The Baudhayana Dharma Sutra Part 3

Translation by Georg Bühler

Contents

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 1 Scroll Up

Now, therefore, (we will speak) of those who desire (to fulfil) the duties of Sâlînas (dwellers in houses), Yâyâvaras (wanderers), and Kakrakaras (circle-goers), who subsist by nine (different) means of livelihood.

2. The term livelihood' (vritti) is used because they subsist thereby (tadvartanât).

3. The word Sâlîna (is used) because they dwell in houses (sâlâ).

4. To be a Yâyâvara (means that one) goes on by means of a most excellent livelihood (vrittyâ varayâ yâti).

5. The term Kakrakara is derived from going by turns (to the houses of rich men). 5

6. We will explain those (above-mentioned means of livelihood) in their proper order.

7. They are nine, (viz.) Shannivartanî, Kauddâli, Dhruvâ, Samprakshâlanî, Samûhâ, Pâlanî, Siloñkhâ, Kapotâ, and Siddhoñkhâ. 7

8. (In addition) to these there is a tenth way of living, viz. forest-life.

9. (If he desires to adopt) any of the nine ways of living,

10. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, and besides gets ready (the following objects),

11. (Viz.) the skin of a black antelope, a water-pot, a staff, a yoke for carrying burdens, (and) a sickle. 11

12. He desires to go forth, after having offered a Traidhâtavîya (offering) or a Vaisvânarî (ishti). 12

13. Now on the (following) morning, after the sun has risen, he makes the sacred fires burn brightly, melts butter on the Gârhapatya fire, cleanses it (with Kusa grass), heats the (spoons called) Sruk and Sruva, cleans (them), takes out four (spoonfuls of butter) in the Sruk, and offers the Vâstoshpatîya (oblation) in the Âhavanîya fire according to (the rules of his) Sûtra. 13

14. Having recited the Puronuvâkyâ (verse), 'O lord of the dwelling, permit us,' &c., he offers (the oblation) with the Yâgyâ verse, 'O lord of the dwelling, with thy kind company,' &c. 14

15. Some (declare that) every person who has kindled the sacred fires (shall offer these Homas).

16. Others (say that) a Yâyâvara alone (shall do it).

17. After departing (from his house), he stops at the extremity of the village, or at the extremity of the boundary of the village, builds there a hut or a cottage, and enters that. 17

18. Let him use the skin of the black antelope and the other (objects) which he has prepared for the several purposes which they are intended to serve.

19. Known (is) the (duty of) serving the fires; known (is) the (duty of) offering the new and full moon sacrifices; known (is) the successive performance of the five Mahâyagñas; it is seen that the vegetables, which have been produced, are offered. 19

20. He hallows those (vegetables), either (reciting the text),' I offer what is agreeable to all the gods,' or silently, and cooks (them). 20

21. For such (a man the duty of) teaching, sacrificing for others, accepting gifts, and (performing) other sacrifices (than those mentioned) ceases. 21

22. (The use of) sacrificial food fit to be eaten during the performance of a vow is seen;

23. That is as follows: (his food may be) mixed with clarified butter or sour milk, (it must) not (contain) pungent condiments or salt, nor meat, nor (be) stale.

24: (He shall remain) chaste, or approach (his wife) in season.

25. (It is necessary) to have the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails cut on each Parva day, and the rules of purification (are obligatory on him).

26. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Two kinds of purification, which the Sishtas reverentially practise, are mentioned in the Veda,--external (purification), which consists in the removal of impure stains and foul smells, and internal (purification), which consists in the abstention from injuring live creatures.'

27. 'The body is purified by water, the understanding by knowledge, the soul of beings by abstention from injuring, (and) the internal organ by truth.' 27

Footnotes Scroll Up

284:5 1. Govinda says that Kakrakara is another name for Yâyâvara, and that anukramakarana, 'going by turns,' means going successively to the houses of Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas.

284:7 The terms left untranslated are fully explained in the next p. 285 chapter. All the MSS. read kauntâlî for kauddâlî, which occurs in the commentary alone.

285:11 The vîvadha, 'a yoke for carrying burdens,' consists usually of a bamboo pole, to the ends of which two ropes are attached for fastening the loads. Kuthahârî, 'a sickle,' seems to be the name of a particular kind of sickle, since Govinda explains it by vâsavasâsanadâtram. He adds that the term includes 'a spade' (kuddâla) and other implements.

285:12 The meaning is that on the evening before his departure from the old home he is to offer the Traidhâtavîya-homa. According to the Srauta-sûtras (see the Petersb. Dict. s. v. traidhâtavî) the latter offering always occurs at the end of a great sacrifice. Hence it is appropriate for a person who wishes to begin a new mode of life.

285:13 This is the leave-taking from the old dwelling.

286:14 The two verses occur Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, 10, I. It is specially mentioned by Sâyana that the two verses have to be recited by an Agnihotrin on departing from his home.

286:17 Matha, 'a cottage,' is, according to Govinda, a house resting on many posts or pillars, while kutî is the simple shed with four posts and a roof of leaves.

286:19 The last clause, probably, is meant to prescribe a simpler form of the Vaisvadeva.

286:20 Govinda adds that the meaning is that the sacrificer shall eat the boiled rice in silence.

287:21 Govinda adds that the obligation of performing other meritorious deeds, such as digging wells and tanks (pûrta), also ceases.

287:27 Vasishtha III, 60.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 2 Scroll Up

1. As regards (the mode of subsistence called) Shannivartanî, (that) is (as follows):

p. 288

2. He cultivates six Nivartanas (of) fallow (land); he gives a share to the owner (of the soil), or solicits his permission (to keep the whole produce). 2

3. Let him plough before breakfast with two bulls whose noses have not been pierced, not striking (them) with the goad, (but) frequently coaxing (them). 3

4. If he cultivates six Nivartanas in this manner (and subsists thereby), that is (the mode of living called) Shannivartanî (subsistence on six Nivartanas).

5. (As regards the mode of subsistence called) Kauddâlî, he digs up (the soil) near a water(-course or tank) with a spade, a ploughshare, or a pointed piece of wood, sows seed, (and) grows bulbs, roots, fruit, pot-herbs, and vegetables.

6. (If he thus) cultivates (land) with a spade (and lives on its produce), that is the (mode of life called) Kauddâlî (subsistence by the spade). 6

7. He who lives by the (mode of subsistence called) Dhruvâ, wraps up his head in a white dress (saying), 'For the sake of welfare I wrap thee up, O head,' (and) takes the skin of a black antelope (with the words), '(Thou art) spiritual pre-eminence, (I take thee) for the sake of spiritual pre-eminence;' the Pavitra (reciting) the Abliṅga texts; the water-pot (saying), 'Thou art strength, (I take) thee for 7 the sake of strength;' the yoke for carrying burdens (saying), 'Thou art grain, (I take) thee for the sake of prosperity;' the staff (saying), '(Thou art) a friend, protect me.'

8. On leaving (his hut), he mutters the Vyâhritis, and (afterwards the verse used for) hallowing the quarters of the horizon, 'May the earth, the middle sphere, the sky, the constellations, and all the quarters of the horizon, fire, air, and sun, (may all these) deities protect me on my road.'

9. Because, after muttering the Mânastokîya (text) and entering the village, he shows himself with the yoke (on his shoulder) at the door of each house, they call it 'showing oneself.'

10. Because, if every (other) livelihood fails, he persistently (dhruvam) supports himself by this (mode of living), it is called Dhruvâ (the unchangeable). 10

11. (As regards the mode of life called) Samprakshâlanî, (if, in order to show that) there is no waste of the vegetable (substances) obtained nor 11 any hoarding, he turns the dishes, after washing them, upside down, (that is the livelihood called) Samprakshâlanî (living by washing).

12. As to the (mode of subsistence called) Samûhâ, (if) he sweeps up (grain) with a broom in permitted places where (grain-bearing) plants are found, either on a road or in fields the access to which is not obstructed (by hedges), and lives on (what he has thus obtained), that (livelihood is called) Samûhâ (living by sweeping).

13. As to the (mode of life called) Pâlanî, it is also named Ahimsakâ (not hurting), and the following (definition) is given. (If) he tries to obtain from virtuous men husked rice or seeds, and maintains (himself) thereby, that (is the mode of subsistence called) Pâlanî. 13

14. As to the (mode of life called) Siloñkhâ, (if) he gleans single ears in permitted places where (grain-bearing) plants grow, on a road or in fields the access to which is not obstructed, and supports himself by (these) gleanings, (collected) from time to time, that (is the mode of subsistence called) Siloñkhâ (gleaning).

15. As to the (livelihood called) Kapotâ, (if) he picks up with two fingers single grains in permitted places, where (grain-bearing) plants grow, either on the road or in fields the access to which is not obstructed, that (is called), because he acts like a pigeon, Kapotâ (pigeon-life). 15

16. As to (the mode of life called) Siddhoñkhâ, (if) tired with the (other) ways of subsistence, he asks, because he has become old or diseased, virtuous men for cooked food, that (is the livelihood called) Siddhoñkhâ (gleaning cooked food). 16

17. If (he adopts) the latter, he must reposit (the sacred fires) in his soul and behave like an ascetic, except (in using) the cloth for straining water and (wearing) a reddish-brown dress.

