The Vimanika Shastra

Technical drawings of ancient Vimanas

Possible technical details of ancient Vimanas based upon the descriptions in the text

Index Page

Fifth Chapter

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Yantraadhikaranam: Yantras: Machinery.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Athha Upayantraani." Sootra 1.

"The Mechanical Contrivances."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having described the forces or energies required for the various functions of the vimaana, now the mechanisms necessary for these activities are described.

"Kriyaa-saara" says:

"As stated by the eminent Bharadwaaja in "Yantrasarvasva", the mechanical equipments necessary for the vimaana are 32. They are vishwakriyaadarsa or universal reflecting mirror, shaktyaakarshana yantra or force absorbing machine, pariveshakriyaayantra or halo-producing machine, angopasamhara yantra or machine for folding up or contracting its parts, vistrutakriyaa yantra, or expanding yantra, vyroopyadarpana or fantastic mirror, padmachakra-mukha, kuntinee shakti yantra and pushpinee shakti yantra, pinjula mirror, naalapanchaka and guhaa-garbhabhidha yantras, tamo-yantra or darkness spreading machine, pancha vaataskandhanaala, roudree mirror, vaataskandha naalakcelaka, vidyudyantra or electric generator, and shabdakendra mukha, vidyuddwaadashaka, praanakundalinee, shaktyudgama, vakraprasaarana, and shaktipanjara keelaka, shirah-keelaka and shabdaakarshana, pataprasaaranayantra, dishaampati yantra, pattikaabhraka yantra, suryashaktyapakarshana yantra or collector of solar energy, apasmaaradhooma prasaarana or ejector of poisonous fumes, stambhana yantra, and vyshwaanara naalayantra."

They are thus described in "yantrasarvasva," chapter 7, by the illustrious Maharshi Bharadwaaja.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Athopayantraani." Sootra 1.

"Subsidiary Yantras."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Prepare a square or circular base of 9 inches width with wood and glass, mark its centre, and from about an inch and half thereof draw lines to the edge in the 8 directions, fix 2 hinges in each of the lines in order to open and shut. In the centre erect a 6 inch pivot and four tubes, made of vishvodara metal, equipped with hinges and bands of iron, copper, brass or lead, and attach to the pegs in the lines in the several directions. The whole is to be covered.

Prepare a mirror of perfect finish and fix it to the danda or pivot. At the base of the pivot an electric yantra should be fixed. Crystal or glass beads should be fixed at the base, middle, and end of the pivot or by its side. The circular or goblet shaped mirror for attracting solar rays should be fixed at the foot of the pivot. To the west of it the image-reflector should be placed. Its operation is as follows:

First the pivot or pole should be stretched by moving the keelee or switch. The observation mirror should be fixed at its base. A vessel with mercury should be fixed at its bottom. In it a crystal bead with hole should be placed. Through the hole in the chemically purified bead, sensitive wires should be passed and attached to the end beads in various directions. At the middle of the pole, mustard cleaned solar mirror should be fixed. At the foot of the pole a vessel should be placed with liquid ruchaka salt. A crystal should be fixed in it with hinge and wiring. In the bottom centre should be placed a goblet-like circular mirror for attracting solar rays. To the west of it a reflecting mechanism should be placed. To the east of the liquid salt vessel, the electric generator should be placed and the wiring of the crystal attached to it. The current from both the yantras should be passed to the crystal in the liquid ruchaka salt vessel. Eight parts of sun-power in the solar reflector and 12 parts of electric power should be passed through the crystal into the mercury and on to the universal reflecting mirror. And then that mirror should be focussed in the direction of the region which has to be photographed. The image which appears in the facing lens will then be reflected

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through the crystal in the liquid salt solution. The picture which will appear in the mirror will be true to life, and enable the pilot to realise the conditions of the concerned region, and he can take appropriate action to ward off danger and inflict damage on the enemy.

