The Baudhayana Dharma Sustra, Part 1

Translation by Georg Bühler



1. The sacred law is taught in each Veda. 1

2. We will explain (it) in accordance with that.

3. (The sacred law), taught in the Tradition (Smriti, stands) second. 3

4. The practice of the Sishtas (stands) third. 4

5. Sishtas, forsooth, (are those) who are free from envy, free from pride, contented with a store of grain sufficient for ten days, free from covetousness, and free from hypocrisy, arrogance, greed, perplexity, and anger. 5

6. '(Those are called) Sishtas who, in accordance with the sacred law, have studied the Veda together 6 with its appendages, know how to draw inferences from that, (and) are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the revealed texts.'

7. On failure of them, an assembly consisting at least of ten members (shall decide disputed points of law).

8. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Four men, who each know one of the four Vedas, a Mîmâmsaka, one who knows the Aṅgas, one who recites (the works on) the sacred law, and three Brâhmanas belonging to (three different) orders, (constitute) an assembly consisting, at least, of ten members.' 8

9. 'There may be five, or there may be three, or there may be one blameless man, who decides (questions regarding) the sacred law. But a thousand fools (can)not (do it).' 9

10. 'As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brâhmana: those three having nothing but the name (of their kind).' 10

11. 'That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignorance and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare (to be duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on those who propound it.' 11

12. 'Narrow and difficult to find is the path of the sacred law, towards which many gates lead. Hence, if there is a doubt, it must not be propounded by one man (only), however learned he may be.' 12

13. 'What Brâhmanas, riding in the chariot of the law (and) wielding the sword of the Veda, propound even in jest, that is declared to be the highest law.'

14. 'As wind and sun will make water, collected on a stone, disappear, even so the sin that (cleaves) to an offender completely vanishes like water.' 14

15. 'He who knows the sacred law shall fix the penances with discernment, taking into consideration the constitution, the strength, the knowledge, and the age (of the offender), as well as the time and the deed.' 15

16. Many thousands (of Brâhmanas) cannot form a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if they have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the name of their caste.' 16

Footnotes Scroll Up

143:1 I. Vasishtha I, 4. Each Veda, i.e. each sâkhâ or redaction of the Veda.--Govinda.

143:3 Vasishtha I, 4. Govinda takes smriti, 'the tradition,' in the sense of works (grantha) explaining the recollections of the Rishis, and is no doubt right in doing so.

143:4 Vasishtha I, 5. The explanation of âgama by 'practice' rests on the authority of Govinda and the parallel passages where sîla and âkâra, 'conduct,' are used.

143:5 Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 8; Gautama XXVIII, 48. Kumbhidhânya, translated according to Govinda by 'contented with a store of grain sufficient for ten days,' means, according to others, 'contented with a store of grain sufficient for six days or for a year.'

143:6 Vasishtha VI, 43. Govinda omits the word 'iti,' given by the p. 144 MSS. after the verse, whereby it is marked as a quotation. 'The appendages,' i.e. the Itihâsas and Purânas.--Govinda.

144:8 Vasishtha III, 20. Govinda, quoting Gautama XXVIII, 49, says that Vânaprasthas cannot serve as members of Parishads, because they live in the forest. He also notices a different reading, not found in my MSS. 'Âsramasthâs trayo mukhyâh.' He asserts that thereby professed students are intended, because professed students are declared to be particularly holy in the Dharmaskandha-brâhmana.

144:9 Vasishtha III, 7. Itare, translated by 'fools,' means literally, those different from the persons enumerated in the preceding verse.' Govinda remarks that according to Sûtra 12 one learned Brâhmana must be taken only in cases of the most pressing necessity.

144:10 Vasishtha III, 11.

145:11 Vasishtha III, 6.

145:12 The 'gates' of the sacred law are the Vedas, the Smritis, and the practice of the Sishtas. They are many, because the redactions of the Vedas and Smritis are numerous and the practices vary in different countries.

145:14 I.e. provided the offender performs the penance imposed by learned and virtuous Brâhmanas. Pranâsayet, 'will make disappear,' is ungrammatical, as the subject stands in the dual. Grammatical accuracy has probably been sacrificed to the exigencies of the metre.

145:15 Vasishtha XIX, 9. Sarîram, literally 'the body,' means here the constitution, which may be bilious, 'windy,' and so forth. Âyuh, literally 'life' or 'long life,' has been translated by 'knowledge,' in accordance with Govinda's explanation gñânam. As the word vayah, 'age,' also occurs in this verse, it is clear that âyuh cannot have its usual meaning.

146:16 Vasishtha III, 5. The two copies of the commentary omit this Sûtra, though it is quoted in the explanation of Sûtra 9. The best MSS. repeat the last words of the Sûtra in order to show that the Kandikâ ends here. The same practice is observed, though not quite regularly, in the sequel.


1. There is a dispute regarding five (practices) both in the south and in the north. 1

2. We will explain those (peculiar) to the south.

3. They are, to eat in the company of an uninitiated person, to eat in the company of one's wife, to eat stale food, to marry the daughter of a maternal uncle or of a paternal aunt. 3

4. Now (the customs peculiar) to the north are, to deal in wool, to drink rum, to sell animals that have teeth in the upper and in the lower jaws, to follow the trade of arms, to go to sea. 4

5. He who follows (these practices) in any other country than where they prevail, commits sin. 5

6. For each (of these customs) the (rule of the) country should be (considered) the authority.

7. Gautama declares that that is false. 7

8. And one should not take heed of either (set of practices) because they are opposed to the tradition of the Sishtas.

9. The country of the Âryas (Âryâvarta) lies to the east of the region where (the river Sarasvatî) disappears, to the west of the Black-forest (Kâlakavana), to the north of the Pâripâtra (mountains), to the south of the Himâlaya. The rule of conduct which (prevails) there, is authoritative. 9

10. Some (declare) the country between the (rivers) Yamunâ and Ganges (to be the Âryâvarta). 10

11. Now the Bhâllavins quote also the (following) verse: 11

12. 'In the west the boundary-river, in the east the region where the sun rises,--as far as the black antelopes wander (between these two limits), so far spiritual pre-eminence (is found).' 12

13. The inhabitants of Avantî, of Aṅga, of Magadha, of Surâshtra, of the Dekhan, of Upâvrit, of Sindh, and the Sauvîrâs are of mixed origin. 13

14. He who has visited the (countries of the) Ârattas, Kâraskaras, Pundras, Sauvîras, Vaṅgas, Kaliṅgas, (or) Prânûnas shall offer a Punastoma or a Sarvaprishthâ (ishti). 14

15. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He commits sin through his feet, who travels to the (country of the) Kaliṅgas. The sages declare the Vaisvânarî ishti to be a purification for him.' 15

16. 'Even if many offences have been committed, they recommend for the removal of the sin the Pavitreshti. For that (sacrifice) is a most excellent means of purification.'

17. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He who performs (by turns) in each season the Vaisvânarî (ishti), the Vrâtapatî (ishti), and the Pavitreshti is freed from (all) sins.' 17

Footnotes Scroll Up

146:1 2. The boundary between the north and south of India is, as Govinda also points out, the river Narmadâ.

146:3 Some of the customs mentioned here still prevail in parts of southern India. Thus the marriages between cousins occur among the Desastha and Karhâdâ Brâhmanas of the Dekhan.

146:4 The first two customs mentioned still prevail in the north, especially in Kasmîr, where Brâhmanas commonly deal in wool and woollen cloth. Spirituous liquor is not now drunk openly, but its use is sanctioned in the Kasmîrian Nîlamata-purâna. Many Brâhmanical families in the north, especially in the North-western Provinces, subsist by enlisting as soldiers in the British and native armies.

147:5-6. A similar argument is given by the Kasmîrians for the lawfulness of the consumption of meat, which they justify by a desaguna or 'virtue of their country.'

147:7 Gautama XI, 20.

147:9 Vasishtha I, 8, 10. Many MSS., and among them the Telugu copy of the commentary, read Pâriyâtra instead of Pâripâtra, which latter I consider to be the correct form of the word.

147:10 Vasishtha I, 12.

147:11 Vasishtha I, 14. Govinda remarks that the Bhâllavins are a school studying the Sâma-veda. See also Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 193, 364.

147:12 Vasishtha I, 15. There is a great uncertainty in the MSS. about the word following sindhuh. I have adopted the reading of p. 148 M., sindhur vidharanî, 'the boundary-river,' which occurs also in the parallel passage of Vasishtha. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. read vikaranî or vikaranâ, and the two copies of the commentary visaranî. The sense of these various readings appears to be 'the river that vanishes or looses itself,' i.e. the Sarasvatî.

148:13 This and the following two Sûtras are intended to show that the customs prevailing in the countries named have no authority and must not be followed. Avantî corresponds to western Mâlvâ, Aṅga to western Bengal, Magadha to Bihar, and Surâshtra to southern Káthîâvâd. The Sauvîras, who are always associated with the Sindhians, probably dwelt in the south-west of the Pañgâb, near Multân. The Upâvrits probably are the same as the Upâvrittas mentioned Mahâbhârata VI, 49. But I am unable to deter-mine their seats.

148:14 The Ârattas dwelt in the Pañgâb (Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, p. 973, sec. ed.), and are greatly blamed, Mahâbhârata VIII, 44, 36 seq. The Kâraskaras are named in the same chapter of the Mahâbhârata as a degraded tribe, but seem to belong to the south of India. The Kaliṅgas are the inhabitants of the eastern coast of India, between Orissa and the mouth of the Krishnâ river. The Pundras, who are mentioned as a degraded tribe in the Aitareya-brâhmana VII, 18, and occur frequently in the Mahâbhârata, and the Vaṅgas belong to Bengal (see Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, 669, sec. ed.; Cunningham, Anc. Geog. p. 480). Regarding the Puna-stoma, see Gautama XIX, 7 note; and regarding the Sarvaprishthâ ishti, Taittirîya-samhitâ II, 3, 7, 1-2.

148:15 Âpastamba I, 11, 32, 18.

149:17 Vasishtha XXII, 10. The meaning is that in each of the three seasons of the year, Grîshma, Varsha, Hemanta, one of the three sacrifices is to be offered.


1. The (term of the) studentship for (learning the) Veda, as kept by the ancients, (is) forty-eight years, 1

2. (Or) twenty-four (years), or twelve for each Veda, 2

3. Or at the least one year for each Kânda, 3

4. Or until (the Veda has been) learned; for life is uncertain. 4

5. A passage of the revealed texts declares, 'Let him kindle the sacred fires while his hair is (still) black.' 5

6. They do not put any (religious) restrictions on the acts of a (child) before the investiture with the girdle (is performed). For he is on a level with a Sûdra before (his second) birth through the Veda. 6

7. The number of years (must be calculated) from the conception. Let him initiate a Brâhmana in the eighth (year) after that, 7

8. A Kshatriya three (years) later (than a Brâhmana),

9. A Vaisya one year later than a (Kshatriya).

10. Spring, summer, and autumn are the seasons (for the initiation) according to the order of the castes. 10

11. (Let him perform the initiation reciting), according to the order (of the castes), a Gâyatrî, a Trishtubh, (or) a Gagatî (verse).

12. Up to the sixteenth, the twenty-second, and the twenty-fourth (years) respectively (the time for the initiation) has not passed. 12

13. The girdles (shall consist of a rope) made of Muñga grass, a bow-string, (or a rope) made of hemp. 13

14. The skins (shall be) those of a black antelope, of a spotted deer, (or) of a he-goat. 14

15. The staff shall reach the crown of the head, the forehead, (or) the tip of the nose, (and be made) of a tree fit for a sacrifice. The details have been stated above. 15

16. Let him beg, (employing a formula) consisting of seven syllables, with the word bhavat in the beginning, with the word bhikshâ in the middle, and with the (verb expressing) the request at the end; and let him not pronounce loudly (the syllables) kshâ and hi. 16

17. A Brâhmana (student) shall ask for alms, placing (the word) 'Lady' first, a Kshatriya placing 17 it in the middle, (and) a Vaisya placing it at the end (of the formula), from (men of) all castes.

18. The (persons fit to be asked) are Brâhmanas and so forth, who follow (their lawful) occupations.

19. Let him daily fetch fuel out of the forest and offer (it in the sacred fire). 19

20. (A student shall be) truthful, modest, and devoid of pride. 20

21. He shall rise before (his teacher in the morning) and go to rest after (him in the evening). 21

22. He shall never disobey the words of his teacher except (when he is ordered to commit) a crime causing loss of caste. 22

23. Let him converse with women so much (only) as his purpose requires. 23

24. Let him avoid dancing, singing, playing musical instruments, the use of perfumes, garlands, shoes, (or) a parasol, applying collyrium (to his eyes), and anointing (his body). 24

25. Let him take hold (of his teacher's) right (foot) with the right (hand), and of the left (foot) with the left hand. 25

26. If he desires long life and (bliss in) heaven, 26 (he may act) at his pleasure (in the same manner) towards other holy (men), after having received permission from his teacher.

