Paraskara Grihya Sutra

Translated by Hermann Oldenberg

p. 260 p. 261

Contents

p. 262 p. 263

INTRODUCTION TO THE PARASKARA GRIHYA SUTRA. Scroll Up

THE Grihya-sûtra of Pâraskara, which belongs to the White Yagur-veda and forms an appendix to Kâtyâyana's Srauta-sûtra, has been edited, with a German translation, by the scholar who was the first to make a Grihya text accessible to Orientalists and to begin to grapple with the first and most serious difficulties that beset its interpretation, and who has continued since to do more than anyone else towards elucidating that important branch of Vedic literature. It would be very unbecoming in any one engaged in the study of Grihya texts, not to acknowledge most warmly the debt of gratitude which he owes to Professor Stenzler. At the same time the respect due to the veteran editor and interpreter of Âsvalâyana and Pâraskara not only allows, but requires that one who proposes to himself the same task at which Prof. Stenzler has worked with so much learning, should state as clearly as possible what that distinguished scholar has left for others to do, and why one who prepares an English translation of Pâraskara has a very different task from merely translating into English the German translation of Prof. Stenzler.

If I may venture to express in one word the difference between Prof. Stenzler's method, as I understand it, for getting at the meaning of a doubtful or obscure passage, and the method which I have endeavoured to follow, I should say that with Prof. Stenzler the first step and,

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[paragraph continues] I believe, in many cases also the last step is to ask how Gayarâma and Râmakrishna understand the passage in question, while I hold that we ought rather to make ourselves independent from those commentators in the sense in which Prof. Max Müller once expressed himself 1, 'not that I ever despise the traditional interpretation which the commentators have preserved to us, but because I think that, after having examined it, we have a right to judge for ourselves.' There exists a commentary on the Pâraskara-Grihya which far surpasses in trustworthiness Gayarâma's Sagganavallabha and Râmakrishna's Samskâraganapati, and which is not composed by an author who, as says Goethe,

—im Auslegen ist munter;
Legt er nicht aus, so legt er unter.

[paragraph continues] But the leaves of that commentary are scattered through a good many volumes. Here we find a few lines of it in the Satapatha Brâhmana or in Kâtyâyana's Srauta-sûtra; there Sâṅkhâyana or Âsvalâyana has preserved a word or a sentence that belongs to it; or the law-books of Manu or Yâgñavalkya help us to understand a difficult or doubtful aphorism of our text. In one word: the only true commentary on a work like Pâraskara's Grihya is that which the ancient literature itself furnishes. No one will say that in Prof. Stenzler's translation and notes this commentary has not been consulted. But it has been consulted perhaps not quite as much as it ought to have been, and Râmakrishna and Gayarâma have been consulted too much. They have been consulted and followed in many instances, where a continued consideration of what can be the meaning of a word and what can not, and of what the parallel texts say with regard to the subject in question, would have shown that those commentators, instead of interpreting Pâraskara's meaning, father on him vague opinions of their own.

Perhaps it will not be out of place here to point our

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criticism, lest it should be deemed unjust, by a few remarks on a single passage of Pâraskara in which the difference of Prof. Stenzler's way of translating and of our own becomes manifest. Of the numerous passages which could be selected for this purpose, I choose Sûtra I, 2, 5, belonging to the description of the setting up of the sacred domestic fire. The text of that Sûtra runs thus:

5. aranipradûnam eke.

Prof. Stenzler translates as follows:

'Einige sagen, es müsse durch Reibhölzer erzeugtes Feuer sein.'

The two Sûtras which precede give a description of that ceremony from which evidently the opinion of the 'eke' mentioned in this Sûtra differs, or to which they find it necessary to add something. Those Sûtras run thus:

3. After he has fetched fire from the house of a Vaisya who is rich in cattle—

4. All ceremonies are performed as at the cooking of the kâtushprâsya food 1.

It seems evident that the Âkâryas to whom the opinion spoken of in Sûtra 5 belongs, add, or perhaps substitute, to the fetching of the fire which is to be worshipped as the sacrificer's domestic fire, from a rich Vaisya's house, another rite in which an arani, i.e. a stick for kindling the fire by attrition, is made use of in some way or other.

Now if this may be accepted as a vague expression of the general purport of the Sûtra, what is the literal meaning of the words? 'Some (teachers),' it says, '(prescribe) the pradâna of the kindling stick (or, of the kindling sticks).'

What does pradâna mean? Gayarâma says,

'prasabda upasabdârthe. aranyupâdânakam eka âkâryâ ikkhanti.'

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That is: 'The word pra stands in the sense of the word upa. Some teachers desire that it (i.e. the fire) should have the kindling sticks as its physical basis 1.'

Thus, if Gayarâma is right, Prof. Stenzler's translation would be justified. But can we acquiesce indeed in simply accepting the commentator's opinion? Pradâna is pradâna and not upâdâna, as pradadâti is not upâdatte. Pradadâti means 'he hands over,' and pradâna 'the handing over.' This is an established fact, and an interpreter of a Vedic text should not allow himself to be induced by a statement like that of Gayarâma about the preposition pra standing in the sense of upa, to abate one iota of it. Thus we are obliged, until passages have been discovered which modify our knowledge of what pradâna means—but such passages most certainly will never be discovered—to translate:

5. Some (teachers say that) the handing over of the kindling sticks (takes place).

We should give that translation even if we were not able to find an explanation for it. It appears that Prof. Stenzler, as far as we can judge from his note, has not even thought of the possibility of disregarding the authority of Gayarâma and Râmakrishna, or of looking through the parallel texts to see whether they do not throw light on what that 'handing over of the kindling sticks' signifies. The text to be consulted first is of course Kâtyâyana's Srauta-sûtra. As the Srauta ritual contains a description of an âdhâna which is in some way the prototype of the corresponding Grihya ceremony, we may possibly expect to discover, in the course of that description, the statements regarding the arani-pradâna for which we are searching. Now Kâtyâyana 2, having described the setting up of the fire in the gârhapatyâgâra, states that at sunset the sacrificer and his

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wife sit down to the west of the fire which has just been established, and then the Adhvaryu hands over to them the two kindling sticks 1. The Paddhati, in describing that act, goes into further details. The Adhvaryu hands over to the sacrificer the two Aranis, which, as required by custom, are wrapped up in new clothes. The wife takes the adharârani from his hand and puts it on her lap; the sacrificer puts the uttarârani on his lap, and they do homage to them with flowers, saffron, sandal wood, &c.; then, after the performance of some other ceremonies, they put the two Aranis away on a chair or bench. The two Aranis have to be kept by the sacrificer; if they are lost or burnt or destroyed in any other way, other Aranis must be procured, and by their attrition a new fire must be kindled 2.

Âpastamba likewise mentions, in his description of the Agnyâdhâna 3, the handing over of the two Aranis, and indicates a Mantra which the Adhvaryu recites in giving them to the sacrificer, and two other Mantras with the one of which the sacrificer receives them, while he recites the other over the Aranis, after having taken them into his hands.

Finally we may quote here, as bearing witness to the custom of the Aranipradâna, a passage taken from Nârâyana's commentary on the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya. Though the decisive words in that passage rest only on the authority of the commentator and not of the Sûtrakâra himself, they deserve to be taken notice of, as they are not subject to the suspicion that they could be influenced by a misunderstanding of that very Sûtra of Pâraskara of which we are treating. Nârâyana says, in his explanation of Sâṅkhâyana I, 1, 10 4: 'To the west of the fire the sacrificer, and southwards (of him) the wife sits down. The

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handing over of the kindling sticks does not take place. For it is a fire fetched (from a Vaisya's house, &c.) which is inaugurated here 1.' Then the commentator goes on to quote a Sloka:

'The handing over of the Aranis which the Adhvaryu sometimes performs,

'Is not in accordance with the opinion of Suyagña 2; he does not approve of kindling the fire by attrition 3:

Thus, I think, no doubt can remain as to the real meaning of Pâraskara's Sûtra: it means what its words signify and what is in accordance with Kâtyâyana and Âpastamba, and it does not mean what the commentators most gratuitously would make it mean.

Perhaps I have dwelt here too long on the interpretation of a few words which are of no peculiar interest in themselves. But I venture to hope that the discussion on these words will serve as a specimen, by which the fundamental difference of two methods of handling our texts may be discerned. Let us never forget how much we owe to the scholars who have followed the first of these methods, but for ourselves let us choose the second.

Footnotes

264:1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xv, p. 2, note 2.

265:1 The food which is eaten by the four chief officiating priests of the Srauta ritual. For these priests a mess of food is prepared at the ceremony of the âdhâna of the Srauta fires.

266:1 Râmakrishna also, according to Prof. Stenzler's note, explains pradâna by upâdâna, kârana, utpattisthâna.

266:2 IV, 7, 55 seqq. The corresponding passage of the Paddhati is found at p. 358 of Prof. Weber's edition.

267:1 IV, 7, 22: asvatthasamîgarbhâranî prayakkhati.

267:2 See the commentary on IV, 7, 22, and the passages of the Karmapradîpa quoted there.

267:3 Srauta-sûtra V, 8, 7; vol. i, p. 255, of Prof. Garbe's edition.

267:4 Sâyamâhutisamskâroऽdhvaryupratyaya ity âkâryâh.

268:1 Agneh paskâd yagamâno dakshinatah patnî ka upavisati. aranipradânam na kartavyam. âhritasyâgner eva samskârah.

268:2 On this name of Sâṅkhâyana, see my Introduction to the translation of the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya, above, p. 3.

268:3

Atrâranipradânam yad adhvaryuh kurute kvakit,
matam tan na Suyagñasya mathitam soऽtra nekkhati.

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PÂRASKARA-GRIHYA-SÛTRA.

KÂNDA I, KANDIKÂ 1. Scroll Up

1 1 Now henceforth the performance of the domestic sacrifices of cooked food (will be explained).

2 2. Having wiped (around the surface on which he intends to perform a sacrifice), having besmeared it (with cowdung), having drawn the lines thereon, having taken the earth out (of the lines), having besprinkled (the place with water), having established the (sacred) fire, having spread out the seat for the Brahman to the south, having carried forward (the Pranîta water), having spread (Kusa grass) round (the fire), having put down (the different things used at the sacrifice) according as they are wanted, having prepared two (Kusa blades used as) strainers, having consecrated the Prokshanî

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water, having sprinkled (with that water the sacrificial implements) according to what is needed, having poured out (the Âgya or sacrificial butter into the pot), and having put the sacrificial butter on the fire, he should (lustrate the butter by) moving a fire-brand round it.

3. Having warmed the (sacrificial spoon called) Sruva, having wiped it, having besprinkled it (with water), and warmed it again, he should put it down.

4 4. Having taken the Âgya from the fire, having purified it, having looked at it, and (having purified) the Prokshanî water as above, having taken up the Kusa blades with which he is to take hold (of the Âgya pot) by its under surface, having put pieces of wood on (the fire), and having sprinkled (water round it), he should sacrifice.

5. This is the rite wherever a sacrifice is performed.

Footnotes

269:1 1, 1. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 1; Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 1, &c. It seems to me that Professor Stenzler is not quite right in giving to the opening words of the text athâtah, which he translates 'nun also,' the explanation: 'das heisst, nach Beendigung des Srauta-sûtra von Kâtyâyana.' I think rather it can be shown that atah does not contain a reference to something preceding; thus the Srauta-sûtra, which forms the first part of the whole Sûtra collection, is opened in the same way by the words athâtoऽdhikârah.

269:2 The description of the standard form of domestic sacrifice opens with an enumeration of the five so-called bhûsamskâra (parisamuhya, &c.). On the samûhana (for parisamuhya is derived p. 270 from the root ûh, not from vah; comp. below, II, 4, 2: pâninâgnim parisamûhati), see Sâṅkhâyana I, 7, 11; Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 37, &c. On the lines drawn on the sacrificial surface, see Sâṅkhâyana I, 7, 6 seq.; Âsvalâyana I, 3, 1; Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 47 seq.

270:4 Pûrvavat ('as above') can possibly, as Professor Stenzler understands it, have been said with regard to Kâtyâyana's rule, II, 3, 33: Tâbhyâm (scil. pavitrâbhyâm) utpunâti Savitur va iti. But it is also possible that the expression may refer to the second Sûtra of this chapter, where it is said, prokshanîh samskritya. On upayamanân kusân, comp. Kâtyâyana I, 10, 6-8.

KANDIKÂ 2. Scroll Up

1 1. The setting up of the Âvasathya (or sacred domestic) fire (is performed) at the time of his wedding.

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2 2. At the time of the division of the inheritance, according to some (teachers).

3 3 After he has fetched fire from the house of a Vaisya who is rich in cattle,—

4 4. All ceremonies are performed as at the cooking of the kâtushprâsya food.

5 5. Some (say that) the handing over of the kindling sticks (should take place),

6 6. Because the Sruti says, 'There are five great sacrifices.'

7 7. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food for the deities of the Agnyâdheya, and having sacrificed the two Âgya portions, he sacrifices (the following) Âgya oblations:

8 8. 'Thou, Agni' (Vâg. Samhitâ XXI, 3); 'Thus

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thou, Agni' (Vâg. Samhitâ XXI, 4); 'This, O Varuna' (XXI, 1); 'For this I entreat thee' (XXI, 2); 'Thy hundred' (Kâty.-Sraut. XXV, 1, 11); 'And quick, Agni' (Kâty. l.l.); 'The highest one' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 12); 'Be both to us' (ibid. V, 3)—with (these verses he sacrifices) eight (oblations) before (the oblations of cooked food).

9. Thus he sacrifices also afterwards, after he has made oblations of the mess of cooked food to the deities of the Agnyâdheya.

10. And to (Agni) Svishtakrit,

11 11. With (the formulas), 'Into the quick one (has been put) Agni's (sacrificial portion) over which the word vashat has been spoken;' 'What I have done too much;' 'O gods who know the way.'

12 12. Having sacrificed the Barhis, he partakes (of the sacrificial food).

13. Then food is given to the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

270:1 2, 1. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 1, 3.

271:2 Sâṅkhâyana I, 1, 4.

271:3 Sâṅkhâyana I, 1, 8.

271:4 The kâtushprâsya food is prepared, at the time of the setting up of the Srauta fires, for the four chief officiating priests of the Srauta sacrifices. Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana II, 1, 4. Kâtyâyana's corresponding rules with regard to the Âdhâna of the Srauta fires are found at IV, 7, 15. 16.

271:5 Comp. the remarks on this Sûtra, in the Introduction, pp. 265 seq.

271:6 Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 1: 'There are five great sacrifices which are great Sattras, viz. the sacrifice to living beings, the sacrifice to men, the sacrifice to the Manes, the sacrifice to the gods, the Brahmayagña.' As the Grihya ceremonies are included here under the category of mahâyagñâs or great sacrifices, they require, according to the teachers whose opinion is stated in Sûtra 5, a form of the Agnyâdhâna (setting up of the sacred fire) analogous to the Agnyâdhâna of the Srauta ritual, and containing, like that Âdhâna, the act of the Aranipradâna or handing over of the kindling woods (Sûtra 5).

271:7 The deities of the Agnyâdheya, or of the Srauta ceremony corresponding to the Grihya rite here treated of, are Agni pavamâna, Agni pâvaka, Agni suki, Aditi. On the Âgyabhâgas, see Sâṅkhâyana I, 9, 7, &c.

271:8 The verses Vâg. Samh. XXI, 3, 4, the two verses quoted p. 272 Kâty. XXV, 1, 11, and fifthly the verse Vâg. Samh. XII, 12, are prescribed for the Sarvaprâyaskitta (or general expiatory ceremony), see Kâtyâyana l.l.

272:11 Professor Stenzler, following Gayarâma, takes the whole as one Mantra, which he translates: 'Ungehemmet sei Agni's Spende, die durch die That ich überreich machte, bahnschaffende Götter!' But the words yat karmanâtyarîrikam are the opening words of a Mantra quoted Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 9, 4, 24, (comp. also Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 10, 23; the connection in which atyarîrikam there stands, shows that the word designates a mistake made in the sacrificial work by doing too much.) The words devâ gâtuvidah are the Pratîka of Vâg. Samhitâ VIII, 21. Thus I have no doubt that also ayâsy Agner vashatkritam (or possibly ayâsy Agner (?) and vashatkritam (?)) is a Pratîka. Of course, the translation of these words must remain uncertain until the Mantra to which they belong has been discovered.

272:12 On the throwing into the fire of the Barhis, comp. Kâtyâyana III, 8.

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KANDIKÂ 3. Scroll Up

1 1. To six persons the Arghya reception is due: to a teacher, to an officiating priest, to the father-in-law, to the king, to a friend, to a Snâtaka.

2 2-3. They should honour them (with the Arghya reception) once a year.

3. But officiating priests (they should receive) whenever they intend to perform a sacrifice.

4. Having ordered a seat to be got (for the guest), he says, 'Well, sir! sit down! We will do honour to you, sir!'

5. They get for him a couch (of grass) to sit down on, another for the feet, water for washing the feet, the Argha water, water for sipping, and the honey-mixture, i.e. curds, honey, and ghee, in a brass vessel with a brass cover.

6 6. Another person three times announces (to the guest) the couch and the other things (when they are offered to him).

7. He accepts the couch.

8 8. He sits down thereon with (the verse), 'I am the highest one among my people, as the sun among the thunder-bolts. Here I tread on whosoever infests me.'

9 9-10. With the feet (he treads) on the other (bundle of grass).

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10. When he is seated on the couch, he washes (for his guest) the left foot and then the right foot.

11 11. If (the host) is a Brâhmana, the right first.

12 12. (He does so) with (the formula), 'The milk of Virâg art thou. The milk of Virâg may I obtain. (May) the milk of Padyâ Virâg (dwell) in me.'

13 13. He accepts the Arghya water with (the words), 'Waters are ye. May I obtain through you all my wishes.'

14. Pouring it out he recites over (the waters the formula), 'To the ocean I send you; go back to your source. Unhurt be our men. May my sap not be shed.'

15. He sips water with (the formula), 'Thou camest to me with glory. Unite me with lustre. Make me beloved by all creatures, the lord of cattle, unhurtful for the bodies.'

16 16. With (the formula), 'With Mitra’s' (Vâg. Samh., Kânvasâkhâ II, 3, 4) he looks at the Madhuparka.

17 17. With (the formula), 'By the impulse of the god Savitri' (Vâg. Samh. l.l.) he accepts it.

18 18. Taking it into his left hand he stirs it about

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three times with the fourth finger of his right hand with (the formula), 'Adoration to the brown-faced One. What has been damaged in thee, when the food was eaten, that I cut off from thee.'

19. And with the fourth finger and the thumb he spirts away (some part of the Madhuparka) three times.

20. He partakes of it three times with (the formula), 'What is the honied, highest form of honey, and the enjoyment of food, by that honied, highest form of honey, and by that enjoyment of food may I become highest, honied, and an enjoyer of food.'

21 21. Or with (the verses) that contain the word 'honey,' verse by verse.

22 22. Let him give the remainder (of the Madhuparka) to a son or a pupil who is sitting to the north.

23 23. Or let him eat the whole of it (himself).

24 24. Or he should pour out (the remainder) to the east, at an unfrequented spot.

25. Having sipped water, he touches his bodily organs with (the formula), 'May speech dwell in my mouth, breath in my nose, sight in my eyes, hearing in my ears, strength in my arms, vigour in my thighs. May my limbs be unhurt, may my body be united with my body!'

26. When (the guest) has sipped water, (the host), holding a butcher's knife, says to him three times, 'A cow!'

27. He replies, 'The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the Vasus, the sister of the Âdityas, the

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navel of immortality. To the people who understand me, I say, "Do not kill the guiltless cow, which is Aditi." I kill my sin and N.N.'s sin,'—thus, if he chooses to have it killed.

28. But if he chooses to let it loose, he should say, 'My sin and N.N.'s sin has been killed. Om! Let it loose! Let it eat grass!'

29 29-30. But let the Argha not be without flesh.

