


25:3 7. Manu IV, 5 3: Yâgñ. I, 13 5.

25:4 Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 2.

26:5 Manu II, 178.

26:10 Manu II, 179.

26:11 Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in Sûtra I, 1, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed text.'--Haradatta.

26:12 The term vamsya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,' consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual family, and call it a vidyâvamsa, vidyâparamparâ. Manu II, 205.

26:13 'Another (commentator) says, "He, the pupil, must embrace their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw his teacher do it)." Because the word "but" is used in the Sûtra, he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of his studies).'--Haradatta.

27:14 'More than one teacher,' i.e. several, who have taught him the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda only.

This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time, just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the subject which he began with him.

27:18 'Religious, ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher; the father, on failure of the father; the mother, on failure of all (the pupil) himself.'--Haradatta.

27:19 Manu II, 245 and 246; Yâgñ. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud, X, 125.

27:20 'The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaisya, and of a Sûdra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates dreadful deeds.'--Haradatta.

28:24 Manu II, 119.

28:26 See above, I, 1, 1, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta states that the permission to. leave the teacher is to be restricted to those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation.

28:27 Manu II, 208-212.

28:28 'The use of the present "adhyâpayati," shows that this rule holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such a man.'--Haradatta.

28:29 'Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, according to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, one-fourth from his fellow students, one-fourth he is taught by time.'-- Haradatta.

28:30 Manu II, 2, 207-209.


29:1 8. Haradatta does not connect this Sûtra with the preceding one. He explains it by itself: '(We will now declare) how a student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to behave.'

29:6 'If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, "Oh, what a beautiful dish!" in such a manner, that his desire to obtain it becomes apparent.'--Haradatta.

29:7 This opinion is contrary to Âpastamba's view given in Sûtras 2 and 3 above.

30:10 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs), he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches the ground on all sides.'--Haradatta.

30:11 Manu II, 119.

30:12 This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204.

30:13 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command. He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.'--Haradatta.

30:15 Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, I, 2, 6, 29.

31:17 This and the following Sûtras refer to a person who has finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sûtra 8, apply to the time of studentship also.

31:24 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 126.

32:26 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind improperly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a pupil."'--Haradatta.

32:29 But see also Manu. VIII, 299, where corporal punishment is permitted.


32:1 9. The Upâkarma is the ceremony which is performed every year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. 'Because Âpastamba uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to study later in the night.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 95; Yâgñ. I, 142, 143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X. 130 and 134.

33:2 The term lasts therefore for five months; (i.e. latter half of, Srâvana, Bhârapada, Âsvina, Kârttika, Mârgasîrsha, and the first half of Pausha.) The Rohinî-day of Pausha is meant.

33:3 'According to this latter opinion the Upâkarma should be performed on the full moon of Bhâdrapada, as has been taught in another work (Manu IV, 95); the (time of the) Utsargana, (the solemn closing of the term) should be advanced; and after the Utsargana has been performed, one may study the Veda during the light nights of each month until the full moon of Srâvana, in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already; and in the dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedâṅgas, i.e. grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of Srâvana the Upâkarma should be performed once more, and that part of the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.'--Haradatta.

33:4 Nigarnâh, 'high-roads,' are squares and the like.--Haradatta.

33:6 The Samyâ is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 116; Yâgñ. I, 148.

33:8 'Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyi.' This must be understood from. Sûtra 6.

34:9 Yâgñ. I, 148.

34:13 The last part of the Sûtra may also be interpreted: 'Thus she will be blessed with children.'--Haradatta.

34:14 Manu IV, 108; Yâgñ. I, 148.

34:18 Haradatta explains Bâhya, 'outcasts,' by 'robbers, such as Ugras and Nishâdas.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts as live in the forest or outside the village in the Vâdî, like the Dhers, Mahârs, Mângs of the present day. Most of these tribes however, are or were given to thieving. See Kullûka on Manu X, 2 9, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.

35:19 Yâgñ. I, 150.

35:20 Manu IV, 106; Yâgñ. I, 145. This rule refers to the rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons) he orders below a longer (cessation).'--Haradatta.

35:27 Manu IV, 120; Yâgñ. I, 151.

35:28 '"For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 113; Yâgñ. I, 146.


