The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Part 4

Translated by Georg Bühler



1. If a student has approached a woman, he shall slay in the forest, in a place where four roads meet 1 a common fire, an ass for the Rakshas (the goblins),

2. Or he may offer an oblation of rice (karu) to Nirriti (the goddess of hell).

3. Let him throw into the fire (four oblations consisting) of that (sacrificial food, saying), To Lust svâhâ; to him who follows his lust svâhâ; to Nirriti svâhâ; to the divine Rakshas svâhâ.'

4. If, before returning home (from his teacher, a student) voluntarily defiles himself, sleeps in the day-time, or practises any other vow (than that of studentship), the same (penance must be performed). 4

5. If he has committed a bestial crime, he shall give a white bull (to a Brâhmana). 5

6. The guilt incurred by a bestial crime with a cow, has been explained by the (rule regarding) the killing of a female of the Sûdra caste. 6

7. A student breaks his vow by performing funeral rites, 7

8. Excepting those of his mother and his father. 8

9. If a (student) is sick, he may eat, at his pleasure, all that is left by his teacher as medicine. 9

10. If (a student) who is employed by his teacher (to perform some duty), meets with his death, (the teacher) shall perform three Krikkhra penances. 10

11. If a student eats meat which has been given to him as leavings (by his teacher), he shall perform a Krikkhra penance of twelve days' duration, and afterwards finish his vow. 11

12. The same (penance must be performed) if he eats food given at a Srâddha or by a person who is impure on account of a recent death or birth. 12

13. It is declared in the Veda, than honey given without asking does not defile (a student) of the Vâgasaneyi-sâkhâ. 13

14. For him who committing suicide becomes An Abhisasta, his blood-relations (sapinda) shall not perform the funeral rites. 14

15. He is called a suicide who destroys himself by means of wood, water, clods of earth, stones, weapons, poison, or a rope.

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The twice-born man who out of affection performs the last rites for a suicide, shall perform a Kândrâyana penance together with a Taptakrikkhra.' 16

17. We shall describe the Kândrâyana below. 17

18. A fast of three days (must be performed) for resolving to die by one's own hand.

19. 'He who attempts suicide, but remains alive, shall perform a Krikkhra penance during twelve days. (Afterwards) he shall fast for three (days and) nights, being dressed constantly in a garment smeared (with clarified butter), and suppressing his breath, he shall thrice recite the Aghamarshana;'

20. Or, following the same rule, he may also frequently recite the Gâyatrî;

21. Or, having kindled a fire, he may offer clarified butter with the Kûshmândas.

22. 'And the guilt (of) all (offences) excepting mortal sins is removed thereby.' 22

23. Now he may also sip water in the morning, thinking of (the Mantra), 'May fire and wrath and the lords of wrath protect me,' &c., and meditating on his sin; (then) he may mutter the Vyâhritis that end with satya (truth), prefixing (the syllable) Om (to each), or he may recite the Aghamarshana. 23

24. If he touches a human bone to which fat still adheres, he becomes impure during three (days and) nights; 24

25. But (on touching a bone) to which no fat adheres, a day and a night,

26. Likewise if he has followed a corpse (to the burial-ground). 26

27. If he passes between men reciting the Veda, he shall fast during a day and a night.

28. (Those who recite the Veda) shall sprinkle each other with water and stay away (from their houses) during three (days and) nights. 28

29. (The same penance must be performed) for a day and night, if a dog, a cat, or an ichneumon pass quickly (between those who recite the Veda). 29

30. If he has swallowed the flesh of a dog, a cock, a village pig, a grey heron, a vulture, a Bhâsa, a pigeon, a man, a crow or an owl, (he must) fast during seven days, (and thus) empty his entrails (afterwards he must) eat clarified butter, and be initiated again. 30

31. 'But a Brâhmana who has been bitten by a dog, becomes pure, if he goes to a river that flows into the ocean, (bathes there), suppresses his breath one hundred times, and eats clarified butter.' 31

32. 'Time, fire, purity of mind, water, looking at the sun, and ignorance (of defilement) are the six means by which created beings are purified.' 32

33. It is declared in the Veda that, on touching a dog, a Kândâla, or an outcast, he becomes at once pure, if he bathes, dressed in his clothes. 33

34. If (while reciting the Veda) they hear noises made by outcasts or Kândâlas, they shall sit silent and fasting during three days;

35. Or if they repeat that (text of the Gâyatrî) at least one thousand times, they become pure; thus it is stated in the Veda.

