The Vimanika Shastra - First Chapter

Technical drawings of ancient Vimanas

Possible technical details of ancient Vimanas based upon the descriptions in the text

Index Page

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

I make obeisance to the Divine Being, who is visible on the crest of the Vedas, who is the fountain of eternal bliss, and whose abode is reached by Vimaanas or Aeroplanes. Having studied the Shaastraas or sciences propounded by previous men of science to the best of my ability, for the benefit of mankind, I shall deal with the science of Aeronautics, which is the essence of the Vedas, which will be a source of joy and benefit to humanity, which will facilitate comfortable travel in the sky from world to world, in eight chapters, consisting of 100 topics, in 500 sutras or cryptic pronouncements.

Commentary by Bodhaananda:

I bow to God Mahadeva and His Consort, to Saraswathi Goddess of learning, to Ganapathy guardian of benevolent efforts, and to my venerable preceptor, and I bow to Maharshi Bharadwaaja. In Addition to my own knowledge of Logic, I have five times turned over Vaalmeeki's Mathematics, 'Paribhaashaa Chandrikaa,' and 'Naamaarthhakalpaka,' and aided by their authority, I, Swaamy Bodhaananda, for the easy understanding of the young, have written this 'Bodhananda Vritti,' to elucidate Maharshi Bharadwaaja's concisely worded text on Aeronautics.

At the outset Maharshi Bharadwaaja invokes God in the traditional manner for the successful commencement, progress, and completion of his great literary work. Attaining mastery over the Vedas by Divine Grace, and studying the works of earlier Aachaaryaas or preceptors, he has churned the Vedic lore, and extracting the, cream, presented it to mankind for reaping untold benefits, in the work named 'Yantrasarvasva.' In the fortieth chapter therein he deals with the science of Aeronautics, explaining the construction and use of many kinds of aeroplanes, in 8 chapters, containing 100 subject heads, comprising 500 sutras or oracular pronouncements.

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In the first stanza the reference is to the teaching of the sacred works, "Uttara-taapaneeya," 'Shaibya-prasna,' 'Kaataka,' and 'Maandookya,' that the symbolic letter, 'Om,' leads to the knowledge of God and Salvation. Bharadwaaja implies that the Vimaana or aeroplane constructed according to Vymaanika Shaastra, may enable men to reach God, and enjoy the benefits of His Divine abode.

The previous Aachaaryaas Bharadwaaja refers to are named by Vishwanaatha as,--Naaraayana, Shownaka, Garga, Vaachaspathi, Chaakraayani and Dhundinaatha, venerable authors of "Vimaana-Chandrikaa", "Vyomayaana-Tantra," "Yantra-Kalpa", "Yaana-Bindu," " Kheta-yaana Pradeepikaa," and "Vyomayaana-Arkaprakaasha," respectively.

Bharadwaaja thus defines the word Vimaana:

Vega-Saamyaat Vimaano Andajaanaam. Sootra 1.

"Owing to similarity of speed with birds, it is named Vimaana."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The word "andaja" means "egg-born", and includes eagles and other birds which fly by their own volition. The Vimaana is a vehicle which flies in the sky with speed comparable with birds.

Lallachaarya says, "That which can fly in the sky with speed equal to that of birds, is called Vimaana."

Aachaarya Naaraayana says,

"That which can speed on earth, on water, through air, by its own power, like a bird, is a "Vimaana."

Shankha says, "Experts in the science of aeronautics say, "That which can fly through air from one place to another is a Vimaana"

And Vishwambhara says, "Experts say that that which can fly through air from one country to another country, from one island to another island, and from one world to another world, is a "Vimaana"."

Having thus defined the name of the Vimaana, the sage proceeds to describe its details.

Rahasyagnyodhikaaree. Sootra 2.

"The pilot is one who knows the secrets."

