The Vimanika Shastra Third Chapter
Possible technical details of ancient Vimanas based upon the descriptions in the text
Darpanaadhikaranam: Mirrors & Lenses.
☞ "Darpanaashcha" Sootra 1.
This chapter deals with the mirrors and lenses which are required to be installed in the vimaana. They are seven different ones. Their names are
given by Lalla in "Mukura-kalpa" as Vishwakriyaadarpana, or television mirror, Shaktyaakarshana darpana or power-capturing mirror, Vyroopya darpana or appearance changing mirror, Kuntinee darpana, Pinjulaa darpana, Guhaagarbha darpana, and Rowdree darpana or terrifying darpana.
Vishwakriyaa darpana is to be fixed on a revolving stand near the pilot so that he could observe whatever is happening outside on all sides. Its manufacture is thus described in Kriyaasaara:
Two parts of satva, 2 parts of shundilaka, one part of eagle bone, 5 parts of mercury, 2 parts of the foot-nails of sinchoranee, 6 parts of mica, 5 parts of red lead, 8 parts of pearl dust, 18 parts of the eyeballs of sowmyaka fish, one part burning coal, 8 parts of snake's slough, 3 parts of eye pigment, 6 parts of maatrunna, 10 parts of granite sand, 8 parts of salts, 4 of lead, 2 parts of sea foam, 3 parts of white throated eagle's skin, 7 parts of bamboo salt, 5 parts of vyraajya or white keg tree bark, these ingredients should be purified, and weighed, and filled in a beaked crucible and placed in the furnace called chandodara and subjected to a 800 degree heat, and when duly liquified, should be poured into the funnel of the kara-darpana yantra or hand-mirror mould. The result will be an excellent mirror in which will be reproduced minute details of the phenomena outside.
Next Shaktyaakarshana darpana:
As the vimaana flies through the regions of the sky, three classes of destructive forces tend to overcome it. This mirror is capable of neutralising and overcoming their effects.
Dhundinaathaachaarya also says: The wind, solar rays, and fire are known as trivargas. Each of the three has 122 evil effects on the plane's pilot. Those evil forces this mirror will absorb and nullify.
Paraankusha also says: There are certain crucial regions in the air routes of the vimaana, at which the wind, solar heat and fire have 366 malefic influences, and shaktyaakarshana mirror is meant to safeguard against them. It is to be prepared as follows:
5 parts of haritaala or yellow orpiment, 5 parts of virinchi, 8 parts of salts, 4 parts of gingelly husk, 6 parts of diamond, 1 of red mica, 8 parts of burning coal, 3 parts of sand, 2 parts of tortoise egg, 3 parts of bhaarani, 3 parts of kanda, 5 parts of powshkala, 5 of coral, 2 of pearl, 6 of sea-shell,
[paragraph continues] 8 of borax, 3 parts of Bengal quince seed, and 5 of shankha or conch, cleaned, powdered, filled in swan crucible, placed in mandooka furnace and boiled to 500 degrees and poured slowly into vistritaa-mirror yantra will yield a fine shaktyaakarshana mirror.
The Vyroopya--darpana Mirror:
Then enemy planes with men intent on intercepting and destroying your vimaana attack you with all the means at their disposal, the viroopya-darpana will frighten them into retreat or render them unconscious and leave you free to destroy or rout them. The darpana, like a magician, will change the appearance of your vimaana into such frightening shapes that the attacker will be dismayed or paralysed. There are 27 such different shapes that are said to be possible. Sammohana-kriyaa-kaanda, or the work dealing with the methods causing insensibility, mentions 17 of them. They are fire, water, wind, thunder, lightning, fumes, scorpion, bear, lion, tiger, and giant-sized frightful birds.
The manufacture of this mirror is thus given in Darpana-prakarana:
5 parts of bone salt, 3 parts zinc, 3 of lac, 8 of iron, 3 parts of shashabola, 2 of raajakurantika, 8 parts of charcoal ashes, 3 of borax, 8 parts of nakhaa, 7 of sand, 6 of matrunna, 2 of sun-crystal, 3 parts of poora or lime, 25 of mercury, 3 of yellow orpiment, 4 parts of silver, 6 of kravyaada, 8 of garada, 3 of pishta, 4 parts of arshoghna root, 3 parts of vaaraaha pittha, 3 of ammonium chloride, 25 of liquorice oil, taking these and 7 times purifying, filling in crucible, and placing in furnace and boiling it to 800 degrees and pouring into Darpanaasya yantra, will yield an excellent Vyraajaka mirror.
The Kuntinee Mirror:
We now consider the Kuntinee mirror. The wise say that the mirror by the glare of whose rays people's minds get deranged is Kuntinee mirror. Paraankusha says that in the region of the solar electric heat waves of the sky, seven streams of poisonous whirl-winds derange the mind. Scientists have discovered the Kuntinee mirror as a protection against that evil effect.
In "Sammohana-kriyaa-kaanda," the evil forces are described as follows:
Fat, blood, flesh, marrow, bone, skin, intelligence are adversely affected by the evil wind currents known as gaalinee, kuntinee, kaalee, pinjulaa, ulbanaa, maraa, in the electric heat wave regions of the upper sky.