27. (Let him say), 'I N. N., ho! (salute thee),' touching his ears, in order to compose the internal organ. 27

28. (Let him embrace his teacher's leg) below the knee down to the feet. 28

29. (A student shall not embrace his teacher) when he (himself) is seated, or lying down, or impure, nor when (his teacher) is seated, lying down, or impure. 29

30. If he can (find water to sip), he shall not remain impure even during a muhûrta. 30

31. If he carries a load of fuel or holds a pot, flowers, or food in his hands, he shall not salute; nor (shall he do it) on similar occasions. 31

32. Let him not salute (the teacher) standing too close,

33. Nor, if he has reached the age of puberty, the young wives of brothers and the young wives of the teacher. 33

34. To sit together with (these persons) in a boat, on a rock, on a plank, on an elephant, on the roof of a house, on a mat, or in wheeled vehicles is permissible. 34

35. (The pupil) must assist his teacher in making his toilet, shampoo him, attend him while bathing, eat his leavings, and so forth. 35

36. (But he) should avoid the remnants of food left by his (teacher's) son, though he may know the Veda together with the Aṅgas, 36

37. And to assist at the toilet of, to shampoo, to attend in the bath, and to eat the remnants of food left by a young wife of his (teacher).

38. Let him run after (his teacher) when he runs, walk after him when he walks, attend him standing when he stands. 38

39. Let him not sport in the water while bathing. 39

40. Let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

41. To study under a non-Brâhmanical teacher (is permitted) in times of distress. 41

42. (The pupil shall) obey and walk after him as long as the instruction (lasts). 42

43. (According to some this is improper, because) just that (mutual relation) sanctifies both of them. 43

44. And (the behaviour) towards brothers, sons, and (other) pupils (of the teacher shall be regulated) in the same manner. 44

45. But officiating priests, a father-in-law, paternal and maternal uncles who are younger than (oneself must be honoured by) rising and (by being) addressed. 45

46. Kâtya (declares that) the salutation shall be returned. 46

47. For (the propriety of that rule) is apparent (from the story) about Sisu Âṅgirasa. 47

Footnotes Scroll Up

149:1 3. Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 12. Govindasvâmin gives four explanations of the adjective paurânam, 'kept by the ancients,' viz. 1. old, i.e. kept by the men of the Krita or Golden age; 2. revealed to and kept by the ancients, such as Manu; 3. found in the ancient, i.e. eternal Veda; 4. found in the known Itihâsas and Purânas.

149:2 Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 14-16.

149:3 Each Kânda, i.e. each of the seven books of the Taittirîya-samhitâ.

149:4 Manu III, 1.

149:5 The object of the Sûtra is to prove that the period of studentship must not be protracted too long, lest the duty of offering the Srauta Agnihotra be neglected.

150:6 Vasishtha II, 6; Gautama II, 1.

150:7-9. Vasishtha XI, 49-51.

150:10 Âpastamba I, 1, 1, 18.

150:12 Vasishtha XI, 71-73.

150:13 Vasishtha XI, 58-60. With this and the next two Sûtras the words 'according to the order of the castes' must be understood.

150:14 Vasishtha XI, 61-63.

150:15 Vasishtha XI, 55-57. The details referred to are to be p. 151 found in the Baudhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 7, where the various kinds of trees from which the staff may be taken are specified. The Sûtra shows that the Grihya-sûtra preceded the Dharma-sûtra in the collection.

151:16 The text of this Sûtra is corrupt. I read, 'bhavatpurvâm bhikshâmadhyâm yâkñântâm karet saptâksharâm bhikshâm kshâm ka him ka na vardhayet' The various readings of the MSS. are, bhikshâm madhyâm yakkhâmtâm karet saptâksharâm bhim ka na vardhayet, C. T.;--yâkñâmtâm karet saptâksharamni kshâm ka bhim ka narvyayet, D.;-- yâkñâmtâm karet saptâksharâmstim rkshâ ba him na vardhayet, K.; yâkñâmtâm tikshâm karet saptâksharân kshâm ka him ka na vardhayan, M.; yâkanâskâmtâm karet saptâksharân bhikshâm ka him ka na vardhayet, C. I. The most serious corruption lies in the syllables following saptâksharâm, and I am not certain that my emendation bhikshâm is correct. The commentary on the first half of the Sûtra runs as follows: bhikshâmantram vyaktam evokkaret bhavakkhabdapûrvâm bhikshâsabdamadhyâm yâkñâpratipa[pâ]dakasabdâmtâm sabdâksharâm [saptâksharâm] ka evam hi bhavati bhikshâm dehi sampanno bhavati, 'let him pronounce distinctly the formula employed in begging, beginning with the word bhavat, having the word bhikshâ in the middle, and ending with the word conveying the sense of giving, and containing seven syllables. For thus (the formula), "Lady, give alms," becomes complete.' It is curious that Govinda says nothing about the form saptâksharâm and the feminine terminations of the other adjectives, which do not agree with mantram, a masculine.

151:17 Vasishtha XI, 68-70; Gautama II, 35. Govinda thinks that a student should, if possible, beg from people of his own caste. Three castes only are intended by the term 'from all castes.' But see Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 25; Gautama VII, 1 seqq.

152:19 Vishnu XXVIII, 4.

152:20 Gautama II, 8; Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 20.

152:21 Vishnu XXVIII, 13.

152:22 Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 19; Vasishtha VII, 10.

152:23 Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 16.

152:24 Vishnu XXVIII, 11; Vasishtha VII, 15.

152:25 Vishnu XXVIII, 15. The details regarding the times when this kind of salutation is to be performed are found Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 21 seqq.

152:26 The two copies of the commentary connect the clause, 'if he is desirous of long life and (bliss in) heaven,' with the preceding Sûtra. But see Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 15, where the identical words p. 153 occur. The commentary omits the remainder of the Sûtra, which all my MSS. give here, and inserts it below, after Sûtra 29.

153:27 Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 12; Vasishtha XIII. 44. Regarding the phrase,' in order to compose his internal organ,' see Manu II, 120.

153:28 Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 22. The meaning seems to be that the pupil is first to stroke his teacher's legs from the knee downwards, and then to take hold of it at the ankle.

153:29 Âpastamba I, 4, 14, 14-20.

153:30 Âpastamba I, 5, 15, 8.

153:31 Âpastamba I, 4, 14, 22. 'On similar occasions,' i.e. when he himself is engaged in the worship of the manes, of the gods, or of the fire, or when his teacher is occupied in that way.

153:33 The salutation which is meant, is probably the embrace of the feet; see also Gautama II, 32. Govinda thinks that the words samavâye 'tyantyasah, 'standing too close,' must be understood.

154:34 Govinda adds that to sit with young wives of his teachers on other occasions is sinful.

154:35 I read utsâdana, 'to shampoo,' while the MSS. have either a lacuna or read ukkhâdana, and the commentary âkkhâdana, which is explained by khattradhârana, 'to hold a parasol,' or malâpakarshana, 'to clean.' The kkha is, however, merely owing to a very common faulty pronunciation of tsa. Govinda remarks correctly that the word 'iti,' which follows the enumeration of the services to be performed by the pupil, has the force of 'and so forth.'

154:36-37. The meaning of the two Sûtras is that the pupil shall serve the son of his teacher, especially if he is learned, and aged wives of his teacher, but not eat their leavings. The explanation of anûkâna, 'who knows the Aṅgas,' is given by Baudhâyana, Grihya-sûtra I, 11, 4.

154:38 Âpastamba I, 2, 6, 7-9; Vasishtha VII, 12.

154:39-40. Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 30; Vishnu XXVIII, 5.

154:41 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 25. Govinda combines this Sûtra with the next two and makes one of the three.

155:42 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 26; Gautama VII, 2-3.

155:43 The words between brackets belong to Govinda.

155:44 I.e. if they are younger than oneself.

155:45 Instead of pratyutthâyâbhibhâshanam, '(shall be honoured by) rising and being addressed,' which is the reading of the two copies of the commentary and of M., the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gugarât read, pratyutthâyâbhivâdanam. The latter reading might be translated by 'shall be saluted by rising;' see Gautama VI, 9. Govinda says, in explanation of this rule: 'This restrictive rule also (refers) to teachers only, officiating priests, and the rest; to address (means) to use words such as "we come."

155:46 'Kâtya, i.e. a descendant of the Rishi Kata. He was of opinion that officiating priests and the rest must return the salute. As the return of a salute is prescribed for them, it is understood that the other (party) must salute.'--Govinda.

155:47 The story of Sisu Âṅgirasa is told, Manu II, 151-153.


1. If merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching), nor (at least) the due obedience, one should die with one's learning; one should not sow it on barren soil. 1

2. As fire consumes dry grass, even so the Veda, asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the enquirer). Therefore let him not proclaim the Veda to those who do not show him honour according to their ability. 2

3. They proclaim to him a command to the following effect; 3

4. 'Brahman, forsooth, made the created beings over to Death. The student alone it did not make over to him.' He (Death) spake, 'Let me have a share in him.' (Brahman answered), 'That night in which he may neglect to offer a piece of sacred fuel (shall belong to thee),' 4

5. 'Therefore a student who passes a night without offering a piece of sacred fuel, cuts it off from the length of his life, Therefore let the student offer a piece of sacred fuel, lest he spend a night, shortening his life.'

6. 'A long sacrificial session begins he who commences his studentship. That (night) in which, after being initiated, he (first) offers a piece of sacred fuel corresponds to the Prâyanîya (Atirâtra of a sacrificial session); that night in which (he offers it last), intending to take the final bath, corresponds to the Udayanîya (Atirâtra), Those nights which (lie) between (these two terms correspond) just to the nights of his sacrificial session.' 6

7. 'A Brâhmana who becomes a student of the Veda, enters existent beings in a fourfold manner, (viz.) with one quarter (he enters) Fire, with one quarter Death, with one quarter the Teacher, the fourth quarter remains in the Soul. When he offers to Fire a piece of sacred fuel, he thereby buys back even that quarter which (resides) in Fire, hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into him. Now when making himself poor and, becoming shameless, he asks for alms (and) lives as a student of the Veda, he thereby buys back the quarter which (resides) in Death; hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into him. Now when he obeys the orders of his Teacher, he thereby buys back that quarter which (resides) in the Teacher; hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into him. [Now when he recites the Veda, he thereby buys back the quarter which resides in the Soul. Hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into him.] Let him not go to beg, after he has bathed (on finishing his studentship). . . . If he does not find another woman whom he can ask for alms,, let him beg even from his own teacher's wife or from his own mother. The seventh (night) shall not pass without his asking for alms. [(He commits) sin if he does not go out to ask for alms and does not place fuel on the fire. If he neglects that during seven (days and) nights, he must perform the 7 penance prescribed for one who has broken the vow of studentship.] All the Vedas come to him who knows that and acts thus.'

8. 'As a blazing fire shines, even so shines he who, knowing this, thus fulfils the duties of studentship, after he has bathed (on leaving his teacher).' Thus speaks the Brâhmana.

Footnotes Scroll Up

155:1 4. Manu II, 112.

156:2 Vasishtha II, 12.

156:3 'They, i.e. the Vâgasaneyins; to him, i.e. to the student'--Govinda.

156:4 The quotation, which begins here and ends with the end of the section, is taken from Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 2, 6. In the text the word Brahman is a neuter.

156:6 MSS. M. and K., as well as the commentary, read dîrghasattram p. 157 ha vâ esha upaiti, while the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gugarât, like the printed edition of the Sat. Br., omit the particle 'ha.' Prâyanîya means, literally, 'initial,' and udayanîya, 'final.' Each sattra or sacrificial session begins and ends with an Atirâtra sacrifice.

157:7 This portion of the quotation shows, besides some minor deviations from the published text of the Mâdhyandinas, several p. 158 interpolations and corruptions. The minor discrepancies are, 'brâhmano vai brahmakaryam upayan' (upayakkhan, C. I. and T.); padâtmanyeva katurthah pâdah; yadagnaye samidham âdadhâti; atha yad âtmânam daridrîkrityâhrîr bhûtvâ bhikshate brahmakaryam karati; atha yad âkâryavakah karoti ya evisyâkârye. In the second passage the Dekhan MSS. read, however, like the printed text. The interpolations are, 'Now when he recites the Veda,' &c., and the verse, 'He commits sin if he neglects,' &c. The former passage entirely destroys the sense of the whole and the connexion of the parts. Both have, however, been retained, as they occur in all the MSS. and the two copies of the commentary, and have been enclosed in brackets. The corrupt passage is so had that it makes no sense at all. The best MSS. read as follows: 'api hi vai snâtvâ bhikshâm karatyavigñânanâsanâyayâ pitrînâmanyabhyah kriyâbhyah' sa yadanyâm, &c., D.; 'api ha vai snâtvâ bhishtâm karasapi gñâni nâsanâya yâ [v3. sec. m.] pitrînâm anyâbhyah kriyâbhyah,' K.; api ha vai snâtvâ bhikshâm karati--pagñâti--nâm sanâyâpi pitrinâm anyâbhyah kriyâsas, M.; api ha vai snâtvâ bhikshâm karatyavigñâtinâmasanayâpi pitrinâm anyâbhya kriyâbhyah, C. I. As it is by no means certain that Baudhâyana's reading agreed with that of the printed text, I have left the passage out.


1. Now (follow the duties) of a Snâtaka. 1

2. He shall wear a lower garment and upper garment. 2

3. Let him carry a staff made of bamboo,

4. And a pot filled with water.

5. Let him wear two sacrificial threads.

6. (He shall possess) a turban, an upper garment (consisting of) a skin, shoes, and a parasol. (He shall keep) a sacred fire and (offer) the new and full moon (Sthâlîpâkas). 6

7. He shall cause the hair of his head, of his beard, and of his body, and his nails to be cut on the Parva days. 7

8. His livelihood (he shall obtain in the following manner): 8

9. Let him beg uncooked (food) from Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or carpenters, 9

10. Or (cooked) food (even from many). 10

11. Let him remain silent (when he goes to beg).

12. Let him perform with that all Pâkayagñas, offered to the gods and manes, and the rites, securing welfare. 12

13. Baudhâyana declares that by (following) this rule the most excellent sages reach the highest abode of Pragâpati Parameshthin. 13

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158:1 5. Regarding the term Snâtaka, see Âpastamba I, 11, 30, 1-4. Govinda thinks that the following rules are intended to apply In the first instance to a student who has performed the Samâvartana on completion of his studentship and lives unmarried at home. For though the Smriti declares it necessary for a student to enter, on completing his term, at once into one of the remaining three p. 159 orders, it may happen; as the commentator observes, that the Snâtaka's marriage cannot take place immediately. The correctness of this view is proved by Âpastamba I, 2, 8, and by the fact that below, II, 3, 5, the rules for a married Snâtaka are given separately.