18. If he subsists on the produce of the forest, (the fruits) of trees, creepers. and lianas, and of grasses, such as wild millet (syâmâka) and wild sesamum, that (is called) forest-life.

19. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling together with them, and maintaining oneself in a manner similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to heaven.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

288:2 2. A Nivartana is a measure of 4000 square hastas, the ancient equivalent of the modern Bîghâ.

288:3 Identical with II, 2, 4, 21.

288:6 Govinda says that according to some the following ceremonies need only be performed when one goes out begging for the first time, while others insist on their being performed daily.

288:7 The Mânastokîya, i.e. the text beginning 'mâ nas toke,' p. 289 occurs repeatedly in the Taittirîya-veda, e.g. Taitt. Samhitâ III, 4, 11, 2. Govinda adds that the beggar must remain silent, and rot stop longer at each door than the time required for milking a cow.

289:10 Both the text and the scanty commentary on this Sûtra are corrupt. K. reads, vritter vrittair avârtâyâm tayaiva tasya dhruvam varttayatîti dhruveti parikîrtitâ; D. vritte vrittair avârttâthâ, &c.; M. vritte vritter avrittâyâm avrittâyâm tathaiva tasyâh ddhrivam varttamânâd iti, &c.; C. I. vritter vritter âvartâyâm âvartâyâm tathaiva tasyâm dhruvam vartanâd iti, &c. The Telugu copy omits the text. From the commentary it is clear that Govinda read at the beginning of the Sûtra vritter vritter,' and the Telugu copy proves that 'tayaiva' is the correct reading. I restore the Sûtra conjecturally; as follows, vritter vritter avârttâyâm tayaiva tasya dhruvam vartanâd it dhruveti parikîrtitâ.

289:11 1 read, samprakshâlanîti | utpannânâm oshadhînâm prakshepanam p. 290 nâstîti nikayo vâ bhâganâni samprakshâlya nyubgayatîti samprakshâlanî || M. has nâsti nikayo vâ, and C. I. reads also nikayo and omits 'vâ' The Dekhan MSS. have nâstîti kayo vâ. The description is not very clear; but it seems that a person who lives by the Samprakshâlanî vritti must obtain grain and vegetables by begging in such quantities as will suffice for one meal, and prove by the way in which he treats his dishes that he has neither wasted his food nor any store remaining.

290:13 The translation of this Satin is merely tentative, as the two MSS. of the commentary omit the text, and contain only a fragment of Govinda's explanation. The latter seems to have differed from my interpretation. The text, as given by the other MSS., runs as follows: pâlanîty [pâli°, MSS.] ahimsakety evedam uktam bhavati [°tîti, M.] tushavihînâms tandulân ikkhati sagganebhyo bîgâni vâ [kâ, D.] pâlayatîti pâlanî [phâla°, phâlani, M.; pâlinô, K. D.]

291:15 Govinda mentions a varia lectio not found in our MSS., kapotavatsamdamsinî, 'because he pecks like a pigeon.'

291:16 Here as well as above, III, 1, 7, the Dekhan MSS. read siddhekkhâ,' begging cooked food,' instead of", siddhoñkhâ.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 3 Scroll Up

1. Now the hermits in the wood belong to two classes, 1

2. Those who cook (their food), and those who do not cook it.

3. Among them, those who cook (their food are divided) into five subdivisions, (viz.) those who eat everything which the forest contains, those who live on unhusked (wild-growing grain), those who eat bulbs and roots, those who eat fruit, and those who eat pot-herbs.

4. Those who eat everything which the forest produces are, again, of two kinds: they either subsist on forest-produce generated by Indra, or on that which has been generated from semen.

5. Among these, that which has been generated by Indra (is the produce) of lianas, shrubs, creepers, and trees. Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer the Agnihotra in the evening and in the morning, give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the remainder.

6. That which is generated from semen is the flesh (of animals) slain by tigers, wolves, falcons, and other (carnivorous beasts), or by one of them. Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer the Agnihotra in the evening and in the morning, give (shares) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the remainder.

7. Those who eat unhusked grain only, fetch rice, avoiding (husked) corn, boil it, offer the Agnihotra both in the evening and in the morning, give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the remainder.

8. Those who eat bulbs and roots, or fruit, or pot-herbs, (act) exactly in the same manner.

9. Those (hermits) who do not cook (their food are divided into) five (classes), Unmaggakas, Pravrittâsins, Mukhenâdâyins, Toyâhâras, and Vâyubhakshas.

10. Among these, the Unmaggakas (collect and prepare their food), avoiding (the use of) iron and stone implements,

11. The Pravrittâsins take it with the hand, 11

12. The Mukhenâdâyins take it with the mouth (only, like beasts),

13. The Toyâhâras subsist on water only,

14. And the Vâyubhakshas (air-eaters) eat nothing.

15. In this manner ten (different) initiations are prescribed for hermits who follow the rule of Vikhanas (vaikhânasa). 15

16. He who has agreed (to obey) the Institutes of his (order, shall wear) a staff, (shall keep) rigid silence, and (shall) abstain from rash acts.

17. Hermits following the rule of Vikhanas (vaikhânasa) are purified (from sin), and (especially) those who abstain from food.

18. The sum of the rules applicable to all Brahma-Vaikhânasas (is as follows): 18

19. 'Let him not injure (even) gadflies or gnats; let him bear cold and perform austerities; let him constantly reside in the forest, be contented, and delight in (dresses made of) bark and skins, (and in carrying) water (in his pot).'

20. 'A devotee shall first honour the guests who have come to his hermitage at (dinner) time; he shall be sedulous in (worshipping) gods and Brâhmanas, in (offering) the Agnihotra, and in practising austerities.'

21. "A Brâhmana who has taken to forest-life, and who has adopted this difficult (but) pure mode of existence, which keeps him apart from wicked men, which must never be given up, which is similar to (that of the) beasts and birds, which allows the collection of the necessaries of life for one day only, and which necessitates the consumption of astringent and bitter (food), never sinks low.'

22. 'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling together with them, and maintaining oneself in a manner similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to heaven.' 22

Footnotes Scroll Up

291:1 3. Compare for the whole Adhyâya, Âpastamba II, 9, 21, 20-23, 2.

293:11 Pravrittâsin, i.e. he who eats food only which comes to him accidentally.

293:15-17. These three Sûtras are omitted in the commentary, but found in all the MSS. of the text.

293:18 Govinda proposes two explanations for the term brahmavaikhânasa; he thinks that it may mean either brahmanâ drishtâ vaikhânasâh, 'hermits seen by Brahman,' i.e. whose duties have been revealed by Brahman, or 'hermits who are Brâhmanas by caste.' The true sense, however, is probably 'a hermit (who strives) to (become one with) Brahman' (brahmârtham valikhânasa).

294:22 See above, III, 2, 19.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 4 Scroll Up

1. Now if a student commits any act against his vow, eats meat, or approaches a woman, whenever any evil befals him, 1

2. He heaps fuel on the fire in the interior of the house, scatters (Kusa grass) around it, and performs the ceremonies up to the end of the Agnimukha; then he offers oblations of clarified butter, (reciting the following texts): 'It was done by lust, lust does it, to lust (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by the internal organ, the internal organ does it, to the internal organ (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by passion, passion does it, to passion (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by ignorance, ignorance does it, to ignorance (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by sin, sin does it, to sin (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by wrath, wrath does it, to wrath (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ.'

3. That which begins with the muttering (of the Vedic texts) and ends with the gift of a fee (consisting of) a cow is known,

4. (Afterwards) he stays (during the night) behind (i. e. to the west of) the fire, wrapping himself in the skin of a black antelope, the neck of which is turned towards the east and the hair of which is turned outside.

5. When the day dawns, he drags himself away from the hinder part (of the skin), goes to a bathing-place, bathes (there) in the manner which is known, (but) performs, while in the water, sixteen suppressions of breath with the Aghamarshana hymn; next he performs the known (ceremonies) up to the worship of the sun, and afterwards goes to the house of his teacher. 5

6. Let him know for certain that that is equally (effective) as bathing (with the priests) at the end of a horse-sacrifice.

Footnotes Scroll Up

294:1 4. The clause striyam vopeyât, 'or approaches a woman,' is omitted by Govinda. The whole chapter is a supplement to the rules given above, II, 1, 1, 30-35, where some of the Vedic passages mentioned here have already been given.

295:5 Govinda says that this manner of crawling out of the skin is symbolical of a new birth.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 5 Scroll Up

1. Now we will explain the rule of the most holy Aghamarshana. 1

2. He goes to a bathing-place and bathes (there). Dressed in a pure dress let him raise, close to the water, an altar, and moistening his clothes by one (application of water), and filling his hand once (with water), let him recite the Aghamarshana hymn (in the manner of his daily) private recitation. 2

3. (Let him repeat it) one hundred times in the morning, one hundred times at midday, and one hundred times or an unlimited number of times in the afternoon.

4. When the stars have risen, let him partake of gruel prepared of one handful of barley.

5. After seven (days and) nights he is freed from all minor sins (upapâtaka), whether they have been committed intentionally or unintentionally, after twelve (days and) nights (from all other sins) excepting the murder of a learned Brâhmana, the violation of a Guru's bed, stealing gold, and drinking Surâ. 5

6. After twenty-one (days and) nights he over-comes even those (crimes) and conquers them.

7. He overcomes everything, he conquers all, he obtains the reward of all sacrifices, he has bathed at all sacred bathing-places, he has performed the vows required for (the study of) all the Vedas, he becomes known to all the gods, he sanctifies a company (of Brâhmanas) by merely looking (at them), and his undertakings are successful. Thus speaks Baudhâyana. 7

Footnotes Scroll Up

296:1 5. Vasishtha XXVI, S.