36. By this rule (the penance to be performed by) those who teach or sacrifice for vile men has been explained. It is declared in the Veda that they become pure by also relinquishing the fees (which they received). 36

37. By this same (rule the penance prescribed for) an Abhisasta, (one accused of a heinous crime,) has been explained.

38. (If he has been accused of) killing a learned Brâhmana, let him subsist during twelve days on water (only), and fast during (another) twelve days. 38

39. If he has falsely accused a Brâhmana of a crime which causes loss of caste, or of a minor offence which does not cause loss of caste, he shall subsist during a month on water (only), and constantly repeat the (Rikas called) Suddhavatîs; 39

40. Or he may go to bathe (with the priests) at (the conclusion of) a horse-sacrifice.

41. By this (rule the penance for) intercourse with a female of the Kândâla caste has been declared. 41

42. Now (follows the description of) another Krikkhra penance, applicable to all (men), where (the rule given above) has been altered.

43. On one day (let him eat) in the morning (only), on the (following) day at night (only), on the (next) day food given without asking, and on the (fourth) day (let him) fast; the succeeding (three) periods of four days (must be passed) in the same manner. Wishing to show favour to the Brâhmanas, Manu, the chief among the pillars of the law, has thus described the Sisukrikkhra (the hard penance of children) for infants, aged, and sick men.

44. Now follows the rule for (the performance of) the Kândrâyana (lunar penance). 44

45. On the first day of the dark half (of the month) let him eat fourteen (mouthfuls), let him diminish the (number of) mouthfuls (each day by one), and continue in this manner until the end of the fortnight. In like manner let him eat one mouthful on the first day of the bright half, and (daily) increasing (the number 6f) mouthfuls, continue until the end of the fortnight.

46. Meanwhile let him sing Sâmans, or mutter the Vyâhritis.

47. A month during which he thus performs a Kândrâyana, the Rishis have called by way of laudation, 'a means of purification' (pavitra). It is prescribed as an expiation of all (offences) for which no (special penance) has been mentioned.


1. Now (follows the description of) an Atikrikkhra penance. 1

2. Let him eat as much as he can take at one (mouthful, and follow the rules given) above for a Krikkhra, (viz.) to eat during three days in the morning, (during another three days) in the evening, (during further three days) food given without asking, and to fast during the last three days. That is an Atikrikkhra.

3. A Krikkhra penance (during the performance of which one) subsists on water (only is called) a Krikkhrâtikrikkhra. 3

4. The peculiar observances (prescribed during the performance) of Krikkhra penances (are as follows): 4

5. 'Having cut his nails, (the performer) shall cause his beard and all his hair to be shaved off, excepting the eyebrows, the eyelashes, and the lock at the top of the head; (wear) one garment only; he shall eat blameless food; what one obtains by going to beg once (is called) blameless food; he shall bathe in the morning, at noon, and in the evening; he shall carry a stick (and) a waterpot; he shall avoid to speak to women and Sûdras; carefully keeping himself in an upright or sitting posture, he shall stand during the day, and remain seated during the night.' Thus speaks the divine Vasishtha.

6. Let him not instruct in these Institutes of the sacred law anybody but his son or a pupil who stays (in his house at least) for a year. 6

7. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (panas), (or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher.


1. I will completely explain the purification of those whose guilt has not been made public, both from great crimes and for minor offences.

2. A penance prescribed in (the section on) secret (penances) is for an Agnihotrin, an aged and a learned man, who have subdued their senses; but other men (must perform the expiations) described above.

3. Those constantly engaged in suppressing their breath, reciting purificatory texts, giving gifts, making burnt-oblations, and muttering (sacred texts) will, undoubtedly, be freed from (the guilt of) crimes causing loss of caste.

4. Seated with Kusa grass in his hands, let him repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again recite purificatory texts, the Vyâhritis, the syllable Om, and the daily portion of the Veda 4

5. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him again and again suppress his breath. Up to the ends of his hair and up to the ends of his nails let him perform highest austerity. 5

6. Through the obstruction (of the expiration) air is generated, through air fire is produced, then through heat water is formed; hence he is internally purified by (these) three.