159:2-5. Vasishtha XII, 14.

159:6 Âpastamba I, 2, 8, 2.

159:7 Regarding the Parva days, see Vasishtha XII, 21 note.

159:8 Vasishtha XII, 2-4. 'Though the Snâtaka is the subject of the discussion, the word "his" is used (in this Sûtra) in order to introduce the remaining duties of a householder also.'--Govinda.

159:9 The carpenter (rathakâra) is a Sûdra, but connected with the Vedic sacrifices.

159:10 '"Food" (bhaiksham), i.e. a quantity of begged food. The meaning is that in times of distress he may beg from many.'--Govinda.

159:12 With that, i.e. with the food obtained by begging. Regarding p. 160 the Pâkayagñas, see Gautama VIII, 18. Govinda gives as an instance of the rites securing welfare (bhûtikarmâni) the âyushyakaru, a rice-offering intended to procure long life.

160:13 Govinda explains Baudhâyana by Kânvâyana, and adds that either the author speaks of himself in the third person or a pupil must have compiled the book.


1. Now (those who know the law) prescribe the carrying of a waterpot. 1

2. It is declared (in the Vedas) that fire (resides) in the right ear of a goat, in the right hand of a Brâhmana, likewise in water (and) in a bundle of Kusa grass. Therefore after personal purification let him wipe (his water-vessel) on all sides with his (right) hand, (reciting the mantra), 'Blaze up, O fire;' for that (is called) encircling it with fire and is preferable to heating (the pot on the fire). 2

3. With reference to this matter they prescribe also (the following rules): 'If he thinks in his heart that (the pot) has been slightly defiled, let him light Kusa or (other) grass and heat (the pot) on all sides, keeping his right hand turned towards it.' 3

4. 'If (pots) have been touched by crows, dogs, or 4 other (unclean animals, they shall be heated, until they are of) the colour of fire, after the (paryagnikarana has been performed).'

5. (Pots) which have been defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, and the like must be thrown away. 5

6. If his waterpot has been broken, let him offer one hundred (oblations) reciting the Vyâhritis, or mutter (the Vyâhritis as often). 6

7. (Reciting the text), 'Earth went to earth, the mother joined the mother; may we have sons and cattle; may he who hates us be destroyed,' he shall collect the fragments, throw them into water, repeat the Gâyatrî at least ten times and take again another (pot). 7

8. Taking refuge with Varuna, (he shall recite the mantra), 'That (belongs) to thee, Varuna; again to me, Om,' (and) meditate on the indestructible. 8

9. 'If he has received (the new vessel) from a Sûdra, let him recite (the Gâyatrî) one hundred (times). (If he has received it) from a Vaisya, fifty (repetitions of the Gâyatrî) are prescribed, but (on receiving it) from a Kshatriya twenty-five, (and on taking it) from a Brâhmana ten.' 9

10. Those who recite the Veda are doubtful whether he shall fetch water after the sun has, set or shall not fetch it.

11. The most excellent (opinion is) that he may fetch it.

12. Let him restrain his breath, while he fetches water.

13. Fire, forsooth, takes up water. 13

14. It is declared (in the Veda), 'When he has washed his hands and feet with water from his water-vessel, he is impure for others, as long as the moisture (remains). He purifies himself only. Let him not perform other religious rites (with water from his pot).' 14

15. Baudhâyana (says), 'Or if on the occasion of each personal purification (he washes himself with other water) up to the wrist, (he will become) pure.' 15

16. Now they quote also (the following verses):

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160:1 6. As Govinda observes, the rules regarding the waterpot (kamandalu) are introduced here in connexion with I, 3, 5, 4.

160:2 Vasishtha XII, 15-16. The mantra is found, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 4.

160:3 The word upadisanti, 'they prescribe,' stands at the end of Sûtra 4, as it refers to both rules.

160:4 Vasishtha III, 59. The paryagnikarana is the rite prescribed in Sûtra 2.

161:5 Vasishtha III, 59.

161:6 Regarding the Vyâhritis, see Gautama I, 51.

161:7 Govinda says that Vâmadeva is the Rishi of the mantra. The fragments of the pot are to be thrown into a river or tank, in order to preserve them from defilement. See also Journ. Bo. Br. Roy. As. Soc., No. XXXIV A, p. 55 note.

161:8 'Taking refuge with Varuna, i.e. saying, "I flee for safety to Varuna." (The words), "That for thee, Varuna, again to me, Om," (are) the mantras (to be recited) on taking (a new vessel). Its meaning is this: "Those fragments which I have thrown into the water shall belong to thee, Varuna," (Saying), "Come, thou (who art) a lord of water-vessels, again to me, Om," he shall meditate on another visible pot as indestructible, i.e. at the end of the Vedic (word) "Om," let him meditate, (i.e.) recollect, that not everything will be turned topsy-turvy, (but that some things are) also indestructible, i.e. that that is not destroyed, does not perish.'--Govinda. The explanation of the last clause of our Sûtra seems to be that, on pronouncing the syllable (akshara) Om, the reciter is p. 162 to recollect the etymological import of the word akshara, 'indestructible,' and thus to guard the new vessel against the mishap which befell the old one.

162:9 According to Govinda, either the pranava, the syllable Om, or the Gâyatrî are the mantras to be recited, and the recitation is a penance to be performed when the vessel is received. The MSS. of the text mark the verse as quotation by adding the word 'iti,' which the commentary omits.

162:13 According to Govinda, a Brâhmana who goes to fetch water at night, which he may want for personal purification, is ordered to restrain his breath, because thereby the air in the body becomes strong, and fire or heat (agni) is produced. Now as at night the sun is stated to enter the fire and to become subject to it, a Brâhmana, who by restraining his breath has produced fire, has secured the presence of the sun, when he goes to fetch water.

162:14 Govinda expressly states that the word vie, vigñâyate, 'it is declared,'p. 163 literally, 'it is distinctly known,' always indicates that the passage quoted is taken from the Veda. The rites for which water from the waterpot is not to be used, are libations to the manes, the gods, and the fire. See also below, I, 4, 7, 5.

163:15 The words enclosed between parentheses are Govinda's.


1. 'Formerly (the use of) a waterpot has been prescribed by Brahman and the chief sages for the purification of twice-born men. Therefore he shall always carry one.' 1

'He who desires his own welfare, shall use it without hesitation, for purifying (his person), for drinking, and for performing his twilight devotions.'

2. Let him do it with a believing heart; a wise man must not corrupt his mind. The self-existent 2 [paragraph continues] (Brahman) came into existence with a water-vessel. Therefore let him perform (his rites) with a water-vessel.

3. Let him hold it in his right hand when he voids urine and excrements, in the left when he sips water. That is (a) settled (rule) for all good men.

4. For as the sacrificial cusp (kamasa) is declared to be pure on account of its contact with the Soma-juice, even so the water-vessel is constantly pure through its contact with water.

5. Therefore let him avoid (to use) it for the worship of the manes, the gods, and the fire. 5

6. Therefore let him not go on a journey without a waterpot, nor to the boundary of the village, nor from one house to the other.

7. Some (declare that he must not go without it) a step further than the length of an arrow.

8. Baudhâyana (says that he shall not go without it) if he wishes to fulfil his duties constantly.

9. (The divine) Word declares that (this is con-firmed) by a Rik-shaped (passage). 9

Footnotes Scroll Up

163:1 7. The division of this chapter into two sections occurs in the M. manuscript only. The Dekhan MSS., which give the division into Kandikâs, do not note it, and have at the end of the Prasna the figure 20, while M. has 21 and in words ekavimsatih after the enumeration of the Pratîkas.

163:2 'A wise man must not corrupt his mind,' i.e. must not doubt or adopt erroneous views regarding the teaching of the Sâstras with respect to the waterpot. It seems to me that this passage indicates the existence of an opposition to the constant carrying of the waterpot in Baudhâyana's times. This is so much more probable, as the custom is now obsolete, and is mentioned in some Purânas and versified Smritis as one of the practices forbidden in the Kali age; see eg. the general note appended to Sir W. Jones' translation of Manu.

164:5 According to Govinda the word 'therefore' refers back to Sûtra I, 4, 6, 14.

164:9 'Rigvidham, "a Rik-shaped (passage)," means Rigvidhânam, "a prescription consisting of a Rik." The Brâhmana is indicated by (the word) vâk, ("the goddess of) speech." The meaning is, "The Brâhmana says that there is also a Rik-verse to this effect. That is as follows, tasyaishâ bhavati yat te silpam ityâdi' (Taittirîya-Âranyaka I, 7, a).--Govinda.


1. Now (follows the description of) the means of purification.

p. 165

2. The body is purified by water, the understanding by knowledge, the soul by abstention from injuring living beings, the internal organ by truth. 2

3. Purifying the internal organ (is called) internal purification.

4. We will explain (the rules of) external purification.

5. The sacrificial thread (shall be made) of Kusa grass, or cotton, (and consist) of thrice three strings.

6. (It shall hang down) to the navel.

7. (In putting it on) he shall raise the right arm, lower the left, and lower the head. 7

8. The contrary (is done at sacrifices) to the manes.

9. (If the thread is) suspended round the neck, (it is called) nivîta.

10. (If it is) suspended below (the navel, it is called) adhopavîta.

11. Let him perform (the rite of personal) purification, facing the east or the north, (and) seated in a pure place; (let him) place his right arm between his knees and wash both hands up to the wrist and both feet (up to the ankles). 11

12. Let him not use for sipping the remainder of the water with which he has washed his feet.

13. But if he uses (that) for sipping, let him do it, after pouring (a portion of it) on the ground.

14. He shall sip out of the Tîrtha sacred to Brahman. 14

15. The part (of the hand) at the root of the thumb (is called) the Tîrtha sacred to Brahman.

16. The part above the thumb (is called the Tîrtha) sacred to the manes, the part at the tips of the fingers that sacred to the gods, the part at the root of the fingers that sacred to the Rishis. 16

17. (Let him not use for sipping water that has trickled) from the fingers, nor (water) that is covered with bubbles or foam, nor (water that is) hot, or alkaline, or salt, or muddy, or discoloured, or has a bad smell or taste. 17

18. (Let him not sip water) laughing, nor talking, nor standing, nor looking about, nor bending his head or his body forward, nor while the lock on his crown is untied, nor while his throat is wrapped up, nor while his head is covered, nor when he is in a hurry, nor without wearing the sacrificial thread, nor stretching his feet out, nor while his loins are girt (with a cloth), nor without holding his right arm between his knees, nor making a sound. 18

19. Let him thrice drink water that reaches his heart. 19

20. Let him wipe (his lips) thrice.

21. Some (declare that he shall do it) twice. 21

22. A woman and a Sûdra (shall perform) both (acts) once (only).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse): A Brâhmana is purified by water that reaches his heart, a Kshatriya by (water) reaching his throat, a Vaisya by (water barely) taken into the mouth, a woman and a Sûdra by touching (it) with the extremity (of the lips). 23

24. 'If (drops) adhere to his teeth, (they must be considered pure) like the teeth, because they are fixed (in the mouth) like the teeth. Let him not sip water on their account in case they fall. If they flow out, he will be pure.' 24

25. Now they quote also (the following verse): If anything adheres to the teeth, (it is pure) like the teeth; and if he swallows (it or) whatever else may be in the mouth (or) may remain after sipping water, (he will become) pure.' 25

26. (After sipping) he shall touch the cavities (of the head) with water, the feet, the navel, the head, (and) lastly the left hand. 26

27. If he becomes impure while holding (a vessel) made of metal, he shall put it down, sip water and sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up.

28. Now if he becomes impure (while he is occupied) with food, he shall put it down, sip water and sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up. 28

29. Now if he becomes impure (while occupied) with water, he shall put it down, sip water and sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up

30. That is contrary (to the rule) in (the case of an earthen) vessel. 30

31. In (the case of a vessel) made of wood there is an option.

32. Defiled (objects) made of metal must be scoured with cowdung, earth, and ashes, or with one of these (three). 32

33. Copper, silver, and gold (must be cleaned) with acids. 33

34. Earthen vessels must be heated. 34

35. (Objects) made of wood must be planed.

36. (Objects) made of bamboo (must be cleaned) with cowdung, 36

37. (Objects) made of fruits with a rope of cow-hair, 37

38. Skins of black deer with (ground) Bel nut and rice,

39. Blankets (of the hair of the mountain goat) with Areka nuts, 39

40. (Cloth) made of (sheep's) wool by the (rays of the) sun,

41. Linen (cloth) with a paste of yellow mustard, 41

42. Cotton cloth with earth, 42

43. Skins (other than deer-skins shall be treated) like cotton cloth, 43

44. Stones and gems like (objects) made of metal, 44

45. Bones like wood, 45

46. Conch-shells, horn, pearl-shells, and ivory like linen cloth. 46

47. Or (they may be cleaned) with milk.

48. (Objects) which have been defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, or a dead body, (but) are agreeable to the eye and the nose, shall be rubbed seven times with one of the substances mentioned above.