Next Shaktyaakarshana yantra:

"Yantra sarvasva" says, "Owing to the etherial waves and raging winds of the upper regions in accordance with die seasons, evil forces are generated which tend to destroy the vimaana. The Shaktyaakarshana yantra in the vimaana is meant to subdue those forces and render them harmless."

Narayana also says:

"Three fierce forces arise from the fierce winds and ethereal waves, and cruse destruction of the plane. The shalayaakarshana yantra by its superior force subdues them and ensures safety of the vimaana."

Its construction is as follows:

The base is to be 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, and made of krouncha metal. A 12 inch tall 3 inch wide pole or peg made of 27th kind of glass should be fixed in its middle. To the east of it, as also to the west, 3 centres should be marked on each side. To the north and south also 2 centres should be marked on each side. At each centre screw-bolts should be fixed. Then tubes made of the 107th glass, with cleaned wiring should be fixed. A goblet shaped 15 inch sized glass vessel should be fixed on the base of the central peg. A 1 foot circular glass ball with three holes should be fixed in the main centre. A triangular shaped 1 foot sized mirror made of Aadarsha glass should be fixed on the 3rd kendra. Two circular rods made of magnetic metal and copper should be fixed on the glass ball so as to cause friction when they revolve. To the west of it a globular ball made of vaatapaa glass with a wide open mouth should be fixed. Then a vessel made of shaktipaa glass, narrow at bottom, round in the middle, with narrow neck, and open mouth with 5 beaks should be fixed on the middle bolt. Similarly on the end bolt should be placed a vessel with sulphuric acid (bhraajaswad-draavaka). On the pegs on southern side 3 interlocked wheels should be fixed. On the north side liquefied mixture of load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough should be placed. And crystals should be placed at the requisite centres.

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says that the shaktyaakarshana yantra should be equipped with 6 crystals known as Bhaaradwaaja, Sanjanika, Sourrya, Pingalaka, Shaktipanjaraka, and Pancha-jyotirgarbha.

The same work mentions where the crystals are to be located. The sourrya mani is to be placed in the vessel at the foot of the central pole, Sanjanika mani should be fixed at the middle of the triangular wall. Pingalaka mani is to be fixed in the wide mouthed glass globe. Bhaaradwaaja mani should be fixed in the opening in the naala-danda. Pancha-jyotirgarbha mani should be fixed in the sulphuric acid vessel, and Shakti-panjaraka mani should be placed in the mixture of magnet, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough. All the five crystals should be equipped with wires passing through glass tubes.

Wires should be passed from the centre in all directions. Then the triple wheels should be set in revolving motion, which will cause the two glass balls inside the glass case, to turn with increasing speed rubbing each other, the resulting friction generating a 100 degree power. That power should be conveyed through wires to the sanjanika mani. Mingling with the force existing therein, that force issues out and should be transmitted through wires to the sourrya mani. On contact of the power therein the force will split into 5 streams. Each of the five power streams should be connected with one of the manis, Bhaaradwaja, Sourrya, Pingala, Pancha-jyotirmani, and Shakti-panjara mani. Mingling with the force in each mani, they form five forces, which are named by Atri maharshi as Raja, Mourtvica, Chundeera, Shoonya, and Garbha-vishodara. These should be passed by wires to the sulphuric acid vessel. They then form 3 forces, named marthanda, rowhinee, and bhadra. Marthanda shakti should be passed into the load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent slough liquids. The resulting current should then be passed through wires to the wide mouthed glass globular vessel. Solar force pregnant with etherial force should be passed into the Naaladanda, and thence to the vessel with marthanda shakti. The power of the solar rays entering that vessel mingles with the marthanda shakti inside, and the resultant force has to be focussed towards the adverse force of the etherial current which will be thereby nullified and the vimaana will be protected.