7. Neither through severe austerities, nor through the daily recitation of the Veda, nor through offering sacrifices can the twice-born reach that condition which they attain by the practice of Yoga.

8. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, the practice of Yoga is the highest and eternal austerity; therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice of Yoga.

9. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting the syllable) Om, the seven Vyâhritis, and the three-footed Gâyatrî no danger exists anywhere. 9

10. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable Om, and they end with the syllable Om, the syllable Om is the sum of all speech; therefore let him repeat it constantly. 10

11. The most excellent (portion of the) Veda, which consists of one syllable, is declared to be the best purificatory text.

12. If the guilt of all sins did fall on one man, to repeat the Gâyatrî ten thousand times (would be) an efficient means of purification.

13. If, suppressing his breath, he thrice recites the Gâyatrî together with the Vyâhritis together with the syllable Om and with the (text called) Siras, that is called one suppression of breath. 13


1. If, untired, he performs three suppressions of his breath according to the rule, the sins which he committed during a day and a night are instantly destroyed. 1

2. Seated during the evening prayer, he removes by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt which 2 he incurred during the day by deeds, thoughts, or speeches.

3. But standing during the morning prayer, he removes by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt which he incurred during the night by deeds, thoughts, or speeches.

4. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyâhritis and the syllable Om, repeated daily, purify after a month even the slayer of a learned Brâhmana. 4

5. Even a drinker of spirituous liquor becomes pure, if he mutters the (hymn seen) by Kutsa, 'Apa nah sosukad agham,' and (the hymn seen) by Vasishtha (which begins with the word) 'Prati,' the Mâhitra (hymn), and the Suddhavatîs. 5

6. Even he who has stolen gold becomes instantly free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn beginning with the words) 'Asya vâmasya' and the Sivasamkalpa. 6

7. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin) if he repeatedly recites the (hymn beginning) 'Havish pântam agaram' and that (beginning) 'Na tam amhah' and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha. 7

8. Or plunging into water he may thrice mutter the Aghamarshana. Manu has declared that the (effect is the) same as if he had gone to bathe at a horse-sacrifice. 8

9. An offering consisting of muttered prayers is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice at which animals are killed; a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) one thousand times. 9

10. The four Pâkayagñas and those sacrifices which are enjoined by the rules of the Veda are all together not equal in value to the sixteenth part of a sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers. 10

11. But, undoubtedly, a Brâhmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only; whether he perform other (rites) or neglect them, he is called a Brâhmana who befriends all creatures (maitra). 11

12. The sins of those who are intent on muttering prayers, of those who offer burnt-oblations, of those who are given to meditation, of those who reside in sacred places, and of those who have bathed after performing the vows called Siras, do not remain. 12

13. As a fire, fanned by wind, burns brighter, and (as its flame grows) through offerings (of butter), even so a Brâhmana who is daily engaged in muttering sacred texts shines with a brilliant lustre.

14. The destruction of those who fulfil the duty of daily study, who constantly restrain themselves, who mutter prayers and offer sacrifices has never been known (to happen). 14

15. Let him who is desirous of purification repeat, though he be charged with all sins, the divine (Gâyatrî), at the most one thousand times, or one hundred times as a medium (penance), or at least ten times (for trivial faults).

16. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and Sûdra by their wealth, the highest among twice-born men by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations.

17. As horses (are useless) without a chariot, as chariots (are useless) without horses, even so austerity (is useless) to him who is destitute of sacred learning, and sacred learning to him who practises no austerities.

18. As food mixed with honey, or honey mixed with food, even so are austerities and learning, joined together, a powerful medicine.

19. No guilt taints a Brâhmana who possesses learning, practises austerities, and daily mutters sacred texts, though he may constantly commit sinful acts.


1. If a hundred improper acts, and even more, have been committed, and the (knowledge of the) 1 Veda is retained, the fire of the Veda destroys all (the guilt) of that man just as a (common) fire consumes fuel.

2. As a fire that burns strongly consumes even green trees, even so the fire of the Veda destroys one's guilt caused by (evil) deeds.

3. A Brâhmana who remembers the Rig-veda is not tainted by any guilt, though he has destroyed these (three) worlds and has eaten the food of all, (even of the most sinful) men. 3

4. If (a Brâhmana) relies on the power of the Veda, he cannot find pleasure in sinful acts. Guilt (incurred) through ignorance and negligence is destroyed, not (that of) other (intentional offences).