49. (Objects) not made of metal which are in the same condition must be thrown away. 49

50. The cups and vessels (used) at a sacrifice (must be cleaned) according to the injunction (of the Veda). 50

51. The Veda (declares), 'They do not become impure through Soma.'

52. 'Time, fire, purity of mind, water and the like (fluids), smearing with cowdung and ignorance (of defilement) are declared to be the sixfold (means of) purification for created beings.' 52

53. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'A clever man, who knows (the rules of) purification and is desirous of righteousness, shall perform (the rites of) purification, after having fully considered the time, and the place (of the defilement), likewise himself, (as well as) the object (to be cleaned) and the substance (to be employed), the purpose of the object, the cause (of the defilement), and the condition (of the thing or person defiled).'

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165:2 8. Vasishtha III, 60.

165:7-9. Manu II, 63.

165:11 Vasishtha III, 26. Govinda points out that the word saukam, '(rite of) purification,' has here the meaning of âkamanam, 'sipping water.' He thinks that the ka, 'and,' which stands after pâdau, 'both feet,' indicates that other portions of the body which have been defiled must be washed also.

166:14 Vasishtha III, 26.

166:16 Vishnu LXII, 3-4. All the MSS. except M. place the Tîrtha sacred to the gods at the root of the fingers, and that sacred to the Rishis at the tips of the fingers; and Govinda has the same erroneous reading.

166:17 Vasishtha III, 36.

166:18 Vasishtha III, 30.

166:19-20. Vasishtha III, 26; Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 3.

166:21 Vasishtha III, 27; Âpastamba I, 5.16, 4.

167:23 Vasishtha III, 31-34.

167:24 The MSS. read in the last pâda of this verse, teshâm samsrâye [ya or va]-kkukititi. I think samsrâvanâkkhukir iti is the correct reading.

167:25 Vasishtha III, 41.

167:26 Vasishtha III, 28-29.

167:28 Vasishtha III, 43-44.

168:30 '(The word) amatram, literally "a vessel," denotes here an earthen vessel. The meaning is that such a one, if it is very much defiled, shall only be put down and not be taken back. Any other (earthen vessel) shall be heated.'--Govinda.

168:32 Vasishtha III, 49.

168:33 Manu V, 114; Vasishtha III, 63.

168:34-35. Vasishtha III, 49.

168:36 Vasishtha III, 53.

168:37 Vasishtha III, 54. Govinda thinks that the word raggu, 'a rope,' is used here in the sense of 'a conglomeration,' and merely indicates that a quantity of cowhair must be used.

168:39 Manu V, 120.

168:41 Vasishtha III, 55.

169:42 Vasishtha III, 49.

169:43 Vasishtha III, 53.

169:44 Vasishtha III, 50.

169:45 Vasishtha III, 52.

169:46 Vasishtha III, 51.

169:49 Vasishtha III, 59.

169:50 Govinda explains this Sûtra differently. He says: 'The fault of defilement by remnants does not affect sacrificial cups and vessels. This must be understood. If they are defiled by urine and the like, they must be thrown away.' My explanation is based on the parallel passage of Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 13. See also below, I, 6, 13, 11 seq.

169:52 Vishnu XXII, 88.


1. The Veda declares that the hand of an artisan is always pure, so is every vendible commodity exposed for sale and food obtained by begging, which a student holds in. his hand. 1

2. A calf is pure on the flowing (of the milk), a bird on the fall of the fruit, women at the time of dalliance, and a dog when he catches a deer. 2

3. All mines and places of manufacture are pure excepting distilleries of spirituous liquor; continuously flowing streams of water and dust raised by the wind cannot be contaminated. 3

4. The flowers and fruit of flowering and fruit-bearing trees which grow in unclean places are likewise not impure.

5. On touching a tree standing on a sacred spot, a funeral pile, a sacrificial post, a Kandâla or a person who sells the Veda, a Brâhmana shall bathe dressed in his clothes. 5

6. One's own couch, seat, clothes, wife, child, and waterpot are pure for oneself; but for strangers they are impure.

7. A seat, a couch, a vehicle, ships (and boats), the road and grass are purified by the wind, if they have been touched by Kandâlas or outcasts. 7

8. Grain on the threshing-floor, water in wells and reservoirs, and milk in the cowpen are fit for use even (if they come) from a person whose food must not be eaten. 8

9. The gods created for Brâhmanas three means of purification, (viz.) ignorance of defilement, sprinkling with water, and commending by word of mouth. 9

10. Water collected on the ground with which 10 cows slake their thirst is a means of purification, provided it is not strongly mixed with unclean (substances), nor has a (bad) smell, nor is discoloured, nor has a (bad) taste.

11. But land becomes pure, according to the degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled) spot, by sprinkling it with water, by smearing it with cowdung, by scattering (pure earth) on it, or by scraping it. 11

12. Now they quote also (the following verse):

Footnotes Scroll Up

170:1 9. Vishnu XXIII, 48.

170:2 Vishnu XXIII, 49.

170:3 Vishnu XXIII, 48. The term âkara, translated by 'mines and places of manufacture,' is explained in the commentary by 'places of production, i.e. of sugar and honey.' It is no doubt intended to apply to any place where articles of consumption or use are produced. Govinda adds that as 'continuous streams of water' are always pure, one must take care that the water for sipping flows out of the vessel in an unbroken stream.

171:5 Vasishtha IV, 37. Kaityavriksha, 'a tree standing on sacred ground,' means literally, 'a memorial-tree.'

171:7 Govinda points out that couches and seats and the like, on which Kandâlas and outcasts have lain or sat down, must be purified.

171:8 'That must be referred to grain on a threshing-floor, and so forth, which has been produced by men whose food must not be eaten, and again is considered to be common to all. In this case, too, what has been received from outcasts and Kandâlas, that is defiled. Milk which has been received just at milking-time may be drunk out of a vessel that stands in the cowpen.'--Govinda. As regards the grain produced by low-caste people, the rule probably refers to cases where the land of an Agrahâra or other village is cultivated by men of the lowest castes. The author means to say that in such cases a Brâhmana may take his share from the threshing-floor, where the whole produce of the village-land is stored, without hesitation.

171:9 Vasishtha XIV, 24; Manu V, 127.

171:10 Vasishtha III, 35-36.

172:11 Vasishtha III, 56.


1. 'A drop of water which is allowed to fall (on the ground) purifies a bull's hide of land, whether (the land) has been (previously) swept or not, provided no impure substance is visible on it.' 1

2. Food which is cooked out of sight must be illuminated (with fire) and be sprinkled with water, 2

3. Likewise eatables bought in the market. 3

4. For the Veda (declares), 'For the gods who are (easily) disgusted and desirous of purity do not enjoy the offerings made by a man destitute of faith.'

5. After reflecting (for a, long time on the respective value of) the (food) of a pure man destitute of faith and of an impure person who has faith, the gods declared both to be equal. But the Lord of created beings said to them, 'That is not equal, it is unequal. The food of a man destitute of faith is worthless, that which is purified by faith is preferable.'

6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Want of faith is the greatest sin; for faith is the highest austerity. Therefore the gods do not eat offerings given without faith.'

7. 'A foolish man does not reach heaven, though he may offer (sacrifices) or give (gifts).'

8. 'He is called a foolish man whose conduct is blemished by doubts, and who, clinging to his own fancies, transgresses (the rules of) the Sâstras, because he opposes the fulfilment of the sacred law.' 8

9. But pot-herbs, flowers, fruit, roots, and annual plants (must be) sprinkled (with water). 9

10. Having placed dry grass, wood of trees unfit for sacrifices or a clod of earth (on the ground), let him void faeces or urine, turning his face during the day towards the north and at night towards the south and wrapping up his head. 10

11. (After voiding) urine he shall clean (the organ once) with earth and water, 11

12. The hand three times.

13. In like manner (he shall clean himself with earth and water after voiding) faeces. 13

14. The number (of the applications of both is) thrice three for both feet and the hand.

15. After an effusion of semen (he shall purify himself) in the same manner as after voiding urine. 15

16. He shall wash himself, after he has untied or put on the cloth round his loins, 16

17. Or he may touch moist grass, cowdung, or earth. 17

18. While he is engaged in (the performance of) religious rites, he shall avoid to touch (the part of his body) below the navel. 18

19. The Veda (declares), 'A man's (body) is pure above the navel, it is impure below the navel.' 19

20. Sûdras living in the service of Âryans shall trim (their hair and nails) every month; their mode 20 of sipping water (shall be) the same as that of Âryans.

21. A Vaisya may live by usury. 21

22. But (a sum of) twenty-five (kârshâpanas shall bear an interest) of five mâshas (per mensem). 22

23. Now they quote also (the following verses) 'He who, acquiring property cheap, employs (it so that it yields) a higher price, is called a usurer, and blamed in all (treatises on) the sacred law.' '(Brahman) weighed in the scales the crime of killing a learned Brâhmana against (the crime of) usury; the slayer of the Brâhmana remained at the top, the usurer sank downwards.' 23

24. 'Let him treat Brâhmanas who tend cattle, those who live by trade, (and) those who are artisans, actors (and bards), servants or usurers, like Sûdras.' 24

25. But men of the first two castes may, at their pleasure, lend (money at interest) to one who neglects his sacred duties, to a miser, to an atheist, or to a very wicked man. 25

26. Through the neglect of sacrifices, of (lawful) marriages, of the study of the Veda, and of (learned) Brâhmanas, (noble) families (even) are degraded. 26

27. The offence of neglecting a Brâhmana cannot be committed against a fool who is unacquainted 27 with the Veda. For (in offering sacrifices) one does not pass by a brilliant fire and throw the oblations into ashes.

28. Families which are deficient in (the knowledge of) the Veda, are degraded by (keeping) cows, horses and vehicles, by agriculture and by serving the king. 28

29. But even poor families which are rich in (the knowledge of) the Veda obtain rank among the (noble) families and gain great fame.

30. The (study of) the Veda impedes (the pursuit of) agriculture, (the pursuit of) agriculture impedes (the study of) the Veda. He who is able (to do it), may attend to both; but he who is unable (to attend to both), shall give up agriculture.

31. A fat, bellowing, raging humped bull, who does not restrain himself, who hurts living creatures and speaks according to his pleasure, forsooth, does not reach the (abode of) the gods; (but) those who are small like atoms, (being) emaciated (by austerities and fasts), go thither.

32. If, erring, in his youth he commits at any time good or evil acts of any kind, (they will all remain without result). (For) if in his later age he lives righteously, he will obtain (the reward of) that (virtuous conduct) alone, not (the punishments of his former) crimes.

33. Let him always be sorrowing in his heart, when he thinks of his sins, (let him) practise austerities and be careful; thus he will be freed from sin.

34. 'Where drops of water touch the feet of a 34

man who offers water for sipping to others, no defilement is caused by them. They are equally (pure) as (water) collected on the ground.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

172:1 10. Regarding the term 'a bull's hide' of land, see Vishnu V, 181-183, XCII, 4.

172:2 Âpastamba II, 2, 3, 9. 'Out of sight,' i.e. not before the eyes of him who eats it.'--Govinda. It would, however, seem that this rule refers to food prepared by Sûdras, without the super-visions of Âryans. For Âpastamba's Sûtra, which contains the same word, paroksham, 'out of sight,' certainly has reference to that case only, and there is no reason why food prepared by Brahman cooks should be purified before it is eaten.

172:3 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 19. The eatables here intended are, according to Govinda, Lâdus and other sweet-meats which are frequently bought ready made.

173:8 Dharmatantra, translated 'the fulfilment of the sacred law,' is explained in the commentary by dharmasya tantram anushthânam, by 'the performance of the sacred duties.' It may also mean 'the doctrine of or the treatises on the sacred law.' The Sâstras are the Vedas and the whole body of the sacred literature.

173:9 Vishnu XXIII, 15.

173:10 Vasishtha, VI, 10.

174:11-12. Vasishtha VI, 14, 18. According to Govinda one application of water suffices for the left hand and two for both together.

174:13-14. Vasishtha VI, 18. Govinda reads in Sûtra 14, against the authority of all the MSS., pâyoh, 'for the anus,' instead of pâdayoh, 'for both feet.'

174:15 Âpastamba I, 5, 15, 23.

174:16 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 14.

174:17 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 15.

174:18 Vishnu XXIII, 51.

174:19 Taittirîya Samhitâ VI, 1, 3, 4.

174:20 Âpastamba II, 1, 2, 4-5. The above translation follows Govinda's explanation. But âryâdhishthitâh, 'living in the service of Âryans,' may also mean 'superintended by Âryans,' and the rule be taken to refer to the special case of Sûdra cooks, as in the parallel passage of Âpastamba.

175:21 Vasishtha II, 19.

175:22 Vasishtha II, 51.

175:23 Vasishtha II, 41-42.

175:24 Vasishtha III, 3.

175:25 Vasishtha II, 43. M. reads na dadyâtâm, shall not lend.' According to Govinda, 'a very wicked man' is equivalent to 'a Sûdra.'

175:26 Manu III, 63. Govinda says that this Sûtra is introduced in connexion with the expression, 'one who neglects his sacred duties,' which occurs in Sûtra 25.

175:27 Vasishtha III, 9 note, 10. This Sûtra is added in explanation of the term 'the offence of neglecting a Brâhmana.'