Bodhaananda: Scientists say that there are 32 secrets of the working of the Vimaana. A pilot should acquaint himself thoroughly with them before

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he can be deemed competent to handle the aeroplane. He must know the structure of the aeroplane, know the means of its take off and ascent to the sky, know how to drive it and how to halt it when necessary, how to manoeuvre it and make it perform spectacular feats in the sky without crashing. Those secrets are given in "Rahasya-Lahari" and other works, by Lalla and other masters, and are described thus:

"The pilot should have had training in maantrica and taantrica, kritaka and antaraalaka, goodha or hidden, drishya and adrishya or seen and unseen, paroksha and aparoksha, contraction and expansion, changing shape, look frightening, look pleasing, become luminous or enveloped in darkness, deluge or pralaya, vimukha, taara, stun by thunderous din, jump, move zig-zag like serpent, chaapala, face all sides, hear distant sounds, take pictures, know enemy manoeuvres, know direction of enemy approach, stabdhaka or paralyse, and karshana or exercise magnetic pull.

These 32 secrets the pilot should learn from competent preceptors, and only such a person is fit to be entrusted with an aeroplane, and not others.

They are explained thus by Siddhanaatha:

1. Maantrika; As prescribed in "Mantraadhikaara," by invoking the mantras of Chhinnamasta, Bhairavee, Veginee, Siddhaamba, acquire the powers of ghutikaa, paadukaa, visible and invisible and other mantraas with potent herbs and efficacious oils, and Bhuvaneswaree Mantra which confers spiritual and mesmeric powers, to construct aeroplanes, which don't break cannot be cut, cannot be burnt, and cannot be destroyed.

2. Taantrika: By acquiring Mahaamaaya, Shambara, and other taantric powers, to endow the plane with those powers.

3. Kritaka: By study of architects like Vishwakarma, Chhaayaaparusha, Mann, Maya and others, to construct aeroplanes of various patterns.

4. Antaraala: In the wind-swept atmospheric region of the sky, in the clash at the borders of mighty currents, an inadvertent plane is likely to be smashed to pieces. But by getting warned of the approach of such danger spots, the plane could be halted and steered with care.

5. Goodha: As explained in 'Vaayutatva-Prakarana', by harnessing the powers, Yaasaa, Viyaasaa, Prayaasaa in the 8th atmospheric layer covering the earth, to attract the dark content of the solar ray, and use it to hide the Vimaana from the enemy.

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6. Drishya: By collision of the electric power and wind power in the atmosphere, a glow is created, whose reflection is to be caught in the Vishwa-Kriyaa-darapana or mirror at the front of the Vimana, and by its manipulation produce a Maaya-Vimaana or camouflaged Vimana.

7. Adrishya: According to "Shaktitantra", by means of the Vynarathya Vikarana and other powers in the heart centre of the solar mass, attract the force of the ethereal flow in the sky, and mingle it with the balaahaavikarana shakti in the aerial globe, producing thereby a white cover, which will make the Vimana invisible.

8. Paroksha: According to "Meghotpatthi-prakarana," or the science of the birth of clouds, by entering the second of the summer cloud layers, and attracting the power therein with the shaktyaakarshana darpana or force-attraction mirror in the Vimana, and applying it to the parivesha or halo of the Vimaana, a paralysing force is generated, and opposing Vimaanas are paralysed and put out of action.

9. Aparoksha: According to 'Shakti-tantra,' by projection of the Rohinee beam of light, things in front of the Vimaana are made visible.

10. Sankocha, or Contraction: As prescribed in the Yantraangopasamhaara section, when the Vimaana is flying at speed with fully extended wings, and there is danger ahead, turning the 7th switch in the Vimana, its parts can be made to contract.

11. Vistrita: According to 'Akaashatantra', when the Vimana is in the central air flood in the third and first regions of the sky, by turning the switch in the 11th section of plane, it becomes expanded suitably according to "Vaalmeeki Ganita."

12. Viroopa Karana: As stated in "Dhooma Prakarana", by producing the 32nd kind of smoke through the mechanism, and charging it with the light of the heat waves in the sky, and projecting it through the padmaka chakra tube to the bhyravee oil-smeared Vyroopya-darpana at the top of the Vimaana, and whirling with 132nd type of speed, a very fierce and terrifying shape of the Vimana will emerge, causing utter fright to onlookers.