296:2 Sthandila, 'an altar,' is a slightly raised mound of earth, which, according to Govinda, in this case must have the shape of the sun's disc. According to the same authority the hand of the performer must remain filled with water as long as the recitation lasts, and the perform, stands behind the altar facing the east.

296:5 Regarding the prasritiyâvaka, '(subsisting on) gruel prepared from a handful of barley,' see below, III, 6.

297:7 Govinda is of opinion that the words, 'thus speaks Baudhâyana,' indicate that this part of the work has been composed by a pupil or some other person.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 6 Scroll Up

1. Now if a man feels his conscience charged with (evil) actions committed by himself, let him boil for himself (alone), when the stars have risen, a handful of barley, (and prepare) gruel (with that). 1

2. Let him not perform the Vaisvadeva oblation with (a portion of) that,

3. Nor (shall) a Bali offering (be performed) on that (occasion).

4. Let him consecrate the barley before it is boiled, while it is being boiled, and after it has been boiled, with the (following) Mantras

5. 'Thou art barley, thou art the king of grains, thou art sacred to Varuna and mixed with honey, the sages have proclaimed thee an expeller of all guilt and a means of purification.' 5 'Ye barley-grains are clarified butter and honey, ye barley-grains are water and ambrosia. May you remove my guilt and all my sins:'

'Those committed by words, by acts, and by evil thoughts; ill-fortune and the night of all-destroying time,--all that avert from me, ye barley-grains.'

'(From the sin of eating) food which had been worried by dogs or pigs, or which had been defiled by crows and impure men, from the sin of disobedience towards mother and father,--from all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'

'From the dreadful (guilt of) mortal sins and of the crime (of serving) a king, from the wrong done to infants or aged men, from (the guilt) of stealing gold, of breaking my vows, of sacrificing for an un-worthy man, of speaking evil of Brâhmanas,--from all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'

'From (the sin of eating) the food of many men, of harlots and of Sûdras, of (partaking of) funeral dinners and of (the food given by) persons who are unclean on account of a death or a birth, of that given by thieves, or at a funeral sacrifice offered to one who lately died,--from all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'

6. (While the barley) is being boiled, he must protect it (and recite the text), 'Adoration to Rudra, the lord of created beings; pacified is the sky;' the Anuvâka (beginning), 'Give strength;' the five sentences (beginning), 'The gods who are seated in front, led by Agni;' the two (texts), 'Do not hurt 6 our offspring,' (and) 'The Brahman-priest among the gods.'

7. Having purified himself (by sipping water, &c.), he shall eat a little of the boiled (mess), after pouring it into (another) vessel.

8. Let him offer it as a sacrifice to the soul, (reciting the text), 'May the gods, who are born from the internal organ and joined to the internal organ, who are very strong, whose father is Daksha, protect us (and) guard us; adoration to them, to them Svâhâ.' 8

9. Let him who desires intelligence (subsist on such food during three (days and) nights.

10. A sinner who drinks it during six (days and) nights becomes pure.

11. He who drinks it during seven (days and) nights is purified from (the guilt of) the murder of a learned Brâhmana, of violating a Guru's bed, of stealing gold, and of drinking Surâ.

12. He who drinks it during eleven (days and) nights, removes even the sins committed by his ancestors.

13. 'But he who during twenty-one days (drinks gruel made) of barley-grains which have passed through a cow, sees the Ganas and the lord of the Ganas, sees the goddess of learning and the lord of learning.' Thus speaks the venerable Baudhâyana.

Footnotes Scroll Up

297:1 6. For the whole Adhyâya compare Vishnu XLVIII.

297:5 According to Govinda, Vâmadeva is the Rishi of these Mantras. The phrase, 'Thou art sacred to Varuna,' is to be explained, according to Govinda, by the fact that offerings presented to Varuna frequently consist of barley. 'Honey' means, according to some, 'sweet butter,' with which the dish is seasoned.

298:6 The Anuvâka meant is Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 14. The five sentences are found, ibid. I, 8, 7, 1. Regarding the text mâ nastoke, 'do not hurt our offspring,' see above, III, 2, 9. The last p. 299 Mantra occurs Taitt. Samhitâ III, 4, II, I. Govinda says that material protection, too, in the shape of an iron platter or cover is to be given to the boiling barley.

299:8 The text occurs Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 3, I. It consists of five sentences, and is addressed to the five vital airs, to each of which the eater offers one oblation.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 7 Scroll Up

1. 'Let him who considers himself impure offer (burnt oblations), reciting the Kûshmândas.' 1

2, 'He who has had forbidden intercourse, or has committed a crime against nature, becomes even like a thief, even like the slayer of a learned Brâhmana.'

3. 'He is freed from any sin which is less than the crime of slaying a learned Brâhmana.'

4. If, after wasting his strength except in his sleep, he desires to become free from the stain and holy,

5. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut on the day of the new moon or of the full moon, and takes upon himself a vow according to the rule prescribed for students,

6. (To be kept) during a year, or a month, or twenty-four days, or twelve nights, or six or three nights. 6

7. Let him not eat meat, nor approach a woman, not sit on (a couch or seat, and) beware of (speaking an) untruth. 7

8. To subsist on milk (alone is) the most excellent mode of living; or, using barley-gruel (as his food), he may perform a Krikkhra (penance) of twelve days, or he may (maintain himself by) begging. 8

9. On such (occasions) a Kshatriya (shall subsist on) barley-gruel, a Vaisya on curds of two-milk whey.

10. Having kindled the sacred fire in the morning according to the rule for Pâkayagñas, having scattered (Kusa grass) around it, and having performed (the preliminary ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he next offers in addition burnt oblations, reciting the three Anuvâkas (beginning), 'What cause of anger to the gods, ye gods,' 'The debts which I contracted,' (and) 'May worshipful Agni give thee by every means long life.' 10

11. Let him offer with each Rik-verse a portion of clarified butter.

12. After having offered four oblations with (the spoon called) Sruva, reciting (the texts), 'That strength which lies in the lion, in the tiger, and in the panther,' &c., and the four Abhyâvartinîs (i.e. the texts), 'Thou, O fire, who turnest back,' &c., 'O Aṅgiras,' &c., 'Again with strength,' &c., (and) 'With wealth,' &c., after having taken his position, with sacred fuel in his hands, in the place allotted to the sacrificer, he worships (the fire) with the hymn which contains twelve verses (and begins), 'To Vaisvânara we announce.' 12

13. Having placed the piece of sacred fuel (on the fire with the text), 'Whatever sin I ever committed 13 by thoughts or words, from all that free me (O fire, being duly) praised, for thou knowest the truth, Svâhâ,' he gives a fee.

14. (The ceremonies) which begin with the muttering (of the texts) and end with the gift of a cow as a fee are known.

15. One (person) only (shall) perform the service of the fire.

16. Now (let him offer) at the Agnyâdheya full oblations (pûrnâhuti, with the texts), 'Whatever cause of anger to the gods, ye gods;' 'The debts which I contracted;" May worshipful Agni give thee by every means long life.' 16

17. Having offered (it), he who is about to perform the Agnihotra, (worships) with the Dasahotri (texts); having offered (it), he who is about to perform the new and full moon sacrifices (worships) with the Katurhotri (texts); having offered (it), he who is about to offer the Kâturmâsya sacrifices (worships) with the Pañkahotri (texts); having offered it, (he worships) at an animal sacrifice with the Shaddhotri (texts), at a Soma-sacrifice with the Saptahotri (texts). 17

18. And it is declared in the Veda, 'Let him sacrifice (with the Kûshmânda texts) at the beginning of the rites; purified (thereby) he gains the world of the gods.' Thus (speaks) the Brâhmana. 18

Footnotes Scroll Up

300:1-3. 7. Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 8, 1-3.

300:6 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 5-6.

300:7 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 7.

300:8 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 8. As the next Sûtra shows, these rules refer to Brâhmanas. Regarding the Krikkhra, see below, IV, 57.

301:10 For the rule, see Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 4. The three Anuvâkas mentioned are Taitt. Âranyaka II, 5.

301:12 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 4. The first four texts occur Taitt. Brâhmana II, 7, 7, 1-2, the next four Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 2, 1, 2-3, and the hymn Taitt. Âranyaka II, 6. The place of the sacrificer to the south of the fire.

301:13 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 6, 2 (13).

302:16 From this and the next Sûtras it must be understood that the Kûshmândahoma is not only to be used as a penance, but may be offered at the beginning of the great Srauta sacrifices, in order to sanctify the performer and to secure special benefits.

302:17 The Saptahotri' and the other texts mentioned occur Taitt, Âranyaka III, 1-5. I understand the verb 'worship' on account of Lâtyâyana X, 12, 50.

302:18 Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 5.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 8 Scroll Up

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the Kândrâyana (lunar penance). 1

2. Let him fast on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month.

3. Having had the hair on his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails, or his beard alone, cut, let him enter, dressed, in new clothes and speaking the truth, the place where the sacrificial fire is preserved.

