The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Part 2

Translated by Georg BŁhler



1. (A student who desires to become) a house-holder shall bathe, free from anger and elation, with the permission of his teacher, and take for a wife a young female of his own caste, who does neither belong to the same Gotra nor has the same Pravara, who has not had intercourse (with another man), 1

2. Who is not related within four degrees on the mother's side, nor within six degrees on the father s side. 2

3. Let him kindle the nuptial fire. 3

4. Let him not turn away a guest who comes in the evening. 4

5. (A guest) shall not dwell in his house without receiving food. 5

6. If a Br‚hmana who has come for shelter to the house of a (householder) receives no food, on departure he will take with him all the spiritual merit of that (churlish host). 6

7. But a Br‚hmana who stays for one night only is called a guest. For (the etymological import of the word) atithi (a guest) is 'he who stays for a short while only.' 7

8. A Br‚hmana who lives in the same village (with his host) and a visitor on business, or pleasure (are) not (called guests. But a guest), whether he arrives at the moment (of dinner) or at an inopportune time, must not stay in the house of a (householder) without receiving food. 8

9. (A householder) who has faith, is free from covetousness, and (possesses wealth) sufficient for (performing) the Agny‚dheya-sacrifice, must become an Agnihotrin. 9

10. He (who possesses wealth) sufficient for (the expenses of) a Soma, sacrifice shall not abstain from offering it. 10

11. (A householder) shall be industrious in reciting the Veda, offering sacrifices, begetting children, and (performing his other duties). 11

12. Let him honour visitors (who come) to his house by rising to meet them, by (offering them) seats, by speaking to them kindly and extolling their virtues, 12

13. And all creatures by (giving them) food according to his ability. 13

14. A householder alone performs sacrifices, a householder alone performs austerities, and (therefore) the order of householders is the most distinguished among the four. 14

15. As all rivers, both great and small, find a resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders find protection with householders. 15

16. As all creatures exist through the protection afforded by their mothers, even so all mendicants subsist through the protection afforded by householders.

17. A Br‚hmana who always carries water (in his gourd), who always wears the sacred thread, who daily recites the Veda, who avoids the food of outcasts, who approaches (his wife) in the proper season, and offers sacrifices in accordance with the 17 rules (of the Veda, after death) never falls from Brahman's heaven.


1. A hermit shall wear (his hair in) braids, and dress (in garments made of) bark and skins; 1

2. And he shall not enter a village. 2

3. He shall not step on ploughed (land). 3

4. He shall gather wild growing roots and fruit (only). 4

5. He shall remain chaste. 5

6. His heart shall be full of meekness. 6

7. He shall honour guests coming to his hermitage with alms (consisting of) roots and fruit. 7

8. He shall only give, not receive (presents).

9. He shall bathe at morn, noon, and eve. 9

10. Kindling a fire according to the (rule of the) Sr‚manaka (SŻtra), he shall offer the Agnihotra. 10

11. After (living in this manner during) six months, 11 he shall dwell at the root of a tree, keeping no fire and having no house.

12. He (who in this manner) gives (their due) to gods, manes, and men, will attain endless (bliss in) heaven.


1. Let an ascetic depart from his house, giving a promise of safety from injury to all animated beings. 1

2. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'That ascetic who wanders about at peace with all creatures, forsooth, has nothing to fear from any living being,' 2

3. 'But he who becomes an ascetic and does not promise safety from injury to all beings, destroys the born and the unborn; and (so does an ascetic) who accepts presents.' 3

4. Let him discontinue the performance of all religious ceremonies, but let him never discontinue the recitation of the Veda. By neglecting the Veda he becomes a SŻdra; therefore he shall not neglect it.' 4

5 '(To pronounce) the one syllable (Om) is the best (mode of reciting the) Veda, to suppress the breath is the highest (form of) austerity; (to subsist on) alms is better than fasting; compassion is preferable to liberality.' 5

6. (Let the ascetic) shave (his head); let him have no property and no home. 6

7. Let him beg food at seven houses which he has not selected (beforehand), 7

8. (At the time) when the smoke (of the kitchen-fire) has ceased and the pestle lies motionless. 8

9. Let him wear a single garment, 9

10. Or cover his body with a skin or with grass that has been nibbled at by a cow.

11. Let him sleep on the bare ground.

12. Let him frequently change his residence, 12

13. (Dwelling) at the extremity of the village, in a temple, or in an empty house, or at the root of a tree.

14. Let him (constantly) seek in his heart the knowledge (of the universal soul). 14

15. (An ascetic) who lives constantly in the forest,

16. Shall not wander about within sight of the village-cattle.

17. 'Freedom from future births is certain for him who constantly dwells in the forest, who has subdued his organs of sensation and action, who has renounced all sensual gratification, whose mind is fixed in meditation on the Supreme Spirit, and who is (wholly) indifferent (to pleasure and pain).'

18. (Let him) not (wear) any visible mark (of his order), nor (follow) any visible rule of conduct.

19. Let him, though not mad, appear like one out of his mind.

20. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'There is no salvation for him who is addicted to 20

the pursuit of the science of words, nor for him who rejoices in captivating men, nor for him who is fond of (good) eating and (fine) clothing, nor for him who loves a pleasant dwelling.'

21. 'Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens, nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by casuistry and expositions (of the S‚stras), let him ever seek to obtain alms.' 21

22. 'Let him not be dejected when he obtains nothing, nor glad when he receives something. Let him only seek as much as will sustain life, without caring for household property.' 22

23. 'But he, forsooth, knows (the' road to) salvation who cares neither for a hut, nor for water, nor for clothes, nor for the three Pushkaras' (holy tanks), nor for a house, nor for a seat, nor for food.' 23

24. In the morning and in the evening he may eat as much (food) as he obtains in the house of one Br‚hmana, excepting honey and meat, 24

25. And he shall not (eat so much that he is quite) satiated. 25

26. At his option (an ascetic) may (also) dwell in a village.

27. Let him not be crooked (in his ways); (let him) not (observe the rules of) impurity on account 27 of deaths (or births); let him not have a house; let him be of concentrated mind.

28. Let him not enjoy any object of sensual gratification.

29. Let him be (utterly) indifferent, avoiding to do injury or to show kindness to any living being.

30. To avoid backbiting, jealousy, pride, self-consciousness, unbelief, dishonesty, self-praise, blaming others, deceit, covetousness, delusion, anger, and envy is considered to be the duty of (men of) all orders. 30

31. A Br‚hmana who wears the sacred thread, who holds in his hand a gourd filled with water, who is pure and avoids the food of SŻdras will not fail (to gain) the world of Brahman. 31


1. Six persons are (particularly) worthy to receive the honey-mixture (madhuparka), 1

2. (Viz.) an officiating priest, the bridegroom of one's daughter, a king, a paternal uncle, a Sn‚taka, a maternal uncle, as well as (others enumerated elsewhere).