13. Roopaantara: As stated in "Tylaprakarana," by preparing griddhrajihwaa, kumbhinee, and kaakajangha oils and anointing the distorting mirror in the Vimaana with them, applying to it the 19th kind of smoker

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and charging with the kuntinee shakti in the Vimana, shapes like lion, tiger, rhinoceros, serpent, mountain, river will appear and amaze observers and confuse them.

14. Suroopa: By attracting the 13 kinds of Karaka force mentioned in "Karaka prakarana" applying snow-surcharged air and projecting it through the air conveying tube to the pushpinee-pinjula mirrors in the front right side of the Vimana, and focusing on it the suragha beam, a heavenly damsel bedecked with flowers and jewels will appear to onlookers of the Vimana.

15. Jyotirbhaava: As stated in "Amshubodhinee," out of Samgnaana and other 16 digits of the solar glow, by attracting the 12th to the 16th digits and focusing them on the air force in the Mayookha section in the fourth pathway in the sky, and similarly by attracting the force of the etherial glow and mingling it with the glow in the 7th layer of air mass, and then by projecting both these forces through the 5 tubes in the Vimana on to the section of the guhaa-garbha mirror, a rich glow like the morning glow of the sun will be produced.

16. Tamomaya: As described in "Darpana Prakarana," by means of the dark force mirror, capture the force of darkness, pass it through the Thamo-Yantra in the north-west side of the Vimana, and by turning a switch produce at noon-day the utter darkness of the night of the new-moon.

17. Pralaya: As described in the magic book of destruction, attract the 5 kinds of smoke through the tube of the contracting machine in the front part of the Vimana, and merge it in the cloud-smoke mentioned in "Shadgarbha Viveka", and pushing it by electric force through the five-limbed aerial tube, destroy everything as in a cataclysm.

18. Vimukha: As mentioned in "Rig-hridaya", by projecting the force of Kubera, Vimukha and Vyshawaanara poison powder through the third tube of the roudree mirror and turning the switch of the air mechanism, produce wholesale insensibility and coma.

19. Taara: By mixing with etherial force 10 parts of air forte, 7 parts of water force, and 16 parts of solar glow, and projecting it by means of the star-faced mirror through the frontal tube of the Vimana; the appearance of a star-spangled sky is created.

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20. Mahaashabda Vimohana: By concentrating the air force in the seven tubes of the Vimana, and turning the switch, produce, as stated in "Shabda prakaashikaa" a crescendo of thunderous din, which stuns people, and makes them quake with fear and become insensible.

21. Langhana: As stated in "Vaayu tattva prakarana" When crossing from one air stream into another, the Vimana faces the baadaba glow of the sun and catches fire. In order to prevent that, the electric force and air force in the Vimana should be conjoined and centred in the life-centre of the Vimana, and by turning the switch, the Vimana will leap into safety.

22. Saarpa-Gamana: By attracting the dandavaktra and other seven forces of air, and joining with solar rays, passing it through the zig-zagging centre of the Vimana, and turning the switch, the Vimana will have a zig-zagging motion like a serpent.

23. Chaapala: On sighting an enemy plane, by turning the switch in the force centre in the middle section of the Vimana, a 4087 revolutions an hour atmospheric wave speed will be generated, and shake up the enemy plane.

24. Sarvatomukha: When a formation of enemy planes comes to attack one's Vimana, by turning the switch at the crown of the Vimana, make it revolve with agility and face all sides.

25. Parashabda Graahaka: As explained in "Sowdaaminee kalaa" or science of electronics, by means of the sound capturing yantra in the Vimana, to hear the talks and sounds in enemy planes flying in the sky.

26. Roopaakarshana: By means of the photographic yantra in the Vimana to obtain a television view of things inside an enemy plane.

27. Kriyaagrahana: By turning the key at the bottom of the Vimana, a white cloth is made to appear. By electrifying the three acids in the north-east part of the Vimana, and subjecting them to the 7 kinds of solar rays, and passing the resultant force into the tube of the Thrisheersha mirror and making the cloth screen face the mirror, and switching on the upper key, all the activities going on down below on the ground, will be projected on the screen.