4. There a (common) fire, (which may be) fetched once (only, shall serve) him; or (the fire) must be produced by friction with the Aranis. 4

5. Let a student, who is a friend (of the performer), be ready at hand to (carry out his) directions;

6. And sacrificial viands (shall be his) food during the performance of the vow.

7. Having heaped fuel on the fire, scattered (Kusa grass) around it, and performed (the ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he offers burnt oblations, (cutting off portions) from the cooked food,

8. (The first) to Agni, (the second) to the lunar day whichever it may be, (the third and the fourth) 8 to the lunar mansion together with its guardian deity, the fifth to the moon (with the verse), 'Atrâha gor amanvata,' the sixth to the sky and the earth, the seventh to day and night, the eighth to Rudra, the ninth to the sun, the tenth to Varuna, the eleventh to Indra, and the twelfth to all the gods.

9. Now they mention (the following) other (oblations which are to be offered) to the points of the horizon and to their (guardian) deities, to the wide middle sphere and to its (guardian) deity.

10. Having offered (the oblation) to Agni Svishtakrit (with the verse), 'Ever new,' &c., he then places the remainder of the sacrificial viands into a goblet (kamsa) or a cup (kamasa), pours seasoning, that is fit for sacrifices, over them, and eats fifteen morsels of ordinary size, 10

11. The first (saying, 'I offer) thee to Prâna,' the second (saying,' I offer) thee to Apâna,' the third (saying, 'I offer) thee to Vyâna,' the fourth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Udâna,' the fifth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Samâna.' If there are only four (mouthfuls, he eats) the first reciting two (texts); if there are three, (he eats) the first two reciting two (texts) with each; if there are two, (he eats) the first reciting two (texts and) the second reciting three texts; (if, there is only) one, (he recites) all (the five texts) together. 11

12. Having drunk water (with the text), 'Thou 12 art water used for moistening Soma,' &c., he then offers the (following) additional oblations of clarified butter, with the seven Anuvâkas (beginning), 'May my Prâna, Apâna, Vyâna, Udâna, and Samâna be purified;' 'May my voice, mind, eye, ear,' &c.; 'May my head, hands, feet;' 'May my skin;' 'May the sense of hearing, touch;' 'May earth, water;' 'May that which consists of food.'

13. (The ceremonies) beginning with the muttering (of sacred texts) and ending with the gift of a cow as a fee are known. 13

14. He worships the sun with (three verses) ad--dressed to Sûrya and the moon with (three verses) addressed to Kandramas. 14

15. When he goes to rest, he mutters (the verse), 'O fire, keep thou good watch,' 15

16. When he awakes (in the morning, the verse), 'O fire, thou art the protector of vows.' 16

17. Let him not talk with women and Sûdras addressing them first; let him not look at urine and ordure.

18. If he has seen any impure substance, he mutters (the text), 'Unrestrained (was) the internal organ, wretched my eye; the sun is the most 18 excellent among the lights of heaven; O initiation, mayest thou not forsake me.'

19. On the first day of the latter half (of the month he eats) fourteen mouthfuls.

20. Thus (he takes every day) one (mouthful) less up to the day of the new moon.

21. On the day of the new moon there is not (even) one mouthful (left to take).

22. On the first day of the first half (of the month) one (mouthful may be eaten), on the second two.

23. Thus he daily increases (his meal) by one (mouthful) up to the day of the full moon.

24. On the day of the full moon he offers a Sthâlîpâka to Agni, to the lunar day whichever it may be, and to the lunar mansions as well as to their (guardian) deities.

25. Having offered a burnt oblation to (the lunar mansion) Abhigit (which stands) before Sronâ, and to its (guardian) deity, he must give a cow to the Brâhmanas.

26. That is the ant-shaped lunar penance; (that which is performed in the) inverted (order is called) the barleycorn-shaped (lunar penance). 26

27. A sinner who has performed either of these two (penances) becomes free from all mortal sins (pâtaka).

28. They declare that the (Kândrâyana) shall be performed for the sake of the fulfilment of wishes of all kinds.

29. 'Thereby man obtains every wish which he may conceive.'

30. 'Thereby the sages formerly purified themselves and accomplished their objects. That (rite) procures wealth, spiritual merit, sons, cattle, long life, heavenly bliss, and fame; it secures the fulfilment of all desires.'

31. 'He who studies this, becomes the companion of the lunar constellations, of sun and moon, and dwells in their world.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

303:1 8. For this chapter compare Gautama XXVII.

303:4 The meaning of the Sûtra is that the fire which has been carried into the âvasatha must be kept burning during the whole month which the Kândrâyana lasts. For a burnt oblation has to be performed at the end of the penance. Should it be extinguished, it must be rekindled by friction.

303:8 The text quoted occurs Taitt. Brâhmana I, 5, 8, 1.

304:10 Taitt. Samhitâ II, 3, 5, 3.

304:11 This is an imitation of the Prânâgnihotra described above, II, 7, 12.

304:12 Taitt. Samhitâ III, 1, 8, 1. The seven Anuvâkas are Taitt. Âranyaka X, 51-57. One oblation is to be offered with each Anuvâka.

305:13 Govinda here mentions that the whole of the ceremonies alluded to are the uttaram dârvihomikam tantram.

305:14 As Govinda states, the former verses are 'ud vayam tamasas pari,' Taitt. Samhitâ IV, I, 7, 4; 'ud u tyam gâtavedasam,' ibid. I, 1, 8, 4; 'kitram devânâm,' ibid. I, 4, 43, 1; while the verses addressed to the moon are 'nano navo,' Ibid. II, 4, 14, 1; 'sa kitrakitram,' Rig-veda VI, 6, 7; and 'atrâha gor,' Taitt. Brâhmana 1, 5, 8, 1.

305:15 Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 3, I.

305:16 Taitt. Samhitâ, loc. cit.

305:18 Taitt. Samhitâ III, I, 1, 2.

306:26 Vishnu XLVII, 3-5.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 9 Scroll Up

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the Anasnatpârâyana (recitation of the whole Veda during a fast).

2. Let him wear a clean garment or a dress made of bark (or grass). 2

3. Let him desire food, fit for a sacrifice, or water and fruit. 3

4. Going forth from the village in an easterly or northerly direction, smearing a quadrangular sthandila, 'a bull's hide' in size, with cowdung, sprinkling it, drawing the marks on it, sprinkling it with water, heaping fuel on the fire and scattering (Kusa grass) around it, he offers burnt oblations to the following deities, to Agni Svâhâ, to Pragâpati 4Svâhâ, to Soma Svâhâ, to all the gods Svâhâ, to Svayambhu, to the Rikas, to the Yagus, to the Sâmans, to the Atharvans, to faith, to right knowledge, to wisdom, to fortune, to modesty, to Savitri, to the Sâvitrî (verse), to Sadasaspati, and to Anumati.

5. Having offered (these oblations), he must begin with the beginning of the Veda and continuously recite (it).

6. Let him not interrupt (the recitation) by talking, nor by stopping, 6

7. Now if he converses in between or stops, let him thrice suppress his breath, and begin just there where he left off.

8. If he has forgotten (a passage), he shall recite for as long a time as he does not recollect it, what (he may know, Rik-verses) for Rik-verses, (Yagus-formulas) for Yagus-formulas, (Sâmans) for Sâmans.

9. He may (also) recite the Brâhmana of that (forgotten passage) or (the passage from the Anukramanî regarding) its metre and its deities.

10. Let him recite the Samhitâ of (his) Veda twelve (times). He thereby removes (faults committed by) studying on forbidden (days, by) angering his teacher, (and through) improper acts. His (knowledge of the) Veda is sanctified, is purified.

11. (If he reads) more than that, a cumulation (of rewards will be the result).

12. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Usanas.

13. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Brihaspati.

14. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Pragâpati.

15. If, fasting, he recites the Samhitâ one thou-sand (times), he becomes one with Brahman, resplendent like Brahman (and) Brahman (itself).

16. If he subsists during a year on food obtained by begging, he gains (the power of) supernatural vision.

17. If during six months he subsists on barley-gruel, during four months on water and barley-flour, during two months on fruit, (and) during one month on water, or performs Krikkhra penances of twelve days, he (obtains the power of) suddenly disappearing, and sanctifies seven descendants, seven ancestors, and himself as the fifteenth, and (any) company (of Brâhmanas) which he may enter.

18. They call that the ladder of the gods. 18

19. By means of that the gods reached their divine station and the sages the position of Rishis.

20. The periods for beginning this sacrifice, forsooth, are three, the time of the morning libation, the time of the midday libation, and the last part of the night, (the Muhûrta) sacred to Brahman.

21. Pragâpati, forsooth, proclaimed this (rite) to the seven Rishis, the seven Rishis to Mahâgagñu, and Mahâgagñu to the Brâhmanas. 21

Footnotes Scroll Up

307:2 9. M. and the MSS. of the commentary read kiravâsâh instead of kîravâsâh,' clad with a garment of bark or grass,' and Govinda explains the var. lect. by 'dressed in old clothes.'

307:3 This rule refers to the case only where the performer of the vow is unable to bear the prolonged fasting.

307:4 A sthandila is the raised mound, four fingers high, which is used as the altar for the Grihya ceremonies. Regarding the term, 'a bull's hide,' see Vishnu XCII, 2. The marks (lakshana) are the lines which must be drawn on the altar; see e.g. Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 3, 1.