30. On the occasion of a sacrifice and of a wedding let (the guest) say, 'Make it (ready).'

31 31. Even if he performs more than one Soma sacrifice during one year, let only priests who have received (from him) the Arghya reception, officiate for him, not such who have not received it; for this has been prescribed in the Sruti.

Footnotes

273:1 3, 1. On vaivâhya, which I have translated father-in-law,' comp. the note on Sâṅkhâyana II, 15, I.

273:2-3 2, 3. Comp. below, Sûtra 31, and Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 15, 10.

273:6 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 24, 7.

273:8 I have translated according to the reading of Âsvalâyana (l.l. § 8), vidyutâm instead of udyatâm.

273:9-10 9, 10. There is no doubt that these Sûtras should be divided p. 274 thus: pâdayor anyam. vishtara asînâya savyam pâdam prakshâlya dakshinam prakshâlayati. Thus it is said in the Khâdira-Grihya: vishtaram âstîrya . . . adhyâsîta. pâdayor dvitiyayâ (scil. rikâ) dvau ket. Gobhila has the Sûtra: pâdayor anyam.

274:11 The words brâhmanas ket refer to the host, as the comparison of Âsvalâyana I, 24, 11, shows.

274:12 Comp. Âsvalâyana l.l. § 22; Sâṅkhâyana III, 7, 5.

274:13 The play on words (âpas = waters, avâpnavâni = may I obtain) is untranslatable.

274:16 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 24, 14.

274:17 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 24, 15.

274:18 Âsvalâyana-Grihya l.l. Annasane instead of annâsane is simply a mistake in spelling.

275:21 These are the three verses, Vâg. Samhitâ XIII, 27-29.

275:22 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 24, 25.

275:23 Âsvalâyana l.l. § 27.

275:24 Âsvalâyana l.l. § 26.

276:29-30 29, 30. These Sûtras are identical with two Sûtras in the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 15, 2.3. See the note there. It seems to me inadmissible to translate § 29, as Professor Stenzler does: Der Argha darf aber nicht immer ohne Fleisch sein.

276:31 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 15, 10.

KANDIKÂ 4. Scroll Up

1 1-5. There are four kinds of Pâkayagñas, viz. the huta, the ahuta, the prahuta, and the prâsita.

2. On the following five occasions, viz. the wedding, the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation (of the Brahmakârin), the cutting of the beard, and the parting of the hair, (on these occasions) in the outer hall,

3. On a place that has been smeared (with cow-dung), which is elevated, and which has been sprinkled (with water), he establishes the fire,

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4. Having kindled it by attrition, according to some teachers, at his marriage.

5. During the northern course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day he shall seize the hand of a girl,

6 6. Under one of the (three times) three Nakshatras of which a constellation designated as Uttara is first,

7. Or under (the Nakshatras) Svâti, Mrigasiras, or Rohinî.

8. Three (wives are allowed) to a Brâhmana, in accordance with the order of the castes,

9. Two to a Râganya,

10. One to a Vaisya,

11. One Sûdra wife besides to all, according to some (teachers), without using Mantras (at the ceremonies of wedding, &c.).

12 12. He then makes her put on the (under) garment with (the verse), 'Live to old age; put on the garment! Be a protectress of the human tribes against imprecation. Live a hundred years full of vigour; clothe thyself in wealth and children. Blessed with life put on this garment!'

13 13. Then the upper garment with (the verse), 'The goddesses who spun, who wove, who spread

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out, and who drew out the threads on both sides, may those goddesses clothe thee for the sake of long life. Blessed with life put on this garment!'

14 14. (The bride's father?) anoints the two, (while the bridegroom recites the verse,) 'May the Visve devâs, may the waters unite our hearts. May Mâtarisvan, may Dhâtri, may Deshtrî (the 'showing' goddess) join us.'

15. (The bridegroom), having accepted her who is given away by her father, takes her and goes away (from that place) with (the verse), 'When thou wanderest far away with thy heart to the regions of the world like the wind, may the gold-winged Vaikarna (i.e. the wind?) grant that thy heart may dwell with me! N.N.!'

16 16. He then makes them look at each other (while the bridegroom repeats the verses), 'With no evil eye, not bringing death to thy husband, bring luck to the cattle, be full of joy and vigour. Give birth to heroes; be godly and friendly. Bring us luck, to men and animals.

'Soma has acquired (thee) first (as his wife); after him the Gandharva has acquired (thee). Thy third husband is Agni; the fourth is thy human husband.

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'Soma has given thee to the Gandharva; the Gandharva has given thee to Agni. Wealth and children Agni has given to me, and besides this wife.

'Pûshan! Lead her to us, the highly blessed one. Sâ na ûrû usatî vihara, yasyâm usantah praharâma sepam yasyâm u kâmâ bahavo nivishtyâ (nivishtâ?) iti.'

Footnotes

276:1-5 4, 1-5. See Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 5, 1-5 and the notes.

277:6 I.e. under the constellations Uttaraphalgunî or the two constellations following it, Uttarâshâdhâ or the two constellations following it, Uttarabhâdrapadâ or the two constellations following it.

277:12 The words of the Mantra bhavâ krishtînâm abhisastipâvâ no doubt are an imitation of Rig-veda I, 76, 3, bhavâ yagñânâm abhisastipâvâ (where the words are applied to Agni). Thus the use of the masculine abhisastipâvâ with reference to the bride may be accounted for.

277:13 Comp. Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 45. This parallel passage shows us the way to correct the text of this very much corrupted Mantra.

278:14 The literal translation would be: 'He salves together (samañgayati) the two . . . May the waters salve together (samañgantu) our hearts.' It was a real anointing of the bridegroom and of the bride, that took place, and we cannot accept Professor Stenzler's translation (based on Gayarâma's note: samañgayati parasparam sammukhîkaroti), by which the proper signification of samañgayati is effaced: Dann heisst (der Vater der Braut) sie beide zusammentreten. See the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 12, 5. The parallel passage of the Khâdira-Grihya runs thus: aparenâgnim auduko gatvâ pânigrâham mûrdhany avasiñked, vadhûm ka, samañgantv ity avasiktah.

278:16 Comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 44. 40. 41. 37.

KANDIKÂ 5. Scroll Up

1. Having led her around the fire, keeping it on his right side, according to some (teachers)—

2. Having pushed with his right foot a bundle of grass or a mat to the west of the fire, he sits down.

3 3. While (the bride) touches him, (the following oblations are made:) the two Âghâra oblations, the two Âgya portions, the Mahâvyâhritis, the general expiation, the Prâgâpatya oblation, and the Svishtakrit.

4. These are regular (oblations) at every sacrifice.

5. The Svishtakrit comes before the Mahâvyâhritis, if the sacrificial food is different from Âgya.

6 6. The place for the insertion (of the peculiar oblations belonging to the different sacrifices) is the interval between the general expiation and the oblation to Pragâpati.

7. At the wedding (he may make oblations) with the Râshtrabhrit formulas (i.e. the formulas procuring royal power), if he likes, and with the Gaya and Abhyâtâna formulas (i.e. the formulas procuring

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victory, and aiming [at the hostile powers]), if he knows them—

8 8. Because it has been said, 'By what sacrifice he wishes to attain success.'

9 9. (The Gaya formulas run thus): 'Thought and thinking. Intention and intending. The understood and understanding. The mind and the Sakvarî (verses). The new moon and the full moon. Brihat and Rathantara.

'Pragâpati, the powerful one in victorious battles, has given victories (or, the Gaya formulas) to manly Indra. To him all subjects bowed down; he has become powerful and worthy of sacrifice. Svâhâ!

10 10. (The Abhyâtâna formulas run thus): 'May Agni, the lord of beings, protect me. May Indra, (the lord) of the noblest, Yama, of the earth, Vâyu, of the air, the Sun, of heaven, the Moon, of the Nakshatras, Brihaspati, of the Brahman, Mitra, of truth, Varuna, of the waters, the sea, of the rivers, food, the lord of royalty, protect me. May Soma, (the lord) of herbs, Savitri, of impulses, Rudra, of cattle, Tvashtri, of forms, Vishnu, of mountains, the Maruts, the lords of hosts, protect me. May the fathers,

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the grandfathers, the former, the later, the fathers, the grandfathers protect me here in this power of holiness, in this worldly power, in this prayer, in this Purohitaship, in this sacrifice, in this invocation of the gods. Svâhâ!'—this is added each time.

11. (He then makes other oblations with the following texts:)

'May Agni come hither, the first of gods. May he release the offspring of this wife from the fetter of death. That may this king Varuna grant, that this wife may not weep over distress (falling to her lot) through her sons. Svâhâ!

'May Agni Gârhapatya protect this woman. May he lead her offspring to old age. With fertile womb may she be the mother of living children. May she experience delight in her sons. Svâhâ!

'Make, Agni, all ways of heaven and earth blissful to us, O thou who art worthy of sacrifices. What is great, born on this (earth); and praised, (born) in heaven, that bestow on us, rich treasures. Svâhâ!

'Come hither, showing us an easy path. Give us bright, undecaying life. May death go away; may immortality come to us. May Vivasvat's son make us safe from danger. Svâhâ!

12. And the (verse), 'Another way, O death' (Vâg. Samh. XXXV, 7), after the eating (of the remnant of the sacrificial food), according to some (teachers).

Footnotes

279:3 5, 3. See the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 9, 12.

279:6 See the note l.l.—I have altered the division of Sûtras 6 and 7, so as to draw the word vivâhe to the seventh Sûtra. The rule in § 6 has an entirely general character; the formulas stated in § 7 are given for the particular occasion of the vivâha ceremony.

280:8 Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, 6, 1: 'By what sacrifice he wishes to attain success, at that (sacrifice) he should make oblations with them (i.e. with the Abhyâtâna Mantras): then he will attain success by that sacrifice.'

280:9 Instead of sa i havyah we ought to read probably sa u havyah, or, as the Taitt. Samh. III, 4, 4, 1 gives, sa hi havyah. The Maitr. Samh. has vihavyah (II, 10, 2).

280:10 The words, 'in this power of holiness . . . svâhâ!' are to be added to each member of the whole formula (comp. Atharva-veda V, 24). The expressions 'fathers' and 'grandfathers,' which are twice identically repeated in the translation, stand the first time for pitarah pitâmahâh, and then for tatâs tatâmahâh of the Sanskrit text.

KANDIKÂ 6. Scroll Up

1 1. The girl's brother pours out of his joined hands into her joined hands fried grain mixed with Samî leaves.

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2 2. This she sacrifices, with firmly joined hands, standing, (while the bridegroom recites the verses,)

'To the god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Aryaman, loosen us from here, and not from the husband. Svâhâ!

'This woman, strewing grains, prays thus, "May my husband live long; may my relations be prosperous." Svâhâ!

'These grains I throw into the fire: may this bring prosperity to thee, and may it unite me with thee. May Agni grant us that. N.N.! Svâhâ!'

3 3. He then seizes her right hand together with the thumb, with (the verses),

'I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness, that thou mayst live to old age with me, thy husband. Bhaga, Aryaman, Sâvitrî, Purandhi, the gods have given thee to me that we may rule our house.

'This am I, that art thou; that art thou, this am I. The Sâman am I, the Rik thou; the heaven I, the earth thou.

'Come! Let us marry. Let us unite our sperm. Let us beget offspring. Let us acquire many sons, and may they reach old age.

'Loving, bright, with genial minds may we see a hundred autumns, may we live a hundred autumns, may we hear a hundred autumns!'

Footnotes

281:1 6, 1. Sâṅkhâyana I, 13, 15; Âsvalâyana I, 7, 8.

282:2 Sâṅkhâyana I, 18, 3; 14, 1; Âsvalâyana I, 7. 13.

282:3 Rig-veda X, 85, 36; Sâṅkhâyana I, 13, 4, &c.

KANDIKÂ 7. Scroll Up

1 1. He then makes her tread on a stone, to the north of the fire, with her right foot, (repeating the

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verse,) 'Tread on this stone; like a stone be firm. Tread the foes down; turn away the enemies.'

2. He then sings a song: 'Sarasvatî! Promote this (our undertaking), O gracious one, bountiful one, thou whom we sing first of all that is, in whom what is, has been born, in whom this whole world dwells—that song I will sing to-day which will be the highest glory of women.'

3. They then go round (the fire) with (the verse, which the bridegroom repeats,)

'To thee they have in the beginning carried round Sûryâ (the Sun-bride) with the bridal procession. Mayst thou give back, Agni, to the husbands the wife together with offspring.'

4 4. Thus (the same rites are repeated) twice again, beginning from the fried grain.

5 5. The fourth time she pours the whole fried grain by the neb of a basket (into the fire) with (the words), 'To Bhaga svâhâ!'

6. After he has led her round (the fire) three times, and has sacrificed the oblation to Pragâpati—

Footnotes

282:1 7, 1. Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 7, 7; Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 12.

283:4 See chap. 6, 1.

283:5 Comp. Khâdira-Grihya I, 3: sûrpena sishtân agnâv opya prâgudîkîm utkramayet. See also Gobhila II, 2; Âsvalâyana I, 7, 14.

KANDIKÂ 8. Scroll Up

1 1. Then he makes her step forward in a northern direction seven steps (with the words),

'One for sap, two for juice, three for the prospering of wealth, four for comfort, five for cattle, six for the seasons. Friend! be with seven steps (united to me). So be thou devoted to me.'

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2. (The words), 'May Vishnu lead thee' are added to every part (of the formula).

3 3. From the moment of their going away a man who holds a water-pot on his shoulder, stands silent to the south of the fire;

4. To the north, (according to the opinion) of some (teachers).

5. From that (pot) he sprinkles her (with water) on her head (with the formula),

'The blessed, the most blessed waters, the peaceful ones, the most peaceful ones, may they give medicine to thee'—

6. And with the three (verses), Ye waters are' (Vâg. Samh. XI, 50-52).

7. He then makes her look at the sun with (the verse), 'That eye' (Vâg. Samh. XXXVI, 24.).

8 8. He then touches her heart, (reaching) over her right shoulder, with (the words), 'Into my will I take thy heart; thy mind shall follow my mind; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy heart; may Pragâpati join thee to me.'

9 9. He then recites over her (the verse), 'Auspicious ornaments does this woman wear. Come up to her and behold her. Having brought luck to her, go away back to your houses.'

10 10. A strong man snatches her up from the

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ground, and sets her down in an eastern or northern direction in an out-of-the-way house, on a red bull's hide, with (the words),

'Here may the cows sit down, here the horses, here the men. Here may sacrifice with a thousand gifts, here may Pûshan sit down.'

11. And what (the people in) the village tell them, that they should do.

12 12. For it is said, 'At weddings and funerals he shall enter the village;'

13. (And) because the Sruti says, 'Therefore on these two occasions authority rests with the village.'

14. To the teacher (who helps at the wedding ceremonies) he gives an optional gift.

15 15-17. A cow is the optional gift to be given by a Brâhmana,

16. A village by a Râganya,

17. A horse by a Vaisya.

18 18. A hundred (cows) with a chariot (he gives to a father) who has only daughters.

19 19. After sunset he shows her the firm star (i.e. the polar-star) with (the words),

'Firm art thou; I see thee, the firm one. Firm be thou with me, O thriving one!

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'To me Brihaspati has given thee; obtaining offspring through me, thy husband, live with me a hundred autumns.'

20. If she does not see (the polar-star), let her say notwithstanding, 'I see,' &c.

21 21. Through a period of three nights they shall eat no saline food; they shall sleep on the ground; through one year they shall refrain from conjugal intercourse, or through a period of twelve nights, or of six nights, or at least of three nights.

Footnotes

283:1 8, 1. The parallel texts have sakhâ and saptapadî for sakhe and saptapadâ of Pâraskara.

284:3 See above, I, 4, 15. The water mentioned here is designated as stheyâ âpah; see Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 5 seq.; Grihya-samgraha II, 26. 35.

284:8 See the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 3, 3.

284:9 Rig-veda X, 85, 33.

284:10 The Atharva-veda (XX, 127, 12) has the reading pra gâyadhvam instead of ni shîdantu (in the first Pâda); the second hemistich there runs thus: iho sahasradakshinoऽpi Pûshâ ni shîdati.

285:12 I have ventured, differing from Professor Stenzler ('Bei der Hochzeit und auf der Leichenstätte richte er sich nach dem Dorfe'), to translate pravisatât according to its original meaning. Could this possibly be a rule for Vânaprasthas who live in the forest and enter the village only on exceptional occasions?

285:15-17 Sâṅkhâyana I, 14, 13 seqq.

285:18 Sâṅkhâyana I, 14, 16. Comp. the note there.

285:19 In the text the word 'firm' (dhruva) is neuter in the two first instances, and refers to the 'firm star;' the third time it is feminine, referring to the bride. Pâraskara has the vocative poshye for the nominative poshyâ of Sâṅkhâyana I, 17, 3; comp. above, § 1 sakhe for sakhâ.

286:21 Sâṅkhâyana I, 17, 5. 6; Âsvalâyana I, 8, 10. 11.

KANDIKÂ 9. Scroll Up

1 1. Beginning from the wedding the worshipping of the Aupâsana (i.e. sacred domestic) fire (is prescribed).

2 2. After sunset and before sunrise (the fire should

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be worshipped) with (oblations of) curds, (rice) grains, or fried grains.

3. (He sacrifices) in the evening with (the formulas), 'To Agni svâhâ! To Pragâpati svâhâ!'

4. In the morning with (the formulas), 'To Sûrya svâhâ! To Pragâpati svâhâ!'

5 5. 'Men are both Mitra and Varuna; men are both the Asvins; men are Indra and Sûrya. May a man be born in me! Again svâhâ!'—with (this verse) a wife who desires to conceive, (should offer) the first (oblation).

Footnotes

286:1 9, 1. The expression which I have translated 'beginning from the wedding' is upayamanaprabhriti. The Indian commentators and Professor Stenzler explain the term upayamana as implying a reference to the Sûtra I, 1, 4, upayamanân kusân âdâya ('having taken up the Kusa blades with which he is to take hold of the lower surface of the Âgya pot'). 'The worshipping of the domestic fire,' says Stenzler, following the native authorities, 'consists in the rites which have been prescribed above (I, 1, 4), beginning from the word upayamana, i.e. in the taking up of the Kusa blades, the putting of wood on the fire, the sprinkling and sacrificing. As the rites preceding that word, such as the preparation of the sacrificial spoon (I, 1, 3), are hereby excluded, the oblations are offered with the hand.' It would be easy to show that the upayamanâh kusâh have nothing at all to do with the regular morning and evening oblations of which these Sûtras treat. The comparison of Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 9, 1 (see also Manu III, 67, &c.) leaves no doubt that upayamana is to be understood here as derived from upayakkhati in its very frequent meaning of marrying. I have translated the Sûtra accordingly.

286:2 On the different statements of Vedic authors with regard to the proper time of the morning oblations, see Weber's Indische Studien, X, 329.

287:5 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 17, 9, where the reading and the construction slightly differ. The words punah svâhâ at the end of the Mantra seem to be corrupt; the frequent repetition of pumâmsam and pumân through the whole verse suggests the correction pumse svâhâ, or pumbhyah svâhâ, 'to the man svâhâ!' or 'to the men svâhâ!'

KANDIKÂ 10. Scroll Up

1 1. If (in the chariot) of a king the axle breaks, or something that is bound loosens itself, or the chariot is overturned, or if another accident happens, or (if one of these same things occurs) when a bride is carried home, he establishes the same fire, prepares Âgya, and sacrifices (two Âgya oblations) separately with the two Mantras, 'Here is joy' (Vâg. Samh. VIII, 51 a).

2. Having got ready another chariot, he (i.e. the Purohita or the bridegroom) should make the king or the woman sit down thereon with (the formula), 'In royal power' down to the word, 'in sacrifice'

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[paragraph continues] (Vâg. Samh. XX, 10), and with the (verse), 'I have seized thee' (ibid. XII, 11).

3. The two beasts that draw the chariot, constitute the sacrificial fee.

4. (This is) the penance.

5. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

287:1 10, 1. 'The same fire' is the senâgni (the fire belonging to the army) in the case of the king, the nuptial fire in the second case. The two Mantras are the two parts of Vâg. Samh. VIII, 51 a.