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28. Dikpradarshana: Turning the key at the front of the Vimana the dishaampati yantra will show the direction from which the enemy plane is approaching.

29. Aakaashaakaara: According to "Aakaasha-tantra", by mixing black mica solution with neem and bhoonaaga decoctions and smearing the solution on the outer body of the Vimana made of mica plates, and exposing to solar rays, the plane will look like the sky and become indistinguishable.

30. Jalada roopa: Mixing pomegranate juice, bilva or bael oil, copper-salt, kitchen smoke, granthika or gugul liquid, mustard powder, and fish scale decoctions, and adding sea-shell and rock-salt powder, and collecting smoke of the same solution and spreading it with solar heat enveloping the cover, the Vimana will have the appearance of a cloud.

31. Stabdhaka: By projecting apasmaara poison-fume smoke through the tube on the north side on the Vimana, and discharging it with stambhana-yantra, people in enemy planes will be made unconscious.

32. Karshana: When enemy planes come in strength to destroy one's Vimana, by setting aflame the Jwaalinee shakit in the Vyshwaanara-naala or pipe located at the navel of the plane, and switching the keys of the two wheels to 87 degrees of heat, the burning shakti will envelope the enemy plane and destroy it.

These are the 32 rahasyaas or secrets which should be known by pilots according to Siddhanaatha.

"Maargaadhikaranam " Aerial Routes:

Panchagnyascha. Sootra 3.

"The pilot should know five things."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

As the secrets of aeronautics are indicated in the second sutra, the five atmospheric regions are referred to in the third sutra. According to Shownaka, the regions of the sky are five, named, Rekhaapathha, Mandala, Kakshya, Shakti, and Kendra.

In these 5 atmospheric regions, there are 5,19,800 air ways traversed by Vimanas of the Seven Lokas or worlds, known as Bhooloka, Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, Maholoka, Janoloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka.

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Dhundinaatha and "Vaalmeeki Ganita" state that Rekha has 7,03,00,800 air routes, Mandala has 20,08,00200 air routes, Kakshya has 2,09,00,300 air routes, Shakti has 10,01,300 air routes, and Kendra has 30,08,200 air routes.

According to "Vaalmeeki Ganita" in the Rekhaapathha region, sections 1 to 4 are suitable for the passage of the Vimanas of this Bhooloka. In the Mandala region sections 3 to 5 are suitable for Vimanas of Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, and Maholoka dwellers. For the Janoloka Vimanas sections 2 to 5 in the Kakshya region are suitable. Section 1 to 6 in the Shakti region are suitable for the Vimanas of Tapoloka. For the dwellers of Bramhaloka sections 3 to 11 in the Kendra region are suitable, according to shaastras like "Vaalmeeki Ganita" and others.

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

Aavartaascha. Sootra 4.

"Whirl-Pools"

Aavartaas or aerial whirlpools are innumerable in the above regions. Of them the whirlpools in the routes of Vimanas are five. In the Rekhapathha there occurs "Shaktyaavarta" or whirlpool of energy. In Mandala-pathha there occurs the whirlpool of winds. In Kakshyaa-pathha there occurs Kiranaavarta or whirlpool from solar rays. In Shakti-pathha there occurs shytyaavarta or whirlpool of cold-currents. And in Kendra-pathha there occurs gharshanaavartha or whirl-pool by collision. Such whirlpools are destructive of Vimanas, and have to be guarded against.

The pilot should know these five sources of danger, and learn to steer clear of them to safety.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

Angaanyekatrimsat. Sootra 5.

"The parts are thirty one"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Just as the human body, if it is complete in all its limbs, is best able to accomplish things, the Vimana, if it is complete in all its parts, will be capable of functioning efficiently. From the location of the Vishwakriyaadarpana

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[paragraph continues] 31 locations of Vimana components are mentioned.