308:6 'By talking, i.e. by uttering words not connected with the Veda.'--Govinda.

309:18 Govinda explains nihsrenîm, 'the ladder,' by nihsreyasahetum, 'a cause of supreme bliss.'

309:21 The name of the Rishi who proclaimed it to the Brâhmans is not certain. The Dekhan MSS. read Mahâgagru and Mahâgagnu, M. Mahâgagñu, the I. O. copy of the commentary Mahâyagñu and Mahâgagñu, and the Telugu copy Mahâgagñu.

PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 10 Scroll Up

1. The law of castes and of orders has been declared. 1

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted) by a vile action or acts wrongly, (e.g.) sacrifices for men. unworthy to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents from those whose gifts ought not to be accepted, eats the food of those whose food ought not to be eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden. 2

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it.

4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because the deed does not perish.

5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform (a penance). 5

6. It is declared in the Veda, 'Let him offer a Punastoma; (those who offer it, may) again come to (partake of) the libations of Soma.' 6

7. He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin, he effaces the guilt of the murder of a Brâhmana.' 7

8. Moreover, 'He who is being accused (of a heinous crime) shall perform an Agnishtut sacrifice.'

9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, giving gifts are the means for expiating such (a blamable act).

10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads, the initial (verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the Vedas (vedântas), the Samhitâs of all the Vedas, (the Anuvâkas called) Madhu, (the hymn of) Aghamarshana, the Atharvasiras, (the Anuvâkas called the) Rudras, the Purusha hymn, the two Sâmans (called) Râgina and Rauhineya, the Brihat (Sâman) and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Sâman), the Mahânâmnîs, the Mahâvairâga (Sâman), the Mahâdivâkîrtya (Sâman), any of the Gyeshtha Sâmans, the Bahishpavamâna Sâman, the Kûshmândîs, the Pâvamânîs, and the Sâvitrî. 10

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, to eat vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on) gruel prepared of a handful of barley-grains, to eat gold, to eat clarified butter (are the modes of subsistence) which purify.

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing-places, the dwellings of Rishis, cowpens, (holy) plains and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin) 12

13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness, abstention from theft (or unrighteously appropriating anything), bathing in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, obedience towards Gurus, continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing in one garment only, and abstaining from food (are the various kinds of) austerity.

14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, clarified butter, and food (are) the gifts.

15. A year, six months, four (months), three (months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a night, (and) one day are the periods (for penances).

16. These (acts) may be optionally performed if no (particular penance) has been prescribed,

17. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and for trivial faults easy ones.

18. The Krikkhra and the Atikrikkhra, as well as the Kândrâyana, are penances for all (offences).

Footnotes Scroll Up

310:1 10. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. li this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore adopted the same division of the Sûtras as in the translation of the latter work.

310:2 I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayam purusho yâpyena karmanâ mithyâ vâkaraty ayâgyam vâ yâgayaty apratigrâhyasya vâ pratigrihnâty anâsyânnasya vânnam asnâty akaranîyena vâkarati. M. reads yâgayitvâ, and the Dekhan MSS. yâgayitvâ and pratigrihya.

310:5 The Dekhan MSS. read kûryâd ity eva, M. kûryâd eva, and Govinda kuryât tv eva.

310:6 All the MSS. of the text omit the word vigñâyate, 'it is declared in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda.

310:7 All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sûtra p. 311 athâpy udâharanti, 'now they quote also,' which Govinda omits, and which is inappropriate, because the following passages are taken from the Veda.

311:10 The word vedâdayah, which occurs also in some MSS. of Vasishtha (XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy of karmâdi, the beginning of the sacrifices' (Sâyana on Taitt. Âr. II, 7, 5), by 'the initial verses of the Vedas.' The Pâvamânîs are added on the authority of Govinda alone.

311:12 'Kshetra, (holy) plains, e.g. the Kurukshetra.'--Govinda.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 1 Scroll Up

1. We will separately explain the various penances for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for each (case),--heavier (penances) for great (crimes) and easier ones for trivial (faults).

3. Let him perform the penances according to the rule given in the Institutes (of the Sacred Law in cases) where an offence has been committed with the organ or with the feet (and) the arms, through 3 thoughts or speech, through the ear, the skin, the nose or the eye.

4. Or, in (the case of) transgressions committed through the organ of vision, of hearing, of sensation, of smelling, and through thoughts, he also becomes pure by three suppressions of the breath.

5. In case (he commits the offences) of eating the food of a Sûdra or of cohabiting with a Sûdra female, severally, he must perform, during seven days, seven suppressions of the breath on each day. 5

6. For partaking of food unfit for eating or drinking, and for selling forbidden merchandise, excepting honey, meat, clarified butter, oil, pungent condiments and bad food, and for similar (offences), he must perform, during twelve days, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day. 6

7. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins (pâtaka), crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya), and the minor faults (called upapâtaka), he must perform, during half a month, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day. 7

8. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins 8 and crimes causing loss of caste, he must perform, during twelve periods of twelve days, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day.

9. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins he must perform, during twelve half-months, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day. 9

10. But for mortal sins he must perform, during a year, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day.

11. Let him give his daughter, while she still goes naked, to a man who has not broken the vow of chastity and who possesses good qualities, or even to one destitute of good qualities; let him not keep (the maiden) in (his house) after she has reached the age of puberty. 11

12. He who does not give away a marriageable daughter during three years doubtlessly contracts a guilt equal to (that of) destroying an embryo.

13. Such will be the case if anybody asks her in marriage, and also if nobody demands her. Manu has declared that at each appearance of the menses (the father incurs the guilt of) a mortal sin.

14. Three years let a marriageable damsel wait for the order of her father. But after (that) time let her choose for herself in the fourth year a husband (of) equal (rank). If no man (of) equal (rank) be found, she may take even one destitute of good qualities.

15. If a damsel has been abducted by force, and has not been wedded with sacred texts, she may lawfully be given to another man; she is even like a maiden. 15

16. If, after (a damsel) has been given away, or even after (the nuptial sacrifices) have been offered, the husband dies, she who (thus) has left (her father's house) and has returned, may be again wedded according to the rule applicable to second weddings, provided the marriage had not been consummated. 16

17. He who does not approach, during three years, a wife who is marriageable, incurs, without doubt, a guilt equal to that of destroying an embryo.

18. But the ancestors of that man who does not approach his wife who bathed after her temporary uncleanness, though he dwells near her, lie during that month in the menstrual excretions (of the wife).

19. They declare that the guilt of the husband who does not approach his wife in due season, of him who approaches her during her temporary uncleanness, and of him who commits an unnatural crime (with her), is equally (great).

20. Let him proclaim in the village a wife who, being obdurate against her husband, makes herself sterile, as one who destroys embryos, and drive her from his house.

21. But for the transgression of that husband who does not approach a wife who bathed after temporary uncleanness, (the performance of) one hundred suppressions of the breath is prescribed (as a penance). 21

22. Seated with Kusa grass in his hands, let him repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again recite purificatory texts, the Vyâhritis, the syllable Om, and the daily portion of the Veda. 22

23. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him again and again suppress his breath. (Thus) he performs the highest austerity up to the ends of his hair and up to the ends of his nails.

24. Through the obstruction (of the respiration) air is generated, through air fire is produced, then through heat water is formed; hence he is internally purified by (those) three.

25. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, all good qualities are gained through Yoga; therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice of Yoga. 25

26. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable Om, and they end with the syllable Om. The syllable Om and the Vyâhritis are the eternal, everlasting Brahman. 26

27. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting) the syllable Om, the seven Vyâhritis, and the three-footed Gâyatrî, no danger exists anywhere. 27

28. If, restraining his breath, he thrice recites the Gâyatrî together with the syllable Om and with the (text called) Siras, that is called one suppression of breath. 28

29. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied 29 by (the recitation of) the Vyâhritis and of the syllable Om, repeated daily, purify after a month even the slayer of a learned Brâhmana.

30. That is the highest austerity, that is the best description of the sacred law. That, indeed, is the best means of removing all sin.

Footnotes Scroll Up

312:3 The construction is certainly elliptical. I understand tatra with the first half-verse. Govinda separates the two half-verses, yad upasthakritam papam, &c., from the first, and reads at the end p. 313 of the half-verse prânâyâmân samâkaret, 'one should perform suppressions of the breath (in even or equal numbers).'

313:5 Govinda tries to reconcile this rule with the one given above, I, I, 2, 7, by assuming that the word Sûdra denotes here a Brâhmana who lives like a Sûdra and neglects his sacred duties.

313:6 I read, conjecturally, dvâdasâham, 'twelve days.' The MSS. of the text have dvâdasa dvâdasâham, or corruptions pointing to this reading, and C. I. reads ardhamâsam. Regarding avarânna, 'bad food,' see note on Âpastamba II, 6, 15, 16.

313:7 I read, conjecturally, ardhamâsam, 'half a month;' D. has ardhamâsân; K. dvâdasâham; M. dvâdasârdhamâsam; C. I. dvâdasârdhamâsân, which is explained by shanmâsân.

313:8 I read with M. dvâdasa dvâdasâhân. D. K. have dvâdasâham. The commentary omits the Sûtra altogether.

314:9 I read with D., K., and M., dvâdasârdhamâsân. The commentary omits also this Sûtra.