KANDIKÂ 11. Scroll Up

1. In the fourth night (after the wedding), towards morning, (the husband) establishes the fire within (the house), assigns his seat, to the south (of it), to the Brahman, places a pot of water to the north, cooks a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices the two Âgya portions, and makes (other) Âgya oblations with (the following Mantras):

2 2. 'Agni! Expiation! Thou art the expiation of the gods. I, the Brâhmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. The substance which dwells in her that brings death to her husband, that extirpate in her. Svâhâ!

'Vâyu! Expiation! Thou art the expiation of the gods. I, the Brâhmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. The substance which dwells in her that brings death to her children, that extirpate in her. Svâhâ!

'Sûrya! Expiation! Thou art the expiation of the gods. I, the Brâhmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. The substance which dwells in her that brings death to cattle, that extirpate in her. Svâhâ!

'Kandra! Expiation! Thou art the expiation of the gods. I, the Brâhmana, entreat thee, desirous

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of protection. The substance which dwells in her that brings destruction to the house, that extirpate in her. Svâhâ!

'Gandharva! Expiation! Thou art the expiation of the gods. I, the Brâhmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. The substance which dwells in her that brings destruction to fame, that extirpate in her. Svâhâ!'

3. He sacrifices of the mess of cooked food with (the words), 'To Pragâpati svâhâ!'

4 4. Each time after he has sacrificed, he pours the remainder of the oblations into the water-pot, and out of that (pot) he besprinkles her on her head with (the words), 'The evil substance which dwells in thee that brings death to thy husband, death to thy children, death to cattle, destruction to the house, destruction to fame, that I change into one that brings death to thy paramour. Thus live with me to old age, N.N.!'

5. He then makes her eat the mess of cooked food with (the words), 'I add breath to thy breath, bones to thy bones, flesh to thy flesh, skin to thy skin.'

6 6. Therefore one should not wish for sport with the wife of a Srotriya who knows this; for the other one is a person who knows this (and is thereby enabled to destroy a lover of his wife).

7. After he has led her to his house, be should cohabit with her after each of her monthly periods,

8 8. Or as he likes, because it has been said, 'May we have intercourse as we like, until a child is born.'

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9 9. He then touches her heart, (reaching) over her right shoulder, with (the verse), 'O thou whose hair is well parted! Thy heart that dwells in heaven, in the moon, that I know; may it know me. May we see a hundred autumns; may we live a hundred autumns; may we hear a hundred autumns.'

10. In the same way afterwards.

Footnotes

288:2 11, 2. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 18, 3.

289:4 The water-pot is that mentioned in Sûtra 1.

289:6 Satapatha Brâhmana I, 6, 1, 18; XIV, 9, 4, II (= Brihad Âranyaka VI, 4, 12; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xv, p. 218).

289:8 Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 1, 5.

290:9 See above, chap. 8, 8.

KANDIKÂ 12. Scroll Up

1 1. At the beginning of each half-month he cooks a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices to the deities of the festivals of the new and full moon (as stated in the Srauta ritual), and then sacrifices to the following deities: to Brahman, to Pragâpati, to the Visve devâs, and to Heaven and Earth.

2 2. To the Visve devâs a Bali is offered, to the domestic deities, and to Âkâsa (i.e. the Ether).

3 3. From the Vaisvadeva food he makes oblations in the fire with (the formulas), 'To Agni svâhâ! To Pragâpati svâhâ! To the Visve devâs svâhâ! To Agni Svishtakrit svâhâ!'

4. Outside (the house) the wife offers the Bali with (the formulas), 'Adoration to the wife! Adoration to the man! To every time of life, adoration! To the white one with the black teeth, the lord of the bad women, adoration!

'They who allure my offspring, dwelling in the village or in the forest, to them be adoration; I offer

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a Bali to them. Be welfare to me! May they give me offspring.'

5. The remainder he washes out with water. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

290:1 12, 1. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 3, 3. The deities of the corresponding Srauta festivals are, at the full moon, Agni and Agnî-shomau; at the new moon, Agni, Vishnu, and Indrâgnî.

290:2 Comp. below, II, 9, 3.

290:3 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 14, 3, 4.

KANDIKÂ 13. Scroll Up

1 1. If she does not conceive, he should, after having fasted, under (the Nakshatra) Pushya, lay down (in his house) the root of a white-blooming Simhî plant, and on the fourth day, after (his wife) has bathed, he should in the night-time crush it in water and insert it into her right nostril with (the verse), 'This herb is protecting, overcoming, and powerful. May I, the son of this great (mother), obtain the name of a father!'

Footnotes

291:1 13, 1. I have translated according to the reading of a similar Mantra found in the Atharva-veda (VIII, 2, 6), which no doubt is correct, sahasvatî instead of sarasvatî.

KANDIKÂ 14. Scroll Up

1. Now the Pumsavana (i.e. the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child),

2. Before (the child in his mother's womb) moves, in the second or third month (of pregnancy).

3 3. On a day on which the moon stands in conjunction with a Nakshatra (that has a name) of masculine gender, on that day, after having caused (his wife) to fast, to bathe, and to put on two garments which have not yet been washed, and after having in the night-time crushed in water descending roots and shoots of a Nyagrodha tree, he inserts (that into her right nostril) as above, with the two (verses),

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[paragraph continues] 'The gold-child' (Vâg. Samh. XIII, 4) and 'Formed of water' (ibid. XXXI, 17);

4 14_4. A Kusa needle and a Soma stalk, according to some (teachers).

5 5. And he puts gall of a tortoise on her lap.

If he desires; 'May (the son) become valiant,' he recites over him (i.e. over the embryo), modifying the rite (?), 'The Suparna art thou' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 4), (the Yagus) before (the formulas called) 'steps of Vishnu.'

Footnotes

291:3 14, 3. The words 'as above' refer to chap. 13, 1.

292:14_4 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 20, 3.

292:5 The commentators state that kûrmapitta (gall of tortoise) means 'a dish with water.' I place no confidence in this statement, though I cannot show at present what its origin is. I am not sure about the translation of vikrityâ (or vikritya?). But it seems impossible to me that it should be the name of the metre Vikriti. 'Steps of Vishnu' is a name for the Yagus following in the Samhitâ on the one prescribed in this Sûtra. It begins, 'Vishnu’s step art thou, &c.' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 5).

KANDIKÂ 15. Scroll Up

1. Now the Sîmantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair).

2 2. (it is performed) like the Pumsavana;

3. In her first pregnancy, in the sixth or eighth month.

4 15_4. After he has cooked a mess of sacrificial food, containing sesamum and Mudga beans, and has sacrificed to Pragâpati, he parts for the wife, who is seated to the west of the fire on a soft chair, her hair upwards (i.e. beginning from the front) with a bunch containing an even number of unripe Udumbara

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fruits, and with three bunches of Darbha grass, with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with a stick of Vîratara wood, and with a full spindle. with the words, 'Bhûr bhuvah svah.'

5. Or (he parts the hair once) with each of the (three) Mahâvyâhritis.

6 6. He ties (the Udumbara fruits, &c.) to a string of three twisted threads with (the words), 'Rich in sap is this tree; like the tree, rich in sap, be thou fruitful.'

7 7. (The husband) then says to two lute-players, 'Sing ye the king, or if anybody else is still more valiant.'

8 8. Here some also prescribe a certain stanza (to be sung by the lute-players): 'Soma alone is our king. May these human tribes dwell on thy banks, O (river) whose dominion is unbroken, N.N.!'—here he names the name of the river near which they dwell.

9. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

292:2 15, 2. I.e. the Nakshatra under which the ceremony is performed, should be of male gender; the wife is to fast, &c. (see chap. 14, 3).

292:15_4 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 22, 8; Âsvalâyana I, 14, 4.

293:6 Sâṅkhâyana I, 22, 10.

293:7 Sâṅkhâyana l.l. §§ 11, 12; Âsvalâyana l.l. § 6.

293:8 Âsvalâyana l.l. § 7. I take avimuktakakre to be the vocative of the feminine.

KANDIKÂ 16. Scroll Up

1 1. Soshyantîm adbhir abhyukshaty egatu dasamâsya iti (Vâg. Samh. VIII, 28) prâg yasyai to iti (ibid. 29).

2 2 Athâvarâvapatanam, avaitu prisni sevalam sune garâyv attave, naiva mâmsena pîvari na kasmims kanâyatam ava garâyu padyatâm iti.

3. When the boy is born, he performs for him, before the navel-string is cut off, the medhâganana

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[paragraph continues] (production of intelligence) and the âyushya (rite for procuring long life).

4 4. (The medhâganana is performed in the following way:) With his fourth finger and with (an instrument of) gold he gives (to the child) honey and ghee, or ghee (alone), to eat with (the formulas), 'Bhûh I put into thee; bhuvah I put into thee; svah I put into thee. Bhûr bhuvah svah everything I put into thee.'

5. He then performs the âyushya.

6. Near his navel or his right ear he murmurs: 'Agni is long-lived; through the trees he is long-lived. By that long life I make thee long-lived.

'Soma is long-lived; through the herbs he is, &c.

'The Brahman is long-lived; through the Brâhmanas it is, &c.

'The gods are long-lived; through ambrosia (amrita) they are, &c.

'The Rishis are long-lived; through their observances they are, &c.

'The Fathers are long-lived; through the Svadhâ oblations (or oblations made to the Manes) they are, &c.

'Sacrifice is long-lived; through sacrificial fee it is, &c.

'The ocean is long-lived; through the rivers it is long-lived. By that long life I make thee long-lived;'

7. And three times the verse, 'The threefold age' (Vâg. Samh. III, 62).

8. If he desires, 'May he live his full term of

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life,' he should touch him with the Vâtsapra hymn (Vâg. Samh. XII, 18-29).

9. From the Anuvâka beginning with 'From heaven' (XII, 18 seqq.) he omits the last Rik (XII, 29).

10. Having placed five Brâhmanas towards the (five) regions, he should say to them, 'Breathe ye upon this (child).'

11 11. The (Brâhmana placed) to the east should say, Up-breathing!

12. The one to the south, 'Back-breathing!'

13. The one to the west, 'Down-breathing!'

14. The one to the north, 'Out-breathing!'

15. The fifth one, looking upwards, should say, 'On-breathing!'

16. Or (the father) may do that himself, going round (his child), if he can find no (Brâhmanas).

17 17. He recites over the place at which (the child) is born: 'I know, O earth, thy heart that dwells in heaven, in the moon. That I know; may it know me. May we see a hundred autumns; may we live a hundred autumns; may we hear a hundred autumns.'

18 18. He then touches him with (the verse), 'Be a stone, be an axe, be imperishable gold. Thou indeed art the Self called son; thus live a hundred autumns.'

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19 19. He then recites over his mother (the verse), 'Thou art Idâ, the daughter of Mitra and Varuna; thou strong woman hast born a strong son. Be thou blessed with strong children, thou who hast blessed us with a strong son.'

20. He then washes her right breast, and gives it to the child with (the verse), 'This breast' (Vâg. Samh. XVII, 87);

21 21. The left (breast) with (the verse), 'Thy breast which' (ibid. XXXVIII, 5)—with these two (verses).

22. He puts down a pot of water near her head with (the verse), 'O waters, you watch with the gods. As you watch with the gods, thus watch over this mother who is confined, and her child.'

23 23. Having established near the door the fire that has been kept from (the wife's) confinement, he throws into that fire at the time of the morning and evening twilight, until (the mother) gets up (from childbed), mustard seeds mixed with rice chaff (pronouncing the following names of demons and goblins): 'May Sanda and Marka, Upavîra, Saundikeya, Ulûkhala, Malimluka, Dronâsa, Kyavana vanish hence. Svâhâ!

'May Âlikhat, Animisha, Kimvadanta, Upasruti, Haryaksha, Kumbhin, Satru, Pâtrapâni, Nrimani, Hantrîmukha, Sarshapâruna, Kyavana vanish hence. Svâhâ!'

24 24. If (the demon bringing disease) Kumâra attacks the boy, the father covers him with a net

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or with an upper garment, takes him on his lap, and murmurs: Kûrkura, Sukûrkura, Kûrkura, who holds fast children. Ket! ket! doggy! let him loose. Reverence be to thee, the Sîsara, barker, bender.

'That is true that the gods have given a boon to thee. Hast thou then chosen even this boy?

'Ket! ket! doggy! let him loose. Reverence be to thee, the Sîsara, barker, bender.

'That is true that (the divine she-dog) Saramâ is thy mother, Sîsara thy father, the black and the speckled (two dogs of Yama) thy brothers.

'Ket! ket! doggy! let him loose. Reverence be to thee, the Sîsara, barker, bender.'

25. He then touches (the boy) with (the words), 'He does not suffer, he does not cry, he is not stiff, he is not sick, when we speak to him and when we touch him.'

Footnotes

293:1 16, 1. Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 9, 4, 22.

293:2 Atharva-veda I, II, 4.

294:4 Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 9, 4, 23 seqq. (Brihad Âranyaka VI, 4, 24 seqq.; S.B.E., XV, 222 seq.). The text has anâmikayâ suvarnântarhitayâ, which literally is: with the nameless (or fourth) finger, between which (and the food) gold has been put.

295:11 11 seqq. In translating the technical terms for the different kinds of breath, I adopt the expressions chosen by Professor Max Müller, S.B.E., XV, 94. As to the whole rite, comp. Satap. Br. XI, 8, 3, 6.

295:17 Comp. above, I, 11, 9. The comparison of the parallel Mantra leaves scarcely any doubt that veda (the first word of the verse) is the first, not the third person, and bhûmi the vocative case. Compare the vocative darvi of the Vâg. Samhitâ, while the Atharva-veda has darve. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, p. 390.

295:18 Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 9, 4, 26; Âsvalâyana I, 15, 3.

296:19 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 27. Comp. Professor Max Müller's note, S.B.E., XV, 223 seq.

296:21 Satapatha Brâhmana l.1. § 28.

296:23 On the sûtikâgni, comp. Satap. Br. l.l. § 23; Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 25, 4, &c.

296:24 Kûrkura seems to me, and this is also Professor Stenzler's p. 297 opinion, identical with kurkura, kukkura ('dog'). The Petersburg Dictionary explains it, 'Name eines die Kinder bedrohenden Dämons (vielleicht eine Personification des Hustens).'

KANDIKÂ 17. Scroll Up

1 1. On the tenth day (after the birth of the child) the father, having made (his wife) get up, and having fed the Brâhmanas, gives a name (to the child),

2. Of two syllables, or of four syllables beginning with a sonant, with a semivowel in it, with a long vowel (or) the Visarga (at its end), with a Krit (suffix), not with a Taddhita;

3. With an uneven number of syllables, ending in â, with a Taddhita (suffix) to a girl.

4. (The name) of a Brâhmana (should end in)

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sarman (for inst. Vishnusarman), that of a Kshatriya in varman (for inst. Lakshmîvarman), that of a Vaisya in gupta (for inst. Kandragupta).

5. In the forth month (follows) the going out.

6. He makes (the child) look at the sun, pronouncing (the verse), 'That eye' (Vâg. Samhitâ XXXVI, 24).

Footnotes

297:1 17, 1. Comp. Gobhila II, 8, 14; Âsvalâyana I, 15, 4.

KANDIKÂ 18. Scroll Up

1 1. When he returns from a journey, he approaches his house in the manner stated above.

2. When he sees his son, he murmurs, 'From limb by limb thou art produced; out of the heart thou art born. Thou indeed art the Self called son; so live a hundred autumns!'

3. He then kisses his head with (the words), 'With the himkâra (the mystical syllable hiṅ) of Pragâpati, which gives thousandfold life, I kiss thee, N.N.! Live a hundred autumns!'—

4. And three times with (the words), 'With the himkâra of the cows.'

5 5. In his right ear he murmurs, 'Bestow on us, O bountiful, onward-pressing Indra, plentiful, rich treasures. Give us a hundred autumns to live; give us many heroes, strong jawed Indra;'

6 6. In the left ear, 'Indra, bestow on us the best treasures, insight of mind, happiness, increase of wealth, health of our bodies, sweetness of speech, and that our days may be good days.'

7. For a girl he only kisses the head silently.

Footnotes

298:1 18, 1. See Kâtyâyana, Srauta-sûtra IV, 12, 22 seq.: With the words, 'House, be not afraid,' &c. (Vâg. Samh. III, 41) he approaches the house. With, 'For peace you' (III, 43) he enters it.

298:5 Rig-veda III, 36, 10.

298:6 Rig-veda II, 21, 6.

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KANDIKÂ 19. Scroll Up

1. In the sixth month the Annaprâsana (or first feeding with solid food).

2 2. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food, and sacrificed the two Âgyabhâgas, he offers two Âgya oblations, (the first with the verse,) 'The gods have generated the goddess Speech; manifold animals speak her forth. May she, the sweet-sounding, the cow that (for milk) gives sap and juice to us, Speech, the highly-praised one, come to us. Svâhâ!'

3. And the second (oblation) with (the verse), 'May vigour us to-day' (Vâg. Samhitâ XVIII, 33).

4. He then sacrifices (four oblations) of cooked food with (the formulas),

'Through up-breathing may I enjoy food. Svâhâ!

'Through down-breathing may I enjoy smells. Svâhâ!

'Through my eye may I enjoy visible things. Svâhâ!

'Through my ear may I enjoy renown. Svâhâ!'

5. After he has eaten (himself), he should set apart food of all kinds, and of all different sorts of flavour, and should give it to him (i.e. to his son) to eat,

6 6. Silently or with (the word), 'Hanta' (i.e. Well!). For it is said in the Sruti, 'Men (live on) the word hanta.'

7. (He feeds the child) with flesh of (the bird called) Bhâradvâgî, if he wishes (to the child) fluency of speech,

8. With flesh of partridge, if abundance of nourishment,

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9. With fish, if swiftness,

10. (With flesh) of (the bird) Krikashâ, if long life,

11. (With flesh) of (the bird) Âti, if desirous of holy lustre,

12. With all, if desirous of all.

13. Or each (sort of) food one by one. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas, or each (sort of) food one by one. Then feeding of the Brâhmanas.

End of the First Kânda.

Footnotes

299:2 Rig-veda VIII 100, 11.

299:6 Brihad Âranyaka V, 8.

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KÂNDA II, KANDIKÂ 1. Scroll Up

1 1. When (the son) is one year old, the Kûdâkarana (i.e. the tonsure of his head, should be performed),

2. Or before the lapse of the third (year).

3. When he is sixteen years old, the Kesânta (i.e. the shaving of his beard, is to be done),

4. Or, according as it is considered auspicious by all (the different families).

5. After food has been distributed to the Brâhmanas, the mother takes the boy, bathes him, puts on him an under and an upper garment which have not yet been washed, and putting him on her lap, she sits down to the west of the fire.

6. The father taking hold (of his wife) sacrifices Âgya oblations, and after he has partaken of the (sacrificial) food, he pours warm water into cold water with (the words), 'With warm water come hither, Vâyu! Aditi, cut the hair.'

7. At the Kesânta ceremony (Sûtra 3), 'hair and beard' (instead of 'hair').

8. He throws a piece of fresh butter, or of ghee, or some curds into it (i.e. into the water, Sara 6).

9 9. Taking some (water) he moistens the hair near the right ear with (the formula), 'On the impulse of Savitri may the divine waters moisten

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thy body in order that long life and splendour may be thine.'

10 10. Having unravelled (the hair) with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, he puts three young Kusa shoots into it with (the formula), 'Herb' (Vâg. Samh. IV, 1).

11 11. Taking up a copper razor with (the formula), 'Friendly by name' (Vâg. Samh. III, 63 a), he cuts (the hair) with (the formula), 'I cut off' (ibid. 63b), (and with the formula,) 'The razor with which Savitri, the knowing one, has shaven (the beard) of king Soma and Varuna, with that, ye Brâhmanas, shave his (head), in order that he may be blessed with long life and may reach old age.'

12. Cutting off (the Kusa shoots) together with the hair, he throws them on a lump of bull's dung which they keep northwards of the fire.