According to "Chaayaapurusha Shaastra" they are:

1. Vishwakriyaadarpana or mirror of outside views.

2. Shaktyaakarshana or energy attracting mirror.

3. Parivesha mechanism above the hood of the Vimana.

4. Angopasamhaara yantra or folding up yantra at the 7th bindukeelaka.

5. Vistritakriyaa or opening out yantra location in the middle of the 11th section.

6. Vyroopya darpana and

7. Padmachakramukha at the shirobhaaga or crest of the Vimana.

8. The Kuntinee-shakti mechanism is to be in the neck of the Vimana.

9. Pushpinee and Pinjulaa Mirrors are to be in the right side of the centre.

10. At the front of the left side are to be located the Naalapanchaka or 5 pipes.

11. Guhaagarbha mirror yantra is to be in the front part of the stomach of the plane.

12. Thamoyantra at the north western side.

13. Pancha-vaataskandha-naala on the western centre.

14. Rowdree mirror.

15. Vaataskandha keelaka at the bottom centre.

16. Shaktisthaana at the front and right sides.

17. Shabda-kendra-mukha at the left side.

18. Vidyuddwaadashaka at the north-east side.

19. Praanakundala at the moola of the Vimana.

20. Shaktyudgama at the navel of the Vimana.

21. Vakraprasaarana at the side of Vimanaadhaara.

22. Shaktipanjara in the central portion.

23. Shirahkeelaka at the head of the Vimana.

24. Shabdaakarshaka yantra at the shoulder.

25. Pata-prasaarana at the bottom centre.

26. Dishaampati yantra at the left front.

27. Pattikaabhraka at the centre of the hood of the Vimana.

28. Solar power attractor at the top of the Vimana.

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29. Apasmaara or poison gas at the sandhi-naala mukha or junction tube front.

30. Sthambhana yantra at the bottom.

31. Vyshwaanara-naala at the navel centre.

This is the placing of the 31 components of the Vimana.

"Vasthraadhikaranam ": On Clothing

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

"Yantu-praavaraneeyow prithakprithak ritubhedaat." Sootra 6.

"The clothing should be different for different seasons."

The sootra defines the clothing which is to be provided to the pilot in accordance with different seasonal conditions. The impact of the sun's myriad rays on the revolving earth causes seasonal climatic changes. Their effects on human life are either wholesome or unwholesome, as the case may be. The latter cause cramps, drain blood, and denude the body of fat, flesh, and other ingredients. The evil forces of the seasons are reckoned as 25, and affect the skin, bone, flesh, fat, muscles, nerves, joints and other parts of the pilots' body. The clothing provided to them should be such as to safeguard against such effects, and maintain their efficiency.

According to "Pata-samskaara Ratnaakara", silk, cotton, moss, hair, mica, leather, are to be purified by 25 processes, washed with mica-saturated water, and spun into yarn as prescribed by Gaalava. Then fibres from the ketaki flower palm, arka or swallow wort or madar, sun flower tree, cocoanut and jute, should each be purified 8 times as prescribed and by 19 processes, spun into yarn, and woven into cloth. Then the cloth should be soaked in the oils of linseed, tulasi or basil, goose-berry, shamee or acacia suma, bael, and mustard, and dried in the sun 5 times daily for 7 days. Then yellow ochre, lac, tamarind, honey and gingelly manure and mica in equal parts and yena-kshaara salt, put in a crucible vessel, placed in koorma furnace, and boiled with the aid of 3 faced bellows. 8 seers of linseed juice should be added to it. Bees wax, mica, shinjeera, vajra, borax, and ashoka fruit should be boiled, and their oil mixed with the other composition, and boiled in garbhataapana yantra. Then the cloth should be soaked in that decoction and dried 5 times. With this material, fashioning the apparel and

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clothes of the pilots handsomely, according to the types of the cloth and requirements the crew, as prescribed by Agnimitra, and handing it to them to wear, they should be conferred benediction, given a protective amulet and then sent out with cheers. It will ward off evils, promote fitness of body and health of mind, and improve their strength, energy, and competence.

Aahaaraadhikaranam: On Food

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Aahaarah Kalpabhedaat" Sootra 7.

"Food according to Seasons."