Then the Rohinee shakti should be passed through wires into the vessel containing the fivefold load stone, mercury, mica, serpent slough acid,

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and the resulting current passed to the Bhrajasvaddraavaka or luminous acid vessel at the foot of the central pole. Then from the air-route collect the wind-force impregnated solar rays and pass them also into the above vessel. Mingling with the rowhinee shakti therein a super-force will be created which should be passed through the northern pivot, into the rowhinee power vessel. The united force should then he directed against the malefic wind force in the air-route, so that it will tame the evil force and protect the Vimaana.

Then from the suragha tube Bhadraa shakti should be passed into five fold acid vessel. The resulting force should be passed through wired tubes to the foot of the triangular wall, and thence to the pivot on the southern side. The force should then be directed against the evil roudree Force in the air-route. Neutralising that third destructive force in the sky, the vimaana will be allowed smooth passage in the sky.

The Parivesha-kriya yantra:

According to Yantra-sarvasva, by manipulating the five forces a halo is formed around the vimaana, and by drawing the solar rays into contact with it, the rays will speed the aeroplane along the rekhaamaarga or safety line. This is achieved by the operation of the above said yantra.

Narayanacharya also says:

"The mechanism which will manipulate the five forces so as to create a halo round the plane, and attracting the solar rays and contacting them with the plane, make them draw the plane smoothly and speedily along the air route without swerving into danger, is called parivesha-kriyaa yantra or halo-forming mechanism."

Soudaaminee kalaa says, "The forces of ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha, when united attract solar rays. "

According to "Gopatha-kaarika," the forces in shireesha or Indra or lightning, clouds, earth, stars; and sky, are indicated by the letters ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha. By combining those live forces a halo, like that around the solar orb, will be created, and it will have the power or attracting solar rays.

Kriyaa-saara says Shireesha has 2 parts, Clouds have 8 parts, Earth has 5, Stars have 7, and Aakaasha or Sky or Ether has 10. The Aakarshana

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yantra should attract these forces and unify them. Then through the mirror above the vimaana attract solar rays, and apply them to the unified forces,

A halo will be created, and that halo, in combination with the solar rays, will draw the plane through a safe course like a bird held by a string, Its formation is thus explained in Yantra-sarvasva:

"Athha Yantraangaani"

We now deal with the parts of the yantra:

A foot-plate: 23 main centres to be marked on it, with lines connecting the centres. Similar number of revolving screws, wired tubes, pole with three wheels, eight liquids, eight crystals, eight liquid containers, mirror to attract the forces of shireesha, cloud, earth, stars, and aakaasha, five electric mechanism, five barks of trees, copper coated wires, five leathers, hollow screws, revolving screw with wire, vessels for storing the energies, vessel for mixing the energies, smoke-spreading yantra, air-fanning yantra, halo-creating tube made of milky-leather, solar ray attracting mirror tube, tube for collecting the solar rays reflected in the mirror at the top portion of the vimaana, crest-crystal, screw for connecting the solar rays to the vimaana. These are the 23 parts of halo producing yantra.

Its construction is now explained: A wooden base 23 feet square, made of black pippala or holy fig tee. 23 centres enclosed in a case made of 35th type of glass. 23 lines to the centres. Revolving keys to be fixed at the 23 centres. Wired glass tubes should connect one centre with another. A glass pole made of the 37th type of glass, 5 feet long, 1 foot thick in the middle, 18 inches thick at the neck, with a 10 fact wide top, should be fixed as the central pillar, with 3 revolving wheels. Eight acids should be placed in the eight directions from the north-east side. Their names are rubnaka, kraantaja, taarkshya, naaga, gowree, vishandhaya, khadyota and jwalana.

The rubnaka acid is to be placed in the north-east centre, kraantaja in the centre, naaga at the southern centre, gowree at the south-west corner, vishandhaya in the western centre, khadyota at the north-west centre, and jwalana at the northern centre in 8 glass vessels.

The names of the vessels are also given by Shaarikaanaatha: shila, abhra, paara, vyrinchika, vaaluka, asuragranthika, sphutika, and pancha-mrith,

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[paragraph continues] The 8 vessels are made out of these 8 elements by process defined in "Darpana-prakarana."