5. If a hermit subsisting on roots and fruit practises austerities in a forest, and (a householder) recites a single Rik, the merit of the acts of the one and of the other is equal.

6. Let him strengthen the Veda by (studying) the Itihâsas and Purânas. For the Veda fears a man of little learning, (thinking) 'He will destroy me.'

7. The daily recitation of the Veda and the performance, according to one's ability, of the series of Mahâyagñas quickly destroy guilt, even that of mortal sins.

8. Let him daily perform, without tiring, his particular rites which the Veda enjoins. For if he does that according to his ability, he will reach the most blessed state. 8

9. Through sacrificing for wicked people, through teaching them, through intermarrying with them, and through receiving gifts from them, (learned) Brâhmanas do not contract guilt, for (a learned Brâhmana) resembles a fire and the sun.

10. I will now declare the purification prescribed for (eating) food, regarding which doubts have arisen, whether it may be called fit to be eaten or not. Listen to my words!

11. Let a Brâhmana drink during three days the astringent decoction of the Brahmasuvarkalâ plant, unmixed with salt or pungent condiments, and (a decoction of) the Saṅkhapushpî plant, together with milk.

12. Let him drink water, after boiling in it Palâsa and Bilva leaves, Kusa grass, and (leaves of) lotuses and Udumbara trees; after three days and no more he becomes pure. 12

13. (Subsisting) during one day on each (of the following substances), cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, butter, and water in which Kusa grass has been boiled, and fasting on the seventh day purify even (him who fears that he has partaken of the food of) a Svapâka. 13

14. He who lives during five days on cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clarified butter, is purified by means of (that) Pañkagavya, (the five products of the cow.)

15. He who, in accordance with the rule, uses barley (for his food), becomes pure even by ocular proof. (For) if he is pure, those (barley grains) will be white, if he is impure they will be discoloured. 15

16. (If he makes) three morning meals of food 16 fit for a sacrifice and three evening meals in like manner, and if food given without asking (is his subsistence) in the same manner, (he will thus perform) three fasts.

17. Now if he is in haste to make (himself pure), (let him) subsist on air during a day, and pass the night standing in water; (that penance) is equal to a Prâgâpatya (Krikkhra).

18. But if at sunrise he mutters the Gâyatrî eight thousand times, he will be freed from all mortal sins, provided he be not the slayer of a Brâhmana. 18

19. He, forsooth, who has stolen (the gold of a Brâhmana), has drunk spirituous liquor, has slain a learned Brâhmana, or has violated his Guru's bed, will become free from all (these) mortal sins if he studies the Institutes of the sacred law.

20. For unlawful acts, for unlawful sacrifices, and for great sins (let him perform) a Krikkhra and a Kândrâyana, which destroy all guilt.

21. Let him add daily one mouthful (to his food) during the bright (half of the month), let him diminish it (daily by one mouthful) during the dark (half), and let him fast on the new-moon day; that is the rule for the Kândrâyana (or lunar penance). 21


1. A woman is not defiled by a lover, nor a Brâhmana by Vedic rites, nor water by urine and ordure, nor fire by consuming (impure substances). 1

2-3. A wife, (though) tainted by sin, whether she be quarrelsome, or have left the house, or have suffered criminal force, or have fallen into the hands of thieves, must not be abandoned; to forsake her is not prescribed (by the sacred law). Let him wait for the time of her courses; by her temporary uncleanness she becomes pure. 2

4. Women (possess) an unequalled means of purification; they never become (entirely) foul. For month by month their temporary uncleanness removes their sins. 4

5. Women belong first to three gods, Soma (the moon), the Gandharva, and Fire, and come afterwards into the possession of men; according to the law they cannot be contaminated. 5

6. Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva their melodious voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs); therefore women are free from stains. 6

7. Those versed in the sacred law state that there are three acts (only) which make women outcasts, (viz.) the murder of the husband, slaying a learned Brâhmana, and the destruction of the fruit of their womb. 7

8. A calf is pure when the milk flows, a bird when it causes fruit to fall, women during dalliance, and a dog when he catches a deer. 8

9. Pure is the mouth of a goat and of a horse, pure is the back of a cow, pure are the feet of a Brâhmana, but women are pure in all (limbs) 9