Bodhaananda Vrritti:

As stated in Kalpa Sootra, the food of the pilots is of three kinds, according to the seasons. "Ashana-Kalpa" or "Principles of Diet", says--"During the spring and summer months, the pilot's food should consist of buffalo-milk among liquids, among grains aadhaka or tuvar-dhal, and among flesh, the flesh of sheep.

In the 4 months of rains and autumn, cow's milk among liquids, wheat and black-gram among grains, and flesh of cocks and hens.

In the 4 months of winter and snow, goat's-milk, yava and black-gram among grains, and flesh of sparrows.

For pilots belonging to the three Dwija castes of Braahmin, Kshatriya and Vyshya, the food will not include flesh.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Visha Naashas Tribhyaha" Sootra 8.

"The three Varieties ward off seasonal evil effects"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The 25 kinds of poisonous effects of the seasons are warded off by alteration in the food so as to suit the seasonal conditions.

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"Vishanirnaya-adhikara" states,--

The seasons are each differently conditioned by the changes in the watery forces in the sky. The 101 forces in the aerial atmosphere, colliding with the 1/16th force in the watery sky in the seventh region, at the sineevaalee and kuhoo yogas or full-moon and new-moon conjunctions, produce maleficent and beneficent effects. The beneficent forces are 7,58,00,700 in number, and the maleficent forces also are of the same number, according to "Vaalmeeki Ganita". The beneficent effects are during the full moon period, and the maleficent effects during the new-moon period. 25 maleficent poisonous forces known as Bhedinee, tend to paralyse the pilots' physical effeciency. That is avoided by altering their food according to seasons. So says Sage Shaataatapa.

By such adjustment the pilots' physical fitness will be maintained.

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

"Tat Kaalaanusaaraat iti" Sootra 9.

"That at set times"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having defined the seasonal types of food, the meal times are now defined. According to Shownaka, the times for taking meals are prescribed as follows: Family men should take food twice a day, or once a day. Ascetics should take food once a day. Others can take food four times a day. Air pilots should take food 5 times a day. And yogis may take as many times as they like.

According to "Lalla-kaarika" or "Diet Rules" by Lalla,

Food should be taken at the end of the 2nd yaama-(yaama=3 hours) in the day time, and at the end of the 1st yaama in the night. That is for family men. If they take only one meal a day, it should be during the 3rd and 4th yaamas. Sanyaasis or ascetics who eat only once a day should dine as above. For the labouring classes the times are thrice during day time, and once in the night. For pilots of Vimanas the meals are thrice during day time, and twice at night.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Tadabhaavay Sathva-Golovaa" Sootra 10.

"If unavailable, then vitamin pills or food-balls"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

If the prescribed food-stuffs are not available for use during their flights, then essence extracts made by proper cooking with admixture of spices and condiments into potable and eatable form, or food balls-made out of them should be supplied to the pilots for consumption on flights.

Says "Ashana kalpa" or "Food manual",

"There are 5 kinds of food, that are nutritious and wholesome; cooked rice or grain, gruel, cooked flour, baked flat bread, and preparations made out of essence-extracts from food materials. The last named are superior to all the others".

"Paakasarvasva" or "Art of cooking" observes,

"Removing the husk and other non-food parts from it by machines, the grain should be made into flour and cooked in a suitable vessel and when it has reached the 8th degree of reduction, add essences, sweets, condiments, and ghee, and prepare food-balls, having nice flavour and delicious taste, and being nourishing to the body.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Phala Moola Kanda Saarovaa." Sootra 11.

"Or essence of fruits, roots, and bulbs."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In this sootra it is stated that preparations made from edible roots, potato and other bulbous vegetables, and from fruits are also suitable as food.

"Ashana-Kalpa" says,

If food made of grains is not available, that from roots, bulbs, and fruits may by used as food, in the form of flour, sugarcandy, manjoosha or jaggery, honey, milk, ghee, oily-products, and roots and berries which

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contain sweet, salt, pungent, acrid, and alkaline tastes. Such roots are said to be 56 in number. They should be purified, powdered, and duly cooked, and made into balls, and given out for use as food.