176:28-29. Manu III, 64, 66.

176:34 Vasishtha III, 42.


1. Referring to deaths and births, they declare that the impurity of Sapindas lasts ten days; excepting officiating priests, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice, and students of the Veda. 1

2. But amongst Sapindas Sapinda-relationship (extends) to the seventh person. 2

3. (If children die) before the completion of the seventh month or before teething, (the relatives) shall bathe. 3

4. In (the case of a child) that dies before the completion of its third year or before teething, offerings of funeral cakes and water are not prescribed, and one should not burn its (body); 4

5. Nor when unmarried maidens die.

6. Some do it in the case of married daughters. 6

7. That (is done) in order to gain the good-will 7 of the people. Women are considered to have no business with the sacred texts.

8. 'The relatives of unmarried women become pure after three days. But the uterine brothers become pure by (following) the rule mentioned before.' 8

9. Moreover, the great-grandfather, the grand-father, the father, oneself, the uterine brothers, the son by a wife of equal caste, the grandson, (and) the great-grandson--these they call Sapindas, but not the (great-grandson's) son;--and amongst these a son and a son's son (together with their father are) sharers of an undivided oblation. 9

10. The sharers of divided oblations they call Sakulyas. 10

11. If no other (relations) are living, the property (of a deceased male) descends to them (the Sapindas). 11

12. On failure of Sapindas, the Sakulyas (inherit). 12

13. On failure of them, the teacher who (holds the place of a spiritual) father, a pupil, or an officiating priest shall take it, 13

14. On failure of them, the king. Let him give that property to persons well-versed in the three Vedas. 14

15. But the king should never take for himself the property of a Brâhmana. 15

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): The property of a Brâhmana destroys (him who takes it), together with sons and grandsons; poison kills one man only. (Therefore) they do not declare poison to be (the worst) poison. The property of a Brâhmana is called (the worst) poison.'

17. If a birth and a death occur together, one. and the same period of ten (days and) nights (shall serve for both).

18. Now if (other deaths or births) happen before the completion of the ten (days and) nights (of impurity), the first period of ten (days and) nights (shall suffice, provided the new cause of impurity occurs) before the end of the ninth day. 18

19. On a birth, indeed, the parents (alone) become impure during ten days. 19

20. Some (declare that) the mother (alone becomes impure), because (people) avoid (lying-in women alone). 20

21. Others (say that) the father (alone becomes impure) because the semen is the chief cause (of the generation). 21

22. For sons who were born without mothers, are mentioned in the revealed texts.

23. But (the correct opinion is that) both the parents (become impure) because they are equally connected (with the event).

24. But when a death (has happened, the relatives of the deceased), allowing the youngest to begin, shall pass their sacrificial threads over the right shoulder and under the left arm, descend into the water at a bathing-place, submerge (their bodies), emerge (out of the water), ascend the bank, sip water, pour out libations for the (deceased, repeating the last four acts) severally three times thereafter, ascend the bank, sip water, touch a coal, water or the like at the door of their house, and sit during ten days on mats, eating food that does not contain pungent condiments or salt. 24

25. (Let him perform) a funeral sacrifice on the eleventh or the twelfth (day). 25

26. In (performing) the remaining rites (one should) conform to (the customs of) the people. 26

27. In case of a (death) let him also keep (a period of impurity) for (persons who are) not (his) Sapindas, according to the degree of nearness, three (days and) nights, a day and a night, one day and so forth, 27

28. For a teacher, a sub-teacher (upâdhyâya), and their sons, three (days and) nights, 28

29. Likewise for officiating priests, 29

30. Let hire keep. on account of a pupil, for one who has the same spiritual guide, for a fellow-student (sabrahmakârin) three (days and) nights, one day and a night, one day and so forth (as periods of impurity). 30

31. On a miscarriage females (remain impure) as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after conception). 31

32. If he unintentionally touches the corpse of a stranger, he becomes at once pure after bathing dressed in his clothes.

33. (If he does it) intentionally, (he will remain impure) during three (days and) nights.

34. And (the same rules apply if he touches a woman) during her courses. 34

35. A son who is born from (intercourse with a temporarily unclean woman) becomes an Abhisasta. Thereby the penances (to be performed) by him have been explained.

36. On touching one who sells the Veda, a sacrificial post, an outcast, a funeral pile, a dog, or a Kandâla he shall bathe. 36

37. Now if a worm is produced in an open wound that is filled with pus and sanies, how shall, in that case, a penance be performed? 37

38. He who is bitten by a worm will become pure on bathing (daily) during three days and drinking (a mixture of) cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, butter, and water boiled with Kusa grass.

39. He who has been touched by a dog shall bathe dressed in his clothes; 39

40. Or he becomes pure by washing that spot (where he has been touched), by touching it with fire, by (afterwards) again washing it and his feet, and by sipping water.

41. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'But a Brâhmana who has been bitten by a dog, is purified if he goes to a river that flows into the ocean, (bathes there and) suppresses his breath one hundred times and (afterwards) eats clarified butter. He will (also) become pure at, once on bathing (in water brought) in golden or silver (vessels), or in a cow's horn, or in new (earthen pots).' 41

Footnotes Scroll Up

177:1 11. Vasishtha IV, 16. Officiating priests, Soma-sacrificers, and students do not become impure by deaths or births occurring among their relatives; see Vasishtha XIX, 48; Gautama XIV, 1.

177:2 Vasishtha IV, 17. For the specification of the extent of the Sapinda-relationship, see below, Sûtra 9.

177:3 Vishnu XXII, 27.

177:4 Vishnu XXII, 28; Gautama XIV, 34, 43.

177:6 Gautama XIV, 36. 'That refers to the Sapindas on the father's side.'--Govinda.

177:7 Manu IX, 18.

178:8 This verse, which occurs in all my MSS. of the text, is left out in the two copies of Govinda's commentary.

178:9 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga XI, 1, 37; V. Digest CCCXCVII. The text on which Colebrooke's two versions are based differs from that of my MSS. and of Govinda by reading avibhaktadâyâdân instead of teshâm ka putrapautram [v. l. °pautrakam] avibhaktadâyam. The meaning of the latter clause, which is placed parenthetically before sapindân âkakshate, '(these) they call Sapindas,' seems to be that a father with his son and grandson share the cakes offered at one funeral sacrifice by the fourth descendant. Its object is to show that the group called Sapindas consists of two such subdivisions, between whom the middlemost forms the connecting link. For the middlemost, the svayam, 'oneself,' of the text, first offers the cakes to his three ancestors and later receives the cakes, together with his first two descendants, from his great-grandson. Govinda gives no help. He merely remarks that the Sûtra contains a paribhâshâ or technical rule of interpretation, and that the words api ka, 'moreover,' indicate that it is an expansion of Sûtra 2.

178:10 Colebrooke, loc. cit. According to Gîmûtavâhana the Sakulyas are the three ascendants beyond the great-grandfather and the three descendants beyond the great-grandson. Others, among p. 179 whom Govinda takes his place, explain the word sakulya to mean 'members of one family' in general. Govinda says, sambandhaviseshagñâne sati sapindâ ukyante sambandhamâtragñâne sakulyâh|| Atas ka sapindâ api sakulyâh|| 'If a particular relationship is known, they are called Sapindas; and if (the fact) only is known that relationship exists, Sakulyas. Hence the Sapindas are also Sakulyas.'

179:11 Colebrooke, loc. cit. Both the Dâyabhâga and the Digest read satsvangageshu, 'when there is male issue,' and the Vîramitrodaya, fol. 218, p. 2, l. 7, agrees with them. The MSS. read all satsv anyeshu, which may, however, be taken with Govinda for asatsv anyeshu, because the preceding word ends in e. Govinda explains anyeshu, 'others,' by aurasâdishu, 'legitimate sons of the body, and so forth.'

179:12 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga, loc. cit. The digest omits this Sûtra.

179:13 Colebrooke, loc. cit. Gîmûtavâhana wrongly reads pitâ kâkâryah, 'the father and the teacher.' Govinda gives the explanation adopted above. Regarding the spiritual fatherhood of the teacher, see e.g. Vasishtha II, 4.

179:14 Colebrooke, loc. ca. Govinda reads satsvam, 'the property of a holy man,' instead of tatsvam, 'that property.'

179:15 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCXLIV; Vasishtha XVII, 86.

180:18 Vasishtha IV, 23-25. Govinda points out that in case the second birth or death happens after the completion of the ninth day, the rule given (Gautama XIV, 7) applies.

180:19 Vasishtha IV, 20-21.

180:20 Vasishtha IV, 21-22. Tatpariharanât, literally, 'because she is avoided, i.e. because people avoid newly-confined women (not their husbands).'--Govinda.

180:21 E.g. Agastya and Vasishtha. See Rig-veda VII, 33, 11, and Sâyana's commentary thereon.

181:24 Vasishtha IV, 9-15. When the libations of water are poured out, the name of the deceased must be pronounced. Govinda correctly states that iti, 'or the like,' which stands after 'a coal, water,' is intended to include 'cowdung, and yellow mustard seed,' which are mentioned by Yâgñavalkya III, 13. Regarding the clause sakrittrih, '(repeating these last four acts) severally three times,' see Âpastamba II, 6, 15, 10.

181:25 Vishnu XXI, 2 seq., and especially 19.

181:26 Govinda, in explanation of this Sûtra, refers to the last words of Âpastamba II, 6, 15, 10, where it is said that relatives shall perform those rites for the dead which the women declare to be necessary,' and to Âpastamba II, II, 29, 15.

181:27 Gautama XIV, 20. Govinda is of opinion that the duration of the impurity shall depend on the good qualities, learning, &c. of the deceased.

182:28 Vishnu XXII, 42, 44. Govinda asserts that the impurity on account of an Upâdhyâya lasts one night, together with the preceding and following days, and on account of a teacher's or Upâdhyâya's sons one day only. It looks as if he had read the words pakshinyekâham in his text.

182:29 Govinda asserts that ka, 'likewise,' indicates that the rule applies also on the death of persons for whom one sacrifices.

182:30 Vishnu XXII, 44. Govinda explains satîrthya to mean 'one who has the same guru or spiritual guide,' while according to others it means 'one who studies under the same sub-teacher' (upâdhyâya). See also the Kâsikâ on Pânini IV, 4, 117, and note.

182:31 Vishnu XXII, 25. 3233. Gautama XIV, 27.

182:34 Vishnu XXII, 69.

183:36 This verse, which is another version of I, 5, 9, 5, is left out in the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS.; I consider its genuineness very doubtful.

183:37 Vasishtha XVIII, 16.

183:39-40. Âpastamba I, 5, 15, 16-17. Govinda, too, states that the second mode of purification is to be adopted, if the dog touches any part of the body below the navel.

183:41 Vasishtha XXIII, 31.


1. Tame animals must not be eaten, 1

2. Nor carnivorous and (tame) birds, 2

3. Nor (tame) cocks and pigs; 3

4. Goats and sheep (are) excepted (from the above prohibition).

5. Five five-toed animals may be eaten, (viz.) the porcupine, the iguana, the hare, the hedgehog, the tortoise and the rhinoceros, excepting the rhinoceros, 5

6. Likewise five animals with cloven hoofs, (viz.) the white-footed antelope (Nîl-gâi), the (common ravine) deer, the spotted deer, the buffalo, the (wild) boar and the black antelope, excepting the black antelope, 6

7. (Likewise) five (kinds of) birds that feed scratching with their feet, (viz.) the partridge, the blue rock-pigeon, the francoline partridge, the (crane called) Vârdhrânasa, the peacock and the Vârana, excepting the Vârana, 7

8. (And the following) fishes, (viz.) the Silurus Pelorius (Sahasradamshtrin), the Kilikima, the Varmi, the Brihakkhiras, the Masakari(?), the Cyprinus Rohita, and the Râgi. 8

9. The milk of a (female animal) whose offspring is not ten days old, and of one that gives milk while big with a young one, must not be drunk, 9

10. Nor that of a (cow) that has no calf or that (suckles) a strange calf.

11. (The milk) of sheep, camels, and one-hoofed animals must not be drunk. 11

12. If (he has) drunk (milk) which ought not to be drunk, excepting cow's milk, (he must perform) a Krikkhra (penance). 12

13. But if (he has drunk) cow's milk (that is unfit for use, he shall) fast during three (days and) nights.

14. Stale (food must not be eaten or drunk) excepting pot-herbs, broths, meat, clarified butter, cooked grain, molasses, sour milk, and barley-meal, 14

15. Nor (substances) which have turned sour, nor molasses which have come into that state. 15

16. After performing the ceremony preparatory 16 to the beginning of the Veda-study (upâkarman) on the (full moon of the month) of Srâvana or of Ashâdha, they shall close the term on the full moon of Taisha or Mâgha.

Footnotes Scroll Up

184:1 12. Vasishtha XIV, 40.

184:2 Vasishtha XIV, 48. Govinda says that the particle ka, 'and,' is used in order to indicate that the word 'tame' must be understood.

184:3 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32.

184:5 Vasishtha XIV, 39. Another explanation of the word svâvit, 'the porcupine' (see also Gautama XVII, 27), is given in the commentary, which says that it is a wild animal resembling a dog, and belonging to the boar species. Govinda points out that there is a dispute among the learned regarding the rhinoceros (Vasishtha XV, 47), and that the peculiar wording of the Sûtra is intended to indicate that.

184:6 The permissibility of the last-named animal is again doubtful.