3. (A householder) shall offer, both at the morning and the evening (meals, a portion) of the prepared (food) to the Visve Devas in the (sacred) domestic fire. 3

4. Let him give a Bali-offering to the (guardian) deities of the house, 4

5. (Thereafter) let him give a portion, one Pala in weight, to a Srotriya or to a student, (and afterwards an offering) to the manes. 5

6. Next let him feed his guests in due order, the worthiest first, 6

7. (Thereafter) the maidens, the infants, the aged, the half-grown members of his family, and prad‚t‚s, 7

8. Then the other members of his family. 8

9. (Outside the house) he shall throw (some food) on the ground for the dogs, K‚nd‚las, outcasts, and crows. 9

10. He may give to a SŻdra either the fragments (of the meal) or (a portion of) fresh (food). 10

11. The master of the house and his wife may eat what remains. 11

12. A fresh meal for which all (the same materials as for the first) are used (may be prepared), if a guest comes after the Vaisvadeva has been offered. For such a (guest) he shall cause to be prepared food (of a) particularly (good quality). 12

13. For it has been declared in the Veda, 'A Br‚hmana guest enters the house resembling the Vaisv‚nara fire. Through., him they obtain rain, and food through rain. Therefore people know that the (hospitable reception of a guest) is a ceremony averting evil.'

14. Having fed the (guest), he shall honour him. 14

15. He shall accompany him to the boundary (of the village) or until he receives permission (to return).

16. Let him present (funeral offerings) to the manes during the dark half of the month (on any day) after the fourth. 16

17. After issuing an invitation on the day preceding (the Sr‚ddha, he shall feed on that occasion) three ascetics or three virtuous householders, who are Srotriyas, who are not very aged, who do not follow forbidden occupations, and neither (have been his) pupils, nor are (living as) pupils in his house. 17

18. He may also feed pupils who are endowed with good qualities. 18

19. Let him avoid men neglecting their duties, 19 those afflicted with white leprosy, eunuchs, blind men, those who have black teeth, those who suffer from black leprosy, (and) those who have deformed nails.

20. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Now, if a (Br‚hmana) versed in the Vedas is afflicted with bodily (defects) which exclude him from the company, Yama declares him to be irreproachable. Such (a man) sanctifies the company.' 20

21. 'At a funeral sacrifice the fragments (of the meal) must not be swept away until the end of the day. For streams of nectar flow (from them, and the manes of) those who have received no libations of water drink (them).' 21

22. 'But let him not sweep up the fragments (of the meal) before the sun has set. Thence issue rich streams of milk for those who obtain a share with difficulty.' 22

23. 'Manu declares that both the remainder (in the vessels) and the fragments (of the meal) certainly are the portion of those members of the family who died before receiving the sacraments.' 23

24. 'Let him give the fragments that have fallen on the ground and the portion scattered (on the blades of Kusa grass), which consists of the wipings and water, as their food, to the manes of those who died without offspring and of those who died young.'

25. 'The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity (to snatch away) that food intended for the manes, which is not supported with both hands;' 25

26. 'Therefore let him not offer it (to the Br‚hmanas) without holding (a spoon) in his hand; or let him stand, holding the dish (with both hands, until) leavings of both kinds (have been produced).' 26

27. 'He shall feed two (Br‚hmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or a single man on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.' 27

28. 'A large company destroys these five (advantages), the respectful treatment (of the invited guests, the propriety of) time and place, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Br‚hmana (guests); therefore he shall not (invite a large number).' 28

29. 'Or he may entertain (at a Sr‚ddha) even a single Br‚hmana who has studied the whole Veda, who is distinguished by learning and virtue, and is free from all evil marks (on his body).' 29

30. '(But) how can the oblation to the gods be made if he feeds a single Br‚hmana at a funeral sacrifice? Let him take (a portion) of each (kind of) food that has been prepared (and put it) into a vessel;'

31. 'Let him place it in the sanctuary of a god and afterwards continue (the performance of) the funeral sacrifice. Let him offer that food in the fire or give it (as alms) to a student.'

32. 'As long as the food continues warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not declared (by them), so long the manes feast on it.' 32

33. 'The qualities of the food must not be declared as long as the (Br‚hmanas who represent the) manes are not satiated. Afterwards when they are satisfied, they may say, "Beautiful is the sacrificial food."'

34. 'But an ascetic who, invited to dine at a sacrifice of the manes or of the gods, rejects meat, shall go to hell for as many years as the slaughtered beast has hairs.' 34

35. 'Three (things are held to) sanctify a funeral sacrifice, a daughter's son, the midday, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, purity, freedom from anger and from precipitation.' 35

36. 'The eighth division of the day, during which the sun's (progress in the heavens) becomes slow, one must know to be midday; what is (then) given to the manes lasts (them) for a very long time.'

37. 'The ancestors of that man who has intercourse 37 with a woman after offering or having dined at a Sr‚ddha, feed during a month from that (day) on his semen.'

38. 'A child that is born from (intercourse immediately) after offering a Sr‚ddha or partaking of a funeral repast, is unable to acquire sacred learning and becomes short-lived.'

39. 'The father and the grandfather, likewise the great-grandfather, beset a descendant who is born to them, just as birds (fly to) a rig tree;' 39

40. '(Saying), "He will offer to us funeral repasts with honey and meat, with vegetables, with milk and with messes made of milk, both in the rainy season and under the constellation Magh‚h."

41. 'The ancestors always rejoice at a descendant who lengthens the line, who is zealous in performing funeral sacrifices, and who is rich in (images of the) gods and (virtuous) Br‚hmana (guests).' 41

42. 'The manes consider him to be their (true) descendant who offers (to them) food at Gay‚, and (by the virtue of that gift) they grant him (blessings), just as husbandmen (produce grain) on well-ploughed (fields).' 42

43. He shall offer (a Sr‚ddha) both on the full moon days of the months Sr‚vana and ¬grah‚yana and on the AnvashtakÓ. 43

44. There is no restriction as to time, if (particularly suitable) materials and (particularly holy) Br‚hmanas are at hand, or (if the sacrificer is) near (a particularly sacred) place. 44

45. A Br‚hmana must necessarily kindle the three sacred fires. 45

46. He shall offer (in them) the full and new moon sacrifices, the (half-yearly) ¬graya.a Ishti, the K‚turm‚sya-sacrifice, the (half-yearly) sacrifices at which animals are slain, and the (annual) Soma-sacrifices. 46

47. For all this is (particularly) enjoined (in the Veda), and called by way of laudation 'a debt.' 47

48. For it is declared in the Veda, 'A Br‚hmana is born, loaded with three debts,' (and further, 'He owes) sacrifices to the gods, a son to the manes, the study of the Veda to the Rishis; therefore he is free from debt who has offered sacrifices, who has begotten a son, and who has lived as a student (with a teacher).' 48

49. Let him (ordinarily) initiate a Br‚hmana in the eighth (year) after conception, 49

50. A Kshatriya in the eleventh year after conception,

51. A Vaisya in the twelfth year after conception.

52. The staff of a Br‚hmana (student may) optionally (be made) of Pal‚sa wood, 52

53. (That) of a Kshatriya optionally of the wood of the Banyan tree,

54. (That) of a Vaisya optionally of Udumbara wood.