13. In the same way two other times silently.

14. The moistening and the other rites are repeated with the two other (tufts of hair).

15. Behind with (the verse), 'The threefold age' (Vâg. Samh. III, 62).

16 16. Then on the left side with (the verse), 'With that prayer by which mayst thou, a mighty one, go to heaven, and long mayst thou see the sun: with that prayer I shave thee for the sake of life, of existence, of glory, of welfare.'

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17. Three times he shaves round the head, from left to right;

18. Including the face, at the Kesânta ceremony.

19 19. (He recites the verse,) 'When the shaver shaves his hair with the razor, the wounding, the well-shaped, purify his head, but do not take away his life.'

20 20. He adds (the word), 'his face' at the Kesânta ceremony.

21. With that water (Sûtras 6, 8) he moistens his head, and gives the razor to the barber with (the words), 'Without wounding him, shave him.'

22. The locks of hair which are left over, are to be arranged as it is considered auspicious (in his family).

23 23. Having put away that lump of dung with the hair so that it is hidden in a cow-stable, or in a small pond, or in the vicinity of water; he gives an optional gift to the teacher;

24. A cow at the Kesânta ceremony.

25. After the Kesânta has been performed, (the youth) should observe chastity and should not be shaven through one year, or twelve nights, or six nights, or at least three nights.

Footnotes

301:1 1, 6. I see no reason why we should not take Aditi for the name of the goddess. Comp. Atharva-veda VI, 68, 2: Aditih smasru vapatu. Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 17, 7. Stenzler translates: Ungebundener, die Haare schneide.

301:9 The text has, dakshinam godânam undati. The commentary on Kâtyâyana V, 2, 14 explains dakshina godâna: dakshinakarnasamîpavartinam sirahpradesam. Sâyana on Satapatha Brâhmana III, 1, 2, 4 (p. 323, ed. Weber): godânam nâma karnasyopari pradesah. The Mantra reoccurs in Kâtyâyana, loc. cit.—Savitrâ p. 302 prasûtâh should not be translated as Prof. Stenzler does: von Sav. erzeugt, but: von Say. angetrieben.

302:10 This Sûtra is identical with Kâtyâyana-Sraut. V, 2, 15.

302:11 Compare Kâtyâyana l.l. § 17. The Mantra, Vâg. Samh. III, 63 b, is that given by Kâtyâyana, the following one is that which the other Grihya texts prescribe.

302:16 See the various readings of the Mantra given by Professor Stenzler, p. 53 of his critical annotations, and compare Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 17, 13.

303:19 Âsvalâyana l.l. § 16; Atharva-veda VIII, 2, 17.

303:20 He repeats the Mantra, given in Sûtra 19, in this form: When the shaver shaves his hair and his face,' &c.

303:23 See above, Sûtra 12.

KANDIKÂ 2. Scroll Up

1. He should initiate a Brâhmana, when he is eight years old, or in the eighth year after the conception,

2. Âsvalâyana, when he is eleven years old,

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3. A Vaisya, when he is twelve years old.

4. Or according as it is considered auspicious by all (the different families).

5. He should feed the Brâhmanas. And they lead him (i.e. the boy who is to be initiated) on, with his head shaven all round, and decked with ornaments.

6 6. (The teacher) makes him place himself to the west of the fire and say, 'I have come hither for the sake of studentship (brahmakarya).' And, 'I will be a student (brahmakârin).'

7. He then makes him put on a garment with (the verse), 'In the way in which Brihaspati put the garment of immortality on Indra, thus I put (this garment) on thee, for the sake of long life, of old age, of strength, of splendour.'

8 8. He ties round him the girdle with (the verse which the youth recites), 'Here has come to me, keeping away evil words, purifying my kind as a purifier, clothing herself, by (the power of) inhalation and exhalation, with strength, this sisterly goddess, this blessed girdle.'

9 9. Or, 'A youth, well attired, dressed, came hither. He, being born, becomes glorious. Wise sages extol him, devout ones, turning their minds to the gods.'

10. Or silently.

11. He gives him the staff.

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12. (The student) accepts it with (the verse), 'My staff which fell down to the ground in the open air, that I take up again for the sake of long life, of holiness, of holy lustre.'

13 13. According to some (teachers he accepts the staff) in the way prescribed for the inauguration, because it is said, 'He enters upon a long Sattra (or sacrificial period).'

14. (The teacher) then with his joined hands fills (the student's) joined hands with water with the three (verses), 'Ye waters are' (Vâg. Samh. XI, 50 seqq.).

15 15. He then makes him look at the sun with (the verse), 'That eye' (Vâg. Samh. XXXVI, 24).

16 16. He then touches his heart, (reaching) over his right shoulder, with (the words), 'Into my will I take thy heart, &c.'

17 17. He then seizes (the student's) right hand and says, 'What is thy name?

18. He replies, 'I am N.N., sir!'

19. He then says to him, 'Whose pupil (brahmakârin) art thou?'

20 20. After (the student) has said, 'Yours!'—(the

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teacher replies,) 'Indra's pupil art thou; Agni is thy teacher; I am thy teacher, N.N.!'

21. He then gives him in charge to living beings with (the formulas), 'To Pragâpati I give thee in charge. To the god Savitri I give thee in charge. To the waters, the herbs I give thee in charge. To Heaven and Earth I give thee in charge. To the Visve devâs I give thee in charge. To all beings I give thee in charge for the sake of freedom from harm.'

Footnotes

304:6 6 seqq. Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 4.

304:8 The commentators differ as to whether the Âkârya or the youth should recite the verse. The comparison of Sâṅkhâyana II, 2, 1 would rather tend to show that it is the teacher, but Gobhila II, 10 says expressly: athainam trih pradakshinam muñgamekhalâm pariharan vâkayatîyam duruktât paribâdhamânety ritasya goptrîti vâ.

304:9 Rig-veda III, 8, 4. The verse is originally addressed to Agni.

305:13 Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 3, 3, 2: 'He enters upon a long Sattra, who enters upon Brahmakarya.' The student, when being initiated, ought to behave, consequently, in the same way as those who receive the inauguration (dîkshâ) for a long Sattra. This is the meaning of this Sûtra. The rules regarding the staff handed over by the Adhvaryu to the Yagamâna at the dîkshâ ceremony are given by Kâtyâyana, Srauta-sûtra VII, 4, 1-4.

305:15 See above, I, 8, 7.

305:16 See above, I, 8, 8.

305:17 17 seqq. Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 4, 1 seqq.

305:20 The words 'I am thy teacher' are omitted in one of Professor Stenzler's MSS. and in his translation. But they are given in the parallel passage of the Satapatha Brâhmana. The p. 306 parallel passage in Sâṅkhâyana (Grihya II, 3, 1) also runs thus: Agnir âkâryas tava, asâv, aham kobhau.

KANDIKÂ 3. Scroll Up

1 1. Having walked round the fire with his right side turned towards it, he sits down.

2. Taking hold (of the student), he sacrifices the Âgya oblations, and after having partaken (of the remains of the sacrificial food) he instructs him, 'A student art thou. Take water. Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time. Keep silence. Put fuel on (the fire). Take water.'

3. He then recites the Sâvitrî to him, who is seated to the north of the fire, with his face to the west, sitting near the teacher, and looks (at the teacher), while (the teacher) looks at him;

4 4. Some say, to (the student) who is standing or seated to the south (of the fire);

5. Pâda by Pâda, (then) hemistich by hemistich, and the third time the whole (verse), reciting it together (with the student);

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6. After one year, or after six months, or after twenty-four days, or after twelve days, or after six days, or after three days.

7 7. To a Brâhmana, however, he should recite a (Sâvitrî) verse in the Gâyatrî metre immediately. For it is said in the Sruti, 'To Agni indeed belongs the Brâhmana.'

8. A Trishtubh verse to a Râganya,

9. A Gagatî to a Vaisya,

10. Or a Gâyatrî to (persons of) all (castes).

Footnotes

306:1 3, 1 seqq. Comp. the corresponding section of the Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 4, 6 seqq.

306:4 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 14.

307:7 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 12.

KANDIKÂ 4. Scroll Up

1. Now the putting on of fuel.

2 2. He wipes with his hand (the ground) round the fire with (the formula), 'Agni, glorious one, make me glorious. As thou, glorious Agni, art glorious, thus, O glorious one, bring me to glory. As thou, Agni, art the preserver of the treasure of sacrifice for the gods, thus may I become the preserver of the treasure of the Veda for men.'

3 3. Having sprinkled (water) round the fire from left to right, he stands up and puts a piece of wood on (the fire) with (the texts),

'To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great Gâtavedas. As thou, Agni, art inflamed by wood, thus I am inflamed by life, insight, vigour, offspring, cattle, holy lustre.

'May my teacher be the father of living sons; may I be full of insight, not forgetful (of what I have learned); may I become full of glory, of splendour, of holy lustre, an enjoyer of food. Svâhâ!

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4. In the same way (he puts on) a second (piece of wood); and thus a third.

5. Or (each piece) with (the verse), 'Thine is this' (Vâg. Samh. II, 14).

6. Or (he uses) both (this verse and the formulas given in Sûtra 3).

7 7. The wiping and sprinkling (of water) round (the fire are repeated) as above.

8. Having warmed his two hands, he wipes his mouth with (the formulas):

'Agni, thou art the protector of bodies. Protect my body. Agni, thou art the giver of life. Give me life. Agni, thou art the giver of vigour. Give me vigour.

'Agni, what is deficient in my body, that restore to fulness.

'May the god Savitri bestow insight on me, may the goddess Sarasvatî, may the two divine Asvins, wreathed with lotus, (bestow) insight (on me).'

Footnotes

307:2 4, 2. Comp. Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 22, 21.

307:3 As to anirâkarishnu, comp. anirâkarana below, III, 16.

308:7 See above, Sûtras 2, 3.

KANDIKÂ 5. Scroll Up

1. Here (follows the student's) going the rounds for alms.

2 2-4. A Brâhmana should beg, addressing (the woman from whom he begs alms) with the word 'Lady' put at the beginning (of his request),

3. A Râganya, with the word 'Lady' inserted in the middle,

4. A Vaisya, with the word 'Lady' put at the end.

5 5. (He should beg) from three women who will not refuse;

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6. From six, twelve, or an indefinite number.

7. From his own mother first, according to some (teachers).

8 8. Having announced the alms received to his teacher, he should stand, keeping silence, through the rest of the day, according to some.

9 9. Having fetched fire-wood out of the forest without damaging (trees), he should put them on that fire as above, and should abandon his silence.

10. He should sleep on the ground and eat no pungent or saline food.

11. Wearing the staff, worshipping the fire, being obedient to his Guru, going the rounds for alms—(these are the standing duties of students).

12 12. He should avoid honey or flesh, bathing (for pleasure), sitting on high seats, going to women, falsehood, and taking what is not given to him.

13 13-15. Let him live forty-eight years as a student for the (four) Vedas,

14. Or twelve years for each Veda,

15. Or until he has learnt it.

16. The garment (of a student) should be made of hemp, flax, or wool (accordingly as he is a Brâhmana, a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya).

17. The upper garment of a Brâhmana should be an antelope-skin,

18. That of a Râganya the skin of a spotted deer,

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19. That of a Vaisya a goat's or cow's skin.

20. Or if (the prescribed sort of garment) is not to be had, a cow's hide (should be worn) by all, because to that belongs the first place (among all kinds of garments).

21. The girdle of a Brâhmana should be of Muñga grass,

22. That of a Kshatriya should be a bowstring,

23. That of a Vaisya, made of Mûrvâ (i.e. Sanseveria Roxburghiana).

24 24. If there is no Muñga (or the other articles prescribed in §§ 22, 23, the girdles should be made) of Kusa grass, of the plant Asmantaka, or of Balbaga grass (respectively).

25. The staff of a Brâhmana is of Palâsa wood,

26. That of a Râganya of Bilva wood,

27. That of a Vaisya of Udumbara wood.

28. Or all (sorts of staffs may be used) by all.

29. If the teacher calls him, he shall rise and then answer..

30. If (the teacher calls him) while he is lying down, (he should answer) sitting; if sitting, standing; if standing, walking up (to the teacher); if walking up, running up.

31. If he behaves thus, his fame when he has become a Snâtaka (i.e. when he has taken the bath at the end of his studentship) will be (such that people will say of him), 'To-day he stays there; to-day he stays there.'

32 32-35. There are three (kinds of) Snâtakas: a Vidyâ-snâtaka (i.e. a Snâtaka by knowledge), a Vrata-snâtaka

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[paragraph continues] (i.e. a Snâtaka by the completion of his vows), and a Vidyâ-vrata-snâtaka (i.e. a Snâtaka both by knowledge and by the completion of his vows).

33. He who performs the Samâvartana ceremony, after having finished the study of the Veda, but before the time of his vows has expired, is a Vidyâ-snâtaka.

34. He who performs the Samâvartana, after his vows have expired, but before he has finished the study of the Veda, is a Vrata-snâtaka.

35. He who performs the Samâvartana, after having finished both, is a Vidyâ-vrata-snâtaka.

36 36-40. Until the sixteenth year the time (for being initiated) has not passed for a Brâhmana,

37. Until the twenty-second for a Râganya,

38. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vaisya.

39. After that (time has passed), they become patitasâvitrîka (or persons who have lost the right of learning the Sâvitrî).

40. No one should initiate such men, nor teach them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor have intercourse with them.

41 41. After the time has passed, (they should do) as has been prescribed.

42 42. A person whose ancestors through three generations have been patitasâvitrîkas, is excluded

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from the sacrament (of initiation) and from being taught the Veda.

43 43. Of such persons those who desire to receive the sacrament, may perform the sacrifice of Vrâtyastoma and then study the Veda, if they like. For (of persons who have done that) it is said, 'Intercourse with them is permitted.'

Footnotes

308:2-4 5, 2-4. Comp. Âpastamba I, 3, 28 seqq. (S.B.E., II, p. 12); Manu II, 49, &c. The Brâhmana says, 'Lady, give alms;' the Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' the Vaisya, 'Give alms, lady.'

308:5 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 22, 7.

309:8 Âsvalâyana l.l. §§ 10, 11.

309:9 The meaning is, he should not break off branches, but only gather such as have fallen off. The words 'as above' refer to chap. 4.

309:12 Gautama II, 13; Âpastamba I, 2, 23. 28-30. 21. 26.

309:13-15 Comp. Âpastamba I, 2, 12 seqq.; Âsvalâyana I, 22, 3.

310:24 Manu II, 43.

310:32-35 Comp. Âpastamba I, 30, 1-3; Manu IV, 31. The term of the vows extends through forty-eight (or thirty-six, &c.) p. 311 years; see above, Sûtras 13 and 14, and below, chap. 6, 2. 3. The Samâvartana is the returning home of the student at the end of his studentship.

311:36-40 Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 19, 5 seqq. &c.

311:41 The general rule here alluded to is, according to the commentators, that given by Kâtyâyana, Srauta-sûtra XXV, 1, 12. 13. There it is stated which expiatory oblations have to precede, when a rite that has not been performed, or that has been incorrectly performed, is to be performed for good.

311:42 Those who have not been initiated in due time, may act as p. 312 stated in Sûtra 41. But if the omission has been perpetuated through three generations, the descendant of such persons is subject to the rules stated in Sûtras 42 and 43.

312:43 Kâtyâyana, after having given the rules on the Vrâtyastoma sacrifice (see Weber, Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd edition, pp. 73 seq.), says: 'Intercourse with them (who have performed that sacrifice) is permitted' (Sraut. XXII, 4, 28).

KANDIKÂ 6. Scroll Up

1. When he has finished the Veda, he should take the bath (by which he becomes a Snâtaka);

2 2. Or when (he has gone through) a studentship of forty-eight years;

3 3. Or also after (a studentship) of twelve years, according to some (teachers).

4. (Let him take the bath only) if his Guru has given his permission.

5 5. Rules (regarding the performance of sacrifices), (texts) to be used (at the sacrifices according to those rules), and reasoning (on the meaning of the rites and texts): that is the Veda.

6 6. Some say (that the Veda should be studied) with its six Aṅgas;

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7. Not so that he only knows the ceremonial.

8. But optionally by one who knows the sacrifices (the bath may be taken).

9. (The student) after having embraced (the feet of) his teacher, and put the pieces of wood on the fire, places himself northwards of an enclosure, on eastward-pointed Kusa grass, to the east of eight vessels with water.

10 10. 'The fires that dwell in the waters; the fire which must be hidden, the fire which must be covered, the ray of light, the fire which kills the mind, the unwavering one, the pain-causing one, the destroyer of the body, the fire which kills the organs—those I leave behind. The shining one, that I seize here'—with (this formula) he draws water out of one (of the eight vessels);

11. With that he besprinkles himself with (the words), 'Therewith I besprinkle myself for the sake of prosperity, of glory, of holiness, of holy lustre.'

12 12. (A second time he draws water out of a second of the eight vessels with the formula given in Sûtra 10, putting instead of the words, 'The shining one, &c.,' the verse): 'By which you have created prosperity, by which you have touched surâ, with which you have anointed the eyes, which is your' glory, O Asvins.'

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13. (And he draws water out of three other vessels) with (the three verses), 'Ye waters are' (Vâg. Samh. XI, 50-52), verse by verse.

14. With (water drawn out of) the three other (vessels he besprinkles himself) silently.

15. Having loosened his girdle with (the verse), 'The highest band' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 12), having put it down, having put on another garment, he worships the sun—

16 16. With (the formulas), 'Rising, bearing a shining spear, Indra stands with the Maruts; he stands with the gods who walk in the morning. Thou art a tenfold winner; make me a tenfold winner. Make me attain to renown.

Rising, bearing a shining spear, Indra stands with the Maruts; he stands with the gods who walk in day-time. Thou art a hundredfold winner; make me a hundredfold winner. Make me attain to renown.

Rising, bearing a shining spear, Indra stands with the Maruts; he stands with the gods who walk in the evening. Thou art a thousandfold winner; make me a thousandfold winner. Make me attain to renown.'

17. Having eaten curds or sesamum seeds, and having had his matted hair, the hair of his body, and his nails cut, he should cleanse his teeth with an Udumbara branch with (the verse), 'Array yourselves for the enjoyment of food. Here has come king Soma: he will purify my mouth with glory and fortune.'

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18. Having anointed himself and bathed again, he takes up the salve for nose and mouth with (the words), 'Satiate my up-breathing and down-breathing; satiate my eye; satiate my ear!'

19. Having poured out to the south the water with which he has washed his hands, with (the words), 'Ye fathers, become pure,' he should salve himself and murmur, 'May I become well-looking with my eyes, well-shining with my face, well-hearing with my ears.'

20 20. He then should put on a garment which has not yet been washed, or not been soaked in lie, with (the formula), 'For the sake of putting on, of bringing fame, of long life I shall reach old age. I live a hundred long autumns. For the sake of the increase of wealth I will clothe myself.'

21. Then the upper garment with (the verse), 'With glory (come) to me, Heaven and Earth. With glory, Indra and Brihaspati! May glory and fortune come to me! may glory be my lot!'

22 22. If (he has only) one (garment), he should cover himself (with a part of that garment as if it were an upper garment) with the second part of the former (Mantra; Sûtra 20).

23 23. He takes flowers with (the formula), '(The

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flowers) which Gamadagni has brought for the sake of faith (has brought to Sraddhâ?), of love, of the senses, them I take with glory and with fortune.'

24. He then ties them (to his head) with (the verse), 'The high, wide glory, which Indra has created for the Apsarases, the flowers bound up with that, I tie on to me, to bring me glory!'

25 25. He binds a turban to his head with (the verse), 'A youth, well attired.'

26. (He puts on) the two ear-rings with (the words), 'An ornament art thou; may more ornaments be mine.'

27. He salves his two eyes with (the formula), 'Vritra’s' (Vâg. Samh. IV, 3 b).

28. With (the words), 'Brilliant art thou,' he looks at his image in a mirror.

29. He takes a parasol with (the words), 'Thou art Brihaspati's covering. Shelter me from evil. Do not shelter me from splendour and glory.'