184:7 Gautama XVII, 35. The case of the last-mentioned bird, the Vârana, is again doubtful. From the first rock-edict of Asoka p. 185 it appears that peacocks, now considered inviolable, were actually eaten in the third century A. D.

185:8 Vasishtha XIV, 41-42. The names are much corrupted in the MSS., and for Masakari, which I do not find in the dictionaries, Samasakari or Samasakari is also read. The Brihakkhiras is probably the Indian salmon, the Mâhsir.

185:9-10. Vasishtha XIV, 34-35 Gautama XVII, 22. The meaning of sandhinî, 'a female animal that gives milk while big with young,' is uncertain. See also Vishnu LI, 40 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 23.

185:11 Gautama XVII, 24.

185:12 Vishnu LI, 38-41.

185:14 Gautama XVII, 16.

185:15 Vasishtha XIV, 37-38.

185:16 Vasishtha XIII, 1-5. Govinda states that this Sûtra has been introduced here, because the purity of one's food ensures p. 186 purity of one's soul, and purity of soul gives strength of memory, and thereby makes one fit to study the Veda.


1. The gods enjoy a pure sacrifice (only); 1

2. For the gods are desirous of purity and (themselves) pure.

3. The following (Rik) declares that, 'To you, O Maruts, the pure ones, pure viands; to you, the pure ones, I offer a pure sacrifice. They who love the pious rites, who are of pure origin, (themselves) pure and purifiers (of others), came duly to the truthful (worshipper).' 3

4. (He will be) pure (if there is) no blemish on his clothes, therefore let him perform all (acts) that are connected with sacrificing, (dressed) in unblemished clothes. 4

5. The sacrificer and his wife as well as the officiating priests shall put on dresses which have been washed, and dried by the wind, and which are not in a bad condition. 5

6. (It shall be) thus from the (beginning of the) Prakrama, 6

7. And thus at the long Soma-sacrifices and the Sattras;

8. And (on other occasions other dresses must be used) in accordance with the injunction (of the Veda),

9. Thus at (all) Ishtis, animal sacrifices, and Soma-sacrifices which may be used as spells (against enemies), the priests shall perform (the sacred rites), wearing red turbans and red dresses; (when reciting the hymn seen by) Vrishâkapi (he shall) wear a dress and a mantle of many colours and so forth. 9

10. At the Agnyâdhâna (sacrifice) the clothes (shall be made) of flax; on failure of such, (dresses) made of cotton or of wool are used.

11. Clothes defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen and the like (shall be) cleaned with earth, water and the like. 11

12. (Dresses) made of Tripa-bark and vrikala (shall be treated) like cotton-cloth, 12

13. Deer-skins like (dresses) made of bark. 13

14. (Let him) not (use) a mantle which has been wrapped (round the loins, or) on which he has been lying (in his bed), without washing it.

15: Let him not employ for the gods anything used by men without beating it on a stone. 15

16. If solid earth is defiled, (it must be) smeared with cowdung. 16

17. Loose (earth must be cleansed by) ploughing,

18. Moist (earth) by bringing pure (earth) and covering (it with that).

19. Land is purified in four (ways), by being trod on by cows, by digging, by lighting a fire on it, by rain falling on it,

20. Fifthly by smearing it with cowdung, and sixthly through (the lapse of) time.

21. Grass placed on unconsecrated ground (must be) washed. 21

22. (Grass) defiled out of one's sight, (shall be) sprinkled (with water). 22

23. Small pieces of sacred fuel (shall be purified) in the same manner.

24. Large pieces of wood (must be) washed and dried.

25. But a great quantity (of wood shall be) sprinkled (with water).

26. Wooden vessels which have been touched by impure men (shall be) scraped;

27. (And) those which are defiled by stains of remnants (shall be) planed. 27

28. (Wooden vessels) defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, and the like (very impure substances shall be) thrown away. 28

29. These (rules must be followed) except in case a (special) injunction (is given);

30. Thus, for instance, (purification by) washing with Kusa grass and water (is prescribed) on all the following (occasions, viz.) at the Agnihotra, the Gharmokkhishta, the Dadhigharma, the Kundapâyinâm Ayana, the Utsarginâm Ayana, the Dâkshâyana sacrifice, the Ardhodaya, the Katuskakra, and the Brahmaudanas, 30

31. (Again) at all Soma-sacrifices (the cups must be) cleaned with water only on (the heap of earth called) the Mârgâliya;

32. If these same (cups are defiled) by urine, ordure, 32 blood, semen, and the like (they must be) thrown away.

Footnotes Scroll Up

186:1-2. 13. See also above, I, 5, 10, 4. This Adhyâya and the next ought to have been given in the Srauta Sûtra.

186:3 Rig-veda VII, 56, 12; Taittirîya-brâhmana II, 8, 5, 5. The meaning of the last portion of the verse is somewhat doubtful. Sâyana gives two different explanations and Govinda a third.

186:4 Govinda points out that the dresses of the sacrificer and of his priests must be white, because farther on (Sûtras 9-10) other colours are specially prescribed.

186:5 Govinda thinks that the word ka, 'as well as,' is intended to include the lookers-on.

187:6 Regarding the ceremony called Prakrama, literally 'stepping forward from the Gârhapatya fire,' see Sâyana on Taitt. Br. I, 1, 4, 1. It opens the Agnyâdhâna rite.

187:9 Govinda states that the words iti ka, and so forth,' are intended to include other incantations. The Vrishâkapi hymn is found Rig-veda X, 86.

187:11 Govinda states that the word iti, 'and the like,' is intended to include cowdung, cow's urine, and other substances used for purification.

187:12 Govinda states that there is a tree called Tripa, the bark of which is used for dresses. Vrikala, which has been left untranslated, is explained by sakama, a word which is not found in our dictionaries.

188:13 Govinda says that, as the treatment of valkala, bark-dresses,' has not been prescribed, the meaning of the Sûtra can only be, that bark-dresses and black-buck skins are to be treated alike, i.e. that they are to be cleaned with Bel-nut and rice; see above.

188:15 Govinda explains apalpûlitam by 'without beating it with the hand on a stone.' He mentions as an instance the skin which is used in preparing the Soma.

188:16 According to Govinda, solid earth is such on which the fire-altars are built.

188:21 E.g. grass intended for the barhis, if it has been placed on a spot which has not been sprinkled with water.

188:22 'Defiled out of one's sight,' i.e. brought by Sûdras.

189:27 Govinda says that this rule is optional.

189:28 Govinda adds that fuel, Kusa grass, and the like, which have been defiled in this manner, must also be thrown away.

189:30 Regarding the Dadhigharma, a homa, see Vaitâna Sûtra 21,18; regarding the Kundapâyinâm Ayana, Âsvalâyana Srauta Sûtra XII, 4; and regarding the Dâkshâyana sacrifice, a variety of the new and full-moon offering, Âsvalâyana II, 14. The Ardhodaya is possibly the vrata of that name mentioned in the Purânas, According to Govinda, the Katuskakra, which is otherwise known as a Tântric rite, is a sacrifice, ishtakâkoshta (?) madhyavasanto yagante tathetaradayah (?). Regarding the Brahmaudana, see Âsvalâyana Srauta Sûtra I, 4.

189:32 Govinda says that the injunction to throw away defiled p. 191 vessels has been repeated, in order to prevent a misconception. For as Soma is said to be a great means of purification, it might be supposed that it was powerful enough to prevent the defilement of vessels into which it is poured at a sacrifice. But compare the next Sûtras.


1. Earthen vessels that have been touched by impure persons (must be) exposed to (the flame of) a fire of Kusa grass.

2. Those which have been defiled by stains of remnants (of food must be) exposed to another burning.

3. Those which have been defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) thrown away.

4. (Vessels) made of metal (must be) washed, after having been scrubbed as (directed) above.

5. The materials (to be used) for scrubbing (are) cowdung, earth, ashes, and so forth.

6. Those which have been defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) recast,

7. Or (they must) be kept during seven (days and) nights completely immersed in cow's urine,

8. Or in a great river for as long (a period). 8

9. (Vessels) made of stone or of fruits, (i.e.) gourds, Bel-fruit, and Vinâlas, (shall be) brushed with (a brush of) cow's hair. 9

10. (Sacrificial implements made of) plaited Nala-reeds, bamboo, or Sara-reeds (shall be) washed with cowdung, water, and the like. 10

11. If unhusked rice has been defiled, (it must be) washed (and afterwards be) dried. 11

12. But a great quantity (of unhusked rice must be) sprinkled.

13. Husked rice (which has been defiled must be) thrown away. 13

14. The same (rule applies) to cooked sacrificial viands. 14

15. But if a great quantity has been defiled by (the touch of) dogs, crows, and the like (unclean beings), one must throw away that portion (as) food for men, and sprinkle (the rest with water), reciting the Anuvâka, 'Pavamânah suvarganah.' 15

16. Hydromel and preparations of milk (are) purified by pouring them from one vessel into another. 16

17. In like manner let him pour oil and clarified butter which have been touched by an impure (person) into water, and (afterwards) use them. 17

18. If (any) impure (substance) is thrown (into the sacrificial fire) let him place (the two Aranis one) on (the other), produce fire by friction, (and offer) a Pavamâneshti. 18

19. If (the rules regarding) purity, the proper place, the mantras, the series of actions, the object, the materials, (their) consecration, and the proper time are conflicting, each earlier-named (point) is more important (than the following ones). 19

Footnotes Scroll Up

190:8 14. A great river, i.e. one which directly flows into the ocean.--Govinda.

190:9 A Vinâla, i.e. (a vessel) made of bamboo or Vidagdhanala; it s called a 'long vessel' (dirghabhâganam), and is used for carrying he Pranîta water and the like purposes.--Govinda. The vessel p. 191 intended is no doubt the flask made of a bamboo which is cut below the joint, and is commonly used as a bottle for oil. Govinda adds that this mode of purification is to be adopted in case the vessels have been touched by impure persons.

191:10 Nala-reeds, i.e. Amphidonax Karka; Sara, i.e. Saccharum Sara. Govinda says that the rule applies to cases where such implements have been defiled by remnants of food (ukkhishtalepa).

191:11 'Defiled, i.e. touched by a Kandâla.' (The rule) refers to a quantity less than a Drona (66 or 132 lbs.).--Govinda.

191:13 'If it has been defiled by urine and the like and the quantity is small;' this must be understood, because he will declare (below, Sûtra 15) that if there is a great quantity (the defiled) portion only shall be thrown away.--Govinda.

191:14 This, too, refers to small quantities only.

191:15 The Anuvâka referred to is Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 4, 8.

191:16 'Hydromel, i.e. sour milk, honey, clarified butter, water, and p. 192 grain; a preparation of milk, i.e. curd of two-milk whey (âmikshâ), if these are blemished by the fault of men, and that (blemish must have been caused by) the touch of an impure (person, ukkhishta) only.'--Govinda.

192:17 'And that must be done in such a manner that the oil and the clarified butter are not lost.'--Govinda.

192:18 'Any impure substance, i.e. urine, ordure, and the like.'--Govinda.

192:19 Âvrit,' the series of actions,' i.e. the growth (prâmsubhâva) of the ceremonial (prayoga).--Govinda.


1. The sacred fires (shall be) approached from the north, 1

2. (And be) left in the same manner.

3. The contrary (proceeding should be adopted at sacrifices offered) to the manes. 3

4. Let him wash that which has been touched with (his) foot.

5. Let him touch water, in case he touches his body or the hem (of his garment). 5

6: Likewise (let him touch water) after cutting, splitting, digging or removing (anything, or offering oblations) to the manes, to the Râkshasas, to Nirriti, to Rudra, (and after performing sacrifices) intended as spells (against enemies).

7. Let him not turn round himself a sacrificial implement (the use of) which is accompanied by the recitation of mantras. 7

8. (For) the sacrificial implements (are) more nearly (connected with the sacrifice), 8

9. The priests, more remotely.

10. The sacrificer and his wife are even nearer than the priests. 10

11. After the sacrificial implements (follows) the clarified butter, after the clarified butter the sacrificial viands, after the sacrificial viands the animal to be slain, after the animal the Soma, after the Soma the sacred fires. 11

12. If there is work for them, the priests shall not turn away from the sacred fires. 12

13. If he faces the east, let him turn towards his right shoulder, 13

14. If he faces the west, towards the left. 14

15. The entrance to the sacrificial (enclosure lies) between the Kâtvâla and the Utkara, 15

16. (When one comes) from the Kâtvâla, (it lies between) the Âhavanîya fire and the Utkara. 16

17. The officiating (priests), the sacrificer, and his wife shall enter by that (road),

18. As long as the sacrificial rite is not completed.

19. When it has been finished (they shall) pass to and fro on the side where there is no Utkara (i.e. on the western side of the enclosure).

20. Let him not put on the fire logs or Samidhs which have not been sprinkled (with water),

21. The Brahman (priest) and the sacrificer shall enter in front of the Âhavanîya fire.

22. Some (declare that they shall enter) behind the Âhavanîya fire.

23. The seat of the Brahman (priest is situated) to the south of the Âhavanîya fire, (that) of the sacrificer to the west of him. 23

24. (The seat) of the Hotri (priest is situated) to the north of the northern Sroni (of the Vedi), 24

25. (That) of the Âgnîdhra priest near the Utkara,

26. (That) of the (sacrificer's) wife behind the Gârhapatya fire.

27. He scatters Darbha grass on these (seats) as often as (they are used).

28. A vessel filled with water, for the purpose of sipping, shall be appropriated to (the use of) each (person).

29. He who has been initiated (to the performance of a sacrifice shall) keep the (following) vows:

30. Let him not proclaim the guilt of other men; let him not become angry; let him not weep; let him not look at urine and ordure.