55. (The staff) of a Br‚hmana shall (be of such a length as to) reach the hair, 55

56. (That) of a Kshatriya the forehead,

57. (That) of a Vaisya the (tip of the) nose.

58. The girdle of a Br‚hmana shall be made of MuŮga grass, 58

59. A bowstring (shall be that) of a Kshatriya,

60. (That) of a Vaisya shall be made of hempen threads.

61. The upper garment of a Br‚hmana (shall be) the skin of a black antelope, 61

62. (That) of a Kshatriya the skin of a spotted deer,

63. (That) of a Vaisya a cow-skin or the hide of a he-goat.

64. The (lower) garment of a Br‚hmana (shall be) white (and) unblemished, 64

65. (That) of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,

66. (That) of a Vaisya dyed with turmeric, or made of (raw) silk;

67. Or (a dress made of) undyed (cotton) cloth may be worn by (students of) all (castes).

68. A Br‚hmana shall ask for alms placing (the word) 'Lady' first, 68

69. A Kshatriya placing (the word)' Lady' in the middle,

70. A Vaisya placing (the word) Lady' at the end (of the formula).

71. The time (for the initiation) of a Br‚hmana has not passed until the completion of the sixteenth year, 71

72. (For that) of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty-second,

73. (For that) of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty-fourth.

74. After that they become 'men whose S‚vitrÓ has been neglected.' 74

75. Let him not initiate such men, nor teach them, nor sacrifice for them; let them not form matrimonial alliances (with such outcasts). 75

76. A man whose S‚vitrÓ has not been performed, may undergo the Udd‚laka-penance.

77. Let him subsist during two months on barley-gruel, during one month on milk, during half a month on curds of two-milk whey, during eight days on clarified butter, during six days on alms given without asking, (and) during three days on water, and let him fast for one day and one night.

78. (Or) he may go to bathe (with the priests) at the end of an Asvamedha (horse-sacrifice). 78

79. Or he may offer a Vr‚tya-stoma. 79


1. Now, therefore, the duties of a Sn‚taka (will be explained). 1

2. Let him not beg from anybody except from a king and a pupil. 2

3. But let him ask, if pressed by hunger, for some (small gift) only, a cultivated or uncultivated field, a cow, a goat or a sheep, (or) at the last extremity, for gold, grain or food. 3

4. But the injunction (given by those who know the law) is, 'A Sn‚taka shall not be faint with hunger.' 4

5. Let him not dwell together with a person whose clothes are foul; 5

6. (Let him not cohabit) with a woman during her courses,

7. Nor with an unfit one. 7

8. Let him not be a stay-at-home. 8

9. Let him not step over a stretched rope to which a calf (or cow) is tied. 9

10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or sets. 10

11. Let him not void excrements or urine in water, 11

12. Nor spit into it.

13. Let him ease himself, after wrapping up his head and covering the ground with grass that is not fit to be used at a sacrifice, and turning towards the north in the day-time, turning towards the south at night, sitting with his face towards the north in the twilight. 13

14. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'But Sn‚takas shall always wear a lower garment and an upper one, two sacrificial threads, (shall carry) a staff and a vessel filled with water.' 14

15. 'It is declared, that (a vessel becomes) pure (if cleaned) with water, or with the hand, or with a stick, or with fire: Therefore he shall clean (his) vessel with water and with his (right) hand.'

16. 'For Manu, the lord of created beings, calls (this mode of cleaning) encircling it-with fire.'

17. He who is perfectly acquainted with (the rules of) purification shall sip water (out of this vessel), after he has relieved the necessities of nature.'

18. Let him eat his food facing the east. 18

19. Silently let him swallow the entire mouthful, (introducing it into the mouth) with the four fingers and with the thumb; 19

20. And let him not make a noise (while eating).

21. Let him approach his wife in the proper season, except on the Parva days. 21

22. Let him not commit a crime against nature (with her).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The ancestors of a man-who commits an unnatural crime with a wedded wife, feed during that month on his semen. All unnatural intercourse is against the sacred law.'

24. It is also declared in the K‚thaka, '(When) the women (asked) Indra, "May even those among us, who are soon to be mothers, (be allowed to) cohabit with their husbands," he granted that wish.'

25. Let him not ascend a tree. 25

26. Let him not descend into a well.

27. Let him not blow the fire with his mouth.

28. Let him not pass between a fire and a Br‚hmana, 28

29. Nor between two fires;

30. Nor between two Br‚hmanas; or (he may do it) after having asked for permission. 30

31. Let him not dine together with his wife. For it is declared in the V‚gasaneyaka, His children will be destitute of manly vigour.' 31

32. Let him not point out (a rainbow calling it) by (its proper) name, 'Indra's bow.' 32

33. Let him call it 'the jewelled bow' (manidhanuh).

34. Let him avoid seats, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, (and other implements) made of Pal‚sa wood. 34

35. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap. 35

36. Let him not eat (food placed) on a chair. 36

37. Let him carry a staff of bamboo, 37

38. And (wear) two golden earrings. 38

39. Let him not wear any visible wreath excepting a golden one; 39

40. And let him disdain assemblies and crowds. 40

41. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'To deny the authority of the Vedas, to carp at the teaching of the Rishis, to waver with respect to any (matter of duty), that is to destroy one's soul.' 41

42. Let him not go to a sacrifice except if he is chosen (to be an officiating priest. But) if he goes,. he must, on returning home, turn his right hand (towards the place). 42

43. Let him not set out on a journey when the sun stands over the trees. 43

44. Let him not ascend an unsafe boat, or (any unsafe conveyance). 44

45. Let him not cross a river, swimming. 45

46. When he has risen in the last watch (of the night) and has recited (the Veda) he shall not lie down again. 46

47. In the MuhŻrta sacred to Prag‚pati a Br‚hmana shall fulfil some sacred duties. 47


1. Now, therefore, the Up‚karman (or the rite preparatory to the study) of the Veda (must be performed) on the full moon day of the month Sr‚vana or Praushthapada. 1

2. Having kindled the sacred fire, he offers (therein) unground (rice) grains,

3. To the gods, to the Rishis, and to the Khandas.

4. Let them begin to study the Vedas, after having made Br‚hmanas (invited for the purpose) wish 'welfare' (svasti), and after having fed them with sour milk,

5. (And continue the Veda-study) during four 5 months and a half or during five months and a half.