30. With (the words), 'You are supports; protect me from all sides,' he puts on the two shoes.

31. With (the words), 'From all powers of destruction protect me on all sides,' he takes a bamboo staff.

32. (For) the tooth-cleaner, &c. (the Mantras stated above are to be used) in every case; (for) the garment, the parasol, and the shoes, the Mantra (should only be recited) if they have not been used before.

Footnotes

312:2 6, 2. See above, chap. 5, 13.

312:3 See chap. 5, 14.

312:5 The expressions of the text for the three categories are, vidhi, vidheya, tarka.

312:6 I.e. with the supplementary treatises on ritual, grammar, astronomy, etymology, pronunciation of the Mantras, and metrics.

313:10 As to the names of the eight hostile powers of Agni, comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya V, 2; Atharva-veda XIV, I, 38; XVI, 1; Mantrabrâhmana I, 7, I.

313:12 The reading of the Mantra seems to be corrupt. Compare the form in which it is given by Bhavadeva, quoted in Professor Stenzler's note on this Sûtra. Instead of sriyam we have probably to read, as Bhavadeva has, striyam; instead of akshyau, akshân. Professor Stenzler very pertinently compares Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 35. 36. Comp. also Mantrabrâhmana I, 7, 5.

314:16 In the Mantra the Pâraskara MSS. give bhrâgabhrishnuh and bhrâgabhrishtih, and the Gobhila MSS. (Grihya III, 4) bhrâgabhrishtibhih. Possibly the instrumental case is right. Böhtlingk and Roth propose to read bhrâgadrishtih.

315:20 Comp. Kâtyâyana, Srauta-sûtra VII, 2, 18, to which Sûtra Professor Stenzler refers.

315:22 I give this translation merely as tentative. Professor Stenzler translates: Wenn er nur Ein Gewand hat, so bedecke er sich (noch einmal) mit dem oberen Theile des zuerst angelegten. Gayarâma (MS. Chambers 373) says: ekam ket tatrâpi paridhânamantram pathitvâ vastrârdham paridhâya dvir âkamya uttarârdhe grihîtvâ uttarîyam [sic] mantram pathitvottarîyam kritvâ punar dvir âkamed ity arthah.

315:23 Hirany.-Grihya I, 3, 11, 4.

316:25 See above, chap. 2, 9.

KANDIKÂ 7. Scroll Up

1. We shall state the rules of conduct for a Snâtaka.

2. Another (may observe those rules) optionally.

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3 3. Dancing, singing, and playing musical instruments, let him neither perform himself nor go (to see or hear it).

4 4. Sing, however, he may at his pleasure, for there is another saying, 'He sings either or he rejoices in (other people's) singing.'

5 5. If everything goes well, he shall not go by night to another village, and shall not run.

6 6. He shall avoid looking into a well, climbing up a tree, gathering fruits, crawling through narrow openings, bathing naked, jumping over uneven ground, using harsh language, looking at the sun while it is rising or setting, and begging. For there is a Sruti: 'After he has bathed, he should not beg. For he who bathes, drives away from himself begging.'

7. If it rains, he shall go without an upper garment, and shall say, 'May this, my thunderbolt, drive away evil.'

8. He shall not look at himself in water.

9. Agâtalomnîm vipumsîm shandham ka nopahaset.

10. Let him call a pregnant woman 'viganyâ' (one who will give birth to a child);

11. An ichneumon (nakula), sakula;

12 12. A skull (kapâla), bhagâla;

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13 13. A rainbow (Indra-dhanu, Indra's bow), manidhanu (the jewelled bow).

14 14. A cow that suckles (her calf) he should not point out to another (person).

15 15. Let him not void urine or excrements on a ploughed field, on uncovered ground, or while rising up or standing.

16. He shall wipe himself with wood that has fallen off by itself.

17 17. He should not wear a dyed garment.

18. He should be fixed in his intentions, protect everybody's life, and be everybody's friend, as it were.

Footnotes

317:3 7, 3. Comp. the similar rule given in the Buddhist Vinaya, Mahâvagga I, 56.

317:4 Satapatha Brâhmana VI, 1, 1, 15.

317:5 If no accident happens that makes his going to another village necessary.

317:6 The passage of the Sruti quoted is found in the Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 3, 3, 7. Comp. Vasishtha XII, 2, 10, 25; Gautama IX, 32, 61, &c.

317:12 Gautama IX, 2 1.

318:13 Gautama IX, 22; Vasishtha XII, 32. 33; Âpastamba I, 31, 18.

318:14 Gautama IX, 23; Âpastamba I, 31, 10.

318:15 Gautama IX, 38; Vasishtha XII, 13; Âpastamba I, 30, 15. 18. Before easing himself, he shall first cover the ground with grass or the like.

318:17 Gautama IX, 4; Âpastamba I, 30, 10.

KANDIKÂ 8. Scroll Up

1 1. Through a period of three nights (after the Samâvartana) he should keep (the following) observances.

2 2. He shall eat no flesh and not drink out of an earthen vessel.

3 3. He shall avoid seeing women, Sûdras, dead bodies, black birds, and dogs, and shall not talk to (such beings).

4 4. He shall not eat funeral food, or food of a

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[paragraph continues] Sûdra, or of a woman lying-in (during the period of her impurity).

5. He shall not void urine or excrements, or spit out in the sun-shine, and shall riot cover himself against the sun.

6. He shall take warm water for (the rites) in which water is wanted.

7. At night he shall eat by the light (of a lamp or a fire-brand).

8. Or only speaking the truth (suffices instead of the other observances).

9 9. Also a person who has received the dîkshâ (or inauguration for a Soma sacrifice), should observe these rules beginning from (that which regards) the sun-shine (Sûtra 5), if he performs the Pravargya ceremony.

Footnotes

318:1 8, 1. The words of this Sûtra are repeated from Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 1, 1, 28 (only for karati it is said here karet).

318:2 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 30.

318:3 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 31. Black birds, according to the commentators, mean crows.

318:4 Funeral food is such food as described below, III, 10, 26.

319:9 The Pravargya ceremony, one of the preparatory ceremonies of the Soma sacrifice (Indische Studien, X, 363), was not performed at every Soma sacrifice, but there were certain restrictions regarding its performance; see Indische Studien, IX, 219 seq.

KANDIKÂ 9. Scroll Up

1 1. Now (follow) the five great sacrifices.

2 2. Of the Vaisvadeva food he should, after having sprinkled (water) round (the sacred fire), make oblations, with the word Svâhâ (each time repeated), to Brahman, to Pragâpati, to the (deities) of the house, to Kasyapa, and to Anumati.

3 3. To the domestic deities (he offers) three

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[paragraph continues] (Balis) in the water-pot: to Parganya, to the waters, to the Earth;

4. To Dhâtri and Vidhâtri at the two doorposts;

5. To the different quarters (of the horizon), to Vâyu and (to the presiding deities) of the quarters;

6. In the middle three (Balis) to Brahman, to the Air, to the Sun.

7. To the north of those (he offers Balis) to the Visve devâs and to all the beings;

8. Further on to Ushas and to the Lord of beings;

9. To the south (to the Fathers) with (the words), To the Fathers, Svadhâ! Adoration!'

10. Having rinsed out the vessel, he should pour it out towards the north-west with (the words), 'Consumption! this to thee!'

11 11. Taking the Brâhmana's portion (of the food which he is going to distribute), he should give it to a Brâhmana, after he has made him wash himself, with (the words), 'Well! (this) to thee!'

12. To (religious) mendicants and to guests they should apportion (food) as due to them.

13. The persons belonging to the house, the young and the old, should eat what is due to them;

14. Afterwards the householder and his wife.

15 15. Or the householder (should eat) first, because

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the Sruti says, 'Therefore the householder should eat the sweetest food before his guests.'

16 16. Every day he should sacrifice with the word svâhâ. If he has no food (to offer, he should make his offering) with something else, be it even a piece of wood (only), to the gods, or be it (only) a water-pot, to the Fathers and to men.

Footnotes

319:1 9, 1. The five Mahâyagñas are, the sacrifice to the gods, the sacrifice to living Beings, the sacrifice to the Fathers, the sacrifice to the Brahman, the sacrifice to men. As to the meaning of the five categories, see Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 1.

319:2 Compare above, I, 12, 3.

319:3 Compare above, I, 12, 2.

320:11 What I have translated 'the Brâhmana's portion' is agra. See on this word the remark of Nîlakantha quoted by Böhtlingk-Roth sv. agrahâra: agram brâhmanabhoganam, tadartham hriyante râgadhanât prithakkriyante teऽgrahârâh kshetrâdayah. According to different commentators and lexicographers one Agra is equal to four or to sixteen mouthfuls of food.

320:15 I cannot indicate any more than Professor Stenzler could, where the passage here quoted occurs in a Brâhmana.

321:16 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 17, 2; Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 2.

KANDIKÂ 10. Scroll Up

1. Now (follows) the Adhyâyopâkarman (or opening ceremony at the beginning of the annual course of study).

2 2. When the herbs appear, (when the moon stands in conjunction) with Sravana, on the full-moon day of the Srâvana month, or on the fifth (Tithi) of the Srâvana month under (the Nakshatra) Hasta;

3. Having sacrificed the two Âgya portions, he offers two Âgya oblations, (namely,)

4. To the Earth and to Agni, if (he studies) the Rig-veda,

5. To the Air and to Vâyu, if the Yagur-veda,

6. To the Heaven and to the Sun, if the Sâma-veda,

7. To the quarters (of the horizon) and to the Moon, if the Atharva-veda;

8. (Besides) to the Brahman, to the metres in every case,

9. And to Pragâpati, to the gods, to the Rishis, to Faith, to Insight, to Sadasaspati, to Anumati.

10 10. The same (oblations are made) when the

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observances are imposed (on a student) or given up (by him, after having been kept through the prescribed period of time).

11. With (the verse), 'Sadasaspati' (Vâg. Samh. XXXII, 13) (the teacher) three times (sacrifices) fried grains.

12. All should repeat (that verse after him).

13. After each oblation they should each time put on the fire three pieces of Udumbara wood, fresh branches with leaves, anointed with ghee, reciting the Sâvitrî.

14 14. And the students (should put wood on the fire) in the manner stated above.

15. With (the verse), 'Luck may bring us' (Vâg. Samh. IX, 16) they should eat the fried grains without chewing them.

16. With the verse, 'Of Dadhikrâvan' (Vâg. Samh. XXIII, 32) they should eat curds.

17 17. As many pupils as he wishes to obtain, so many sesamum grains should he sacrifice with a dice-board, with the Sâvitrî or with the Anuvâka, 'Bright-resplending' (Vâg. Samh. XVII, 80 seqq.).

18 18. After they have eaten (the remainder of the sacrificial food, the teacher) should pronounce the word Om and then repeat the Sâvitrî three times, and the beginnings of the Adhyâyas to (the students) who are seated facing the west;

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19. The beginnings of the sections belonging to the (different) Rishis, if they are Bahvrikas (i.e. if they study the Rig-Veda),

20 20. The Parvans, if they are Khandogas (i.e. if they study the Sâma-veda),

21. The Sûktas, if they are Atharvans.

22. All murmur: 'May it be ours in common; may it bless us in common; may this Brahman be powerful with us together. Indra knows that through which, and in which way, no hatred may spring up amongst us.'

23. Through a period of three nights they should not study (the Veda).

24. And they should not cut the hair of their bodies and their nails.

25. Some say (that this should not be done) till the Utsarga (i.e. the concluding ceremony of the annual course of study).

Footnotes

321:2 10, 2. Comp. Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 5, 2. 3 and my note.

321:10 On the different vratas (observances) connected with the p. 322 study of the Veda, such as the Sukriya-vrata, the Sâkvara-vrata, &c., comp. especially Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 11. 12 and the notes there.

322:14 See above, chap. 4.

322:17 Âkarshaphalakena. Râmakrishna states that this is a board of Udumbara wood, of the length of an arm, and of the shape of a serpent. (See Professor Stenzler's note.)

322:18 The following Sûtras clearly show that this rule is intended for students of the Yagur-veda only.

323:20 On the division of the Sâma-veda into Parvans, comp. Weber, Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd edition, p. 72.

KANDIKÂ 11. Scroll Up

1 1. If (a strong) wind is blowing, and on the new-moon day there is an entire interruption of study.

2. If one has partaken of a Srâddha dinner, if a meteor falls, or distant thundering is heard, or if the earth quakes, or if fiery apparitions are seen, and when a new season begins, (the study shall be interrupted) until the same time next day.

3 3. If the Utsarga ceremony has been performed,

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if clouds appear, . . . ., (it shall be interrupted) through a period of three nights or till twilight has thrice passed.

4 4. After he has eaten, until he has (washed and) dried his hands; while being in water; at nighttime; at the time of the morning and evening twilight; while a dead body or a Kandâla is in the village.

5. While running, while seeing a person of bad fame or who has lost his caste, if a miraculous or happy event happens, as long as (that which occasions the interruption of study) endures.

6. If hoar-frost (lies on the ground), if a musical instrument is heard, or the cry of a person in pain, at the border of the village, in a burial ground, or if a dog, an ass, an owl, a jackal, or a Sâman song is heard, or if a learned person approaches, as long as (that occasion) endures.

7. If his Guru has died, let him go down into water (for offering water-oblations) and interrupt (the study) for ten nights.

8 8. If one who has performed with him the Tânûnaptra ceremony, or a fellow-pupil (has died), for three nights.

9. If one who is not his fellow-pupil, (has died,) for one night.

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10. After having studied five months and a half, they should celebrate the Utsarga,

11. Or six months and a half.

12 12. They then mutter this Rik: 'Ye two young sages! The relation which has expired among us, the friendship we dissolve, (turning away) from the condition of friendship.'

13. After having remained together through a period of three nights, they separate.

Footnotes

323:1 11, 1. 'Entire interruption' means, according to the commentators, that not only the study of the Veda itself, but also that of the Vedâṅgas, or even all sorts of worldly instruction are forbidden.

323:3 I have left the words sarvarûpe ka untranslated. Evidently p. 324 sarvarûpa is identical with the doubtful word savarûpa which twice occurs in the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya. See the discussion on that word in the note on Sâṅkhâyana II, 12, 10.

324:4 On antardivâkîrtye, comp. Manu V, 85. Gautama XVI, 19.

324:8 The Tânûnaptra is an invocation directed to Tanûnaptri (i.e. the wind) by which the officiating priests and the Yagamâna at a Soma sacrifice pledge their faith to do no harm to each other. See Indische Studien, X, 362.

325:12 The reading of the Mantra is doubtful. I think it should stand as Professor Stenzler has printed it, except that I should propose to correct yuvâ into yuvânâ (comp. Âsvalâyana-Srauta VI, 12, 12). It is probable that the gods addressed are the two Asvins, who are called kavî and yuvânâ in several passages of the Vedas.

KANDIKÂ 12. Scroll Up

1 1. In (the month) Pausha, under (the Nakshatra) Rohinî, or at the middle Ashtakâ let them celebrate the conclusion of the study (of the Veda).

2. Let them go to the brink of water and make water oblations to the gods, the metres, the Vedas, the Rishis, the ancient teachers, the Gandharvas, the other teachers, the year with its divisions, and to their own ancestors and teachers.

3. After having four times quickly recited the Sâvitrî, they should say, 'We have finished.'

4 4. Interruption (of the study) and (continuation of the) teaching as stated above.

Footnotes

325:1 12, 1. See Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 5, 20; Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 6. On the three Ashtakâs, see below, III, 3, 1.

325:4 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 5, 17, where the same expression kshapana for interruptions of the study is used. The words 'as above' refer to chap. 10, 23. 24.

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KANDIKÂ 13. Scroll Up

1 1. On an auspicious day the harnessing to the plough. Or under (the Nakshatra) Gyeshthâ, (because that rite is) sacred to Indra.

2 2. To Indra, Parganya, the two Asvins, the Maruts, Udalâkâsyapa, Svâtikârî, Sîtâ, and Anumati, he offers curds, rice grains, perfumes, and fried grains, and then makes the bullocks eat honey and ghee.

3. He should put them to the plough with (the verse), 'They harness to the ploughs' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 67).

4. With (the verse), 'For luck may us the ploughshares' (Vâg. Samh. XII, 69) let him plough or touch the plough-share.

5 5. Or (he may) not (do so), because (that verse) has been prescribed for (the erection of) the Agni (-altar), and the act of sowing stands in connection (with it).

6. After the front-bullock has been sprinkled (with water), they then should plough unploughed ground.

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7 7. He should make oblations of cooked sacrificial food to the same deities as above, when sowing both rice and barley, and at the sacrifice to Sîtâ.

8. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

326:1 13, 1. Indra is the presiding deity over the constellation Gyeshthâ; see Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 26, 16, &c.

326:2 The names of the genius Udalâkâsyapa and of the female genius Svâtikârî occur, as far as I know, only hero. Böhtlingk-Roth propose to read Sphâtimkârî ('the goddess who gives abundance').

326:5 At the Agni-kayana ceremony furrows are drawn with the plough on the Agni-kshetra with the verses Vâg. Samh. XII, 69-7 2. Afterwards grains of different kinds are sown. See Kâtyâyana XVII, 2, 12; 3, 8; Indische Studien, XIII, 244 seq. Thus in the Srauta ritual the verse Vâg. Samh. XII, 69 stands in a connection which does not conform to the occasion for which it would be used here.

327:7 'As above' refers to Sûtra 2. On the Sîtâ-yagña, see below, chap. 17.

KANDIKÂ 14. Scroll Up

1 1. Now (follows) the Sravana ceremony,

2. On the full-moon day of the Srâvana month.

3. He cooks a mess of sacrificial food, fried grains, and a cake in one dish, pounds the greater part of the grains, sacrifices the two Âgya portions, and two (other) Âgya oblations (with the following verses):

4 4. 'Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the fore-foot and with the hind-foot, these seven [children] of Varuna and all (daughters) of the king's tribe. Svâhâ!'

5 5. 'Within the dominion of the white one, the Serpent has seen nobody. To the white one, the son of Vidarva, adoration! Svâhâ!'

6. He makes oblations of the mess of cooked sacrificial food to Vishnu, to Sravana, to the full moon of Srâvana, and to the rainy season,

7. (And oblations) of the grains with (the verse), 'Accompanied with grains' (Vâg. Samh. XX, 29).

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8. He sacrifices flour, over which ghee has been poured, to the serpents (with the following Mantras):

9. 'To the lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of the yellowish, terrestrial ones, svâhâ!

'To the lord of the white serpents belonging to Vâyu, of the aerial ones, svâhâ!

'To the lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to Sûrya, of the celestial ones, svâhâ!

10. The (cake) in one dish he offers entirely (without leaving a remainder for the sacrificer) with (the formula), 'To the firm one, the son of the Earth, svâhâ!'

11 11. After he has eaten (of the sacrificial food), he throws a portion of the flour into a basket, goes out, besmears an elevated spot outside the hall (with cowdung), says, while a fire-brand is held (before him), 'Do not step between (myself and the fire),' and without speaking (anything except the Mantras), he causes the serpents to wash themselves, (pouring out water for them, with the formulas:)

12. 'Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of the yellowish, terrestrial ones, wash thyself!

'Lord of the white serpents belonging to Vâyu, of the aerial ones, wash thyself!

'Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to Sûrya, of the celestial ones, wash thyself!'

13 13. Each time after the washing has been done, he offers to the serpents a Bali of flour, picking out

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[paragraph continues] (portions of it) with (the spoon called) Darvî (with the formulas):

14. 'Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of the yellowish, terrestrial ones, this is thy Bali!

'Lord of the white serpents belonging to Vâyu, of the aerial ones, this is thy Bali!

'Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to Sûrya, of the celestial ones, this is thy Bali!'

15 15. After he has made them wash themselves as above, he combs them with combs (with the formulas)

16. 'Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of the yellowish, terrestrial ones, comb thyself!

'Lord of the white serpents belonging to Vâyu, of the aerial ones, comb thyself!

'Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to Sûrya, of the celestial ones, comb thyself!'

17. (He offers) collyrium, ointment, and garlands with (the same formulas), putting at their end, respectively, the words, 'Salve thy eyes!' 'Anoint thyself!' 'Put on garlands!'