36:1 10. The three full-moon days are Phâlgunî (February-March), Âshâdhî (June-July), Kârttikî (October-November).

36:2 The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irregularity occurs below, I, 3, 11, 3 1. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony. which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. 'In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions mentioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 119; Yâgñ. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are fathers-in-law, uncles, &c.

36:3 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts. 'Haradatta. Yâgñ. I, 144.

36:6 The word anubhâvinah, interpreted by Haradatta as 'persons who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways by others; firstly, as 'the mourners,' and secondly, as 'Samânodakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the Sûtra ought to be-translated thus: 'On the death of gentiles beyond the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.'

37:7 Regarding the Dikshâ initiation,' see Aitareya-brâhmana I, 1, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 309 seq.

37:8 Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off, except in the case mentioned in the following Sûtra.

37:9 Sattras, 'sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer than twelve days.

37:10 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared above, Sûtra 4.'--Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sûtra is to be connected with Sûtra 4.

37:11 'Because the word "death "is used here, death only is the reason (for stopping, the reading), in the case of Gurus and the rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sûtra 2 and the following ones).' --Haradatta.

38:15-16. Manu II, 73.

38:17 Manu II, 73.

38:18 Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of the persons engaged in study. Manu IV, 122.

38:19 The ekasrika, 'solitary jackal,' is now called Bâlu or Pheough, and is considered to be the constant companion of a tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, considered to be an evil omen. Yâgñ. I, 148; Manu IV, 108, 115 and 123.

38:21 Manu IV, 121.

39:22 Manu IV, 121.

39:24 Manu IV, 107; Yâgñ. I, 150.

39:25 Manu IV, 121.

39:26 'Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study.'--Haradatta.

39:27 Manu IV, 121; Yâgñ. I, 149.

39:28 Manu IV, 112; Yâgñ. I, 146.

39:29 If that food has not been digested by the end of that time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been digested.'--Haradatta.

39:30 'Because in this Sûtra the expression "food not given at a Srâddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sûtra refers to "food eaten at a Srâddha."'--Haradatta. This explanation is not at all improbable.


40:1 11. The Black Yagur-veda, to which Âpastamba belongs, is divided throughout into books called Kândas.

40:3 Haradatta names as such gods, Nandîsvara and Kubera. Other commentators, however, explain Manushyaprakriti by Manushyamukha, 'possessing human faces.' A similar rule occurs Gautama XVI, 34, Where a Manushyayagña is mentioned as a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his Commentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers the term to the sacraments like the Sîmantonnayana, and then adds, that some explain it to mean 'a sacrifice to gods who formerly were men.'

40:4 This Sûtra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28.

40:6 Haradatta's commentary on this Sûtra is very meagre, and he leaves the word anuvâkyam unexplained. I am not ccrtain that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the statements of the Grihya-sutras regarding the order of studying. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132.

41:7 Yâgñ. I, 145. This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka or 'such a one which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned! Above (I, 3, 9, 1) the yearly -performance of the Upâkarma and Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic term has been prescribed. In this Sûtra the performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the Pârâyana or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must. be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute rule to this effect has been given. Such Gñâpakas are of frequent occurrence in all Sûtras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties of their interpretation.

41:8 Yâgñ. I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122.

41:11 Others explain the Sûtra thus: 'If he meets fellow-students, after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with them on that day.'

42:15 Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 113.

42:16 Yâgñ. I, 51; Manu IV, 120.

42:20 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba uses the word Anuvâka in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be studied. Others think, that by Anuvâka, the Samhitâ and the Brâhmana are meant, and that the study of the Aṅgas is permitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring festival, which, according to the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of Kaitra, about the beginning of April.

42:21 'Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a penance, not the Brahmayagña, must be performed'--Haradatta.

42:23 See Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 11, 1 and 11; Âsv. Gri. Sû. III, 2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brâhmanas mostly recite at the daily Brahmayagña, 'Veda-offering,' one particular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. A few learned Brâhmana friends, however, have assured me, that they still recite the whole of their Sâkhâ every year according to this rule of Âpastamba.

43:25 Yâgñ. I, 149; Manu IV, 106, 120, 127; Taitt. Âr. II, 15, 1.

43:26 Manu IV, 109, 116.

43:27 Manu IV, 103 and 104.

43:30 Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118.