314:11 Vasishtha XVII, 67-71, and above.

314:15 Vasishtha XVII, 73.

315:16 Vasishtha XVII, 74.

315:21 The MSS. of the text read, ritusnâtâm to yo bhâryâm niyatâm brahmakârinîm | niyamâtikrame tasya prânâyâmasatam smritam. The commentary omits the first half of the verse altogether. The latter, as read in the MSS., gives no sense. It seems to me that p. 316 either its end must have been samnidhau nopagakkhati (as in Sûtra 17), or that a whole half-verse has been lost.

316:22-24. Vasishtha XXV, 4-6.

316:25 Vasishtha XXV, 8.

316:26 Vasishtha XXV, 10.

316:27 Vasishtha XXV, 9.

316:28 Vasishtha XXV, 13.

316:29 Vasishtha XXVI, 4.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 2 Scroll Up

1. We will separately explain the various penances for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for each (case),--heavier penances for great (crimes), and lighter ones for trivial (faults).

3. Let him perform the penances according to the rule given in the Institutes of the Sacred Law.

4. He who is about to accept gifts, or he who has accepted gifts, must repeatedly recite the four Rik-verses (called) Taratsamandîs. 4

5. But in case one has eaten any kind of forbidden food; or that given by a person whose food must not be eaten, the means of removing the guilt is to sprinkle water (over one's head) while one recites the Taratsamandî Rikas. 5

6. But we will, hereafter, declare another rule for (the expiation of) the murder of a learned Brâhmana, whereby (men) are freed also from mortal sins of all (kinds).

7. Let him (perform), during twelve nights, suppressions of the breath (and) mutter purificatory texts, the Vyâhritis, the syllable Om, (and) the Aghamarshana hymn, (living) on milk;

8. Or (he becomes) pure if he bathes, and during three (days and) nights subsists on air and (remains dressed) in wet clothes.

9. But if he has repeatedly committed forbidden acts of all kinds, and has (afterwards) worshipped reciting the Vârunî (texts), he is freed from all sin. 9

10. Now a student who has broken his vow (avakîrnin) shall heap fuel on the fire on the night of the new moon, perform the preparatory ceremonies required for a Darvîhoma, and offer two oblations of clarified butter (reciting the following texts): 'O Lust, I have broken my vow, my vow I have broken, O Lust, to. Lust Svâhâ;' 'O Lust, I have done evil, I have done evil, O Lust, to Lust Svâhâ.' 10

11. After he has made the offering, he shall address the fire, closely joining his hands and turning sideways, (with the following texts): 'May the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may Brihaspati,, may this fire grant me long life and strength, make me long-lived.' The Maruts, forsooth, give back to him the vital airs, Indra gives back to him strength, Brihaspati the lustre of Brahman, Fire all the remainder. (Thus) his body is made whole, and he attains the full length of life. Let him next address (the gods) with three (repetitions of the texts). For the gods are trebly true. (All that) has been declared in the Veda.

12. He who considers himself defiled by minor offences (upapâtaka), will be freed from all guilt if he offers burnt oblations according to this same rule; 12

13. Or if he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to be drunk or of forbidden food, and if he has committed sinful acts or performed sinful rites either unintentionally or intentionally, and if he has had connexion with a female of the Sûdra caste or committed an unnatural crime, he becomes pure by bathing (and reciting) the Abliṅga (verses) and (those called) Vârunîs. 13

14. Now they quote also (the following verse): If he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to be drunk, or of forbidden food, and if he has committed forbidden acts or performed forbidden rites, he will, nevertheless, be freed from (crimes) committed intentionally which are similar to mortal sins, nay, even from mortal sins (pâtaka).' 14

15. Or let him fast during three (days and) nights, bathe thrice a day, and, suppressing his breath, thrice recite the Aghamarshana. Manu has declared that that is equal (in efficacy) to the final bath at a horse-sacrifice. 15

16. And it is declared in the Veda, '(That is) the ancient purificatory rite, which is widely known (in the Institutes of the Sacred Law); purified thereby man conquers sin. May we, sanctified by this holy means of purification, conquer our enemy, sin.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

317:4 Gautama XXIV, 2. The gift is, of course, one which ought not to be accepted.

317:5 Rig-veda IX, 58. Mârganam, literally 'rubbing,' means sprinkling the head with a handful of water.--Govinda.

318:9 'Upasthâna, "worshipping," i.e. sprinkling one's head with a handful of water.'--Govinda.

318:10 A repetition of the rule given above, II, 1, I, 34; see also III, 4.

319:12 Gautama XXV, 6.

319:13 Govinda gives, like Haradatta on Gautama XXV, 7, as an instance of a doshavat karma, 'a sinful rite,' the abhikâra or 'magic rite in order to harm enemies.' The expression has, however, in our Sûtra, a wider sense.

319:14 I.e. if he performs the penance prescribed in the preceding Sûtra.

319:15 Vasishtha XXVI, 8; Gautama XXIV, 10.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 3 Scroll Up

1. We will explain the (secret) penances which are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender himself, and) particularly what shall be done in (case) faults (have been committed) by men who, with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the performance of their duties). 1

2. (Such a man) may sip water, (in order to atone) for all mortal sins, reciting the syllable Om and all the Vyâhritis. 2

3. When he sips water the first time, he gladdens the Rig-veda, the second time the Yagur-veda, the third time the Sâma-veda. 3

4. When he wipes (his lips) the first time, he gladdens the Atharva-veda, the second time the Itihâsas and Purânas.

5. When he sprinkles water on the right hand, the feet, the head, the heart, the nostrils, the eyes, the ears, and the navel, he gladdens the trees and herbs and all deities. Therefore he is freed from all sin by sipping water.

6. Or let him offer in the fire eight pieces of sacred fuel, reciting (the following) eight (texts): 'Thou art the expiation of sin committed by the gods, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of sin committed by men, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of sin committed by the manes, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of sin committed by myself, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of the sift which we have committed either by day or by night, Svâhâ;" Thou art the expiation of the sin which we have committed either sleeping or waking, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of the sin which we have committed either intentionally or unintentionally, Svâhâ;' Thou art the expiation of every sin, Svâhâ.' 6

7. When he has offered (these eight oblations) he will be freed from all guilt.

8. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The Aghamarshana, the Devakrita, the Suddhavatîs, the Taratsamâs, the Kûshmândîs, the Pâvamânîs, the Virâgâs, the Mrityulâṅgala, the Durgâ (Sâvitrî), the Vyâhritis, and the Rudras (are texts) which are very efficacious for effacing sin.' 8

Footnotes Scroll Up

320:1 3. Vasishtha XXV, 1-2. The whole Adhyâya is left out in the Dekhan MSS., including K. The omission may have been caused by the circumstance that the initial verses of Adhyâyas 3 and are identical.

320:2 Gautama XXV, 9; Vasishtha XXV, 4.

320:3-5. See the rules for sipping water, given above, I, 5, 8, 19-26.

321:6 Gautama XXV, 10. The Mantras occur Taitt. Âranyaka X, 59.

321:8 Vishnu LVI, 3, and note; Vasishtha XXVIII, 10-15.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 4 Scroll Up

1. We will explain the (secret) penances which are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender himself, and) particularly what shall be done in (case) faults (have been committed) by men who, with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the performance of their duties).

2. He who, standing in water, thrice recites that (hymn of) Aghamarshana (which begins), 'Both right and truth,' will be freed from all guilt. 2

3. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'This spotted bull,' &c., will be freed from all guilt; 3

4. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'Freed from the post as it were,' will be freed from all guilt. 4

5. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'A swan dwelling in purity,' will be freed from all guilt; 5

6. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the Sâvitrî, foot by foot, half verse by half verse, and afterwards entire, will be freed from all guilt;

7. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the Vyâhritis, both separately and altogether, will be freed from all guilt;

8. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the syllable Om alone, will be freed from all guilt.

9. Let him not teach these Institutes of the Sacred Law to one who is neither his son nor his pupil, nor has resided (in his house) less than a year. 9

10. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (panas, or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher.

Footnotes Scroll Up

322:2 4. Taitt. Âranyaka X, 1, 13.

322:3 Taitt. Âranyaka I, 5, 3, I.

322:4 Taitt. Brâhmana II, 4, 4, 9.

322:5 Taitt. Samhitâ I, 8, 15, 2.

322:9 Vasishtha XXIV, 6-7.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 5 Scroll Up

1. Now, therefore, I will proclaim by what rites, connected with the Sâman, Rik, Yagus, and Atharva-vedas, 1 (man) quickly attains the wishes of his heart.

2. Having purified his body by muttered prayers, burnt oblations, Ishtis, restraints, and the like, he will accomplish all his objects. He will not attain success in any other way.

3. A Brâhmana, who is going to mutter prayers, to offer burnt oblations or Ishtis, or to practise restraints, shall, first, during the bright half of the month, on a lucky day and under a lucky constellation, cause his hair and beard to be cut. 3

4. Let him bathe in the morning, at noon, and in the evening; let him beware of anger and untruth; let him not address women and Sûdras; let him be continent, and subsist solely on food fit for offerings.

5. Avoiding to sleep in the day-time, let him worship cows, Brâhmanas, manes, and gods. As long as he is engaged in muttering prayers, offering Homas and Ishtis, and practising restraints, let him stand during the day and sit during the night.