10. I will now declare the purificatory texts (which are found) in each Veda; by muttering them or reciting them at a burnt-oblation (men) are doubtlessly cleansed (from sin). 10

11. (They are) the Aghamarshana, the Devakrita, the Suddhavatîs, the Taratsamas, the Kûshmândas, the Pâvamânîs, and the Durgâsâvitri;

12. The Atîshaṅgas, the Padastobhas, and the Sâmans (called) Vyâhriti, the Bhârunda Sâmans, the Gâyatra (Sâman), and the Raivata; 12

13. The Purushavrata and the Bhâsa, and likewise the Devavrata (Sâmans), the Abliṅga, the Bârhaspatya, the hymn addressed to Vâk, likewise the Rikas (called) Madhu; 13

14. The Satarudriya, the Atharvasiras, the Trisuparna, the Mahâvrata, the Gosûkta, and the Asvasûkta, and the two Sâmans (called) Suddhâsuddhîya. 14

15. The three (Sâmans called) Âgyadohas, the Rathantara, the Agnervrata, the Vâmadevya, and the Brihat, being muttered, purify (all) living beings. (He who sings them) may obtain the recollection of former existences, if he desires it.

16. Gold is the firstborn of Fire, through Vishnu exists the earth, and the cows are children of them Sun; he who bestows as gifts gold, a cow, and land will obtain rewards without end for them.

17. A cow, a horse, gold, (and) land, bestowed on an unlearned Brâhmana who neglects his sacred duties, prevent the giver (from attaining heaven). 17

18-19. (If he presents), on the full moon of the month of Vaisâkha, (to) seven or five Brâhmanas, black or white sesamum grains (mixed) with honey, (saying), 'May the king of justice (Yama) rejoice!' or (expressing) some other (wish) which he may have in his mind, the guilt which he has incurred during his (whole) life will instantly vanish.

20. But hear (now) the reward of the merit acquired by that man who gives the skin of a black antelope, to which the hoofs are (still) attached and the navel of which is adorned with gold, covering it with sesamum grains. 20

21. 'Without doubt he has bestowed (through that gift) the four-faced earth, together with its caves filled with gold, and together with its mountains, groves, and forests.' 21

22. He who, placing on the skin of a black antelope, sesamum, gold, honey, and butter, gives it to a Brâhmana, overcomes all sin.'


1. Through liberality (man) obtains all his desires,

2. (Even) longevity, (and he is born again as) a student of the Veda, possessed of beauty.

3. He who abstains from injuring (sentient beings) obtains heaven.

4. By entering a fire the world of Brahman (is gained). 4

5. By (a vow of) silence (he obtains) happiness.

6. By staying (constantly) in water he becomes a lord of elephants.

7. He who expends his hoard (in gifts) becomes free from disease.

8. A giver of water (becomes) rich by (the fulfilment of) all his desires.

9. A giver of food (will have) beautiful eyes and a good memory. 9

10. He who gives a promise to protect (somebody) from all dangers (becomes) wise.

11. (To bestow gifts) for the use of cows (is equal to) bathing at all sacred places.

12. By giving a couch and a seat (the giver becomes) master of a harem. 12

13. By giving an umbrella (the giver) obtains a house.

14. He who gives a house obtains a town. 14

15. He who gives a pair of shoes obtains a vehicle.

16. Now they quote also (the following verses): Whatever sin a man distressed for livelihood commits, (from that) he is purified by giving land, (be it) even "a bull's hide."' 16

17. 'He who gives to a Brâhmana a vessel filled with water for sipping, will obtain after death complete freedom from thirst and be born again as a drinker of Soma.' 17

18. 'If a gift of one thousand oxen fit to draw a carriage (has been bestowed) according to the rule on a perfectly worthy man, that is equal to giving a maiden.' 18

19. 'They declare that cows, land, and learning are the three most excellent gifts. For to give learning is (to bestow) the greatest of all gifts, and it surpasses those (other gifts).' 19

20. 'A learned man who, free from envy, follows this rule of conduct which procures endless rewards, and which through final liberation frees him from transmigration;' 20

21. 'Or who, full of faith, pure, and subduing his senses, remembers or even hears it, will, freed from all sin, be exalted in the highest heaven.'


1. Practise righteousness, not unrighteousness; speak truth, not untruth; look far, not near; look towards the Highest, not towards that which is not the Highest.