18. The remainder of the flour he pours out on the elevated spot (mentioned in Sûtra 11), pours water on it out of a water-pot, and worships the

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serpents with the three (verses), 'Adoration be to the serpents' (Vâg. Samh. XIII, 6 seqq.).

19. At that distance in which he wishes the serpents not to approach (the house), he should three times walk round the house, sprinkling an uninterrupted stream of water round it, with the two (verses), 'Beat away, O white one, with thy foot' (Sûtras 4 and 5).

20. He gives away the (spoon called) Darvî (Sûtra 13) and the basket (Sûtra 11), having washed and warmed them.

21. Near the door (of the house) they clean themselves with the three (verses), 'O waters, ye are' (Vâg. Samh. XI, 50 seqq.).

22 22. Having put away that remainder of flour in a hidden place, he should from that time daily till the Âgrahâyanî, after sunset, when he has performed the service to the fire, offer to the serpents a Bali of flour, picking out (portions of it) with the Darvî (spoon).

23 23. When he is offering (the Bali), let no one step between (the sacrificer and the Bali).

24 24. With the Darvî (spoon) he rinses his mouth. Having washed it, he puts it away.

20. According to the commentators he gives these things to the man who holds the fire-brand (Sûtra 11).

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25 25. They eat the (rice) grains which must not form one coherent mass.

26. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

327:1 14, 1 seqq. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana IV, 5; Âsvalâyana II, 1; Gobhila III, 7.

327:4 Âsvalâyana II, 3, 3; Sâṅkhâyana IV, 18, 1. For Vârunaih and râgabândhavaih I read Vârunîh, râgabândhavîh. Pragâh is an interpolation.

327:5 Âsvalâyana, loc. cit. One is rather tempted to correct ahir dadamsa kañkana, but Râmakandra's Paddhati on Sâṅkhâyana gives the reading dadarsa, as the Pâraskara MSS. do.

328:11 The ceremony with the fire-brand seems to stand in connection with the rule given by Âsvalâyana, II, 1, 13, that before the sacrificer has given himself in charge' to the serpents, nobody is allowed to step between him and the Bali destined for the serpents. Comp. also below, Sûtra 23.

328:13 I have translated upaghâtam by 'picking out.' On the full p. 329 technical meaning of the term, which implies the omission of the upastarana and abhighârana, see Bloomfield's note on Grihya-samgraha I, 111 (Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XXXV, 568).

329:15 The words as above refer to Sûtra 11. Pralikhati, which I have translated 'he combs them,' is the same act for which Sâṅkhâyana (IV, 15, 7) says, phanena keshtayati. I think Professor Stenzler is wrong in translating: Er scharrt (das Mehl) mit Kämmen zusammen. Gayarâma says: pralekhanam ka kramena pratimantram balikandûyanam kaṅkataih. tâni ka vaikaṅkatîyâni prâdesamâtrâny ekatodantâni kâshthâni bhavanti.

330:22 The Âgrahâyanî is the full-moon day of Mârgasîrsha, on which the Pratyavarohana ceremony is celebrated. See below, III, 2; Weber, die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, 332. The expression darvyopaghâtam is the same that has occurred above in Sûtra 13.

330:23 Comp. Âsvalâyana-Grihya II, 1, 13, and see above, Sûtra 11.

330:24 Prakshâlya seems to me to refer to the Darvî; see Sûtra 20.

331:25 Asamsyûtâh. Comp. Böhtlingk-Roth sv. sam-sîv.

KANDIKÂ 15. Scroll Up

1. On the full-moon day of Praushthapada the sacrifice to Indra.

2 2. Having cooked milk-rice for Indra and cakes, and having put cakes round (the fire), he sacrifices the two Âgya portions and Âgya oblations to Indra, to Indrânî, to Aga Ekapad, to Ahi Budhnya, and to the Proshthapadâs.

3 3. After he has eaten (his portion of the sacrificial food), he offers a Bali to the Maruts. For the Sruti says, 'The Maruts eat what is not-sacrificed.'

4 4. (This Bali he offers) in Asvattha leaves, because it is said, 'The Maruts stood in the Asvattha tree.'

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5 5. (He offers it) with (the texts), 'Brilliantly resplendent' (Var. Samh. XVII, 80-85), Mantra by Mantra,

6 6. And with the (Mantra called) Vimukha.

7. (This Mantra he repeats only) in his mind.

8 8. For the Sruti says, 'These are their names.'

9 9. He murmurs, 'To Indra the divine' (Vâg. Samh. XVII, 86).

10. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

331:2 15, 2. After these Âgya oblations follows the chief oblation of the whole sacrifice, the oblation of milk-rice to Indra. In one of Professor Stenzler's MSS. there is a special Sûtra inserted after Sûtra 2, 'Of the cooked food he makes an oblation with (the formula), "To Indra svâhâ."' I do not, however, think it right to receive this Sûtra into the text, as the other MSS. do not support it, and the commentators did not find it in the text which they read.

331:3 Professor Stenzler's translation, 'Die Maruts essen kein Opfer,' seems to me not quite exact. I should prefer to say, 'Die Maruts essen Nicht-Opfer.' This passage, taken from Satapatha Brâhmana IV, 5, 2, 16, is quoted as supporting the rule that a Bali offering should be made to the Maruts; for in the technical language the term ahuta is applied to Bali offerings (Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 10, 7, hutoऽgnihotrahomena, ahuto balikarmanâ).

331:4 When Indra called them to his help against Vritra. Satapatha Brâhmana IV, 3, 3, 6.

332:5 This Sûtra is identical with the last words of Kâty. XVIII, 4, 23.

332:6 This is the first part of Vâg. Samh. XVII, 86.

332:8 Satapatha Brâhmana IX, 3, I, 26. There it is said that sukragyotis ('brilliantly resplendent') &c. (the words used in Vâg. Samh. XVII, 80) are names of the Maruts.

332:9 This Sûtra is identical with Kâty. XVIII, 4, 25.

KANDIKÂ 16. Scroll Up

1 1. On the full-moon day of Âsvayuga the (offerings of) Prishâtakas (are made).

2. Having cooked milk-rice for Indra he sacrifices it, mixed with curds, honey, and ghee, to Indra, Indrânî, the two Asvins, the full moon of Âsvayuga, and to the autumn.

3 3. After he has eaten (his portion of the sacrificial food), he sacrifices with his joined hands a Prishâtaka prepared with curds, with the words, 'May what is deficient be made full to me; may what is full not decay to me. Svâhâ!'

4. The inmates of the house look at the mixture of curds, honey, and ghee, with the Anuvâka,

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[paragraph continues] 'May Indra come hither' (Vâg. Samh. XX, 47 seqq.).

5 5. They let the calves join their mothers that night and the Âgrahâyanî night.

6. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

332:1 16, 1. Prishâtaka means a mixture of curds and butter. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana IV, 16, 3; Âsvalâyana II, 2, 3; Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 59.

332:3 Âsvalâyana II, 2, 3.

333:5 Sâṅkhâyana IV, 16, 4.

KANDIKÂ 17. Scroll Up

1 1. Now (follows) the sacrifice to Sîtâ.

2. Wherever he sacrifices, be it (on a field) of rice or of barley, of that grain he should prepare a mess of cooked food.

3 3. One who has sacrificed may, if he likes, prepare elsewhere also a mess of cooked food, either of rice or of barley.

4 4. (There should be) no doubt (as to whether rice or barley is to be taken), as a rule thereon has been stated above.

5. If it is impossible (to take one of the two species of corn), (that) is excluded.

6. To the east or to the north of the field, on a

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clean spot that has been ploughed, so that the crop he not damaged,

7. Or in the village, because (there) both (rice and barley) are united, and because no obstacle is there.

8. Where he intends to cook (the sacrificial food), he establishes the fire on a place that has been smeared (with cowdung), which is elevated, and which has been sprinkled (with water), strews (round the fire) Darbha grass mixed with (stalks of) that (sort of corn to which the sacrifice refers), sacrifices the two Âgya portions and Âgya oblations (with the following Mantras):

9. 'For whom earth and heaven, the intermediate points and the chief points (of the horizon) are veiled with light, that Indra I invoke here. May his weapons be friendly towards us. Svâhâ!

'Whatsoever it be that I wish for at this sacrifice, O killer of Vritra, may all that be fulfilled to me, and may I live a hundred autumns. Svâhâ!

'May success, prosperity, earth, rain, eminence, excellence, luck here protect the creatures. Svâhâ!

'In whose substance dwells the prosperity of all Vedic and worldly works, Indra's wife Sîtâ I invoke. May she not abandon me in whatever work I do. Svâhâ!

Her, who rich in horses, rich in cows, rich in delight indefatigably supports living beings, Urvarâ (i.e. the field) who is wreathed with threshing-floors, I invoke at this sacrifice, the firm One. May she not abandon me. Svâhâ!

10. He makes oblations of the cooked sacrificial food to Sîtâ, Yagâ (the goddess of sacrifice), Samâ (the goddess of zealous devotion), Bhûti (the goddess of welfare).

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11. Some say that the giving (of the sacrificial food to the deities) accompanies the Mantras.

12 12. But this is excluded, as the Sruti says, 'The giving (of the oblation to the deity) accompanies the word Svâhâ.'

13. On the Kusa grass which is left over from the strewing (of grass round the fire), he offers a Bali to the protecting demons of the furrow with (the Mantra), 'They who are sitting towards the east with strong bows and quivers, may they protect thee from the east, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to them.'

14 14. Then to the south with (the Mantra), 'They who are sitting towards the south, not winking the eyes, wearing armour, may they protect thee from the south, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to them.'

15 15. Then to the west with (the Mantra), 'The powerful ones, the excellent ones, prosperity, earth, Pârshni, Sunamkuri, may they protect thee from the west, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to them.'

16. Then to the north with (the Mantra), 'The fearful ones, like to Vâyu in speed, may they protect

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thee from the north, on the field, on the threshing-floor, in the house, on the way, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to them.'

17 17. Of another (sort of food) as the chief (food used at this sacrifice), and with the remainder of Âgya, he distributes Balis as above.

18. And the women should make accompanying oblations, because such is the custom.

19. When the ceremony is finished, he should feed the Brâhmanas. He should feed the Brâhmanas.

End of the Second Kânda.

Footnotes

333:1 17, 1. The goddess Sîtâ is, as her name indicates, the rustic deity of the furrow.

333:3 Perhaps the meaning is that a person who has already once performed the Sîtâ-yagña on the field, is allowed, when repeating the sacrifice another time, to celebrate it elsewhere, and to choose at his will between rice and barley.

333:4 A rule has been given in the Srauta-sûtra (Kâty. I, 9, 1: 'Rice or barley, if a Havis [is prescribed]') which shows that it is indifferent whether rice or barley is taken. Thus the sacrificer is free to elect the one or the other. At least this is the traditional meaning of this Sûtra. But possibly we had better understand it otherwise. The sacrificer should offer, according to Sûtra 3, rice or barley. Whether he has to take the one or the other, there can be no doubt, as the rule given above (Sûtra 2) shows that rice should be cooked, if the ceremony is performed for a rice-field, and barley, if for a barley-field.

335:12 The quotation has not been as yet identified in the Sruti itself, but the words quoted are found in Kâty.-Sraut. I, 2, 7.

335:14 Some words in the beginning of the Mantra are lost. We should probably write: atha dakshinatah. ye dakshinatoऽnimishâh . . . varmina âsate, &c. Of course it is impossible to say which is the word that is wanting before (or perhaps after) varminah.

335:15 Pârshni, which means 'heel,' stands here, of course, as the name of a protecting demon.

336:17 See above, chap. 13, 2.

KÂNDA III, KANDIKÂ 1. Scroll Up

1 1. (Now shall be explained) the partaking of the first-fruits (of the harvest), of a person who has not set up the (sacred Srauta) fires.

2 2. He cooks a mess of fresh sacrificial food, sacrifices the two Âgya portions, and two Âgya oblations, (with the formulas),

'To the hundredfold armed, hundredfold valiant, hundredfold blissful one, the vanquisher of enemies—he who may create a hundred autumns for us, Indra,—may he lead us across (the gulf of) misfortune. Svâhâ!

'The four paths that go between heaven and earth, trodden by the gods—of these (paths) lead us to that which may bring us freedom from decay and decline, O all ye gods. Svâhâ!'

3 3. Having made oblations of the mess of cooked food to the Âgrayana deities, he makes another oblation to (Agni) Svishtakrit with (the verse), 'Agni, make this (sacrifice) full, that it may be well offered. And may the god destroy all hostile powers. Come hither, showing us a good path. Bestow on us long life, full of splendour and free from decay. Svâhâ!'

4. He then eats (of the fresh fruits with the

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verses), 'May Agni eat first, for he knows how the Havis (is fit for sacrifice); may he, the friend of all human tribes, make the herbs blessed to us.

From the good you have led us to the better, ye gods! Through thee, the nourishment, may we obtain thee. Thus enter into us, O potion, bringing refreshment, for the good of our children and of ourselves, and pleasant.'

5 5. Or with the (verse) sacred to Annapati (the Lord of food).

6 6. For barley, however, (he uses the Mantra), 'This barley, mixed with honey, they have ploughed through Sarasvatî under Manu. Indra was lord of the plough, the hundredfold wise one; ploughers were the Maruts, the exuberant givers.'

7. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

337:1 1, 1. The corresponding ceremony of the Srauta ritual is treated of in Kâty. IV, 6.

337:2 A fresh Sthâlîpâka means probably a Sthâlîpâka prepared from the fresh grain of the new harvest.

337:3 The deities of the Âgrayana ceremony, which occupies in the Srauta ritual the place corresponding to the rite described here, are Indra and Agni, the Visve devâs, Heaven and Earth.

338:5 The Annapatîya verse is Vâg. Samh. XI, 83.

338:6 Comp. manâv adhi, Rig-veda VIII, 72, 2.

KANDIKÂ 2. Scroll Up

1. On the full-moon day of Mârgasîrsha the Âgrahâyanî ceremony (is performed).

2 2. He cooks a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices two Âgya oblations as at the Sravanâ sacrifice, and other oblations with (the following verses):

'The night whom men welcome like a cow that comes to them, (the night) which is the consort of the year, may that (night) be auspicious to us. Svâhâ!

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'The night which is the image of the year, that we worship. May I reach old age, imparting strength to my offspring. Svâhâ!

'To the Samvatsara, to the Parivatsara, to the Idâvatsara, to the Idâvatsara, to the Vatsara bring ye great adoration. May we, undecayed, unbeaten, long enjoy the favour of these (years) which are worthy of sacrifices. Svâhâ!

'May summer, winter and spring, the rains be friendly, and may autumn be free of danger to us. In the safe protection of these seasons may we dwell, (and) may (they) last (to us) through a hundred years. Svâhâ!'

3. He makes oblations of the cooked food to Soma, to (the Nakshatra) Mrigasiras, to the full moon of Mârgasîrsha, and to the winter.

4 4. After he has eaten (of the sacrificial food), he throws the remainder of the flour into a basket, (and then follow the same rites that have been stated above) from (the sacrificer's) going out down to their cleaning themselves.

5. After the cleaning he says, 'The Bali offering is finished.'

6 6. After they have spread out to the west of the fire a layer (of straw) and a garment that has

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not yet been washed, they 'redescend,' having bathed, wearing garments which have not yet been washed: the master (of the house) southward, his wife to the north (of her husband, and then the other persons belonging to the house) so that each younger one lies more to the north.

7. Having caused the Brahman to sit down southward, and having placed to the north a water-pot, a Samî branch, an earth-clod taken out of a furrow, and a stone, he murmurs, looking at the fire: 'This Agni is most valiant, he is most blessed, the best giver of a thousand boons, highly powerful. May he establish us both in the highest place.'

8. To the west of the fire he joins his hands (and holds them) towards the east.

9. With the three (verses), 'The divine ship' (Vâg. Samh. XXI, 6-8) they ascend the layer (of straw).

10 10-11. He addresses the Brahman: 'Brahman, we will redescend.'

11. The Brahman having given his permission, they redescend with (the words), 'Life, fame, glory, strength, enjoyment of food, offspring!'

12 12. Those who have received the initiation murmur, 'May a good winter, a good spring, a good summer be bestowed on us. Blessed may be to us the rains; may the autumns be blessed to us.'

13. With (the verse), 'Be soft to us, O earth' (Vâg. Samh. XXXV, 21), they lie down on their right sides, their heads turned towards the east.

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14 14. They arise with (the verse), 'Up! with life, with blessed life. Up! with Parganya's eye, with the seven spaces of the earth.'

15. This (they repeat) two other times, with the Brahman's permission.

16. Let them sleep on the ground four months (after the Pratyavarohana), or as long as they like.

Footnotes

338:2 2, 2. The two oblations belonging to the Sravanâ ceremony are those stated above, II, 14, 4. 5.

2. The first verses in which the Âgrahâyanî night is called the consort of the year, or the image of the year, occur elsewhere with reference to the Ekâshtakâ night. See Atharva-veda III, 10; Taitt. p. 339 Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 1. See also below, Pâraskara III, 3, 5. Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idâvatsara, &c. are terms designating the different years of the quinquennial period of the Yuga. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 369, 370.

339:4 See above, II, 14, 1I-21 (not 19-21 as indicated by Professor Stenzler).

339:6 'Redescending' means that they do not sleep any longer on high bedsteads, which they did from the Srâvanî day till the Âgrahâyanî, on account of the danger from the snakes, but on the ground. See the notes on Sâṅkh.-Grihya IV, 15, 22; 17, 1.

340:10-11 10, 11. See the note on § 6.

340:12 On upeta, which means a person for whom the Upanayana has been performed, see my note, Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 1, 1.

KANDIKÂ 3. Scroll Up

1 1. After the Âgrahâyanî (full moon follow) the three Ashtakâs.

2 2. (The Ashtakâ is) sacred to Indra, to the Visve devâs, to Pragâpati, and to the Fathers.

3 3. (The oblations are made) with cakes, flesh, and vegetables, according to the order (of the three Ashtakâs).

4. The first Ashtakâ (is celebrated) on the eighth day of the fortnight.

5 5. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food and having sacrificed the two Âgya portions, he sacrifices Âgya oblations with (the texts):

(a a) 'Thirty sisters go to the appointed place,

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putting on the same badge. They spread out the seasons, the knowing sages; having the metres in their midst they walk around, the brilliant ones. Svâhâ!

(b) 'The shining one clothes herself with clouds, with the ways of the sun, the divine night: manifold animals which are born, look about in this mother's lap. Svâhâ!

(c) 'The Ekâshtakâ, devoting herself to austerities, has given birth to a child, to the majesty of Indra. Through him the gods have conquered the hostile tribes; he became the killer of the Asuras through his (divine) powers. Svâhâ!

(d d) 'You have made me who am not the younger (sister), the younger; speaking the truth I desire this: may I be in his (i.e. the sacrificer's?) favour, as you are; may none of you supplant the other in her work.

(e) 'In my favour dwelt the omniscient one; he has found a firm standing; he has got a footing. May I be in his (i.e. the sacrificer's?) favour, as you are; may none of you supplant the other in her work.

(f f) 'On the five dawns follows the fivefold milking; on the cow with the five names, the rive seasons. The five regions (of the sky) are established

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through the fifteenfold (Stoma); with one common face (they look over) the one world. Svâhâ!

(g) 'She who shone forth as the first, is the child of truth. One (of them) bears the majesty of the waters; one wanders in the courses of the sun; one (in those) of the heat; Savitri shall govern one. Svâhâ!

(h) 'She who shone forth as the first has become a cow in Yama's realm. Give us milk, thou who art rich in milk, year by year. Svâhâ!

(i i) 'She, the owner of bright bulls, has come to us with clouds and with light, she who has all shapes, the motley one, whose banner is fire. Carrying on the common work, leading us to old age, come to us thou who art exempt from old age, Ushas! Svâhâ!

(k) 'The consort of the seasons, the first one has come to us, the leader of days, the producer of offspring. Being one, thou shinest manifold, Ushas. Being free from old age, thou leadest to old age everything else. Svâhâ!'

6 6. He makes offerings of the mess of cooked food with (the verses):

'May the earth be peaceful, the air friendly to us;

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may the heavens give us bliss and safety. May the points (of the horizon), the intermediate points, the upper points give us bliss, and may day and night create long life for us. Svâhâ!