31. If he has looked at any unclean (substance), he mutters (the verse), 'Unrestrained is the internal 31 organ, wretched (my) eye-sight; the sun is the chief of the (heavenly) lights; O Dîkshâ, do not forsake me!'

Footnotes Scroll Up

192:1 15. Mânava Srauta Sûtra I, 1, 1, and Kumârila thereon in Professor Goldstücker's lithographed copy and Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra I, 8, 24. See also Professor Haug's map of 'the sacrificial compound,' Aitareya-brâhmana, vol. i.

192:3 I.e. the entrance and exit are to be made to the south of the fires.

193:5 Govinda explains sik, 'the hem of the garment,' by the garment wrapped round the loins (parihitam vâsah).

193:7 The meaning is that the priest must hold the sacrificial implements, such as the sruk and sruva ladles, between himself and the fires, and not place himself between them and the fires (âtmano bahir na kûryât agner antarah svayam na bhaved iti yâvat).

193:8 'He gives the reason for that (rule), "For the sacrificial implements (are) nearer" than the priests, that must be understood.'--Govinda.

193:10 'For they obtain the reward of the sacrifice. The instances (referring) to those two are the Vaisarganas and the Dâkshinas:--Govinda.

193:11 Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra I, 8, 31. 'If the space on the p. 184 Uttaravedi and the rest is confined, the Soma is made ready immediately after the fire, after that the meat and so forth, after that the grain for the sacrificial cakes, then the clarified butter, and after that the spoons called sruva, sruk, and so forth.'--Govinda.

194:12 'It is indicated hereby that, if there is work (to be done) there, they shall not turn away from the sacred fires except ir cases of absolute necessity.'--Govinda.

194:13 'This rule (refers to the case) when he walks with the sacred fires. It must be understood that he shall not turn his back on the fires.'--Govinda.

194:14 'This rule (is to be interpreted) in the same manner (as the preceding one). Or it is prescribed by these two Sûtras that the men engaged (in the sacrifice) shall go out, turning their right hand towards (the fires).'--Govinda.

194:15 Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra V, 1, 11.

194:16 I read with the MSS. of the text 'kâtvâlâd âhavanîyotkarau.' The two copies of the commentary give kâtvâlah âhavanîyotkarau. Govinda says that the words antarena tîrtham must be understood. For the position of the Kâtvâla and the Utkara, see Professor Haug's map, where the road of the priests is also marked, though somewhat differently.

195:23 For the seats of the priests and the other persons named in this and the following rules, see Professor Haug's plan, and Dr. Hillebrandt's Altindische Neu and Vollmondopfer, p. 190.

195:24 'The northern Sroni of the Vedi, i.e. the north-western corner of the Vedi.'--Govinda.

195:31 Taittirîya Samhitâ III, I, 1, 2, where the rule also is given. M. alone adds another Sûtra, the text of which is corrupt. But it ended with the mantra undatîr balam dhatta, &c. Taitt. S. ibid. 3.


1. There are four castes (varna, viz.) Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras. 1

2. (Males) belonging to them (may take) wives according to the order of the castes, (viz.) a Brâhmana four, 2

3. A Kshatriya three,

4. A Vaisya two,

5. A Sûdra one.

6. Sons begotten on (wives) of equal or of the next lower castes (are called) Savarnas (of equal caste). 6

7. (Those born) of (wives) of the second or third lower castes (become) Ambashthas, Ugras, and Nishâdas. 7

8. Of females wedded in the inverse order of the castes (are born) Âyogavas, Mâgadhas, Vainas, Kshattris, Pulkasas, Kukkutakas, Vaidehakas, and Kandâlas. 8

9. An Ambashtha (begets) on a female of the first (caste) a Svapâka,

10. An Ugra on a female of the second (caste) a Vaina,

11. A Nishâda on a female of the third (caste) a Pulkasa.

12. In the contrary case a Kukkutaka (is produced).

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16. Now they quote also (the following verse).: But those sons whom an uninitiated man begets, the wise call Vrâtyas, who are excluded from the Sâvitrî; (that is a rule which refers) in an equal manner to the three (highest) castes.' 16

Footnotes Scroll Up

196:1 16. Vasishtha II, 1.

196:2-5. Vasishtha I, 24--25.

196:6 Gautama IV, 16.

196:7 Vasishtha XVIII, 8.

196:8-12. Vasishtha XVIII, 1-6; Gautama IV, 17-21. In the I. O. copy of the commentary there is a break, which extends from Sûtra 8 to the beginning of Adhyâya 10.

197:13-15. The text of the three Sûtras is exceedingly corrupt, and the Telugu copy of the commentary affords no help. It is, however, clear that the passage left out contained something which corresponded to Gautama IV, 22-23, and treated of the possibility of raising persons of a lower caste to a higher one by intermarriages continued for five or seven generations. The reading of K., which perhaps is the best, will show this: 'nishâdena nishâdyâd â pañkamâggâtâ bhavanti tam upanayet shashtham yâgayet saptamo ’vikritâgîsamamgito saptamauñgîsama ity ekeshâm samgñâ kramena nipatanti.'

197:16 Manu X, 20.


1. The Rathakâra (carpenter), the Ambashtha, the Sûta (charioteer), the Ugra, the Mâgadha, the Âyogava, the Vaina, the Kshattri, the Pulkasa, the Kukkuta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandâla, and so forth, 1

2. Among these, sons of equal caste (spring) from women of equal caste.

3. A Brâhmana (begets) on a female of the Kshatriya caste a Brâhmana, on a female of the Vaisya caste an Ambashtha, on a female of the Sûdra caste a Nishâda, 3

4. (According to) some a Pârasava.

5. A Kshatriya (begets) on a female of the Vaisya caste a Kshatriya, on a female of the Sûdra caste an Ugra.

6. A Vaisya (begets) on a female of the Sûdra caste a Rathakâra.

7. A Sûdra begets on a female of the Vaisya caste a Mâgadha, on a female of the Kshatriya caste a Kshattri, but on a female of the Brâhmana caste a Kandâla. 7

8. A Vaisya begets on a female of the Kshatriya caste an Âyogava, on a female of the Brâhmana caste a Sûta.

9. If among these an Ambashtha (male) and an Ugra (female) unite, (their son) will be born in the direct order of the castes (Anuloma). 9

10. If a Kshattri (male) and a Vaidehaka (female) unite, (their son will be) born against the order of the castes (Pratiloma).

11. An Ugra (begets) on a female of the Kshattri caste a Svapâka, 11

12. A Vaidehaka on a female of the Ambashtha caste a Vaina,

13. A Nishâda on a female of the Sûdra caste a Pulkasa, 13

14. A Sûdra on a female of the Nishâda caste a Kukkutaka.

15. The wise declare those sprung from an inter-mixture of the castes to be Vrâtyas. 15

Footnotes Scroll Up

197:1-2. 17. Manu X, 26-27.

197:3-6. See above, I, 8, 16, 6-7.

198:7-8. See above, I, 8, 16, 8.

198:9-10. I.e. the offspring of individuals of different Anuloma castes again become Anulomas, and the offspring of individuals of different Pratiloma castes, Pratilomas.

198:11-12. Manu X, 19.

198:13-14. See above, I, 8, 16, 11-12.

198:15 Gautama IV, 25.


1. Let the king protect (his) subjects, receiving as his pay a sixth part (of their incomes or spiritual merit). 1

2. Brahman, forsooth, placed its majesty in the Brâhmanas, together with (the duties and privileges of) studying, teaching, sacrificing for themselves, sacrificing for others, liberality, and accepting (gifts), for the protection of the Vedas; 2

3. In the Kshatriyas (it placed) strength, together with (the duties and privileges of) studying, sacrificing, liberality, (using) weapons, and protecting the treasure (and the life of) created beings, for the growth of (good) government; 3

4. In the Vaisyas (it placed the power of work), together with (the duties of) studying, sacrificing, liberality, cultivating (the soil), trading, and tending cattle, for the growth of (productive) labour. 4

5. On the Sûdras (it imposed the duty of) serving the three higher (castes). 5

6. For (the Veda states), 'they were created from the feet (of Brahman).' 6

7. Let (the king) choose a domestic priest (who shall be) foremost in all (transactions). 7

8. Let him act according to his instructions. 8

9. Let him not turn back in battle. 9

10. Let him not strike with barbed or poisoned (weapons). 10

11. Let him not fight with those who are in fear, intoxicated, insane or out of their minds, (nor with those) who have lost their armour, (nor with) women, infants, aged men, and Brâhmanas, 11

12. Excepting assassins (âtatâyin). 12

13. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He who slays an assassin, able to teach (the Veda) and born in a (noble) family, does not (incur) by that (act the guilt of) the murderer of a learned Brâhmana; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury.'

14. The duty on goods imported by sea is, after deducting a choice article, ten Panas in the hundred. 14

15. Let him also lay just (duties) on other (marketable goods) according to their intrinsic value without oppressing (the traders). 15

16. Let the king guard the property of men belonging to a non-Brâhmanical caste, the owner of which has disappeared, during a year, and afterwards take it (for himself). 16

17. A Brâhmana, forsooth, shall not suffer corporal punishment for any offence. 17

18. In case (a Brâhmana) has slain a Brâhmana, has violated his Guru's bed, has stolen the gold (of a Brâhmana), or has drunk (the spirituous liquor called) Surâ, (the king) shall cause to be impressed with a heated iron the mark of a headless trunk, a female part, a jackal, (or) the sign of a tavern on the forehead (of the offender) and banish him from his realm. 18

19. If a Kshatriya or (a man of any) other (lower caste) has murdered a Brâhmana, death and the confiscation of all his property (shall be his punishment).

20. If those same (persons) slay men of equal or lower castes, (the king) shall fix suitable punishments in accordance with their ability. 20

Footnotes Scroll Up

199:1 18. Vasishtha I, 42-44. Learned Brâhmanas do not pay taxes, but the king obtains a sixth part of the spiritual merit which they acquire. Hence Baudhâyana uses the general term, 'a sixth share.'

199:2 Vasishtha II, 13-14.

199:3 Vasishtha II, 15-17.

199:4 Vasishtha II, 18-19. The words 'the power of work' are inserted by Govinda.

199:5 Vasishtha II, 20.

199:6 Rig-veda X, 90, 12; Taittirîya Âranyaka III, 12, 6.

200:7 Vasishtha XIX, 3-6. Govinda explains sarvatodhuram, 'foremost in all,' by sarvagñam, 'omniscient.'

200:8 Vasishtha I, 40-41. The rule, of course, refers primarily to advice in spiritual matters.

200:9 Gautama X, 16.

200:10 Manu VII, 90.

200:11 Gautama X, 18. The meaning is that such persons shall not be slain in battle.

200:12-13. Vasishtha III, 18.

200:14 I take this to mean that the king may take one article which particularly pleases him out of each consignment, and impose on the rest an ad valorem duty of ten per cent. Regarding the tribute in kind to be paid to Indian kings by foreign merchants, see Periplus maris Erythraei, par. 49.

200:15 Vishnu III, 29-30. Govinda interprets anupahatya, 'without' p. 201 oppressing the traders,' by 'without deducting (anuddhritya) a choice article.'

201:16 Vasishtha XVI, 19-20. As stated above, I, 5, II, 15, the king must not take the property of a Brâhmana.

201:17 Vishnu V, 2. 'Corporal punishment,' i.e. capital punishment, mutilation, &c., except branding.

201:18 Vishnu V, 3-7. 19. Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 16.

201:20 Vasishtha XIX, 9. 'Those same persons,' I.e. Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sûdras.


1. For slaying a Kshatriya (the offender) shall 1 give to the king one thousand cows and besides a bull in expiation of his sin,

2. For (slaying) a Vaisya one hundred cows, for (slaying) a Sûdra ten; and a bull (must be) added (in each case). 2

3. (The punishment for) the murder of a woman--excepting a (Brâhmanî) who had bathed after temporary uncleanness--and for the destruction of a cow have been explained by the (rule regarding the) murder of a Sûdra. 3

4. If he has slain a milch-cow or a draught-ox, he shall perform a Kândrâyana (lunar penance) after (paying the prescribed fine).

5. The (punishment for the) murder of a (Brâhmanî) who had bathed after temporary uncleanness has been explained by (the rule regarding) the murder of a Kshatriya. 5

6. For killing a flamingo, a Bhâsa, a peacock, a Brâhmanî duck, a Prakalâka, a crow, an owl, a frog, a musk-rat, a dog, (the large ichneumon called) Babhru, a common ichneumon, and so forth, (the offender shall pay) the same (fine) as (for the murder of) a Sûdra. 6

7. In order to gain the good opinion of men, a witness shall give evidence in accordance with what he has seen or heard. 7

8. Of injustice (in decisions) one quarter falls on the party in the cause, one quarter on his witnesses, one quarter on all the judges, and one quarter on the king. 8

But where he who deserves condemnation is condemned, the king is guiltless and the judges free from blame; the guilt falls on the offender (alone).

9. (Therefore) a wise man should ask an appointed witness in the following manner: 9

10. 'The merit which thou hast acquired in the interval between the night in which thou wast born and that in which thou wilt die, all that will go to the king, if thou speakest an untruth.' 10

11. 'A witness who speaks falsely, slays three fathers and three grandfathers and seven (descendants), both the born and the unborn.' 11

12. 'By false testimony concerning gold he kills three ancestors; by false testimony regarding (small) cattle he kills five; by false testimony concerning kine he kills ten.' 12

'He kills a hundred by false evidence regarding horses, (and) a thousand by false evidence concerning a man. A witness Who speaks falsely, destroys the whole (world) by false evidence concerning land.'