43:31 Manu IV, 104, and see above.

44:32 One muhûrta = 48 minutes.

44:36 Other commentators interpret the Sûtra in a different sense. They take it to mean: 'And (luring the night (from the twelfth to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study at all, be it in or out of term).'

44:37 'What has been studied before, must not be studied (again) at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.'-- Haradatta.

44:38 Haradatta thinks that by 'Parishad,' Manu's and other Dharma-sâstras are meant. This explanation is, however, not exact. Parishad, 'assemblage,' means, in the language of the Sâstras, either a Pañk, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg Dict. s. v.) The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sûtra. By 'Parishadah' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 40. Prâtividyam yân smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each of the Vedas.'


45:1 12. 'It procures as much reward as penance.'--Haradatta. Manu II, 166; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs frequently in the Brâhmanas, e.g. Taitt. Âr. II, 14, 3.

45:2 Regarding the proper position at the 'Veda-offering,' or daily recitation, see above, I, 3, 11, 2 3, and Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 3. Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this Sûtra occur Taitt. Âr II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ought to be observed that the Taitt. Âr. in both places has the word 'vragan,' which is also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2.

45:3 See Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very similar to that quoted by Âpastamba occurs. Vashat and the other exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri-priest, serve as signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.

46:5 'Some suppose that the words Bhûh Bhuvah and Suvah &c. (are to be used only) if one studies the Brâhmana portion of the Veda, not every where.'-- Haradatta.

46:6 Haradatta explains Âryas by visishtâh, 'excellent ones,' i.e. persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.

46:8 See above, I, 1, 4, 9 and 10. and notes.

47:10 How then is their existence known? 'They are inferred from usage.' '"Usage" means the teaching of the law-books and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other (authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Brâhmanas. For how could otherwise (Rishis like Manu) teach in their works or practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found? And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed texts (i.e. saw them).'-- Haradatta.

47:11 Compare above, I, 1, 4, 8-10.

47:13 The consequence of the introduction of these rules into a Smriti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Smârta penance and not by a Srauta one.

47:14 The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called 'great sacrifices,' by way of laudation only, the particular laws binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be transferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the p. 48 term 'great sacrifices,' see also Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 10, 1 seq., and Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 59 6, 1.


48:1 13. Taitt. Âr. II, 10, 2 and 3, and Satapatha-br. loc. cit. 2. Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devayagña, mentioned in the Sûtra, to be different from the Vaisvadeva, but that he holds it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this Vaisvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.

48:2 'Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.'--Haradatta.

48:5 Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and adds that a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be forbidden.

48:6 Compare also Taitt. Âr. I, 2, 4, and Manu II, 74.

49:9 The example given in the Sûtra is that of the Punyâhavâkana, which precedes every Grihya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer requests a number of invited Brâhmanas to wish him success. The complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karmanah punyâham bhavanto bruvantviti, 'Om, wish that the day may be auspicious for the performance of the ceremony.' The Brâhmanas: Om punyâham karmana itî, 'Om, may the day be auspicious for the ceremony.' In the same manner the Brâhmanas afterwards wish 'welfare,' svasti, 'prosperity,' vriddhi, to the sacrificer.

49:10 Manu II, 112.

49:11 The meaning of Hârita is, that the vow of obedience is required for the Trihsrâvana and Tr.ihsahavakana, which Âpastamba exempted in the preceding Sûtra. It follows from this rule that the Aṅgas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied under a vow of obedience.

50:13 This rule is a Supplement to I, 2, 7, 29.

50:14 '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning, or character.'-- Haradatta.

50:16 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after instruction has been completed; according to others, to the time of studentship.'--Haradatta. But see Manu II, 151 seq.


51:1 14. The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter.

51:3 Manu II, 109-115.

51:5 Manu II, 218.

51:6 Manu II, 228, 215.

51:7 The word Gurus, 'venerable persons,' includes besides the teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sûtra, an elder brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35.

51:8 'That is to say, whether he himself or "the venerable persons" undertook the journey.'--Haradatta.

51:9 Manu II, 133.

51:10 See above, I, 4, 13, 2.

52:11 Manu II, 130.

52:12 The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must depend on their learning and virtue,

52:13 Manu II, 134.

52:16 This Sûtra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not 'Gurus.'