6. After (the expiration of) that (period), he may study (the Vedas) during the bright half of each month, 6

7. But the supplementary treatises (Aṅgas) of the Veda at pleasure (both during the bright and the dark halves of each month).

8. Interruptions of the (Veda-study shall take place),

9. If it thunders during the twilight, 9

10. During (both) the twilights (of each day), 10

11. In towns where a corpse (lies) or K‚nd‚las (stay). 11

12. At pleasure (he may study seated) in (a place) which has been smeared with cowdung and around which a line has been drawn. 12

13. (Let him not study) near a burial-ground, 13

14. (Nor) lying down, 14

15. Nor when he has eaten or received a gift at a funeral sacrifice; 15

16. And with reference to this (subject) they quote a verse of Manu, 'Be it fruit, or water, or 16 sesamum, or food, or whatever be the (gift) at a Sr‚ddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for it is declared in the Smriti, that the hand of a Br‚hmana is his mouth.'

17. (Let him not recite the Veda) while he runs, (nor) while a foul smell and the like (are perceptible, nor) on barren ground, 17

18. (Nor) when he has ascended a tree, 18

19. (Nor) in a boat or in a camp, 19

20. Nor after meals while his hands are moist, 20

21. (Nor) while the sound of a V‚na (is heard), 21

22. (Nor) on the fourteenth day (of each half-month, nor) on the new moon day, (nor) on the eighth day (of each half-month, nor) on an Ashtak‚, 22

23. (Nor) while he stretches his feet out, (nor) while he makes a lap, (nor) while he leans against (something), nor (in any other unbecoming posture), 23

24. (Nor) close to his Gurus,

25. (Nor) during that night in which he has had conjugal intercourse,

26. (Nor) dressed in that garment which he had on during conjugal intercourse, except if it has been washed, 26

27. (Nor) at the extremity of a village, 27

28. (Nor) after (an attack of) vomiting, 28

29. (Nor) while voiding urine or fśces. 29

30. (Let him not recite) the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, and (the Atharva-veda) while the sound of the S‚man melodies (is audible), nor (the S‚man while the other Vedas are being recited). 30

31. (Let him not study) before (his food is) digested, 31

32. (Nor) when a thunderbolt falls, 32

33. (Nor) when an earthquake happens,

34. Nor when the sun and the moon are eclipsed.

35. When a preternaturally loud sound is heard in the sky, when a mountain falls, (and) when showers of stones, blood or sand (fall from the sky, the Veda must not be read) during the twenty-four hours (immediately succeeding the event). 35

36. If meteors and lightning appear together, (the interruption shall last) three (days and) nights.

37. A meteor (alone and) a flash: of lightning (alone cause an interruption lasting) as long as the sun shines (on that or the next day).

38. (If rain or other celestial phenomena come) out of season, (the Veda must not be read) during the twenty-four hours (immediately succeeding the event). 38

39. If the teacher has died, (he shall not study the Veda) during three (days and) nights. 39

40. If the teacher's son, a pupil, or a wife (have died, he shall not study) during a day and a night. 40

41. Let him honour an officiating priest, a father-in-law, paternal and maternal uncles, (though they may be) younger than himself, by rising and saluting them,

42. Likewise the wives of those persons whose feet must be embraced, and the teacher's (wives) 42

43. And his parents.

44. Let him say to one acquainted with (the meaning of) a salute, 'I N. N. ho! (salute thee);' 44

45. But him who does not know it (he shall address with the same formula, omitting his name). 45

46. When a salute is returned, the last vowel (of the noun standing) in the vocative is produced to the length of three moras, and if it is a diphthong (e or o) changeable according to the Sandhi rules, it becomes ‚y or ‚v, e.g. bho, bh‚v. 46

47. A father who has committed a crime causing loss of caste must be cast off. But a mother does not become an outcast for her son. 47

48. Now they quote also (the following verses): 48 'The teacher (‚k‚rya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-teacher (up‚dhy‚ya), the father a hundred times more than the teacher, and the mother a thousand times more than the father.'

49. 'A wife, sons, and pupils who are defiled by sinful deeds, must first be reproved, and (if they do not amend, then) be cast off. He who forsakes them in any other way, becomes (himself) an outcast.' 49

50. An officiating priest and a teacher who neglect to teach the recitation of the Veda, or to sacrifice, shall be cast off. If he does not forsake them, he becomes an outcast. 50

51. They declare that the male offspring of outcasts are (also) outcasts, but not the females. 51

52. For a female enters (the family of) a stranger.

53. He may marry such a (female) without a dowry. 53

54. 'If the teacher's teacher is near, he must be treated like the teacher (himself). The Veda declares that one must behave towards the teacher's son just as towards the teacher.' 54

55. A Br‚hmana shall not accept (as gifts) weapons, poison, and spirituous liquor.

56. Learning, wealth, age, relationship, and occupation must be honoured. 56

57. (But) each earlier named (quality) is more venerable than (the succeeding ones).

58. If he meets aged men, infants, sick men, load-carriers, women, and persons riding in chariots, he 58 must make way (for them, i.e.) for each later (named before those enumerated earlier).

59. If a king and a Sn‚taka meet, the king must make (way) for the Sn‚taka.

60. All (must make way) for a bride who is being conveyed (to her husband's house).

61. Grass, room (for resting), fire, water, a welcome, and kind words never fail in the houses of good men. 61


1. Now, therefore, we will declare what may be eaten and what may not be eaten.

2. Food given by a physician, a hunter, a woman of bad character, a mace-bearer, a thief, an Abhisasta, a eunuch, (or) an outcast must not be eaten, 2

3. (Nor that given) by a miser, one who has performed the initiatory ceremony of a Srauta-sacrifice, a prisoner, a sick person, a seller of the Soma-plant, a carpenter, a washerman, a dealer in spirituous liquor, a spy, a usurer, (or) a cobbler, 3

4. Nor (that given) by a SŻdra, 4

5. Nor (that given) by one who lives by his weapons, 5

6. Nor (that given) by the (kept) paramour of a 6 married woman, or by a husband who allows a paramour (to his wife),

7. Nor (that given) by an incendiary,

8. Nor (that given) by (a ruler) who does not slay those worthy of capital punishment,

9. Nor (food) offered publicly with these words, 'Who is willing to eat?' 9

10. Nor food given by a multitude of givers, or by harlots, and so forth. 10

11. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The gods do not eat (the offerings) of a man who keeps dogs, nor of him whose (only) wife is of the SŻdra caste, nor of him who lives in subjection to his wife, nor of (a husband) who (permits) a paramour (of his wife to reside) in his house.' 11