13. (Men of) the four castes (varna) who have sons may be witnesses excepting Srotriyas, the king, ascetics, and those who are destitute of human (intellect). 13

14. If (the witness rightly) recollects (the facts of) the case (he will receive) commendation from the most eminent men. 14

15. In the contrary case (he will) fall into hell. 15

16. Let him (who has given false evidence), drink hot milk during twelve (days and) nights or offer burnt oblations (reciting) the Kûshmânda (texts). 16

Footnotes Scroll Up

201:1 19. Âpastamba I, 9, 24, I. Govinda explains vairaniryâtanârtham p. 201 in two ways: 1. in expiation of his sin; 2. in order to remove the enmity of the relatives of the murdered man. He adds all these punishments are really penances (prâyaskittas) to be imposed by the king. Âpastamba has these Sûtras in the section on penances.

202:2 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 2-4.

202:3 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 5; I, 9, 26, I.

202:5 Vasishtha XX, 34, 37.

202:6 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 13.

202:7 Vishnu VIII, 13-14.

203:8 Manu VIII, 18-19.

203:9 I read, with the Telugu copy of the commentary, sâkshinam tvevam uddishtam. All the MSS. of the text and C. I. read sâkshinam daivam uddishtam. Govinda's explanation, adhunâ nirdishtân sâkshina evam prikkhed iti padânvayah, 'the construction of the words is, "let him now ask the appointed witnesses in the following manner," agrees with the reading adopted.

203:10 Vasishtha XVI, 32-53.

203:11 'Three fathers and three grandfathers,' i.e. seven ancestors.

203:12 Vasishtha XVI, 34. Regarding the explanation of the p. 204 words 'he kills,' see Manu VIII, 97, and Haradatta on Gautama XIII, 14.

204:13 Vasishtha XVI, 28-30. The text has râganya, 'members of the royal family.' But the parallel passages of other Dharma-sûtras, eg. Vishnu VIII, 2, make it probable that the king is meant.

204:14 Âpastamba II, 11, 29, 10. Govinda takes the Sûtra differently. His commentary runs as follows: sâkshidvaye sati râgñâ, tatpurushais ka kim kartavyam ity ata âha || srimritau pradhânatah pratipattih || prâdhânyatas taponirdishtavidyâdibhih | tadvakanât pratipattir niskayah kârya ityadhyâhârah kâryah || 'What shall the king and his officers do, if there are two witnesses? In order to answer this question he says: "On recollection, according to pre-eminence, reliance." According to pre-eminence, i.e. on account of austerities, (being) appointed (as a witness), learning and the like; in accordance with the evidence of such person's conviction. i.e. the decision must be made. The latter word has to be understood.' Govinda then goes on to quote Manu VIII, 73.

204:15 Âpastamba II, It, 29, 9. Govinda and M. read kartripatyam for kartapatyam, the reading of the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. The explanation of the former term is said to be doshah, 'sin.' Regarding the ancient word kartapatya, which Govinda and the writer of M. have not understood, see Haradatta on Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 3.

204:16 In accordance with his explanation of Sûtra 14, Govinda thinks that this penance is to be performed by the king and the judges in case they fail to weigh the evidence properly. But p. 205 according to Manu VIII, 106, Vishnu VIII, 16, the oblations with the Kûshmândas (Taitt. Âr. X, 3-5) are to be offered for uttering in evidence a venial falsehood. That is, no doubt, here, too, the real meaning.


1. (There are) eight marriage-rites. 1

2. If (the father) gives (his daughter) to a student (who has not broken his vow of chastity and) who asks for her, after fully enquiring into his learning and character, that (is) the rite .of Brahman (brâhma). 2

3. If (the father gives his daughter away) after clothing her and decking her with ornaments, (saying) 'That (is thy wife), fulfil the law (with her),' that (is) the rite of Pragâpati (prâgâpatya). 3

4. If (the bridegroom) after offering the first burnt oblation of parched grain (receives the maiden) for a bull and a cow, that is the rite of the Rishis (ârsha). 4

5. If (a maiden is given) to an officiating priest within the sacrificial enclosure, while the presents are being taken away, that (is) the rite of the gods (daiva). 5

6. The union of a lover with a loving damsel (is called) the rite of the Gandharvas (gândharva).

7. (If the bridegroom receives the maiden) after gladdening (the parents) by money, (that is) the rite of the Asuras (âsura).

8. (If the maiden is wedded) after being forcibly abducted, (that is) the rite of the Râkshasas (râkshasa).

9. If one has intercourse with (a maiden) who is sleeping, intoxicated, or out of her senses (with fear or passion and weds her afterwards, that is) the rite of the Pisâkas (paisâka).

10. Among these (eight rites) the four first (named) are (lawful) for a Brâhmana. Among these also each earlier named is preferable.

11. Among the (four) later (named rites) each succeeding one is more sinful (than the preceding ones).

12. Among these the sixth and the seventh agree with the law of the Kshatriyas. For power is their attribute.

6. Vasishtha I, 33,

7. Vasishtha I, 35.

8. Vasishtha I, 34.

9. Vishnu XXIV, 26.

10. Vishnu XXIV, 27.

12. Vishnu XXIV, 28; Vasishtha I, 29, 34. The meaning of the last clause is that as, according to I, 10, 18, 3, Brahman placed power in the Kshatriyas, they may adopt marriage rites by which a disregard of conventionalities or strength is displayed.

13. The fifth and the eighth (are lawful) for Vaisyas and Sûdras. 13

14. For Vaisyas and Sûdras are not particular about their wives, 14

15. Because they are allowed (to subsist by such low occupations as) husbandry and service. 15

16. Some recommend the Gândharva rite for all (castes), because it is based on (mutual) affection.

Footnotes Scroll Up

205:1 20. Vishnu XXIV, 17.

205:2 Vasishtha I, 30. The word brahmakârin has, no doubt, as Govinda too contends, been used in the double sense of 'a student of the Veda' and 'chaste.'

205:3 Vishnu XXIV, 22.

205:4 Vasishtha I, 32. 'After the first of the burnt oblations of parched grain, which are prescribed for weddings, has been offered, the bridegroom shall give to him who has power over, the maiden a bull and a cow, and receive them back together with the (bride).'--Govinda.

205:5 Vasishtha I, 31. According to this rule the damsel is given p. 206 as part of the sacrificial fee (dakshinâ) to one of the priests after a sacrifice has been completed. Govinda adds that the recipient has to accept the gift with the six mantras, 'pragâpati striyâm yasah,' Taitt. Brâhmana II, 4, 6, 5. In his commentary on the passage Sâyana makes the same statement. Govinda adds that in this case as well as in those mentioned in the following Sûtras the regular marriage ceremony must be performed later.

207:13 'I.e. the fifth for Vaisyas and the eighth for Sûdras.'--Govinda.

207:14 'Those whose spouse, i.e. wife, is not restrained, i.e. not fixed by rule, are called not particular about their wives. The meaning is that there is oneness (dâreshvaikyam) with respect to wives, that fixed rules regarding them there are none (niyamas teshâm na bhavati).'--Govinda.

207:15 '"Husbandry" includes also trade and the like. Because those two (castes) are permitted to pursue low occupations, therefore their marriage rites are of the same description. That is what the author intends to say.'--Govinda.


1. The Veda declares, The quality of the offspring depends on the quality of the marriage rite.' 1

2. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'It is declared that a female who has been purchased for money is not a wife. She cannot (assist) at sacrifices offered to the gods or the manes. Kâsyapa has stated that she is a slave.' 2

3. 'Those wicked men who, seduced by greed, give away a daughter for a fee, who (thus) sell themselves and commit a great crime, fall (after death) into a dreadful place of punishment and destroy their family down to the seventh (generation). Moreover they will repeatedly die and be born again. All (this) is declared (to happen), if a fee (is taken).'

4. On the day of the full moon, on the eighth day (of each half month), on the day of the new moon, on the appearance of a meteor, on the occasion of an earthquake, on visiting a burial-ground, and on the death of the king of the country, of a Srotriya or of one who has the same Guru (satîrthya), the study of the Veda must be discontinued for a day and a night. 4

5. (The study of the Veda must be interrupted) while (a strong) wind (blows), a foul smell (is perceptible), or hoar-frost (lies on the ground), when dancing (is going on), and while the sounds of singing, musical instruments, weeping, or of the Sâman (melodies are audible). 5

6. When thunder, lightning, and rain come together, (the interruption shall last) three days except in the rainy season. 6

7. In the rainy season, too, (the reading must be interrupted) until the same hour of the (next) day or night, (if thunder and lightning come together), not on account of rain. 7

8. If (he has) received anything or dined on the occasion of a sacrifice in honour of the manes, (he shall not read) during the remainder of the day, 8

9. (Nor) after meals until (the food) has been digested. 9

10. For the hand of a Brâhmana is his mouth. 10

11. Now they quote also (the following verse): According to the revealed texts there is no difference whether one has eaten or received (a present at a Srâddha).'

12. (A student shall discontinue the study of the Veda) during three days in case his father has died. 12

13. 'Of two kinds, forsooth, is the virile energy of a famous Brâhmana who is learned in the Vedas, (that which resides) above the navel and the other (that resides) below the' navel. Through that which 13 (resides) above the navel, his offspring is produced when he initiates Brâhmanas, when he teaches them, when he causes them to offer sacrifices, when he makes them holy. All these are his children. But through that which resides below the navel the children of his body are produced. Therefore they never say to a Srotriya who is versed in the Vedas, 'Thou art destitute of offspring.'

14. 'Therefore a Brâhmana has two names, two mouths, two kinds of virile energy, and two births.'

15. (Let him discontinue the recitation of the Veda) as long as he is within hearing or sight of Sûdras and Apapâtras. 15

16. When at night the howl of a solitary jackal is heard, he shall not study until he has slept. 16

17. Let him not study in the evening and morning twilights nor on the Parva-days. 17

18. He shall not eat meat nor approach his wife (on those days). 18

19. It is declared in the Veda, 'For on the Parva-days the Râkshasas and the Pisâkas roam about (in order to injure men).'

20. And on (the appearance of) other omens and portents (he shall not repeat the Veda), except mentally, during a day and a night.

21. The mental recitation of the Veda must also be interrupted on births and deaths (occurring in the family).

22. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The eighth day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth destroys the pupil, the fifteenth destroys learning; therefore let him avoid (studying the Veda) on the Parva-days.' 22

Suggestions for Further Reading

Footnotes Scroll Up

207:1 21. Âpastamba II, 5, 12, 4.

207:2 Vasishtha I, 36-38. Govinda inserts after the words 'Now they quote also,' two Sûtras in prose: 1. 'Ten virtuous sons and daughters (spring) from a Daiva marriage, ten from a Prâgâpatya marriage. It is declared in the Veda that the son of a wife wedded according to the Brâhma rite (sanctifies) ten ancestors, ten descendants, and oneself.' 2. 'The power of learning the Veda also p. 208 belongs to such sons.' None of my MSS. of the text has these words, and they are suspicious, because the phrase 'Now they quote also' usually precedes verses only. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., except K., omit these and the next Sûtra too.

208:4 Vasishtha XIII, 22, 32-35; Vishnu XXX, 23. Govinda explains agnyutpâta, 'on the appearance of meteor,' by 'if a fire breaks out in the village.'

208:5 Vasishtha XIII, 17, 30; Vishnu XXX, 7, 13; Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 31; I, 3, 10, 17.

208:6 Gautama XVI, 41.

209:7 Govinda takes ahorâtrayos ka tatkâlam to mean until the end of the day or night.

209:8 Vasishtha XIII, 15. Govinda adds that the recitation must be stopped as soon as the invitation to a Srâddha is received.

209:9 Vasishtha XIII, 31.

209:10 Vasishtha XIII, 16. The word 'for' used in this Sûtra gives the reason for the rule in Sûtra 8.

209:12 'This (rule) refers to a student who has not returned home. But on one who has returned home it is obligatory to interrupt the Veda-study until he becomes pure. Here he calls the sub-teacher (upâdhyâya) "father," because he gives the Veda. For (an interruption of) twelve days' duration is prescribed on (the death of) a real father (by the Sûtra); "on the death of the mother, the father, and the teacher twelve days."'--Govinda.

209:13 Vasishtha II, 5. This Sûtra is intended to show how the p. 210 Upâdhyâya can be called a father. Govinda states that the precise meaning of anûkâna, 'versed or learned in the Veda,' is 'one who knows the Veda, its meaning, and the Aṅgas: See also Baudhâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 10, 5.

210:15 Vasishtha XVIII, 12. Regarding the term Apapâtras, see Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 25 note.

210:16 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 17.

210:17 Vasishtha XIII, 22. The explanation of the term Parvaday is given below, Sûtra 22.

210:18 Vishnu LXIX, 1.

211:22 Vishnu XXX, 29-30. In accordance with the practice usual in Vedic works the best MSS. of the text repeat the beginning of each Kandikâ at the end of the Prasna, giving the last first.

Source: The Sacred Laws Of The Âryas As Taught In The Schools Of Âpastamba, Guatama, Vâsishtha, And Baudhayana Translated By Georg Bühler Part II, Vâsishtha And Baudhâyana Sacred Books Of The East, Vol. 2: Oxford: The Clarendon Press [1882]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from by Jayaram V for While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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