2. A Brâhmana is a fire. 2

3. For the Veda (says), 'Agni, forsooth, is a Brâhmana.' 3

4. And how is that?

5. And it is also declared in the Kâthaka, 'On that (occasion) the body of the Brâhmana who represents the sacrificial seat is the altar, the vow to perform the rite is the sacrifice, the soul is the animal to be slain, the intellect the rope (with which the animal is bound), the mouth of (the Brâhmana) who represents the seat is the Âhavanîya fire, in his navel (is the Dakshinâ fire), the fire in his abdomen is the Gârhapatya fire, the Prâna is the Adhvaryu priest, the Apâna, the Hotri priest, the Vyâna the Brahman, the Samâna the Udgâtri priest, the organs of sensation the sacrificial vessels. He who knowing this offers a sacrifice to the organs through the organs.' . . . 5

6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'An offering placed in the mouth-fire of a Brâhmana which is rich in Veda-fuel, protects and saves the giver and (the eater) himself from sin.'

7. 'But the offering made through the mouth of a Brâhmana, which is neither spilt nor causes pain (to sentient creatures), nor assails him (who makes it), is far more excellent than an Agnihotra.' 7

8. After performing a mental sacrifice at which meditation (takes the place of the sacred) fire, truthfulness (the place of) the sacred fuel, patience (the place of) the oblation, modesty (the place of) the sacrificial spoon, abstention from injuring living beings (the place of the) sacrificial cake, contentment (the place of) the sacrificial post, (and a promise of) safety given to all beings which is hard to keep (the place of) the reward given to the priests, a wise man goes to his (eternal) home. 8

9. The hair of an aging man shows signs of age, (and) the teeth of an aging man show signs of age, (but) the desire to live and the desire for wealth do not decay even in an aging man.

10. Happiness (is the portion) of that man who relinquishes (all) desire, which fools give up with difficulty, which does not diminish with age, and which is a life-long disease.

11. Adoration to Vasishtha Satayâtu, the son of Mitra and Varuna and Urvasî!

Suggestions for Further Reading

Footnotes Scroll Up

117:1 XXIII. Gautama XXIII, 17

118:4 Manu XI, 121.

118:5 Vishnu LIII, 7; Gautama XXII, 36.

118:6 Vishnu LIII, 3; Gautama XXIII, 12.

118:7 Manu V, 88.

118:8 Mann V, 91.

118:9 The object of the Sûtra is to permit during sickness a relaxation of the rules regarding forbidden food. Hence a sick student may eat honey, meat, &c.

118:10 Yâgñavalkya III, 283. 'Meets with his death,' e.g. is killed by a wild animal or a snake, while collecting fuel in the forest.

119:11 Manu XI, 159; Yâgñavalkya III, 282; see also Âpastamba's discussion on the subject, I, 1, 4, 5.

119:12 Manu XI, 158.

119:13 This Sûtra may also mean, 'It is declared that, according to the Vâgasaneyaka, honey given (to a student). without his asking for it does not defile him.' But a parallel passage of Devala, which Krishnapandita quotes, makes, I think, the version given above appear preferable. In either case the passage is explained by the fact that, according to the Satapatha-brâhmana, Svetaketu, one of the great teachers of the White Yagur-veda, strongly pleaded for the use of honey; see Weber, Indische Studien X, 123 seq.

119:14 Vishnu XXII, 56; Gautama XIV, 12.

119:16 Vishnu XXII, 58-59.

119:17 See below, Sûtra 45.

120:22 Regarding the efficacy of the Kûshmânda texts, see above, XXII, 9.

120:23 The text occurs Taitt. Âr. X, 24, I.

120:24-25. Manu V, 87; Vishnu XXII, 75.

120:26 Manu V, 101.

120:28 Gautama I, 58.

121:29 Gautama I, 59.

121:30 Vishnu LI, 3-4; Gautama XXIII, 4-5; Manu XI, 157. The Sûtra is badly corrupted in Krishnapandita's edition. I read kaṅka instead of vaṅka, leave out vâyasa after bhâsa, and change kâkolûkânâm sâdane to kâkolûkamâmsâdane. The latter change is absolutely necessary; firstly, because the penances for killing dogs and men have been given above; secondly, because the word mânusha requires a noun which it qualifies at the end of the compound; thirdly, because the penance which is prescribed, fasting until the entrails are empty, is absurd for murder, but appropriate for eating forbidden food; and fourthly, because the parallel passages of other Smritis actually do prescribe it for eating the flesh of excessively impure animals and for cannibalism. The change of amâ to ânâ is a very common mistake in Devanâgarî MSS.