12. He may accept (the following presents even) from such (people, viz.) firewood, water, fodder, Kusa grass, parched grain, (food) given without asking, a vehicle, (shelter in) the house, small fish, millet, a garland, perfumes, honey, and meat. 12

13. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'For the sake of a Guru, when he desires to save his wife (and family from starvation), when he wishes to honour the gods or guests, he may accept (presents) from anybody; but let him not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (gifts).' 13

14. Food given by a hunter who uses the bow must not be rejected.

15. For it is declared in the Veda, 'At a sacrificial session (sattra), which lasted one thousand years, Agastya went out to hunt. He had sacrificial cakes prepared with the meat of beasts and fowls good (to eat).' 15

16. With reference to this (subject) they quote also some verses proclaimed by Prag‚pati, 'Prag‚pati (the Lord of created beings) has declared that food freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) may be eaten, though (the giver) be a sinful man, provided the gift has not been asked for beforehand.' 16

17. Food offered by a man who has faith must certainly be eaten, even though (the giver) be a thief, but not that given by (a Br‚hmana) who sacrifices for many and who initiates many.'

18. 'The manes do not eat during fifteen years (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely offered gift), nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).' 18

19. 'But alms, though offered without asking, must not be accepted from a physician, from a hunter, from a surgeon or a (very) wicked man, from a eunuch, and from a faithless wife.' 19

20. Fragments of food left by other persons than the teacher must not be eaten, 20

21. Nor remnants of one's own (meal) and food touched by leavings,

22. Nor (food) defiled by contact with a garment, hair, or insects. 22

23. But at pleasure he may use (such food) after taking out the hair and the insects, sprinkling it with water, dropping ashes on it, and (after it has been declared) fit for use by the word (of a Br‚hmana). 23

24. With reference to this (subject) they quote also some verses proclaimed by Prag‚pati, The gods created for Br‚hmanas three means of purifying (defiled substances), viz. ignorance (of defilement), sprinkling (them) with water, and commending (them) by word of mouth.' 24

25. Let him not throw away that food which, at a procession with images of the gods, at weddings, and at sacrifices, is touched by crows or dogs.'

26. After the (defiled) portion has been removed, the remainder shall be purified, liquids by straining them, but solid food by sprinkling it with water.' 26

27. 'What has been touched by the mouth of a cat is even pure.'

28. (Cooked food which has become) stale (by being kept), what is naturally bad, what has been placed once only in the dish, what has been cooked more than once, raw (food), and (food) insufficiently cooked (must not be eaten). 28

29. But at pleasure he may use (such food) after pouring over it sour milk or clarified butter. 29

30. With reference to this (subject) they quote also some verses proclaimed by Prag‚pati, 'A Br‚hmana shall not eat clarified butter or oil which drips from the nails (of the giver). Yama has declared such (food to be) impure; (to eat it is as sinful) as to partake of cow's flesh.'

31. 'But fatty substances, salt, and condiments proffered with the hand do not benefit the giver, and he who partakes of them will eat sin.'

32. 'Let him give, therefore, such substances placed on a leaf or on grass, but never with his hands or in an iron vessel.'

33. For eating garlic, onions, mushrooms, turnips, Sleshm‚ntaka, exudations from trees, the red sap flowing from incisions (in trees or plants), food pecked at by crows or worried by dogs, or the leavings of a SŻdra, an Atikrikkhra (penance must be performed). 33

34. (Let him not drink) the milk of a cow that is in heat, nor of one whose calf has died, 34

35. Nor that which cows, buffalo-cows, and goats give during the first ten days (after giving birth to young ones), 35

36. Nor water collected at the bottom of a boat.

37. Let him avoid wheat-cakes, (fried) grain, porridge, barley-meal, pulse-cakes, oil, rice boiled in milk, and vegetables that have turned sour (by standing), 37

38. Likewise other kinds of (sour) food prepared with milk and barley-flour.

39. Among five-toed animals, the porcupine, the hedgehog, the hare, the tortoise, and the iguana may be eaten, 39

40. Among (domestic) animals those having teeth in one jaw only, excepting camels. 40

41. And among fishes, the long-nosed crocodile, the Gavaya, the porpoise, the alligator, and the crab (must not be eaten), 41

42. Nor those which are misshaped or have heads like snakes,

43. Nor the bos Gaurus, the Gayal, and the Sarabha, 43

44. Nor those that have not been (specially mentioned (as fit for food), 44

45. Nor milch-cows, draught-oxen, and animals whose milk teeth have not dropped out. 45

46. It is declared in the V‚gasaneyaka, that (the flesh of) milch-cows and oxen is fit for offerings. 46

47. But regarding the rhinoceros and the wild boar they make conflicting statements.

48. And among birds, those who seek their food by scratching with their feet, the web-footed ones, the Kalaviṅka, the water-hen, the flamingo, the 48 BrahmanÓ duck, the Bh‚sa, the crow, the blue pigeon, the osprey, the K‚taka, the dove, the crane, the black partridge, the grey heron, the vulture, the falcon, the white egret, the ibis, the cormorant, the peewit, the flying-fox, those flying about at night, the woodpecker, the sparrow, the Rail‚taka, the green pigeon, the wagtail, the village-cock, the parrot, the starling, the cuckoo, those feeding on flesh, and those living about villages (must not be eaten).

Suggestions for Further Reading

Footnotes Scroll Up

42:1 VIII. Vishnu XXIV, 9; Gautama IV, 1-2. Regarding the bath at the end of the studentship, see Vishnu XXVIII, 42, and Professor Jolly's note.

42:2 Vishnu XXLV, 10.; Gautama. IV, 2.

42:3 Vishnu LIX, 1, and Professor Jolly's note. The fire intended is the grihya or sm‚rta, the sacred household fire, which according o this SŻtra must be kindled on the occasion of the marriage ceremony, while other Smritis permit of its being lighted on the division of the paternal estate.

43:4 Vishnu LXVII, 28-29.

43:5 Vishnu LXVII, 30.

43:6 Vishnu LXVII, 33.

43:7 Identical with Vishnu LXVII, 34; Manu III, 102.

43:8 Vishnu LXVII, 35; Manu III, 105.

43:9 Vishnu LIX, 2. The Agnihotra which is here 'intended is, of course, the Srauta Agnihotra, to be performed with three fires. The Agny‚dheya is one of the HaviryagŮas with which the Sraut‚gnihotrin has to begin his rites.

43:10 Vishnu LIX, 8.