52:17 Manu II, 120.

52:18 'Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5, 15, 7 seq.

53:23 He shall say, 'I salute,' not 'I, N. N., salute.' Manu II, 123.

53:24 Âpastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Manu II, 216.

53:25 This verse, which is found with slight variations in most Smritis contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135.

53:26 Of course. in case the person addressed is a Brahman. Manu II, 127. Kullûka quotes under this verse the above and the following Sûtras. But his quotation has only a faint resemblance to our text.

53:28 That is to say in these terms I hope you have not lost any cattle or other property!'--Haradatta.

54:31 He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and do it in these terms: 'Mother, or sister, what can I do for you? Don't be afraid!' &c.--Haradatta.


54:1 15. Taitt. Âr. II, 1, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58.

54:2 Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Yâgñ. I, 192; Manu V, 128.

54:3 The ceremony of 'sipping water' may be performed in two ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a river, pond, &c., or he may get the water poured into his hand by another person. But, according to Âpastamba, he must not take a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, as some Smritis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Âpastamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, 1, 4, 21. This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to touch the right wrist with the left hand while drinking.

55:4 'Some think, that this Sûtra is intended to forbid also the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, according to this Sûtra, it is allowed to use for "sipping" drops of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes [because the Sûtra emphatically excludes "rain-drops only].'--Haradatta.

55:6 Manu II, 61. 'Because the term "heated by fire" is used, there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In the same manner the use of, "hot" water only is usually forbidden in the Smritis.'-- Haradatta.

55:7 'Because the phrase "with empty hands" is used, he commits no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some declare, that the term "touching water" (rendered by "washing means "sipping water."'--Haradatta.

55:11 The translation given above is based on the interpretation of Haradatta, who considers that Âpastamba holds 'crossing a river' to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right interpretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, 'But he shall sip water after having come out (of the river or tank).'

55:12 '"On the fire used for Vedic or Smârta sacrifices or for household purposes.". . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.'--Haradatta.

56:14 Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite certain that my translation is correct.

56:15 Manu V, 118.

56:17 This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt by the comparison of a verse of Manu.

56:18 Manu IV, 142; Yâgñ. I, 155.

56:20 Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other explanations of this Sûtra. Some say, that the Srauta fire may be kindled by blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Vâgasaneyaka, but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fall upon it.

56:21 Manu IV, 54.

57:22 The last condition mentioned in the Sûtra indicates, that the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purification by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with water from wells.

57:23 Manu V, 138.


57:1 16. Haradatta takes âkam here to mean 'to drink water,' and thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. Others refer the prohibition to 'sipping water for the sake of purification,' and translate, 'He shall not sip water standing or in a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.

57:2 Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Yâgñ. I, 20 and 27; Weber. Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied from other Smritis. The rule quoted by him is as follows: 'The performer should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Mâsha-bean. p. 58 The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vaisya the palate. A Sûdra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.'

58:7 The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the small finger.

58:9 Manu V, 138.

58:11 Haradatta observes that this Sûtra shows, that every other foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the food 'leavings' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141.

58:12 Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.

59:14 Manu V, 145.

59:18 The term "ten days" is used in order to indicate the time of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is shorter.)'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 217.

59:19 A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, she exclusively occupies the Sûtikâgriha, or lying-in chamber. Manu IV, 217.

59:20 Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of 'one hundred bows' a lamp and water-vessel, and to eat (beyond that distance).

60:21 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or earth, and praising it.'--Haradatta.

60:22 Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if in bringing it, the Sûdra has touched it.--Haradatta.

60:23 Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified butter, and may be eaten.'--Haradatta.

60:24 Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhâyana, which enumerates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles, nail-parings, excrements of rats.' The rule must be understood as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with the food.

60:26 Manu IV, 207: Yâgñ. I, 167, 168. This Sûtra must be read with Sûtra 23 above.

60:30 Manu IV, 208; Yâgñ. I, 167. Apapâtras are persons whom one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. Kandâlas, Patitas, a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after confinement. See also above, I, 1, 3, 25.

61:32 Haradatta thinks, that as the Sûtra has the feminine gender, dâsî, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But others forbid also this.


61:1 17. 'Some say, that this Sûtra indicates that the touch of a Sûdra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others hold that a Sûdra's touch defiles always, and that the Sûtra is intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinnertime.'--Haradatta.