Similarly the bulbous vegetables which are of 16 kinds, and fruits which are of 32 kinds, and food prepared out of them are excellent food, Food from roots develops brain, nourishes the body, strengthens the bones, and gives virility. Food from bulbs promotes brilliance, and bodily vigour, and strengthens the life current. Food from fruits nourishes mind, intelligence, blood, flesh, and vital liquids. Therefore these alternatives are recommended for pilots of Vimanas.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Apicha Trinaadeenam." Sootra 12.

"Even grasses, herbs and shrubs."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

This sootra indicates that even grasses, herbage, and creepers, could be made to yield food.

Says "Ashana-Kalpa",

Like roots, bulbs and fruits, grasses, shrubs and herbs, provide good food for men. Six kinds of doorva grass, 6 kinds of munja hemp, 6 kinds of darbha or long grass, 6 kinds of shoundeera, and 6 kinds of Ashwakarna or sal, or mimordica charantia, Shatamoolee of 3 kinds, Kaaruvellee; Chandravellee, Madhuvellee, Varchulee, Makutee vellee, sugandhaa, and sooryavellee may be made to yield good food, nutritious and bracing.

Selected by men who know them well, these vegetation, including their flowers, shoots, and leaves, by proper cleaning and cooking, may be made to yield solid or liquid food, which will serve as satisfactory substitute food for pilots of Vimanas. And Somavallee or moon-plant, Chakrikaa, Rasavallikaa, Kooshmandavallee, Ikshuvallee, Pishtavallaree, Sooryakaanta, Chandrakaanta, Meghanaada, Punarnava, Avantee, Vaastu, Matsyaakshee, and Rukma and others, provide good bases for lasting food, duly mixed with sweets and condiments.

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Lohaadhikaranam: Metals

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Athha Yaana Lohaani." Sootra 13.

"Next, the Metals for aeroplanes"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having dealt with clothing and food for pilots, now the metals suitable for aeroplanes are being dealt with.

Says Shounaka:

There are 3 kinds of metals named somaka, soundaalika, and mourthwika. By mixing them, 16 kinds of heat-absorbing metals are produced.

Their names are ushnambhara, ushnapaa, ushnahana, raajaamlatrit, veerahaa, panchaghna, agnitrit, bhaarahana, sheetahana, garalaghna, amlahana, vishambhara, vishalyakrit, vijamitra and Vaatamitra etc.

"Maanibhadra Kaarika," or "Dictas of Manibhadra," Says, "Metals which are light, and are suitable for producing aeroplanes are 16. They are heat absorbing, and should be used in the manufacture of aeroplanes."

Saamba also says that the 16 metals formed by mixing the root metals, soma, soundaala and mourthwika, are non-heat-conductors and are useful for Vimanas. Their characteristics are now examined.

In the 7th layer of the earth, in the third mine therein, metals of the Soma series are found. They are of 38 kinds. Among them there are three from which Ooshmalohas or heat resisting metals are to be extracted. "Lohatantra" or "Science of Metals" also says that in the 3rd section of the 7th layer of the earth, Metals of Souma class, possessed of 5 special qualities, are called "beejalohas" or "root-metals".

There are 3000 metal bearing layers within the earth. Of them 1300 layers contain the better quality. In the 7th layer metals are of 27 types. The 3rd type of metals are of five-fold qualities, and are known as root metals. The origin of metals of the Soma class is thus described in "Lohakalpa.":

p. 16

"The gravity of the centre of the earth, the gravity of global earth, the solar flood, the air force, the force emanating from the planets and stars, the sun's and moon's gravitational forces, and the gravitational force of the Universe, all together enter the layers of the earth in the proportion of 3, 8, 11, 5, 2, 6, 4, 9, and, aided by the heat and moisture therein, cause the origin of metals, of various varieties, grades and qualities."

The Souma group of metals are named, as per sage Atri, in "Naamaartha Kalpa". "Souma, Sowmyaka, Soundaasya, Soma, Panchaanana, Praanana, Shankha, Kapila are the names of the Souma metals, with distinct qualities indicated by their names."