44:11 I agree with Krishnapandita that the word 'and' used in this enumeration serves the purpose of calling to mind that there are other minor duties. The three named specially are the so-called 'three debts;' see below, XI, 48.

44:12 Vishnu LXVII, 45 Gautama V, 38-41.

44:13 Vishnu LXVII, 26.

44:14-17. Vishnu LIX, 27-30; Manu VI, 89.

44:15 Identical with Manu VI, 90.

44:17 'Who always carries water (in his gourd)' (nityodakÓ) may also be translated, 'who always keeps water (in his house);' see ¬pastamba II, 1, 1, 15. 'Who always wears the sacred thread' p. 45 may also mean 'who always wears his upper in the manner required at a sacrifice,' i.e. passes it over the left and under the right arm.

Footnotes Scroll Up

45:1 IX. Vishnu XCIV, 8-9; Gautama III, 34. Krishnapandita takes kÓra, 'bark,' to mean '(made of) grass,' e.g. of MuŮga or Balvaga.

45:2 Gautama III, 33. The particle 'and' probably indicates that the hermit is not to enter any other inhabited place.

45:3 Gautama III, 32.

45:4 Vishnu XCV, 5.

45:5 Vishnu XCV, 7.

45:6 Manu VI, 8.

45:7 Gautama III, 30.

45:9 Vishnu XCV, 10.

45:10 Gautama III, 27. Krishnapandita and MSS. B. F. read sr‚vanakena, and the rest ‚varnakena. I read sr‚manakena, 'according to the rule of the Sr‚manaka SŻtra,' in accordance with Gautama's text. Baudh‚yana, too, uses the same word.

45:11 Manu VI, 25.

Footnotes Scroll Up

46:1 X. Manu VI, 39; Y‚gŮavalkya III, 61.

46:2 Manu VI, 40.

46:3 'The born and the unborn,' i.e. his ancestors who lose heaven, and his descendants who lose their caste.

46:4 Manu VI, 39.

46:5 Manu II, 83.

46:6 Gautama III, 11, 22. The term parigraha, 'home,' includes the wife, the family, attendants, and a house.

47:7 Vishnu XCVI, 3.

47:8 Vishnu XCVI, 6; Manu VI, 56.

47:9 Vishnu XCVI, 13. It is very probable that the single garment mentioned in the SŻtra is, as Krishnapandita thinks, a small strip of cloth to cover the ascetic's nakedness.

47:12-13. Vishnu XCVI, 10-12.

47:14 Manu VI, 43, 65.

47:20 I read 'ramy‚vasathapriyasya,' with the majority of the MSS.

48:21 Identical with Manu VI, 50.

48:22 Vishnu XCVI, 4. Identical with Manu VI, 57.

48:23 There are three TÓrthas called Pushkara; see Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu LXXXV, I.

48:24 Krishnapandita thinks that this rule is a concession to those ascetics who are unable to subsist on one meal a day, as Manu VI, 55 prescribes.

48:25 Manu VI, 59. 26. Manu VI, 94-95.

48:27 The text is here probably corrupt. But I follow Krishnapandita. Several MSS. read asatho, 'he shall not be a rogue,' for asavo, 'he shall not observe the rules of impurity.'

49:30 Vishnu II, 16-17.

49:31 Krishnapandita believes that this SŻtra again refers to ascetics. But that is hardly possible, as ascetics are not allowed to wear a sacrificial thread (see above. SŻtra 18). I think that it is meant to emphatically assert that a Br‚hmana who is free from the shortcomings enumerated in the preceding SŻtra, and who follows the rule of conduct, will obtain salvation, whether he passes through the order of Samny‚sins or not.

Footnotes Scroll Up

49:1-2. XI. Gautama V, 27-30. The persons enumerated elsewhere are the teacher, the father-in-law, and so forth. Regarding the Sn‚taka, see ¬pastamba I, 11, 30, 1-4.

49:3 Vishnu LXVII, 1-3.

50:4 Vishnu LXVII, 4-22.

50:5 Vishnu LIX, 14; LXVII, 23, 27. Krishnapandita does not take 'agrabh‚ga' as a technical term, but explains it by 'a first portion, sufficient for a dinner, or as much as one is able to spare.'

50:6 Vishnu LXVII, 28, 36-38.

50:7 Vishnu LXVII, 39. The majority of the MSS. read b‚lavriddhatarunaprad‚t‚s [tato]. Krishnapandita corrects the last word to prad‚t‚, while the editor of the Calcutta edition writes prabhritÓms [tato]. Both conjectures are inadmissible. As the same phrase occurs once more, below, XIX., 23 (where Krishnapandita writes prad‚t‚rah), I think that it is not permissible to change the text. Prad‚t‚h must be the correct reading, and a technical name for a class of female relatives. Etymologically it may mean 'those who have been perfectly cleansed.' But I am unable to trace its precise technical import, and have left it untranslated.

50:8 Vishnu LXVII, 41.

50:9 Vishnu LXVII, 26.

50:10 Gautama V, 25, and note. 'A SŻdra, i.e. one who is his servant.'--Krishnapandita. It is, however, possible, that a visitor of the SŻdra caste is meant; see ¬pastamba II, 2, 4, 19-20.

50:11 Vishnu LXVII, 41.

51:12 ¬pastamba II, 3, 6, 16; Gautama V, 32, 33. A guest, i.e. one to whom the definition given above, VIII, 6, 7, applies. I read according to my MSS. punahp‚ko instead of punahp‚ke.

51:14-15. Gautama V, 38.

51:16 Vishnu LXXVI, 1-2; Gautama XV, 3.

51:17 Vishnu LXXIII, 1; LXXXII, 2-4; LXXXIII, 5, 19; Gautama XV, 10; ¬pastamba II, 7, 17, 4.

51:18 ¬pastamba II, 7, 17, 6.

51:19 Gautama XV, 16, 18. The explanation of the word nagna, p. 52 'neglecting their duties,' is doubtful. I have followed Krishnapandita, who quotes the M‚rkandeya Pur‚na in support of his view. The word occurs in the same connexion, Vishnu LXXXII, 27, where it is rendered by 'naked.' Possibly it may refer to ascetics who go entirely naked.

52:20 The SŻtra gives an exception to the preceding rule.

52:21 I read 'skyotante hi' instead of 'skyotante val.'

52:22 'Those who receive a share with difficulty,' i.e. the manes of uninitiated children, mentioned in the next verses.

52:23-24. Vishnu LXXXII, 22 Manu III, 245-246. These rules, however, do not fully agree with the teaching of our Manu-smriti, as the latter assigns the fragments on the ground to honest and upright servants. SŻtra 24 I read with the majority of the MSS. 'lepanodakam' for 'lepamodakam,' and 'annam preteshu' for 'anupreteshu.'