61:2 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, nor possess learning and virtue.'--Haradatta.

61:3 According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is called 'a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed in our days also. Manu IV, 2 12.

61:4 Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 167.

62:5 'As the text has avaghrâta, "smelt at," it does not matter if they smell the food from a distance.'--Haradatta.

62:11 'It must be understood from other Smritis, that brass is to be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and gold with water.'--Haradatta. Manu V, I 14.

62:12 Manu V, 115.

62:16 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water as will not spoil them.'--Haradatta.

62:17 The Sanskrit has two terms for 'eating;' the first 'khâd' p. 63 applies to hard substances, the second 'ad' to soft substances. Manu I, V, 211; Yâgñ. I, 16 7.

63:18 Manu IV, 211; V, 9; Yâgñ. I, 167.

63:19 Manu V, 10, 24 and 25.

63:20 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba returns once more to the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes prepared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.

63:22 Manu V, 8; Yâgñ. I, 170.

63:23 Manu V, 8, 9; Yâgñ. I 170. 'Sandhinî, translated by "females that give milk while big with young," means, according to others, "female animals that give milk once a day."--Haradatta.

63:24 Manu V, 8.

63:26 Manu V, 5; Yâgñ. I, 176.

64:27 Haradatta observes that Âpastamba, finding the list of forbidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the Sishtas. The force of this Sûtra is exactly the same as that of I, 3, 11, 38.

64:28 Yâgñ. I, 171.

64:29 The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as 'forbidden animals,' Satapatha-br. I, 2, 1, 8; Aitareya-br. II, 1, 8; see also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, 11, 18; Yâgñ. I, 172, 176.

64:32 Yâgñ. I, 176.

64:33 Manu V, 12. Yâgñ. I, 172.

64:34 Manu V, 11; Yâgñ. I, 172.

64:35 Yâgñ. I, 172.

64:36 Manu V, 12; Yâgñ. I, 172. Other commentators take the whole Sûtra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to Sûtra 34. In that case the translation runs thus: ('Carnivorous birds are forbidden) except the Kruñka, Krauñka, Vârdhrânasa, p. 65 and Lakshmana.'--Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, because both the Kruñka, now called Kulam or Kûñk, and the Krauñka, the red-crested crane, now called Sâras (Cyrus), feed on grain. Kruñkakrauñka is a Vedic dual and stands for kruñkakrauñkâ or kruñkakrauñkau.

65:37 Manu V, 18; Yâgñ. I, 77. Pûtikhasha is, according to Haradatta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himâlayas.

65:39 Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must be understood in this sense.


65:1 18. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born man. or the offspring of a Vaisya and of a Sûdra-woman. Other persons of a similar character must be understood to be included by the term.'--Haradatta.

66:4 Also this rule seems to belong to Hârita, on account of its close connection with the preceding two.

66:8 Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Sûtras, a passage of the Khândogya Upanishad, I, 10, 1, and one from the .Rig-veda, IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other commentators explain this and the preceding three Sûtras differently. According to them the translation would run thus: 'If he himself does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps preferable.

66:9 Manu IV, 219, and 223.

67:11 If a Brâhmana who has been ordered to perform a penance, performs a Vaisvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been performed.'--Haradatta.

67:12 'The use of the part. perf. pass. "performed" indicates that he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.'--Haradatta.

67:14 Yâgñ. 1, 166.

67:15 Manu IV, 223

67:16 Manu IV, 209.

67:17 Manu IV, 209; Yâgñ. I, 168.

67:18 Manu IV, 2 10, 215; Yâgñ. I, 162-164.

67:19 Yâgñ. I, 164.

68:21 Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 162.

68:22 Manu IV, 210; Yâgñ. I, 161.

68:23 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a Soma-sacrifice.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-brâhmana III, 19.

68:25 Aitareya-brâhmana II, 1, 9.

68:27 Manu I V, 211; Yâgñ. I, 161.

68:28 The village or town messengers are always men of the lowest castes, such as the Mahârs of Mahârâshthra.

68:29 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic rite.'--Haradatta.

68:30 Haradatta explains kârî, translated by 'spy,' to mean 'a p. 69 secret adherent of the Sâkta sect' (gûdhakârî, sâktah). The existence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved.