The manufacture of this mirror is thus explained in "Darpana-prakarana":
5 parts of sowraashtra earth, 7 parts of snake's slough, 3 of sea-foam, 5 of shanmukha seeds, 8 of zinc, 3 parts of rhinoceros' nails, 8 of salts, 7 of sand, 8 of mercury, 4 of conch, 6 parts of matrunna, 3 parts of yellow orpiment, 4 of elephant and camel salts, 7 parts of suranghrikaa, 5 of gingelly oil, 8 of pearl-shells, 3 of sea-shells, 4 parts of camphor, purified and filled in shinjikaa crucible, and placed in shinjeera furnace and boiled to 700 degrees, the fluid poured into the Darpanaasya yantra, will form into a morning sun-like kuntinee mirror.
The Pinjulaa mirror:
The conflicting inter-action of the solar rays is called pinjulaa. It has deleterious effect on the black eye-balls of the pilots. The pinjulaa mirror, by intervening will prevent the eye-balls being blinded by the evil rays.
It is said in "Amsubodhinee", or the work on solar rays, "There are four directions, east, west, north and south, and four corner directions, south-east, south-west, north-east and north-west. The solar force of each direction has got its own intensity, owing to different fire-force, different seasonal force, the effect of the five winds, combined with the vaarunee or liquid force of the clouds, and the resulting tension gives rise to four evil forces, andha, andhakaara, pinjoosha, and taarapaa, whose glows, known as rakta, jaathara, taaraagra, and prabha, striking the eye-balls result in blindness of both eyes. "
The manufacture of this mirror is thus described in "Darpana prakarana":
6 parts of goat's milk, 5 parts of red-lead, 8 parts of salts, 7 parts of sand, 5 parts of tree-gum, 8 parts of borax, 2 parts of dambholi essence, 8 parts of mercury, 2 parts of copper and 2 of lead, 4 parts of surolika essence, 8 parts of twak, 3 parts of vaardhyushika, 3 of kanda, 4 parts of pishta or gingelly husk, 3 parts of orpiment, 7 parts of Tinnevelli senna, 4 parts of vrikodaree seeds, these 18 to be purified, powdered, and filled in crucible, and placed in furnace and boiled to 700 degrees, and poured into Darpana yantra, will yield an excellent pinjulaa mirror.
Next Guhaa-garbha darpana:
"The conflict between the electricity in the clouds, wind, and rays, generates forces harmful to pilots. The guhaa-garbha darpana, by attracting them and projecting them by electric force against enemy planes, renders the persons inside them physically disabled and incapable of fighting."
"Prapanchasaara" also says:
"In the Middle of the two shells above kashyapa, there is vaarunee force. Between the shell and vaarunee force 5000 wind currents subsist. Similarly there are disease causing rays numbering 80 millions. The various winds and rays by mutual action result in flows and counter flows. When the cloud force, wind force, and solar force interplay they give rise to various harmful forces like bubbles:"
Lallaacharya also avers, "In accordance with the 110th principle, when the cloud-power, wind-power and sun-power meet with force and collide, they produce poisonous effects which are dangerous to mankind."
Vasishtha says in "Swatassiddha-Nyaaya" or "self-evident truth", that when alien forces cross one another, a poisonous flow will result naturally as an egg comes out of a tortoise.
"Sammohana kriyaa-kaanda" explains:
"By the conflict of cloud force, wind force and solar forces, 305105 poisonous waves known as guha and others emanate, and cause, kushtha, apasmaara, grihinee, khaasa, and shoola. Chief among them are five, known as gridhnee, godhaa, kunjaa, roudree, and guhaa. By accelerating them and directing them against the enemy, the guhaa-garbha mirror disables them."
"Darpana prakarana " describes its manufacture thus:
7 parts of couries, 3 parts of manjula or madder root, 6 parts of sea-foam, 8 parts of ranjaka or phosphorous, 6 parts of mandoora or rust, 8 parts of mercury, 3 parts of orpiment, 7 parts of brahmika, 2 parts of lead, 8 parts of eye pigment, 6 parts of matrunnna, 8 parts of sand, 6 parts of kishora, 5 of muchukunda, 2 parts of gingelly oil, 25 of lohika, 5 parts of mridaani garbha essence, 8 of sowraashtra earth, 5 parts of sphatika, 3 of bones, 15 of indusatva or moonstone?, and 5 of dambholi taakaa dwaya satva,
taking these 22, purifying and powdering them and filling crucible, and placing in furnace and boiling to 700 degrees, and cooled in yantra, guhaa garbha darpana is produced.
Rowdree-darpana is a mirror or lens which liquefies everything that it flashes against.
Paraankusha says that where Rudraanyosharaa and abhralinga come into contact, a fierce force called roudree comes into being. Mingling with solar rays it melts everything. "Sammohana kriyaa kaanda" says:
"By the mixing of roudree and solar rays an evil force called maarikaa is generated, and impelled by the solar electricity, it destroys the enemy planes."
Darpanaa prakarana describes its manufacture:
8 parts of lead, 3 parts of shaalmali, 7 of durvaara, 8 parts kudupinjara, 21 parts of droonee, 8 parts sun-crystal, 27 parts of rudraanee-graavoshara, 6 parts betel leaves, 8 parts of kowtila, 30 of veeraabhra linga, 8 parts of salts, 7 of sand, 6 parts of matrunna, 3 of dimbhika, 8 of zinc, 13 of ant-hill earth, 6 of gum, 3 of kumbhinee, 3 parts sweet oil, 27 of Tinnevelly senna, 6 of godhaamla, 8 of silk cotton, 8 parts of virinchi satva, 5 parts of kanda, 3 parts of yellow orpimet, 7 parts of kaarmukha, or brown barked acacia?, these 26, powdered, purified, and filled in crucible and placed in furnace and boiled to 800 degrees, and poured into Darpana yantra, will yield a fine roudrikaa-uarpana.
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