53:25 Manu III, 225.

53:26 Manu III, 224. The meaning of the last clause seems to be that the sacrificer shall stand before the Br‚hmanas until they have done eating.

53:27 Identical with Manu III, 125; see also Vishnu LXXIII, 3. The offering to the gods is the Vaisvadeva offering which precedes the Sr‚ddha.

53:28 Identical with Manu III, 126.

53:29 Manu III, 129.

54:32 Identical with Vishnu LXXXII, 20, and Manu III, 237.

54:34 Manu V, 35.

54:35 Identical with Manu III, 235.

54:37 Vishnu LXIX, 2-4.

55:39-40. Vishnu LXXVIII, 51-53.

55:41 'Who lengthens the line,' i.e. who himself begets sons. Read instead of nuyantam pitrikarmani (v. l. muyantam and tripantah), 'udyatam.'

55:42 Vishnu LXXXV, 4, 66-67. A

55:43 Sr‚vana, i.e. July-August; ¬grah‚yana, i.e. M‚rgasÓrsha or November--December. AnvashtakÓ means the day following the Ashtak‚, or eighth day, i.e. the ninth day of the dark halves of M‚rgasÓrsha, Pausha, M‚gha, and Ph‚lguna. The form of the word is usually anvashtak‚.

56:44 Gautama XV, 5.

56:45 Vishnu LIX, 2.

56:46 Vishnu LIX, 4-9.

56:47 Manu IV, 257. I read rinasamstutam with MS. E.

56:48 Taitt. Samh. VI, 3, 10, 5; Satapatha-br‚hmana I, 7, 2, 11.

56:49-51. Vishnu XXVII, 15-17.

56:52-54. Vishnu XXVII, 29. Regarding other kinds of sticks, see Gautama I, 22-24.

57:55-57. Vishnu XXVII, 22.

57:58-60. Vishnu XXVII, 18.

57:61-63. Vishnu XXVII, 20.

57:64-67. Vishnu XXVII, 19; Gautama I, 17-21. 'Unblemished,' i.e. new, without holes and seams.

57:68-70. Vishnu XXVII, 25. I.e. 'Lady, give alms;' 'Give, O lady, alms;' and 'Give alms, lady.'

58:71-73. Vishnu XXVII, 26.

58:74 Vishnu XXVII, 27. S‚vitrÓ, literally 'the Rik sacred to Savitri' (Rig-veda III, 62, 10), means here 'the initiation,' see Gautama I, 12 note.

58:75 ¬pastamba I, 1, 1, 28. The plural viv‚hayeyuh, 'let them (not) form matrimonial alliances,' indicates that orthodox Br‚hmanas must neither give their daughters to Patitas‚vitrÓkas nor take the daughters of such persons.

58:78 Gautama XIX, 9.

58:79 Gautama XIX, 8.

Footnotes Scroll Up

59:1 XII. 'Now' marks the beginning of a new topic. 'Therefore,' i.e. because the duties of a Sn‚taka have to be taught after those of a student.

59:2 Manu IV, 33; Gautama IX, 63.

59:3 Manu X, 113-114.

59:4 Manu IV, 34; Vishnu III, 79.

59:5 Krishnapandita, whom I have followed in the translation of this SŻtra, thinks that it indicates the obligation of wearing clean clothes, see e.g. Vishnu LXXI, 9. It seems to me, however, probable that its real sense is, 'Let him not cohabit with a woman during her courses,' and that the next SŻtra has to be read n‚ragasvalay‚., 'Nor with one of immature age.'

59:7 'An unfit one,' i.e.' one of low caste' (hÓn‚).--Krishnapandita, Probably a sick wife is meant, Gautama IX, 28.

59:8 Gautama IX, 53. Krishnapandita gives besides the above interpretation of the SŻtra from Haradatta's GautamÓy‚ Mit‚kshar‚, another one, according to which it means, 'Let him not forsake his own family and enter another one (by adoption and so forth).' A third p. 60 explanation is given by N‚r‚yana on S‚ṅkh‚yana Grihya-sŻtra IV, 12, II, who takes it to mean, 'Let him not go from one house to the other.'

60:9 Gautama IX, 52; Vishnu LXIII, 42.

60:10 Vishnu LXXI, 17-18.

60:11-12. Vishnu LXXI, 35.

60:13 Gautama IX, 37-38, 41-43; Vishnu LX, 2-3.

60:14 Vishnu LXXI, 13-15.

60:18 Vishnu LXVIII, 40.

61:19 Krishnapandita thinks that this rule refers to the first five mouthfuls only.

61:21 Vishnu LXIX, 1. The Parva days are the eighth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of each half-month.

61:25-27. Gautama IX, 32.

61:28 ¬pastamba II, 5, 12, 6.

61:30 ¬pastamba II, 5, 12, 7-8.

61:31 Satapatha-br‚hmana X, 5, 2, 9; Vishnu LXVIII, 46.

62:32-33. Gautama IX, 22.

62:34 Gautama IX, 44.

62:35 Vishnu LXVIII, 21.

62:36 Gautama IX, 32.

62:37 Vishnu LXXI, 13.

62:38 Vishnu LXXI, 16.

62:39 Gautama IX, 32.

62:40 I read sabh‚samav‚y‚msk‚vagayeta. The corrupt readings of Bh. samav‚y‚ska gavÓyan and of F. samav‚y‚mska vakshÓyanna point to this version, the sense of which agrees with the parallel passages of other Smritis, see e.g. ¬pastamba I, 11, 32, 19.

62:41 Vishnu LXXI, 83.

62:42 Gautama IX, 54-55, 66.

62:43 Vishnu LXIII, 9. According to Krishnapandita the time intended is midday.

63:44 Vishnu LXIII, 47.

63:45 Vishnu LXIII, 46. Krishnapandita omits this SŻtra which is found in the majority of the MSS.

63:46 ¬pastamba I, II, 32, 15; Vishnu XXX, 27.

63:47 Manu IV, 92; Vishnu LX, i. The MuhŻrta sacred to Prag‚pati is the same as the Br‚hma-muhŻrta, and falls in the last watch of the night.

Footnotes Scroll Up

63:1 XIII. Vishnu XXX, I. Sr‚vana, July-August. Praushthapada, i.e. Bh‚drapada, August-September. Krishnapandita improperly combines this SŻtra with the next.

63:5 Gautama XVI, 2.

64:6-7. Manu IV, 98.

64:9 ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 20.

64:10 Gautama XVI, 12.

64:11 Gautama XVI, 19; Vishnu XXX, 10. The above translation follows Krishnapandita's gloss. But the SŻtra may also be taken differently: 'In (villages) where a corpse lies or a K‚nd‚la stays (and) in towns.' For the prohibition to study in towns is mentioned by Gautama XVI, 45; Manu IV, 116; and ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 4.