69:31 Haradatta gives the Sâkyas or Bauddhas as an instance. But it is doubtful, whether Âpastamba meant to refer to them, though it seems probable that heretics are intended.

69:32 Yâgñ. I, 160.

69:33 'Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines with anybody.'--Haradatta.


69:1 19. Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 161, 162. Another commentator explains anika, translated above 'he who learns the Veda from his son,' by 'a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavishtah with this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering him from fulfilling his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor to pay, which is also called Âkarita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.

69:2 'The object of this Sûtra is to introduce the great variety of opinions quoted below.'--Haradatta.

70:4 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,' but particularly 'practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering burnt-oblations.'--Haradatta.

70:10 Another commentator explains this Sûtra thus: 'He need not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not wish to do so.'--Haradatta.

70:13 See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses occur.

71:14 Manu IV, 211, 212.

71:15 Regarding the liberation of the thief, see Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the critical notes to the text.


72:7 20. The Sûtra is intended to show how the law should be ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of Yâgñ. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural âryâh shows that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See also Manu XII, 108 seq.

72:8 Manu I, 6.

72:11 This Sûtra, which specifies only one part of a Vaisya's occupations as permissible for Brâhmanas in distress, implies, according to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6; X, 82; Yâgñ. III, 35.

72:12 Manu X, 86-89; Yâgñ. III, 36-39.

73:13 The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the authority of Manu X, 90; Yâgñ. III, 39.

73:15 From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.'--Haradatta. Manu X, 94.


73:2 21. 'Since it is known that Muñga and Balbaga are kinds of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned (in Sûtra 1) that objects made of them (may be also sold).'--Haradatta.

73:4 Yâgñ. III, 35.

74:5 Manu XI, 180.

74:6 Regarding the definition of the word Apapâtra, see above, I, 5, 16, 29.

74:8 The crimes by which a person becomes Abhisasta are enumerated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term will be given.

74:9 Regarding the 'male Gurus' see above. By 'female Gurus' their wives are meant.

74:10 I.e. he need not perform so heavy a penance.

75:20 'That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners, given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.'--Haradatta.


75:1 22. The knowledge of the Vedânta and the means which prepare men for the knowledge of the Âtman, the 'Self, the universal soul,' are placed in this Patala at the head of the penances, because they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means are absence of anger &c., which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6.

75:2 Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on the Âtman, which corresponds nearly to Saṅkara's Introduction to and Commentary on the first Sûtra of Bâdarâyana.

75:3 According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken from an Upanishad.

76:4 The spotless one &c. is the Paramâtman. The spots are merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Âtman, 'the soul.' To become immortal means 'to obtain final liberation.'

76:5 It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words 'idam idi ha idi ha' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus, 'idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same, and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise unknown Vedic forms.

76:6 The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My translation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything better.

76:7 The Sutra contains a further description of the Paramâtman.

77:8 Haradatta explains the word vishtap, 'heaven,' by 'pain-freed greatness,' apparently misled by a bad etymology. The heaven of the Âtman is, of course, liberation, that state where the individual soul becomes merged in the Brahman or Paramâtman, which is pure essence, intelligence and joy.


77:2 23. This Sûtra again contains a description of the Paramâtman. The translation strictly follows the commentary, though the explanation, given in the latter, is open to objections.


78:1 24. Manu XI, 128; Yâgñ. III, 266. Others explain the phrase vairayâtanârtham, 'for the expiation of his sin,' thus: 'He, who is p. 79 slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer (and thinks), "O that I might slay him in another life," for the removal of this enmity!'--Haradatta. I am strongly inclined to agree with the other commentator, and to translate vairayâtanârtham, 'in order to remove the enmity.' I recognise in this fine a remnant of the law permitting compositions for murder which was in force in ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the explanation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable interpretation for prâyaskittirthah, Sûtra 4. Haradatta, seduced by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vairayâtanârtham. I propose to translate our Sûtra thus: 'He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to the relations of the murdered man) in order to remove the enmity.' According to Baudhâyana I, 10. 19. 1 (compare Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges., vol. 41, pp. 672-76; Festgruss an Roth, pp. 44-52), the cows are to be given to the king.

79:2 Manu XI, 130. Yâgñ. III, 267.

79:3 Manu XI, 131. Yâgñ. III, 267.