'May the waters, the rays protect us from all sides; may the creator, may the ocean turn away evil. The present and the future, may all be safe for me. Protected by Brahman, may I be well guarded. Svâhâ!

'May all Âdityas and the divine Vasus, may the Rudras and Maruts be our protectors. May Pragâpati, the highest lord, bestow on us vigour, offspring, immortality, long life. Svâhâ!'

7. And with (the formula), 'To the Ashtakâ Svâhâ!'

8. The middle Ashtakâ (is celebrated) with (the sacrifice of) a cow.

9. He sacrifices the omentum of that (cow) with (the verse), 'Carry the omentum, O Gâtavedas, to the fathers' (Vâg. Samh. XXXV, 20).

10. On the day following each (Ashtakâ), the Anvashtakâ day, (he brings a sacrifice) with the left ribs and the left thigh, in an enclosure, according to (the ritual of) the Pindapitriyagña.

11. Also to the female (ancestors he makes Pinda offerings) and pours (for them) strong liquor and water oblations into pits, and (offers) collyrium, salves, and garlands.

12. (He may also make oblations), if he likes, to the teacher and to the pupils who have no children.

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13 13. And in the middle of the rainy season (there is) a fourth Ashtakâ on which vegetables are offered.

Footnotes

341:14 The verse occurs, with a few differences, in the Kânva Sâkhâ of the Vâg. Samhitâ, II, 7, 5.

341:1 3, 1. On the Ashtakâs, celebrated on the eighth days of the three dark fortnights following after the Âgrahâyanî full moon, see Sâṅkhâyana III, 12 seqq.; Âsvalâyana II, 4; Gobhila III, 10.

341:2 As there are four deities named, I think it probable that they are referred to all Ashtakâs indiscriminately; comp. Âsvalâyana II, 4, 12. Thus in the Mantras prescribed for the first Ashtakâ (Sûtras 5 and 6), Indra, the Visve devâs, and Pragâpati are named; to the Fathers belongs the Anvashtakya ceremony.

341:3 With regard to the order of these substances the Grihya texts differ.

341:5 Comp. Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 3, 11; Atharva-veda III, 10.

341:a (a) The thirty sisters seem to be the days of the month. As to p. 342 madhyekhandas, comp. Taitt. Samh. loc. cit. § 1: khandasvatî ushasâ pepisâne; § 2: katushtomo abhavad yâ turîyâ yagñasya pakshâv rishayo bhavantî, gâyatrîm trishtubham gagatîm anushtubham brihad arkam yuñgânâh suvar âऽbharann idam.

342:d (d) Probably one Ashtakâ addresses the others, her sisters, as Gayarâma explains this verse.

342:f (f) The explanation by which the 'fivefold milking' is referred to what is called in Taitt. Brâhmana II, 2, 9, 'the milkings of Pragâpati,' seems to me more than doubtful, for 'the milkings p. 342 of Pragâpati' are only four: viz. the dark night, the moonlight, the twilight, and the day.

343:i (i) Sukra-rishabhâ cannot be translated, as Professor Stenzler does, 'die schönste unter den Lichtern' (Mâdhava: sukreshu nakshatrâdishu sreshthâ), for this meaning of rishabhâ occurs only in later texts. The word is a Bahuvrîhi compound, as the Petersburg Dictionary explains it.

343:6 In the first verse I have omitted vyasnavai, which impedes the construction and violates the metre. The word has found its way into the text, no doubt, in consequence of the phrase dîrgham âyur vyasnavai occurring in chap. 2, 2. In the second verse p. 344 akritad is corrupt. I have translated abhayam; comp. Âsvalâyana II, 4, 14. In the third verse I have left out mayi, as Professor Stenzler has done in his translation.

345:13 I have stated in the note on Sâṅkhâyana III, 13, 1 my reasons for believing that the true reading of this Sûtra is not madhyâvarshe (in the middle of the rainy season), but mâghyavarshe (the festival celebrated during the rainy season under the Nakshatra Maghâs). There are no express rules given with regard to the third Ashtakâ, but I think we should understand this Sûtra as involving a statement on that Ashtakâ: (The third Ashtakâ) and the fourth, on the Mâghyavarsha day, are Sâkâshtakâs (Ashtakâs on which vegetables are offered). Sâṅkhâyana (Grihya III, 13, 1) declares that the ritual of the fourth Ashtakâ is identical with that of the second.

KANDIKÂ 4. Scroll Up

1. Now the building of the house.

2. Let him have his house built on an auspicious day.

3 3. Into the pits (in which the posts shall be erected) he pours an oblation with (the words), 'To the steady one, the earth-demon, svâhâ!'

4 4. He erects the post.

'This navel of the world I set up, a stream of wealth, promoting wealth. Here I erect a firm house; may it stand in peace, dropping ghee.

'Rich in horses and cows, rich in delight be set up, for the sake of great happiness. To thee may the young calf cry, to thee the lowing cows, the milk-cows.

'To thee (may) the young child (go), to thee the calf with its companions, to thee the cup of Parisrut, to thee (may they go) with pots of curds.

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'The consort of Peace, the great one, beautifully attired—bestow on us, O blessed one, wealth and manly power, which may be rich in horses and cows, full of sap like a tree's leaf. May our wealth increase here, clothing itself with prospering'—with (these four Mantras) he approaches the four (posts).

5. Having established the fire inside (the house), having made the Brahman sit down towards the south, having placed a water-pot to the north, and cooked a mess of sacrificial food, he goes out (of the house), and standing near the door, he addresses the Brahman, 'Brahman, I enter (the house)!'

6. When the Brahman has given his consent, he enters with (the formula), 'To right I advance, to luck I advance!'

7 7. Having prepared Âgya and sacrificed two Âgya oblations with (the two parts of the Mantra), 'Here is joy' (Vâg. Samh. VIII, 51 a), he sacrifices other oblations with (the verses):

(a) 'Vâstoshpati! Receive us (into thy protection); give us good entering and drive away from us evil. For what we ask thee, with that favour us: be a saviour to us, to men and animals. Svâhâ!

(b) 'Vâstoshpati! Be our furtherer; make our wealth increase in cows and horses, O Indu (i.e. Soma). Free from decay may we dwell in thy friendship; give us thy favour, as a father to his sons. Svâhâ!

(c) 'Vâstoshpati! Let us be in a fellowship with thee, which may be valiant, joyful, and well proceeding. Protect our wishes when we rest and

p. 347

when we do our work. Protect us always, ye (gods), and give us welfare. Svâhâ!

(d) 'Driving away calamity, Vâstoshpati, assuming all shapes, be a kind friend to us. Svâhâ!

8. He makes offerings of the mess of cooked food (with the following Mantras):

(a a) Agni, Indra, Brihaspati, the Visve devâs I invoke, Sarasvatî and Vâgî. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svâhâ!

(b b) 'To all the divine hosts of serpents, to the Himavat, the Sudarsana (mountain), and the Vasus, Rudras, Âdityas, Îsâna with his companions, to all these I apply. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svâhâ!

(c) 'To forenoon and afternoon both together with noon, to evening and midnight, to the goddess of dawn with her wide path, to all these I apply. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svâhâ!

(d) 'To the Creator and the Changer, to Visvakarman, to the herbs and trees, to all these I apply. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svâhâ!

(e) 'To Dhâtri and Vidhâtri, and to the Lord of treasures together with them, to all these I apply. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svâhâ!

(f) 'As a lucky, a happy (place), give me this dwelling-place, Brahman and Pragâpati, and all deities. Svâhâ!'

9. After he has partaken (of the sacrificial food), let him put into a brass vessel the different things which he has brought together, Udumbara leaves with strong liquor, green turf, cowdung, curds,

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honey, ghee, Kusa grass, and barley, and let him besprinkle the seats and shrines (for the images of the gods).

10. He touches (the wall and the posts) at their eastern juncture with (the words), 'May luck and glory protect thee at thy eastern juncture.'

11. He touches (them) at their southern juncture with (the words), 'May sacrifice and sacrificial fee protect thee at thy southern juncture.'

12. He touches (them) at their western juncture with (the words), 'May food and the Brâhmana protect thee at thy western juncture.'

13. He touches (them) at their northern juncture with (the words), 'May vigour and delight protect thee at thy northern juncture.'

14. He then goes out (of the house) and worships the quarters (of the horizon, the east) with (the formulas), 'May Ketâ (i.e. will?) and Suketâ (i.e. good-will?) protect me from the east.

'Agni is Ketâ; the Sun is Suketâ: to them I apply; to them be adoration; may they protect me from the east.'

15. Then to the south: 'May that which protects and that which guards, protect me from the south.

'The Day is that which protects; the Night is that which guards; to them I apply; to them be adoration; may they protect me from the south.'

16. Then to the west: 'May the shining one and the waking one protect me from the west.

'Food is the shining one; Breath is the waking one; to them I apply; to them be adoration; may they protect me from the west.'

17. Then to the north: 'May the sleepless one and the not-slumbering one protect me from the north.

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'The Moon is the sleepless one; the Wind is the not-slumbering one; to them I apply; to them be adoration; may they protect me from the north.'

18 18. When (the house) is finished, he enters it with (the formulas),

'Law, the chief post! Fortune, the pinnacle! Day and night, the two door-boards!

'Indra's house is wealthy, protecting; that I enter with my children, with my cattle, with everything that is mine.

'Hither is called the whole number (of relatives), the friends whose coming is good. Thus (I enter) thee, O house. May our dwellings be full of inviolable heroes from all sides!'

19. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

345:3 4, 3. Âsvalâyana-Grihya II, 8, 15.

345:4 On gagadaih saha (in the third verse) see my note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 2, 9.

346:7 Rig-veda VII, 54; 55, 1.

347:a 8 a. Vâgî is, as the name shows, the goddess of quick vigour. Gayarâma explains Vâgî, a name of Sîtâ, as a personification of food.

347:b Comp. Âsvalâyana II, I, 14. On gagada, comp. above, § 4.

349:18 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 3, 7 seq.; chap. 4, 10. The comparison of Sâṅkhâyana shows that we have to divide saha pragayâ pasubhih, saha yan me kiñkid asty, upahûtah, &c. Sâdhusamvritah (if the reading is correct) seems to me to be the nom. plur. of sâdhusamvrit. I understand this to be a Bahuvrîhi compound, in which samvrit means 'the approaching.' In Atharva-veda VII, 60, 4 we have sakhâyah svâdusammudah. After sâle a verb meaning 'I enter,' or something like that, has been lost.

KANDIKÂ 5. Scroll Up

1. Now (follows) the putting up of the water-barrel.

2. To the north-east he digs a pit like (the pit for) a sacrificial post, strews into it Kusa grass, fried grains, fruits of the soap-tree, and other auspicious things, and therein he establishes the water-barrel with (the words), 'The sea art thou.'

3 3. He pours water into it with (the verse), 'Ye

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waters, rich in wealth, ye possess goods. Ye bring us good insight and immortality. Ye are the rulers over wealth and blessed offspring. May Sarasvatî give strength to him who praises her!'—

4. And with the three (verses), 'O waters, ye are' (Vâg. Samhitâ XI, 50 seqq.).

5. Then (follows) feeding of the Brâhmanas.

Footnotes

349:3 5, 3. Rig-veda X, 30, 12.

KANDIKÂ 6. Scroll Up

1. Now the cure for headache.

2. Having moistened his hands, he passes them over his eye-brows with (the verse), 'From the eyes, from the ears, from the whiskers, from the chin, from the forehead, I drive away this disease of the head.'

3. If (only) one side (of the head aches, he recites the verse), 'Cleaver! Thou with the disfigured eyes! White-wing! Renowned one! And thou with the various-coloured wing! Let his head not ache.'

4. Then it will get better.

KANDIKÂ 7. Scroll Up

1 1. (Now will be declared) the making water round about a servant who is disposed to run away.

2. While (the servant) is sleeping, he should discharge his urine into the horn of a living animal, and should three times walk round him, turning his left side towards him, and sprinkle (the urine) round him,

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with (the verse), 'From the mountain (on which thou art born), from thy mother, from thy sister, from thy parents and thy brothers, from thy friends I sever thee.

'Run-away servant, I have made water round thee. Having been watered round, where wilt thou go?'

3 7_3. Should he run away (nevertheless, his master) should establish a fire that has been taken from a wood that is on fire, and should sacrifice (in that fire) Kusa plates (used for protecting the hands when holding a hot sacrificial pan) that have been anointed with ghee, with (the formula), 'May the stumbler stumble round thee, . . . . may he tie thee with Indra's fetter, loosen thee for me, and may he lead another one up (to me).'

4 4. Then he will quietly remain (in his master's house).

Footnotes

350:1 7, 1. Utûla-parimehah. It is probable that utûla, as meaning a slave who habitually runs away, is connected with the use of that word as the name of a tribe in the north-west of India.

351:7_3 Ukhâ yâbhyâm grihyate tâv indvau. Comm. on Kâtyâyana, Sraut. XVI, 4, 2.

In the Mantra I propose to read, pari tvâ hvalano, &c. Nivrittendravîrudhah seems to be corrupt; it seems to be a compound of nivritta, a second member which is doubtful, and vîrudh (the plant). The meaning may have been 'giving it up to consume the plants.'

351:4 This Sûtra is word for word identical with chap. 6, 4.

KANDIKÂ 8. Scroll Up

1 1. The spit-ox (sacrificed to Rudra).

2 2. It procures (to the sacrificer) heavenly rewards, cattle, sons, wealth, renown, long life.

3 8_3. Having taken the sacred domestic fire to the

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forest, and having performed the 'outspreading,' he should sacrifice the animal to Rudra.

4. One that is not gelded.

5 5. Or (it may be) a cow, on account of the designation.

6 6. Having cooked the omentum, a mess of sacrificial food, and the portions cut off (of the victim), he sacrifices the omentum to Rudra, the fat to the Air, and the cut-off portions together with the mess of cooked food to Agni, Rudra, Sarva, Pasupati, Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahâdeva, Îsâna.

7. (Then follows a sacrifice to) Vanaspati.

8. (To Agni) Svishtakrit at the end.

9 9. Then (follows) the sprinkling round to the different quarters (of the horizon).

10 10. After the sprinkling has been performed, they sacrifice the Patnî-samyâga offerings to Indrânî, Rudrânî, Sarvâni, Bhavânî, and Agni Grihapati.

11 11. The blood he offers in leaves, on (grass-) bunches, as a Bali to Rudra and to his hosts, with (the Mantras),

'The hosts, Rudra, which thou hast to the east, to them this Bali (is given). To them and to thee be adoration!

'The hosts, Rudra, which thou hast to the south . . . to the west . . . to the north . . . upwards . . .

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downwards, to them this Bali (is given). To them and to thee be adoration!'

12 12. The contents of the stomach and of the entrails, besmeared with blood, he throws into the fire or buries them in the earth.

13 13. Having placed the animal so that the wind blows from himself to it, he approaches it with the Rudra hymns, or with the first and last Anuvâka.

14. They do not take anything of that animal to the village.

15 15. Thereby (also) the cow-sacrifice has been declared.

16. (It is combined) with (the offering of) milk-rice; (the rites) not corresponding (to that special occasion) are omitted.

17. The sacrificial fee at that (sacrifice) is a cow of the same age (as the victim).

Footnotes

351:1 8, 1. Âsvalâyana-Grihya IV, 8.

351:2 Âsvalâyana, loc. cit. § 35.

351:8_3 The 'outspreading' is the establishing of the three sacred Srauta fires, so that the Grihya fire is considered as the Gârhapatya, and the Âhavanîya and Dakshinâgni are taken from it.

352:5 On account of the designation of the sacrifice as sûla-gava.

352:6 Âsvalâyana, loc. cit. § 19.

352:9 Gayarâma: disâm vyâghâranam kartavyam iti sûtraseshah. tak ka vasayâ bhavati yathâgnishomîye.

352:10 On the Patnî-samyâga offerings, so called because they are chiefly directed to the wives of the gods, see Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 151 seqq.

352:11 Âsvalâyana, loc. cit. § 22.

353:12 As to ûvadhya, comp. Âsvalâyana, § 28.

353:13 The Rudra hymns form the sixteenth Adhyâya of the Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ. Either that whole Adhyâya or the first and last Anuvâka of it is recited.

353:15 Gobhila III, 6.

KANDIKÂ 9. Scroll Up

1 1. Now the letting loose of the bull.

2 2. (The ceremony) has been declared in the cow-sacrifice.

3 3. (It is performed) on the full-moon day of Kârttika, or on the (day on which the moon stands in conjunction with) Revatî in the Âsvayuga month.

4 4. Having set a fire in a blaze in the midst of the

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cows, and having prepared Âgya, he sacrifices six (oblations) with (the Mantras), 'Here is delight' (Vâg. Samh. VIII, 51).

5 5. With (the verses), 'May Pûshan go after our cows; may Pûshan watch over our horses; may Pûshan give us strength'—he sacrifices of (the sacrificial food) destined for Pûshan.

6 6. After murmuring the Rudra hymns they adorn a one-coloured or a two-coloured (bull) who protects the herd or whom the herd protects. Or it should be red, deficient in no limb, the calf of a cow that has living calves and is a milk-giver; and it should be the finest (bull) in the herd. And besides they should adorn the best four young cows of the herd and let them loose with this (verse), 'This young (bull) I give you as your husband; run about sporting with him, your lover. Do not bring down a curse upon us, by nature blessed ones. May we rejoice in increase of wealth and in comfort.'

7 7. When (the bull) stands in the midst of the cows, he recites over it (the texts beginning with) 'Bringing refreshment,' down to the end of the Anuvâka (Vâg. Samh. XVIII, 45-50).

8. With the milk of all (the cows) he should cook milk-rice and give it to the Brâhmanas to eat.

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9 9_9. Some also sacrifice an animal.

10 9_10. The ritual thereof has been declared by the (ritual for the) spit-ox.


Footnotes

353:1 9, 1 seqq. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana III, 11.

353:2 See above, chap. 8, 15.

353:3 Sâṅkhâyana, loc. cit. § 2.

353:4 Sâṅkhâyana, § 3. Of course, in Professor Stenzler's translation, 'in der Mitte der Küche' is a misprint for 'in der Mitte der Kühe.'

354:5 Rig-veda VI, 54, 5; Sâṅkhâyana, § 5.

354:6 Sâṅkhâyana, §§ 6-54. On the Rudra hymns, see above, chap. 8, § 13. Perhaps the words mâ nah sâpta are corrupt; the correct reading may possibly be, mâऽvasthâta.

354:7 Sâṅkhâyana, § 15. There is no Mantra in the Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ beginning with the word mayobhûh, but this word occurs in the middle of XVIII, 45 a; the texts which he recites begin at that word and extend down to the end of the Anuvâka. It is clear that mayobhûh was intended in the original text, from which both Sâṅkhâyana and Pâraskara have taken this Sûtra, as the Rik-Pratika, Rig-veda X, 169, 1.

355:9_9 According to the commentators, a goat is sacrificed.

355:9_10 See chap. 8.

KANDIKÂ 10. Scroll Up

1. Now the water libations (which are performed for deceased persons).

2 2. When (a child) that has not reached the age of two years dies, his father and mother become impure.

3. The other (relations) remain pure.

4. (The impurity lasts) through one night or three nights.

5. They bury the body without burning it.

6. If (a child dies) during the impurity of his mother (caused by the child's birth), the impurity lasts till the (mother's) getting up (from child-bed), in the same way as the impurity caused by a child's birth.

7 7. In this case (of the child being younger than two years) no water libations (are performed).

8. If a child of more than two years dies, all his relations should follow (the corpse) to the cemetery—

9 10_9. Singing the Yama song and murmuring the Yama hymn, according to some (teachers).

10 10_10. If (the dead person) has received the initiation,

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[paragraph continues] (the rites) from the election of the site (for the Smasâna) down to their descending into water (in order to bathe themselves) are the same as those prescribed for persons who have set up the (sacred Srauta) fires.