64:12 ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 5. The rule refers to places, such as high-roads, where studying is ordinarily forbidden.

64:13 Vishnu XXX, 15; ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 6.

64:14 Gautama XVI, 17.

64:15 Gautama XVI, 34.

64:16 Manu IV, 117 somewhat resembles the verse quoted. But p. 65 its altered form shows clearly that the M‚nava Dharmas‚stra known to Vasishtha differed from the work which at present goes by that name. Compare also S‚ṅkh‚yana Grihya-sŻtra IV, 7, 55.

65:17 Y‚gŮavalkya I, 150; Gautama XVI, 19; Manu IV, 120.

65:18 ¬pastamba I, 3, 11, 16.

65:19 Vishnu XXX, 18; Manu IV, 121.

65:20 ¬pastamba I, 3, 10, 25.

65:21 Gautama XVI, 7, and note.

65:22 Vishnu XXX, 4; Gautama XVI, 37-38. The Ashtak‚s are the eighth days of the dark halves of the winter months, M‚rgasÓrsha, Pausha, M‚gha, and Ph‚lguna.

65:23 Vishnu XXX, 17; Manu IV, 112.

65:26 Manu IV, 116.

66:27 Gautama XVI, 18.

66:28 Vishnu XXX, 19.

66:29 Gautama XVI, 11. Krishnapandita improperly divides the SŻtra into two.

66:30 Vishnu XXX, 26.

66:31 Vishnu XXX, 21.

66:32-34. Vishnu XXX, 5; Gautama XVI, 22.

66:35 Gautama XVI, 22; Manu IV, 105, 115. Krishnapandita mentions digd‚ha, 'when the sky appears preternaturally red,' as a various reading for 'dign‚da.'

66:38 ¬pastamba I, 3, 11, 29.

67:39 ¬pastamba I, 3, 10, 2-4.

67:40 Vishnu XXXII, 4.

67:42 The persons intended are, the teacher and so forth. See ¬pastamba 1, 4, 14, 7, note.

67:44 Gautama VI, 5.

67:45 ¬pastamba I, 4, 14, 23. Krishnapandita combines this SŻtra with the preceding.

67:46 ¬pastamba I, 2, 5, 18. In returning a salute, the name of the person addressed is pronounced, and if it ends in a, the vowel is made pluta, while e and o are changed to ‚ya and ‚va, e.g. Hare to Har‚ya.

67:47 Gautama XX, I; XX, 15; ¬pastamba I, 10, 28, 9.

67:48 Manu II, 145.

68:49 ¬pastamba I, 2, 8, 29-30.

68:50 Gautama XXI, 12.

68:51 ¬pastamba I, 10, 29, 14.

68:53 Manu II, 238; Y‚gŮavalkya III, 261.

68:54 Vishnu XXVIII, 29, 31.

68:56 Vishnu XXXII, 16.

68:58-59. Vishnu LXIII, 51.

69:61 ¬pastamba II, 2, 4, 14; Gautama V, 35-36.

Footnotes Scroll Up

69:2 XIV. Vishnu LI, 7, 10-11. Dandika, 'a mace-bearer,' may mean 'a police officer' or 'a messenger.' I read with MSS. Bh. and F. shandha, 'a eunuch,' instead of satha, 'a rogue,' the reading of the other MSS. and of Krishnapandita.

69:3 Vishnu LI, 8-9, 12, 19; Gautama XVII, 17. I write sŻkaka, 'a spy,' instead of sŻkika, 'a tailor,' according to the other Smritis, e.g. Vishnu LI, 12; ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 30

69:4 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 13.

69:5 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 19.

69:6 Vishnu LI, 16; Gautama XVII, 18. I read with the majority p. 70 of the MSS. yaskopapatim [pattim F.] manyate, instead of B.'s and Krishnapandita's yaskopari manyate.

70:9 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 17.

70:10 Vishnu LI, 7. 'And so forth (iti), i.e. by cruel men and the like.'--Krishnapandita.

70:11 Vishnu LI, 15.

70:12 Gautama XVII, 3; Vishnu LVII, 10.

70:13 Vishnu LVII, 13; Manu IV, 251.

71:15 Manu V, 22-23. I connect vigŮ‚yate with this SŻtra, instead of with the preceding one, as Krishnapandita does.

71:16 Vishnu LVII, 11; Mann IV, 248; ¬pastamba I, 6, 19, 14.

71:18 Vishnu LVII, 12; Manu IV, 249; ¬pastamba I, 6, 19, 14.

71:19 ¬pastamba I. 6, 19, 15.

71:20 Vishnu XXVIII. 11.

72:22 ¬pastamba I, 5, 16, 28; Gautama XVII, 9.

72:23 Vishnu XXIII, 38; Y‚gŮavalkya I, 189.

72:24 Y‚gŮavalkya I, 191.

72:26 Vishnu XXIII, 30. Krishnapandita thinks that pl‚vanena, 'by straining them (through a cloth),' may also mean 'by heating them on the fire.'

72:28 Gautama XVII, 13, and note, 15-16.

72:29 Manu V, 24.

73:33 Vishnu LI, 34, 36; Gautama XVII, 32-33. Regarding the Atikrikkhra penance, see below, XXIV, 1.

73:34 Vishnu LI, 40. For other explanations of the term sandhinÓ, 'a cow that is in heat,' see ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 23; Vishnu LI, 40.

73:35 Vishnu LI, 39. The SŻtra implies that the milk of other animals must not be drunk under any circumstances.

73:37-38. Vishnu LI, 35, 42.

74:39 Gautama XVII, 27. Haradatta on ¬pastamba and Gautama explain sv‚vidh, 'the porcupine,' to be a kind of boar, and salyaka, 'the hedgehog,' to be 'the porcupine.'

74:40 Vishnu LI, 30; Manu V, 18.

74:41-42. Gautama XVII, 36; ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 38-39.

74:43 ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 29.

74:44 Manu V, 11, 17.

74:45 Gautama XVII, 30-31.

74:46 ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 31.

74:48 Gautama XVII, 34-35; Vishnu LI, 28-31. I read m‚ndh‚la, 'the flying fox,' while Krishnapandita gives m‚gh‚ra, a p. 75 reading which he cannot explain. The MSS. read as follows: B. E. m‚gh‚ra, Bh. F. m‚dh‚m, I. O. 913 (tittibh)‚ndha (naktam). Haradatta on ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 33' explains plava, 'the water-hen,' to be a kind of heron, called also sakatabila.

Source: The Sacred Laws of the ¬ryas translated by Georg BŁhler Part I: ¬pastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) [1879]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from by Jayaram V for While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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