79:6 Manu XI, 87. Abhisasta means literally 'accused, accursed,' and corresponds in Âpastamba's terminology to the mahâpâtakin of Manu and Yâgñavalkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it occasionally, e.g. II, 185.

80:9 'Others interpret âtreyî, "during her courses," by "belonging to the race of Atri."'--Haradatta.

80:11 Others say that he may carry the skull of any corpse. This Sûtra is to be construed with Sûtra 14, Sûtras 12 and 13 being inserted parenthetically.--Haradatta. Manu XI, 72-78; Yâgñ. III, 243.

81:20 'I.e. after having performed the penance, he shall take grass and offer it to a cow. If the cow approaches and confidingly eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance properly not otherwise.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 195 and 196.

81:21 Manu XI, 81.--Thus Haradatta, better, 'when-thrice he has fought with them,' see the Pet. Dict. s. v. râdh.

81:22 Manu XI, 83; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 67.

81:23 'Or the Sûtra may have reference to unrighteous gain acquired by false testimony and the like.'--Haradatta.

81:24 'Guru means "the father and the rest."--Haradatta.

81:25 'His sin is removed after death. Hence the meaning is that his sons or other (relations) may perform the funeral ceremonies and the like. But others think that the first part of the Sûtra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratvâpattih (can be p. 82 purified) is "connection by being received as a son or other relation."--Haradatta.


82:1 25. Haradatta's explanation of a 'Guru's wife' by 'mother' rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smritis, where a different 'penance' is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with other near relations. Manu XI, 105; Yâgñ. III, 259.

82:2 Manu XI, 104; Yâgñ. III, 259.

82:3 Manu XI, 91, 92; Yâgñ. III, 253.

82:4 I.e. who has stolen the gold of a Brâhmana. Manu VIII, 314, 316; XI, 99-101; Yâgñ. III, 257.

82:5 Manu VIII, 317.

82:6 Manu XI, 102.

82:8 According to Haradatta this Sûtra refers to all kinds of sins and it must be understood that the Krikkhra penances must be heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also below, I, 9, 27, 7 and 8.

83:9 Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Purâna.

83:11 Manu XI, 74; Yâgñ. III, 248.

83:12 The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel passage of Vasishtha XX, 25-26, show that this terrible penance is not altogether a mere theory of Âpastamba. Yâgñ. III, 247.

83:13 'According to some, the penance must be performed if all these animals together have been slain; according to others, if only one of them has been killed.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 132, 136 Yâgñ. III, 270-272.


84:1 26. 'A reason' for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, anger, or the desire to obtain meat.

84:2 Manu XI, 141; Yâgñ. III, 269. That 'animals without bones,' i.e. insects or mollusks, are intended in the Sûtra is an inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gautama, Manu, and Yâgñavalkya.

84:3 'A person who ought not to be abused, i. e. a father, a teacher, and the like.'--Haradatta.

84:5 The same penances, i. e. those prescribed I, 9, 24-I, 9, 26, 4. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is intended to teach that women shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the preceding Sûtras apply to women by an atidesa, and that, according to a Smârta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, that women are to perform one-half only of the penances prescribed for men.

85:7 The Anuvâka intended is Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12.

85:8 Taitt. Âr. II, 18, and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Manu XI, 199 seq.; and Yâgñ. III, 280. Regarding the Pâkayagña-rites, see Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 1, 2, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 203.

85:12 Regarding the Patanîya-crimes which cause loss of caste, see above, I, 7, 21, 7 seq.

86:13 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102. According to the greatness of the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and the prayers be repeated.


86:1 27. 'The oblations of sacred fuel (samidh) are not to be accompanied by the exclamation Svâhâ'--Haradatta.

86:2 Ishtis are the simplest forms of the Srauta-sacrifices, i.e. of those for which three fires are necessary.

86:3 For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 153-154.

87:7 The same penance is described, under the name Prâgâpatya krikkhra, the Krikkhra invented by Pragâpati, Manu XI, 212, and Yâgñ. III, 320.

87:9 Manu XI, 259.

87:11 The expression krishna varna, 'the black race,' is truly Vedic. In the Rig-veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, and sometimes the demons. Others explain the Sûtra thus: p. 88 A Brâhmana removes the sin, which he committed by cohabiting for one night with a female of the Sûdra caste, &c.--Haradatta. The latter explanation has been adopted by Kullûka on Manu XI. 179.