121:31 Vishnu LIV, 12.

121:32 Vishnu XXII, 88.

121:33 Âpastamba I, 5, 15, 16.

122:36 Vishnu LIV, 25, 28.

122:38 Yâgñavalkya III, 287.

122:39 Yâgñavalkya III, 286.

122:41 Vishnu LIII, 5, 6.

123:44-47. Vishnu XLVII. It must be understood that during the bright half of the month the number of mouthfuls must be increased every day by one.

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123:1-2. XXIV. Gautama XXVI, 18-19. 'Above,' i.e. XXI, 20.

124:3 Gautama XXVI, 20; see also Vishnu XLVI, 13-14.

124:4-5. Gautama XXVI, 6, 8; Vishnu XLVII, 24-25.

124:6 The MSS. read in the beginning of this Sûtra, satayânudeti or satayâtudeta, while Krishnapandita, probably as a guess, writes satapâ nudati. I do not think that his correction is satisfactory, and propose in its stead, sa tadyadetad (dharmasâstram).

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123:1-2. XXIV. Gautama XXVI, 18-19. 'Above,' i.e. XXI, 20.

124:3 Gautama XXVI, 20; see also Vishnu XLVI, 13-14.

124:4-5. Gautama XXVI, 6, 8; Vishnu XLVII, 24-25.

124:6 The MSS. read in the beginning of this Sûtra, satayânudeti or satayâtudeta, while Krishnapandita, probably as a guess, writes satapâ nudati. I do not think that his correction is satisfactory, and propose in its stead, sa tadyadetad (dharmasâstram).

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125:4 XXV. Read prânâyâmân in the text.

125:5 The MSS. read at the end of this verse, tapas tapyatam uttamam, while Krishnapandita gives tapas tapyât to uttamam. The correct reading is probably tapas tapyatu uttamam.

126:9 I read with the MSS. bhayam for bhave.

126:10 Manu II, 74.

126:13 Identical with Vishnu LV, 9. Regarding the text called Siras, see above, XXI, 6.

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126:1 XXVI. The verb dhârayet, 'performs,' seems to be used in order to indicate that, according to the Yogasâstra, three Prânâyâmas make one Dhâranâ; see Yâgñavalkya III, 201.

126:2-3. Regarding the position at the Sandhyâ prayers, see also above.

127:4 Identical with Manu XI, 249; see also Vishnu LV, 2.

127:5 Identical with Manu XI, 250. The Vedic texts mentioned are Rig-veda I, 97, 1; VII, 80 X, 185; VIII, 84., 7-9.

127:6 Manu LI, 251. The Vedic texts alluded to are Rig-veda I, 164; and an Upanishad.

127:7 Identical with Manu XI, 252. The Vedic texts mentioned are Rig-veda X, 88; X, 126; X,,90.

127:8 Manu XI, 260--261; Vishnu LV, 7.

128:9 Manu II, 85; Vishnu LV, 19. The term ârambhayagña, translated by 'an offering at which animals are slain,' is taken by Krishnapandita to mean pâthayagña, 'an offering consisting of Vedic mantras recited aloud.' The word may be taken in several ways, but the various reading vidhiyagña in Manu's verse induces me to adopt the translation given above.

128:10 Identical with Manu II, 86, and Vishnu LV, 20. Regarding the four Pâkayagñas, see Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu. In my opinion the four classes of rites huta, ahuta, prahuta, and prâsita are meant.

128:11 Identical with Manu II, 87.

128:12 'After performing the vows (called) Siras,' i.e. those which are known in the Upanishads, which are called agnidhârana and so forth, and whose head (siras) consists in the worship of the teacher: Krishnapandita. Mundaka Upanishad III, 2, 10.

129:14 Manu IV, 146.

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129:1-2. XXVII. Manu XI, 247.

130:3 Identical with Manu XI, 262.

130:8 'The most blessed state,' i.e. final liberation, or moksha.

131:12 Vishnu XLVI, 23. I read abhogyabhogyasamgñake.

131:13 Vishnu XLVI, 19.