6. The Krikkhra (penance) revealed by Pragâpati lasts twelve days, (which are divided into four separate) periods of three days; (during the first period of three days he eats) in the day-time (only, during the second) at night (only, during the third he subsists on) food given without asking, (and during the fourth) finally (he lives on) air. 6

7. (If one eats on) one (day in) the morning (only), and (on the following day) at night (only, on the next day food) given without asking, (and on the fourth day) subsists on air, and repeats this three times, that is called the Krikkhra (penance) of children. 7

8. (If) one eats one mouthful only at each (meal), following, during (three) periods of three days, the rules given above, and subsists during another period of three days on air, that is called the Atikrikkhra penance. 8

9. (If) during those (first) three periods of three days one partakes of water only, and subsists afterwards (during three days) on air, that third (variety) must be known to be the most efficacious Krikkhrâtikrikkhra penance. 9

10. If one drinks hot milk, (hot) clarified butter, (and a hot) decoction of Kusa grass, each during three days, and fasts during another three days, that is called the Taptakrikkhra. 10

11. (If one lives during one day) on cow's urine, (during one day) on cowdung, (during one day) on milk, (during one day) on sour milk, (during one day) on clarified butter, (during one day) on a decoction of Kusa grass, and during one (day and) night on air, that is called the Sâmtâpana Krikkhra. 11

12. Let him take the cow's urine, reciting the Gâyatrî; the cowdung, (reciting the text), 'Gandhadvârâm;' 12 the milk, (reciting the verse), 'Âpyâyasva;' the sour milk, reciting (the verse), 'Dadhikrâvnâ;' the clarified butter, (saying), 'Sukram asi;' the decoction of Kusa grass (with the text), 'Devasya tvâ;'

13. (And mix together) one part of cow's urine, half as much .cowdung, three parts of milk, two of sour milk, one part of clarified butter, and one part of water boiled with Kusa grass;' a Sâmtâpana Krikkhra (performed) in this manner will purify even a Svapâka. 13

14. He who subsists during five (days and) nights on cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clarified butter will be purified by (that) Pañkagavya (the five products of the cow). 14

15. If, self-restrained and attentive, he fasts during twelve days, that is called a Parâka Krikkhra, which destroys all sin. 15

16. If he subsists on cow's urine and the other (substances named above), one day on each, and continues (this mode of life) during thrice seven days, the theologians call that a Mahâsâmtâpana Krikkhra. 16

17. If he daily adds to his food one mouthful during the bright (half of the month) and diminishes it daily by one mouthful during the dark (half of the month), and keeps two fasts in the two halves of the month, that is called a Kândrâyana. 17

18. If, with concentrated mind, a Brâhmana eats four mouthfuls in the morning and four mouthfuls when the sun has set, he will perform the Kândrâyana of children. 18

19. If, self-restrained, he daily eats, during a month, at midday eight mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacrifice, he will perform the Kândrâyana of ascetics. 19

20. But a Brâhmana who eats anyhow, during a month, thrice eighty mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacrifice, goes to the world of the moon. 20

21. As the rising moon frees the world from the fear of darkness, even so a Brâhmana who performs a Kândrâyana removes the fear of sin.

22. He who lives one day on (rice)-grains, three days on oil-cakes, 'five days on buttermilk mixed with water, seven days on water, and (one day) on air, (performs) the guilt-destroying Tulâpurusha. 22

23. Living on barley-gruel (yâvaka) removes the guilt of corporeal beings after seven days, and so does a fast of seven days; that has been recognised by wise men.

24. By dressing in wet clothes, by living in the open air, and by exposing himself to the sun during the light halves of the months Pausha (December-January), Bhâdrapada (August-September), and Gyeshtha (May-June), a Brâhmana is freed from (all) sin excepting crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya). 24

25. (If one swallows) cows' urine, cowdung, milk, 25 sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kusa grass, mixed with barley gruel, that is the most sanctifying Brahmakûrka.

26. He who fasts on the new moon day and eats sesamum grains on the full moon day, will be freed in the course of a year from the sins which he committed in the bright and the dark halves of the month.

27. He who lives on alms obtained from Agnihotrins is purified in one month; (he who obtains his food) from a Yâyâvara. in ten days; he who receives it from a hermit in the forest, in five days;

28. (He who lives) on food given by a person who has a store sufficient for one day only, will be purified in one day; he who drinks water given by a person subsisting by the Kapota-vritti (pigeon-life), is purified in three (days). 28

29. If one recites the whole Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sâma-veda, or thrice reads one of these Vedas and fasts, (that is) a most efficient means of purification.

30. Now if one is in haste to finish, one may live on air during a day, and pass the night standing in water, that is equal (in efficacy) to a Prâgâpatya (Krikkhra). 30

31. He who at sunrise mutters the Gâyatrî one thousand and eight times, is free from all sin, provided he has not slain a learned Brâhmana.

32. He who distributes food, speaks the truth, and has compassion on all living beings, is more (holy) than all those who have been purified by the restraints mentioned above.

Footnotes Scroll Up

322:1 5. All the Dekhan MSS., including K., have been copied from p. 323 a MS. the leaves of which were out of order. After the first words of ver. 1, they have kshîram dadhisarpih kusodakam, which belongs to ver. 26, and they go on with the text down to IV, 7, 7, after which the end of IV, 5, 1 and 2-25 given.--'Yantra, "restraints," i.e. Krikkhras and the like, (which are called so) on account of the restraint of the senses (required for them).'--Govinda.

323:3-5. Vasishtha XXIV, 5.

323:6 Vasishtha XXI, 20. Repeated, see above, II, 1, 2, 38.

324:7 Vasishtha XXIII, 43; see above, II, 1, 2, 39.

324:8 Vasishtha XXIV, 2-3; see above, II, 1, 2, 40.

324:9 See above, II, 1, 2, 41.

324:10 See above, II, 1, 2, 37.

324:11 Vasishtha XXVII, 13; Vishnu XLVI, 19.

324:12 The texts quoted are found, Taitt. Âranyaka X, 10; III, 17; Taitt. Samhitâ I, 5, 11,4, 7; I, 1, 10, 3; VII, 1, 11, 1.

325:13 Vasishtha XXVII, 13.

325:14 Vasishtha XXVII, 14.

325:15 Vishnu XLVI, 18.

325:16 Vishnu XLVI, 20.

325:17 Vasishtha XXVII, 21; see above, III, 8.

325:18 Vishnu XLVII, 8.

326:19 Vishnu XLVII, 7.

326:20 Vishnu XLVII, 9. Govinda places this verse before Sûtra 19.

326:22 Vishnu XLVII, 22.

326:24 The meaning is that the performer is to stand in wet clothes during the first half of the month Pausha, in the cold season; to live in the open air during the first half of Bhâdrapada, in the rainy season; and to allow himself to be broiled by the sun in Gyeshtha, the hottest time of the hot season.

326:25 I doubt if the reading of Govinda, yavâkâmena (explained p. 327 by yavâgûh) samyuktam, 'mixed with barley-gruel,' is correct. All the MSS. of the text have yavânâm ekasamyukto, which I do not understand. Govinda has Brahmakrikkhrah instead of Brahmakûrkah. But see the Petersb. Diet. s. v. brahmakûrka.

327:28 Regarding the Kapota-vritti, see above, III, 2, 15.

327:30 Vasishtha XXVII, 17. Govinda adds after kartum, 'to finish," the rites connected with the Vedas' (Sûtra 1).

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 6 Scroll Up

1. The (eleven Anuvâkas called) Rudras together with (the ten hymns) seen by Madhukkhandas, the Gâyatrî with the syllable Om, and likewise the seven Vyâhritis (are the texts) which should be muttered (and) which remove guilt. 1

2. The Mrigâreshti, the Pavitreshti, the Trihavis, the Pâvamânî are the Ishtis which efface sin, if they are (each) combined with the Vaisvânara (Dvâdasakapâla). 2

3-4. Learn, also, the following most excellent secret; he will be freed from all sins of all kinds who sprinkles himself with water, reciting the Pavitras, who mutters the eleven (Anuvâkas called) Rudras, who offers burnt oblations of butter, reciting the Pavitras, and gives gold, a cow, and sesamum (to Brâhmanas).

5. He who partakes of boiled barley-gruel, mixed with cow's urine, liquid cowdung, sour milk, milk, and butter, is quickly freed from sin. 5

6. Both he who has begotten a child on a Sûdra woman and he who has had connexion with a female, 6 intercourse with whom is forbidden (agamyâ), are purified (if they live) according to this rule during seven days.

7. (That is likewise) the remedy when one has swallowed semen, ordure, and urine, or eaten the food of persons whose food must not be eaten, (and also) when a younger brother has kindled the sacred fire, has offered a Srauta sacrifice, or taken a wife before the elder. 7

8. He who has committed even a great number of (wicked) actions, excepting mortal sins, will be freed (by that rule) from all guilt. That is the statement of the virtuous.

9. But (this) ordinance, which is based on the authority of the sacred texts, is stated (to be that) through which Bharadvâga and others became equal to Brahman,

10. Through the performance of these rites a Brâhmana, whose heart is full of peace, obtains whatever desires he may have in his heart.

Footnotes Scroll Up

328:1 6. The hymns are Rig-veda I, 1-10.

328:2 Regarding the Mrigâreshti, see Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 7, 15. In explanation of the term Trihavis, Govinda adds the word Savaneshti.