88:3 28. The same rule Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, Manu VIII, 339, But see also VIII, 331.

88:7 Haradatta remarks, that this Sûtra implicitly forbids to accept the heritage of an outcast.

89:11 A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 19 4.

89:15 '(This penance, which had been prescribed above, I, 9, 25, 1), is enjoined (once more), in order to show that it is not optional (as might be expected according to Sûtra 14).'--Haradatta.


90:5 29. Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a warrior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller turns out to be a Brâhmana, and the warrior did not know his caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he had rescued knowingly the property of a Brâhmana.

91:9 It is impossible to agree with Haradatta's explanation of the words to be addressed by Abhisastas to their children. No Vedic license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of the third. I propose the following: 'Go out from among us; for thus (leaving the guilt) to us, you will be received (as) Âryas.' it is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several very old corruptions, compare Baudhâyana II, 1, 2, 18.

91:11 'In like manner a man who has lost his rights, (can) beget a son, who possesses the rights (of his caste). For the wife is also a cause (of the birth of the son), and she is guiltless.'--Haradatta.

91:13 The statements now following are those with which Âpastamba agrees. Those contained in Sûtras 8-11 are merely the pûrvapaksha.


92:1 30. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Samâvartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Snâtaka, 'one who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.

93:10 The rule to wear white garments is given Yâgñ. I, 131; Manu IV, 35. 33.

93:13 Manu IV, 34.

93:15 Manu IV, 49.

94:18 Manu IV, 45, 46; Yâgñ. I, 137.

94:19 Manu IV, 56.

94:20 Manu IV, 48, 52; Yâgñ. I, 134.

94:22 The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu IV, 53; Yâgñ. I, 137.


94:2 31. Manu IV, 151; Yâgñ. I, 16.

95:5 Manu IV, 163.

95:8 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8, 23, 5), "speaking evil" has been forbidden, in connection with the means of salvation. And below (Sûtra 25) the (author) will declare that the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and the rest an extra penance must be performed.'--Haradatta.

95:12 Manu IV, 139.

95:13 Manu IV, 38.

95:14 'Or according to others, " He shall not pass between pillars supporting an arch."'--Haradatta.

96:16 Manu IV, 59.

96:17 Others explain (the Sûtra thus): He shall not announce it to others, if he sees (the souls of) good men falling from heaven on account of the expenditure of their merit, (i.e.) he shall not call attention to shooting-stars.'--Haradatta.

96:18 Manu IV, 37. 19. Manu IV, 153.

96:21 Manu IV, 73; Yâgñ. I, 140.

96:22 Manu IV, 80. 'This prohibition (given in the first part of the Sûtra) refers to Sûdras who are not dependents; to dependents the following (exception applies).'--Haradatta.

97:23 See above, I, 6, 23, 4 and 5, and Manu IV, 163.


97:1 32. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.

97:2 Manu IV, 40.

97:5 Manu IV, 72.

98:15 I.e. if the following day is a forbidden day, e.g. an Ashtamî. See also Manu IV, 99.

98:18 Manu IV, 60 and 61.

98:24 Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the verse alludes, in the following manner: 'A certain Rishi had two pupils, called Dharmaprahrâda and Kumâlana. Once they brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw them negligently into their teacher's house, without looking. One of the bundles struck the teacher's little son so that he died. Then the teacher asked his two pupils, "Which of you two has killed him?" Both answered, "Not I, not I." Hereupon the teacher, being unable to (come to a decision in order to) send away, the sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him, "Which of the two has killed the boy?" Then Death, finding himself involved in a difficult law-question, began to weep, and p. 99 giving his decision, said, "Oh Dharmaprahrâda, not to Kumâlana (the dative has the sense of the genitive), this sin is none of Kumâlana's!" Instead of declaring, "Dharmaprahrâda, thou hast done this,' he said, "The other did not do it." Still from the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the answer was, "The other has done it." "This was the decision which he gave crying."'--The reading of the text rendered in the translation is, dharmaprahrâda na kumâlanâya.

99:26 Manu IV, 77.

99:28 Manu IV, 70 and 71.

Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) [1879]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from by Jayaram V for While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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