131:15 The rule is described by Vishnu XLVIII.

131:16 The meaning of the Sûtra is that each mode of subsistence is to be continued during three days.

132:18 Ashtasahasram, 'eight thousand times,' may also mean' one thousand and eight times.'

132:21 See above, XXIII, 44-47.

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132:1 XXVIII. 'Is not defiled by a lover,' i.e. does not become irrevocably an outcast, but may be restored to her position after p. 133 performing a penance, provided her lover was a man of equal caste.--Krishnapandita.

133:2-3. For the last clause compare Yâgñavalkya I, 72.

133:4 See above, V, 3-4.

133:5 Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra I, 4, 16

133:6 Yâgñavalkya I, 71.

133:7 Yâgñavalkya I, 72.

133:8 Vishnu XXIII, 49.

133:9 Vishnu XXIII, 40.

134:10-15, Vishnu LVI, and preface, p. xviii. The explanation of the various terms used will be found in the notes to Professor Jolly's translation of Vishnu.

134:12 MSS. and Krishnapandita, Abhishaṅgâh. Krishnapandita and MS. B. bhâradandâni; E. bhâdâni; Bh. and F. omit vv. 12 and 13 a.

134:13 Krishnapandita and B. artvigam; Bh. E. F. as above. The Bhâsa begins, according to Krishnapandita, agne vratapate.

134:14 Krishnapandita and B. indrasuddhe; Bh. E. F. suddhamsuddhena.

135:17 Manu IV, 190, 193-194. Krishnapandita and MSS. B. and E. read uparudanti dâtâram, MSS. Bh. and F. uparundanti. I change the latter reading to uparundhanti. 18-19. Vishnu XC, 10.

135:20-22. Vishnu LXXXVII, 8-10, and Professor Jolly's preface, p. xviii.

135:21 'The four-faced earth,' i.e. the earth which is surrounded by the four oceans.

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136:4 XXIX. This Sûtra, which recommends self-cremation, is of some importance, as it confirms the teaching of the Purânas and explains the accounts of the Greeks regarding the self-immolation of Brâhmanas who visited Europe.

136:9 Vishnu XCII, 21.

136:12 Vishnu XCII, 27; Manu IV, 232. 'Master of a harem,' i.e. the possessor of many beautiful wives and concubines.

137:14 Vishnu XCII, 31. 15. Vishnu XCII, 28.

137:16 Vishnu XCII, 4. Krishnapandita quotes a passage of the Matsya-purâna according to which 'a bull's hide' is a, measure equal to 140 square hastas; see, however, notes to Vishnu loc. cit. and V, 183.

137:17 Manu IV, 229.

137:18 Read in the text vidhivaddânam kanyâdânena tatsamam.

137:19 Krishnapandita wrongly makes two Sûtras out of this verse.

137:20 Krishnapandita and MS. B. read, against the metre and sense, yoginâm sampûritam vidvân, another reading yoginâm sammatam vidvân. F. reads yonasamyurimam vidvân. I read yo ’nasûyurimam vidvân.

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138:2 XXX. See above, III, 10.

138:3 Satapatha-brâhmana I, 4, 22.

138:5 Krishnapandita divides the passage into thirteen Sûtras, and connects tatra, 'on that occasion,' with the preceding Sûtra. 'On that (occasion),' i.e. if a Brâhmana is fed.

139:7 Manu VII, 84; Yâgñavalkya I, 315. Krishnapandita's reading, nainam adhyâkate ka yah, which occurs also in B., is nonsense. I read with Bh. nainamadhyâpatekka yat, and take adhyâpatet, 'assails (the giver),' in the sense of 'troubles him by causing the performance of penances, on account of mistakes committed.' Manu's version, na vinasyati karhikit, 'and never perishes,' is of course an easier one, but it seems to me doubtful whether it is older than Vasishtha's.

139:8 The passage, which is probably a quotation from an Upanishad, is very corrupt in the MSS. and Krishnapandita's text. I correct it as follows:

Dhyânâgnih satyopakayanam kshântyâhutih
sruvamhrîh purodâsamahimsâ samtosho
yûpah krikkhram bhûtebhyo ’bhayadâkshinyam iti
kritvâ kratum mânasam yâti kshayam budhah.

But I am not confident that all the difficulties have been removed.

Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) [1879]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from by Jayaram V for While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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