328:5 Yâvaka, translated, as usually, by barley-gruel, can also denote, as Govinda points out, other dishes made of barley.

328:6 See above, II, 1, 2, 7, 10, 13-14.

329:7 See above, II, 2, 1, 21, 39-40. I follow the reading of M. and of the commentary, paryâdhânegyayor etat parivitte ka bheshagam. The reading of the Dekhan MSS. is etat patite kaiva bhoganam, 'that food must be eaten and when one has become an outcast.'

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 7 Scroll Up

1. The wishes of a Brâhmana who has left off evil deeds and is (ever) engaged in holy works are fulfilled even without (the practice of) restraints. 1

2. Upright Brâhmanas quickly accomplish whatever they wish in their hearts, if they are purified by honest actions.

3. Thus a wise man should practise those restraints until he has purified his bodily frame.

4. He who has been purified by those restraints should, after fasting three (days and) nights, begin the performance of that sacred rite through which he wishes to gain the fulfilment of his desires,

5. (Reciting) the Kshâpavitra, the Sahasrâksha, the Mrigâra, the two Ganas (called) Amhomuk, the Pâvamanîs, the Kûshmândîs, and the Rikas, addressed to Vaisvânara, 5

6. (And) offering with (each of) these (Mantras) boiled rice and clarified butter during seven days, in the morning, at midday, and in the evening, keeping a rigid silence, living on food fit for a sacrifice, restraining his senses and his actions,

7. He is freed from all crimes, even mortal sins, after looking on a cross-road at a pot filled with water, (and reciting the text), 'Simhe me manyuh.'

8. He is freed from the multitude of sins, committed unintentionally in old age, in youth, and in infancy, and even from those belonging to former births;

9. After feeding at the end (of the seven days) Brâhmanas with milk and rice, well. mixed with butter, and distributing to them after their dinner cows, land, sesamum, and gold,

10. A Brâhmana becomes internally pure, his guilt being consumed like fuel, and fit for the performance of rites which secure the fulfilment of wishes and of rites like the kindling of the sacred fire.

Footnotes Scroll Up

329:1 7. Yantrâni, 'restraints,' i.e. Krikkhras, the fasts, and other practices described in the preceding chapters.

330:5 According to Govinda the Kshâpavitra, or as the Dekhan MSS. read, Kshmâpavitra, occurs in the Sûtrapâtha of the Taittirîyas, consists of six verses, and begins 'Agne naya.' The text meant must be similar to Taitt. Samhitâ I, t, 14, 3. The Sahasrâksha is the Purushasûkta. The Mrigâra consists of the Yâgyânuvâkyâs of the Mrigâreshti, Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 7, t5. The two Ganas called Amhomuk are found Taitt. Samhitâ II, 3, 13, 1, 'yâ vâm indrâvarunau' and 'yo vâm indrâvarunau: The verses addressed to Agni Vaisvânara are the first eight of Taitt. Samhitâ I, 5, 11.

PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 8 Scroll Up

1. He who, through excessive greed or carelessness, performs this rite for others, is tainted by sin, and perishes like one who has swallowed poison.

2. A Brâhmana who performs this rite for his teacher, his father, his mother, or for himself is resplendent like the sun. Therefore this rite may be performed for those (persons).

3. Ka (Pragâpati) purified by means of this rite the god with a thousand eyes (Sahasrâksha), Fire, Wind, the Sun, Soma, Yama, and other lords of the gods.

4. Whatever there is in these three worlds, famed as possessing a holy name, Brâhmanas and the rest, (all) that was produced by Ka through this rite of sanctification.

5. This sin-destroying secret of Pragâpati was first produced; thereafter thousands of purificatory rites .came into existence. 5

6. He who performs those eight Ganahomas on the (first) day of the year, of a half-year, of a season, or of a fortnight, sanctifies ten ancestors and ten descendants of his line;

7. And, while still on earth, he is known to the gods in heaven as a holy man, and (after death) that virtuous man rejoices for a very long time in heaven like a god.

8. If a Brâhmana is unable to offer those eight Ganahomas, let him offer one; thereby his guilt is effaced.

9. He, also, whose sons or pupils offer those eight Ganahomas, is freed from his sin which is bought off by his having instructed (them).

10. Through a desire of removing one's guilt one even may cause (these oblations) to be offered by men who have been engaged for money, in case oneself is unable (to do it); a man need not torment himself. 10

11. Even among the virtuous a distribution of wealth is made (for the success) of holy rites; some-times a man who is free from debt is (thereby) freed from guilt.

12, Liberated according to this rule from the ocean of guilt and debt, he considers himself pure and able to successfully perform the sacred rites.

13. But in the case of that pure mortal who, freed from all sin and debts, begins the sacred rites, they will succeed without any effort.

14. Let him daily (study and) teach this holy (rule) of Pragâpati, which the sage has proclaimed, let him remember it or hear it. (By doing that) he is freed from all guilt and will be exalted in Brahman's world.

15. Let him mutter during twelve days those sacred texts through which he wishes to accomplish (his desires), eating once (a day) at night boiled rice with clarified butter, with milk, or with sour milk.

16. (Let him offer) ten times a burnt oblation and sprinkle clarified butter. (That is) the preliminary worship (which must be performed) when one desires to accomplish one's objects through those sacred texts.

Footnotes Scroll Up

331:5 8. I.e. those mentioned V, 7, 5.

332:10 The meaning is that in case a wealthy man is unable to bear 'the restraints,' he may hire others to perform the Homas. Though the hired performer will be guilty of a serious offence (Sûtra 1), the person who causes them to be performed will derive benefit from them.

PARISISHTA

PRASNA VII, ADHYÂYA 5 Scroll Up

1. We will explain the rule for the adoption of a son. 1

2. Man, formed of virile seed and uterine blood, proceeds from his mother and father (as an effect) from its cause. 2

3. (Therefore) the father and the mother have power to give, to abandon, or to sell their (son).

4. But let him not give nor receive (in adoption) an only son;

5. For he (must remain) to continue the line of the ancestors.

6. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son except with the permission of her husband.

7. He who is desirous of adopting (a son) procures two garments, two earrings, and a finger-ring; a spiritual guide who has studied the whole Veda; a layer of Kusa grass and fuel of Palâsa wood and so forth. 7

8. Then he convenes his relations, informs the king (of his intention to adopt) in (their) presence, feeds the (invited) Brâhmanas in the assembly or in (his) dwelling, and makes them wish him 'an auspicious day,' 'hail,' (and) 'prosperity.' 8

9. Then he performs the ceremonies which begin with the drawing of the lines on the altar and end with the placing of the water-vessels, goes to the giver (of the child) and should address (this) request (to him), 'Give me (thy) son.'

10. The other answers, 'I give (him).'

11. He receives (the child with these words), 'I take thee for the fulfilment of (my) religious duties; I take thee to continue the line (of my ancestors).'

12. Then he adorns him with the (above-mentioned) two garments, the two earrings, and the finger-ring, performs the rites which begin with the placing of the (pieces of wood called) paridhis (fences round the altar) and end with the Agnimukha, and offers (a portion) of the cooked (food) in the fire. 12

13. Having recited the Puronuvâkyâ (verse), 'He who thinking of thee with a discerning mind,' &c., he offers an oblation, reciting the Yâgyâ (verse), 'To which performer of good deeds, thou, O Gâtavedas,' &c. 13

14. Then he offers (oblations, reciting) the Vyâhritis;--(the ceremonies) which begin the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit and end with the presentation 14 of a cow as a fee (to the officiating priest are) known;--

15. And presents (to the spiritual guide) as a sacrificial fee those two dresses, those two earrings, and that finger-ring (with which he had adorned the child).

16. If after the performance of these (rites) a legitimate son of his own body is born (to the adopter, then the adopted son) receives a fourth (of the legitimate son's) share. Thus says Baudhâyana. 16

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Footnotes Scroll Up

334:1 5. This chapter has been translated by Mr. Sutherland, Dattaka Mîmâmsâ V, 42, and Dattaka Kandrikâ II, 16, and by myself, journal Bengal Br. Roy. As. Soc., vol. XXXV, p.162.

334:2-6. Identical with Vasishtha XV, 1-5. The best MS. omits the particle tu, 'but,' in Sûtra 6, while others have it.

334:7-8. Vasishtha XV, 7. The translation of madhye by 'in their presence' rests on the authority of the Samskârakaustubha 47 b, 11, where it is explained madhye [a] iti bandhusamaksham. The other explanation 'in the middle (of his dwelling),' to which the interpolated text of the Dattaka Mîmâmsâ and Dattaka Kandrikrâ refers, is, however, also possible.

335:8 The ceremony alluded to is the so-called punyâhavâkanam.

335:12 The correct reading is pakvâg guhoti.

335:13 The two texts are found Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 4, 46, I.

335:14 Vasishtha XV, 7. The parenthetical phrase occurs frequently in the Dharma-sûtra;. see e.g. III, 4, 3.

336:16 Vasishtha XV, 9.

Source: The Sacred Laws Of The Âryas As Taught In The Schools Of Âpastamba, Guatama, Vâsishtha, And Baudhayana Translated By Georg Bühler Part II, Vâsishtha And Baudhâyana Sacred Books Of The East, Vol. 2: Oxford: The Clarendon Press [1882]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.