The name "Souma" consists of sounds, s, on, ma, and ha, "Paribhaasha Chandrika" and "Vishwambhara Kaarikaa" state, "The oceanic force and solar force instil 4 kinds of forces into root metals. The sum total of the forces are said, according to "Vaalmeeki Ganitha" to number 1, 67, 768. Some of these forces are indicated by the sound "s" Some of the forces emanating from the sun and the elements are indicated by the sound "ou". Similarly other concerned forces are indicated by the letters "ma" and "ha".

The Varuna and Soorya force contents of all root metals are of four groups. In each group the force content is said to be 1, 67, 768. Of the Koorma and Kashyapa forces of Vaaruna group, the 67th from Ooshaa koorma, and the 85th Kaashyapa force, called "Kaala", are indicated by the letter "Sa".

Of the solar group of forces, maartaanda and bhoota 71st, and the ruchika force 160 are indicated by the sound "ra". Similarly, of the forces of sun and stars in aditi, the 9th called "Sundaa", and the stellar force 101 called "Bhowma" are indicated by the letter "Ma". And in the dhruva varga, soma and baadaba forces, 109 and 14 respectively, are indicated by the visarga sound "ha".

The four forces working inside the earth, by flux of time mature into the Souma type metal.

In Soundaala metal, the 11th force, dhanadaa, in Koorma is indicated by letter "sa". The 110th Kaashyapee force, rook, is indicated by the sound

p. 17

[paragraph continues] "ow". The sun's 100 powered dravamukhee shakti, and bhoota-shakti known as anvee 700 powered, are together indicated by the anuswaara sound "m". The sun's kaantaa shakti 49, and the stars' 25 shaktis, varchaa, are indicated by the letter "da". Similarly the soma forces in dhruva varga, is indicated by the long "aa" in "daa". The moon's 364 ujwalaa and baadabaa's 500 known as kaala are indicated by the letter "la".

That is "Soundaala".

Regarding the third, "Mourtwika", Koormashakti, paarthiva 1300, is indicated by the letter "ma". Kaasyapa shakti, kaalima 2001, is indicated by the sound "ow". Maartaanda shakti, laaghava 260, is indicated by the sound "r": bhootashakti, vaarchulee 37, by the letter "tha": stellar force, rukshmaka 1063, is indicated by the letter "va". Arkashakti, varuna 113, is indicated by the sound "e": soma force rijukaa 8009, and pooshnikaa 1012, are indicated. by the letter, "ka".

Lohashuddhyadhikaranam: Purification of Metals.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tatchhuddhir yathaa shodhanaadhikaaray." Sootra 14.

"Their purification is as per shodhanaadhikaara".

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Taking soma metal first, it should be filled in a wide-brimmed vessel and adding jambeera or citron juice, likucha or lime juice, vyaaghra or castor, chinchaa or tamarind, and jamboo or rose apple juices, it should be boiled to 27th degree of heat for a day. Then taking it out and washing it, it should be boiled in 5 kinds of oils, 4 kinds of acids, and 7 kinds of decoctions.

They are named in "Samskaara Darpana":

Gunjaa or wild liquorice, Kanjala, castor, kunjara, and karanja or Indian beach oils, praana-kshara, viranchi, kanchuki, and khura acids, and hingoo or asafoetida, parpata, ghontikaaa, jataa-maamsee or spikenard, white gourd or Vidaaraanginee, and matsyaakshee decoctions.

That is the process of purification of soma metal.

The purification of Soundaala metal is like that of soma with regard to boiling in the cauldron, but the process of purification is with 6 acids, 7 oils, and 5 decoctions. They are, according to Samskaara Darpana."--

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Ingaala or, ingudee, gouree or reddish herb, couries, grapes, rata, aapya, and ulbana oils, ankola, mushti, shankha, bhallaataka, kaakola, and virancha acids, and kuluththa or horsegram, nishpaava, sarshapa or mustard, aadhaka, and wheat decoctions or gruels.

Mourthweeka metal also should be baked like soundaala, and then should be boiled with shivaari oil, kudupa acid and vishambharee leather decoction.

Having defined the root-metals and their purification, we next consider the casting of Ooshmapaa loha.

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