11. They burn him with his (sacred) domestic fire, if he has kept that;

12. Silently, with a common fire, other persons.

13. They should ask one who is related (to the deceased person) by blood or by marriage, for (his permission to perform) the water-libation, in the words, 'We shall perform the libation.'

14. (He replies), 'Do so now and never again,' if the deceased person was not a hundred years old.

15. (He says) only, 'Do so,' if he was.

16 16. All relations (of the deceased), to the seventh or to the tenth degree, descend into water.

17. If dwelling in the same village, (all) as far as they can trace their relationship.

18. They wear (only) one garment, and have the sacred cord suspended over the right shoulder.

19. With the fourth finger of the left hand they spirt away (the water) with (the words), 'May he drive evil away from us with his splendour' (Vâg. Samh. XXXV, 6).

20. Facing the south, they plunge (into the water).

21. They pour out with joined hands one libation of water to the deceased person with (the words), 'N.N.! This water to thee!'

22. When they have come out (of the water) and

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have sat down on a pure spot that is covered with grass, (those who are versed in ancient tales) should entertain them (by telling such tales).

23 23. They return to the village without looking back, in one row, the youngest walking in front.

24 24. In the doors of their houses they chew leaves of the Pikumanda (or Nimba) tree, sip water, touch water, fire, cowdung, white mustard seeds, and oil, tread upon a stone, and then they enter.

25 25-26. Through a period of three nights they should remain chaste, sleep on the ground, do no work and charge nobody (to do it for them).

26. Let them eat food which they have bought or received (from. others); (they should eat it) only in the day-time, (and should eat) no meat.

27 27. Having offered to the deceased person the Pinda, naming his name at the washing, at the offering (of the Pinda), and at the second washing—

28 28. They should that night put milk and water in an earthen vessel into the open air with (the words), 'Deceased one, bathe here!'

29 29-30. The impurity caused by death lasts through three nights;

30. Through ten nights, according to some (teachers).

31. (During that period they) should not perform Svâdhyâya (or study the Vedic texts for themselves).

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32. They should intermit the standing rites, except those performed with the three (Srauta) fires,

33. And (with the exception of those performed) with the (sacred) domestic fire, according to some (teachers).

34. Others should perform (those rites for them).

35. Those who have touched the dead body should not enter the village until the stars appear.

36. If (they have touched it) in the night-time, (they should not enter) till sunrise.

37 37. The entering and what follows after it is the same (for these persons) as for the others.

38. (Their) impurity lasts through one or two fortnights.

39. The same (rites should be performed) when the teacher (has died),

40. Or the maternal grandfather or grandmother,

41. Or unmarried females.

42 42. For those who were married, the others should do it,

43 43. And they for the (others).

44 44. If one dies while being absent on a journey, (his relations) shall sit (on the ground, as prescribed for impure persons) from the time when they have heard (of his death), performing the water libation

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[paragraph continues] (at that time), until the period (of their impurity) has expired;

45. If (that period has already) elapsed, through one night or three nights.

46. Optional is the water libation for an officiating priest, a father-in-law, a friend, for (distant) relations, for a maternal uncle, and for a sister's son;

47 47. And for married females.

48. On the eleventh day he should give to an uneven number of Brâhmanas a meal at which meat is served.

49. Some also kill a cow in honour of the deceased person.

50. When the Pindas are prepared, the deceased person, if he has sons, shall be considered as the first of the (three) Fathers (to whom Pindas are offered).

51 51. The fourth one should be left out.

52 52. Some (make Pinda offerings to a deceased person) separately through one year (before admitting him to a share in the common Pitriyagña).

53 53. But there is a rule, 'There can be no fourth Pinda'—for this is stated in the Sruti.

54 54. Every day he shall give food to him (i.e. to the deceased person), and if he was a Brâhmana, a vessel with water.

55. Some offer also a. Pinda.

Footnotes

355:2 10, 2. Manu V, 68; Yâgñavalkya III, 1.

355:7 Manu V, 68; Yâgñavalkya III, 1.

355:10_9 The Yama song is stated to be the second verse of Taittirîya Âranyaka VI, 5, 3 ('He who day by day leads away cows, horses, men, and everything that moves, Vivasvat's son Yama is insatiable of the five human tribes'); the Yama hymn is Rig-veda X, 14. Comp. Yâgñavalkya III, 2.

355:10_10 The bhûmigoshana (election of the site for the Smasâna) is p. 356 treated of in Satapatha Brâhmana XIII, 8, 1, 6 seqq.; Kâtyâyana Srauta-sûtra XXI, 3, 15 seqq. On the bath taken after the ceremony, see Satapatha Brâhmana XIII, 8,4,5; Kâtyâyana XXI, 4, 24.

356:16 Yâgñavalkya III, 3.

22. Yâgñavalkya III, 7: apavadeyus tan itihâsaih purâtanaih.

357:23 Yâgñavalkya III, 12.

357:24 Yâgñavalkya III, 12. 13.

357:25-26 25, 26. Yâgñavalkya III, 16; Manu V, 73; Vasishtha IV, 15.

357:27 See on the washing and on the offering of the Pinda, Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra IV, 1, 10. 11. Comp. Weber, Indische Studien, X, 82.

357:28 Yâgñavalkya III, 17.

357:29-30 29, 30. Yâgñavalkya III, 18; Manu V, 59.

358:37 The position of this Sûtra after 35, 36 seems to me to indicate that it refers to those who have touched the dead body; comp. Yâgñavalkya III, 14: pravesanâdikam karma pretasamsparsinâm api. I believe that the same persons are concerned also in Sûtra 38.

358:42 I.e. the husband and his relatives. Comp. Vasishtha IV, 19.

358:43 A married female should perform the rites for her husband and his relatives. See Professor Bühler's note on Vasishtha IV, 19; S.B.E., XIV, 28.

358:44 Yâgñavalkya III, 21; Manu V, 75, 76. Comp. Gautama XIV, 37; Vasishtha IV, 14.

359:47 See above, § 42.

359:51 See Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 2, 8.

359:52 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya VIII, 2. Comp. the description of the Sapindîkarana, ibid., chap. 3.

359:53 There would be four Pindas, if one were to be offered to the recently deceased person, and three others to those Fathers who had received Pinda offerings before his death. Therefore one of these three Fathers is omitted; see § 51.

359:54 Comp. Âpastamba I, 13, 1; Baudhâyana II, 11, 3.

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KANDIKÂ 11. Scroll Up

1 1. If an animal (is to be sacrificed), let him wash it, if it is not a cow; let him walk round the fires and drive in front (of them) a Palâsa branch into the ground.

2 2. The winding (of a Kusa rope) round (that branch), the touching (of the animal with the grass-blade), the binding (of it to the branch), and the sprinkling (of the animal with water) should be performed in the way prescribed (in the Srauta-sûtra), and whatever else (is to be done).

3 3. After he has sacrificed the two oblations before and after the killing of the animal, (he) silently (sacrifices) five other (oblations, directed to Pragâpati).

4 4. And the omentum is taken out (of the killed animal). He should besprinkle it (with water) and name the deity (to whom the sacrifice is directed).

5 5. (He should name that deity also) at the touching (of the animal with the grass-blade), at (its) being bound (to the branch), at its being sprinkled (with water), and at (the preparation and oblation) of the mess of cooked food.

6. After he has sacrificed the omentum, he cuts off the Avadâna portions,

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7 7. All of them, or three, or five.

8 8. He sacrifices the Avadâna portions together with the mess of cooked food.

9. A limb of the animal is the sacrificial fee.

10 10-11. At (a sacrifice) directed to a special deity he should sacrifice (an animal) belonging to that deity, should make a portion for that (god), and should say to him (i.e. to the messenger who is to convey that offering to a place sacred to that deity): 'Take care that this may reach that (god).'

11. If there is a river between (the sacrificer and that sacred place), he may have a boat made, or he may dispense with this.

Footnotes

360:1 11, 1. The branch replaces the sacrificial post (yûpa) of the Srauta ritual. As to agrena, comp. Kâty.-Sraut. VI, 2, 11 and the commentary.

360:2 See Kâty.-Sraut. VI, 3, 15 on the parivyayana, ibid. §§ 19, 26 on the upâkarana, § 27 on the niyogana, § 33 on the prokshana.

360:3 Kâtyâyana VI, 5, 22: He sacrifices (Âgya) with the words, Svâhâ to the gods.' § 24: He sacrifices (Âgya) with the words, To the gods svâhâ.' In the commentary on § 25 these two oblations are called paripasavyâhutî.

360:4 See Kâtyâyana VI, 6, 13; Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 11, 10.

360:5 See above, Sûtra 2.

361:7 The complete number of the Avadânas (i.e. the portions of the killed animal which have to be cut off, such as the heart, the tongue, &c.) is eleven; see Kâty.-Sraut. VI, 7, 6; Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, II, 12.

361:8 Âsvalâyana-Grihya, loc. cit. § 13.

361:10-11 10, 11. The way for interpreting these Sûtras is shown by Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 12. I do not think that they have anything to do, as Gayarâma states, with reference to Sûtra II, with the offering due to a relative who has died while being absent on a journey (chap. 10, 44).

KANDIKÂ 12. Scroll Up

1 1. Now (follows) the penance for a student who has broken the vow of chastity.

2. On a new-moon day he shall sacrifice an ass on a cross-road (to the goddess Nirriti).

3. (And) he shall offer a mess of cooked food to Nirriti.

4 4. The Avadâna portions are sacrificed into water (and not into fire).

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5 5. The Purodâsa (or sacrificial cake), which belongs to the animal sacrifice, is cooked on the ground (and not in the Kapâlas).

6. (The guilty person) should put on the skin (of the ass),

7. With the tail turned upwards, according to some (teachers).

8. He should through one year go about for alms, proclaiming his deed.

9 9. After that time he sacrifices two Âgya oblations with (the formulas), 'O Lust, I have broken my vow of chastity. I have broken my vow of chastity, O Lust. To Lust svâhâ!'—'O Lust, I have done evil. I have done evil, O Lust. To Lust svâhâ!'

10 10. He then approaches (the fire) with (the verse), May the Maruts besprinkle me, may Indra, may Brihaspati, may this Agni besprinkle me with offspring and with wealth.'

11. This is the penance.

Footnotes

361:1 12, 1. See the parallel passages quoted by Professor Bühler in his note on Âpastamba I, 26, 8 (S.B.E., II, 85), and besides, Kâtyâyana I, I, 13 seqq.; Gautama XXIII, 17 seqq., &c.

361:4 This Sûtra is identical with Kâtyâyana I, I, 16.

362:5 This Sûtra is identical with Kâtyâyana I, 1, 15.

362:9 Baudhâyana II, 1, 34,

362:10 Baudhâyana II, 1, 35.

KANDIKÂ 13. Scroll Up

1. Now the entering of a court of justice.

2 2. He approaches the court with (the words), Court! Thou that belongest to the Aṅgiras! Trouble art thou by name; vehemence art thou by name. Thus be adoration to thee!

3 3. He then enters (the court) with (the words), '(May) the court and the assembly, the two unanimous

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daughters of Pragâpati (protect me). May one who does not know me, be below me. May (all) people be considerate in what they say.'

4. When he has arrived at the assembly, he should murmur, 'Superior (to my adversaries) I have come hither, brilliant, not to be contradicted. The lord of this assembly is a man insuperable in his power.'

5 5. Should he think, 'This person is angry with me,' he addresses him with (the verses), The destroying power of wrath and anger that dwells here on thy forehead, that the chaste, wise gods may take away.

'Heaven am I and I am Earth; we both take away thy anger; the she-mule cannot bring forth offspring; N.N.!'

6 6. But if he should think, 'This person will do evil to me,' he addresses him with (the words), 'I take away the speech in thy mouth, I take away (the speech) in thy heart. Wheresoever thy speech dwells, thence I take it away. What I say, is true. Fall down, inferior to me.'

7. The same is the way to make (a person) subject (to one's self).

Footnotes

362:2 13, 2. The regular Sandhi would be sabha (for sabhe) âṅgirasi, instead of which the text has sabhâṅgirasi.

362:3 In Sanskrit the words sabha (court) and samiti (assembly) are of feminine gender. I have translated upa ma sa tishthet in the sense indicated by Pânini I, 4, 87.

363:5 Perhaps we should read garbhenâsvataryâh saha: we take away thy anger together with the offspring of the she-mule (that cannot foal). Comp. Kullavagga VII, 2, 5; S.B.E., XX, 238.

363:6 It is impossible to give a sure restoration of this corrupt Mantra. Perhaps we should read something like this: â te vâkam âsya â te hridaya âdade. Comp. Hirany.-Grihya I, 4, 15, 6.

KANDIKÂ 14. Scroll Up

1. Now the mounting of a chariot (is declared).

2. After he has given the order, 'Put the horses to it,' and it has been announced, 'They are,' he goes to (the chariot, saying), 'This is the Virâg,' and touches the two wheels,

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3. The right (wheel) with (the words), 'The Rathantara art thou'—

4. The left with (the words), 'The Brihat art thou'—

5. The pole with (the words), 'The Vâmadevya art thou.'

6 6. He touches the interior of the chariot with his hand (saying), 'The two Aṅkas, the two Nyaṅkas which are on both sides of the chariot, which move forward with the rushing wind, the far-darting one with keen senses, the winged one, may these fires, the promoters, promote us.'

7 7. With (the words), 'Adoration to Mânikara,' he drives on the beast on the right side.

8. (If going in his chariot) toward (images of) gods, let him descend (from the chariot) before he has reached them; if toward Brâhmanas, just before (reaching them); if toward cows, when amid them; if toward fathers, when he has reached them.

9. A woman or a Vedic student shall not be charioteers.

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10. Having driven a moment beyond (the point to which he intends to go) he should murmur, 'Here is rest, rest here' (Vâg. Samh. VIII, 51).

11 11. Some add (the words), 'Here shall be no rest.'

12. If the chariot is weak, he should murmur, after he has mounted it, 'May this your chariot, O Asvins, suffer no damage on bad ways or by being overthrown.'

13 13. If the horses run away with the chariot, he should touch the post (?) or the earth and should murmur, 'May this your chariot, O Asvins, suffer no damage on bad ways or by being overthrown.'

14. Thus he will suffer no harm and no damage.

15 15. When he has finished his way, and has unyoked the horses, let him have grass and water given to them. 'For thus satisfaction is given to the beast that draws (the cart)'—says the Sruti.

Footnotes

364:6 14, 6. The meaning of aṅkau and nyaṅkau cannot be determined, as far as I can see. The commentators explain the words as the two wheels and the two sides of the chariot, or as the two right wheels and the two left wheels of a four-wheeled chariot. Professor Zimmer (Altindisches Leben, pp. 251 seq.) compares aṅka with ἄντυξ, and says, 'Mit aṅkau (resp. aṅkû) ware daher die obere Einfassung des Wagenkastens (kosa, vandhura) bezeichnet, mit nyaṅkau (resp. nyaṅkû) ein zu grösserer Befestigung etwas weiter unten (ni) herumlaufender Stab.' To me it seems that aṅkau and nyaṅkau are to be understood both as designations of certain parts of the chariot and as names of different forms of Agni dwelling in the chariot.—Comp. Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 7, 7, 2; Pañkavimsa Brâhmana I, 7, 5.

364:7 The name of the demon Mânikara occurs, as far as I know, only here.

365:11 If the reading of the text is correct, the meaning would seem to be: We will rest here for a while, but then we will go further.

365:13 I cannot say what 'the post' (stambha) here means; it may be apart of the chariot. Gayarâma has dhvagastambha, i.e. the staff of a flag, which we are to suppose was carried on the chariot. This may be the right explanation.

365:15 Satapatha Brâhmana I, 8, 2, 9.

KANDIKÂ 15. Scroll Up

1. Now how he should mount an elephant.

2. He goes to the elephant and touches it (saying), 'The elephants’ glory art thou. The elephants’ honour art thou.'

3. He then mounts it with (the words), 'With Indra's thunder-bolt I bestride thee. Make me arrive safely.'

4. Thereby it has also been declared how he should mount a horse.

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5. When he is going to mount a camel, he addresses it: 'Thou art the son of Tvashtri; Tvashtri is thy deity. Make me arrive safely.'

6 6. When he is going to mount a he-ass, he addresses it: 'A Sûdra art thou, a Sûdra by birth. To Agni thou belongest, with twofold sperm. Make me arrive safely.'

7. A path he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells on the paths. Make me arrive safely.'

8. A cross-road he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells at the cross-roads. Make me arrive safely.'

9. When he intends to swim across a river, he addresses it: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells in the waters. Make me arrive safely.'

10. When going on board a ship, he addresses her: 'The good ship' (Vâg. Samh. XXI, 7).

11. When going to cross (the river), he addresses (the ship): 'The well-protecting' (Vâg. Samh. XXI, 6).

12. A forest (through which he is wandering) he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells in the forests. Make me arrive safely.'

13. A mountain (which he is going to cross) he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells on the mountains. Make me arrive safely.'

14. A burial-ground he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells among the Fathers. Make me arrive safely.'

15. A cow-stable he addresses: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells among the dung-heaps. Make me arrive safely.'

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16. And wheresoever else it be, let him always say, 'Adoration to Rudra.' For the Sruti says, 'Rudra is this universe.'

17. If the skirt (of his garment) is blown upon him (by the wind), he addresses (that skirt): 'A skirt art thou. Thou art not a thunder-bolt. Adoration be to thee. Do no harm to me!'

18. The thunder he addresses: 'May the rains be friendly to us; may (Indra's) darts be friendly to us—may they be friendly to us which thou throwest, O killer of Vritra.'

19 19. A howling jackal he addresses: 'Friendly by name' (Vâg. Samh. III, 63).

20 20. A shrieking bird he addresses: 'Golden-winged bird who goest where the gods send thee! Messenger of Yama, adoration be to thee! What has the Kârkârina told thee?'

21. A tree that serves as a mark (of a boundary, &c.), he addresses: 'May neither the flash of lightning (destroy thee), nor axe nor wind nor punishment which the king sends. May thy shoots grow up; may rain fall on thee, in safety from the wind. May fire not destroy thy root. Blessing on thee, O lord of the forest! Blessing on me, O lord of the forest!'

22. If he receives something (given to him), he accepts it with (the formula), 'May Heaven give thee; may the Earth accept thee.' Thus (the thing given) does not decrease to him who gives it, and what he receives increases.

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23. If boiled rice is given to him, he accepts it with (the formula), 'May Heaven, &c.,' and he partakes thereof twice. with (the formulas), 'May Brahman eat thee!'—'May Brahman partake of thee!'

24. If gruel is given to him, (as above) . . . . three times with (the formulas), 'May Brahman eat thee! '—'May Brahman partake of thee!'—'May Brahman drink thee!

Footnotes

366:6 The he-ass has twofold sperm, because he begets both asses and mules. Taittirîya Samhitâ VII, 1, 1, 2.

367:19 The play on words is untranslatable; 'jackal' is sivâ, 'friendly,' sivah.

367:20 I do not know the meaning of kârkârinah. Gayarâma takes it for a genitive standing instead of an accusative, and explains it by asmadbâdhakam.

KANDIKÂ 16. Scroll Up

1 1. Now each time after a lesson (of the Veda) is finished, in order to prevent his forgetting (the texts he has studied, the following prayer should be recited):

May my mouth be skilful; my tongue be honey-sweet speech. With my ears I have heard much; do not take away that which I have heard, which dwells in me.

The Brahman's word art thou; the Brahman's stand art thou; the Brahman's store-house art thou. Fulfilment art thou; peace art thou; unforgetfulness art thou; enter into my store-house of the Brahman. With the voice I cover thee! With the voice I cover thee! May I be able to form the vowels, to produce, to hold fast and to utter the guttural, pectoral, dental, and labial sounds. May my limbs grow strong, my voice, breath, eye, ear, honour, and power. What I have heard and studied, may that be fixed in my mind; may that be fixed in my mind.'

End of the Third Kânda.

Footnotes

368:1 16, 1. As to anirâkarana, comp. anirâkarishnu above, II, 4, 3. Possibly we should read, gihvâ me madhumad vakah.

End of Pâraskara's Grihya-sûtra.

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