The rubnaka acid should be filled in shila-darpana vessel; kaarshnya-acid in abhrakaadarsha; kraantaja acid in paaraadarsha vessel; naagadraava in vyrinchi-aadarsha vessel; khadyota acid in sphutikaadarsha; gowree acid should be filled in vaalukaadarsha vessel; vishandhaya acid should be filled in suragrathika vessel; and jwalana acid in panchamrid vessel.

In the 8 acid filled vessels 8 crystals are to be inserted. As mentioned in "Maniprakarana" their names are dhoomaasya, ghanagarbha, shalyaaka, shaarika, tushaasya, somaka, shankha, and amshupa.

Having mentioned their names, we now explain their disposal. Dhoomaasya mani is to be placed in rubna acid vessel. Ghanagarbha mani should be placed in kraantaja acid vessel. Shalyaaka in kaarshni acid vessel. Shaarika in naaga acid vessel. Tushaasya is to be placed in gowree acid, Shankha in jwalana acid; Somaka in vishandhaya acid; and Amshupa mani is to be placed in khadyota acid vessel.

In front of these manis, eight shaktyaakarshana, or energy-imbibing mirrors are to be fixed. Their names according to Bharadwaja are taaraasya, pavanaasya, dhoomaasya, vaarunaasya, jalagarbha, agnimitra, chaayaasya, and bhanukantaka. Their location is as follows: Six inches in front of dhoomasya mani the taaraasya mirror with an iron rod with a switch attached to it should be fixed. Pavanaasya mirror should be fixed similarly in front of ghanagarbha mani. Dhoomaasya mirror should be fixed 6 inches in front of shalyaaka mani. Vaarunaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shaarikaa mani. Jalagarbha mirror should be fixed in front of somaka mani. Agnimitra mirror should be fixed in front of tushaasya mani. Chhayaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shankha mani. And Bhanukantaka mirror should be fixed in front of amshupaa mani.

Then in the western centre should be installed the electric generator with switch. Copper-coated wires covered with live kinds of skins, should be spread all-round, proceeding from the shakti-yantra or electric generator. The names of the five skins, according to "Kriyaa-saara," are rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile.

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According to "Twangnirnaya-adhikaara," or chapter on skins, for seats in vimaanas, and, for containing acids, and covering wires, five kinds of skins are mentioned by the learned; skins of rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile. These five are to be used for the purposes of cove-ring, and seating. Wires covered with these skins are good conductors of electricity. The bhraamanee keela, or central revolving pole should be fixed in the centre so that when it revolves all the other pivotal centres also revolve. Eight energy storing vessels should be placed in the 9th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 15th 16th and 11th centres. The sammelana vessel or coordinating vessel should be placed in the front of the 23rd centre. To the south of it at the 21st centre the wind blowing mechanism should be fixed.

The Vaata-prasaarana or wind-blowing yantra is thus described: In the central pivot there are to be 5 wheels which will turn with 100 linka revolutions by contact with electric wires: in the east and west two bellows on pivots: two air-containers with 3 mouths or openings: 6 wheels which prevent air-motion: two tubes with switches which will cause spreading: wheels with keys that will induce speed, or full speed, slow, very slow or stop, shaped like a tortoise, having two bharas or parts?, and having a wheel fixed at the top. That is a vaata-prasaarana yantra.

The dhooma-prasaarana yantra or smoke-spreading yantra is as follows: with three openings, 5 satchels inside, 8 wheels, three keelakas or switches, encircled by electric tube, provided with smoke-generating mani or crystal, and equipped with 5 acids, with two churning wheels with keys, with two smoke containers attached to the bellows tube, with smoke-spreading yantra, and it is to be fixed at the 20th centre.

The parivesha-kriyaa naala or halo-creating tube is thus explained. Out of 5 milks from 5 kinds of milk trees, 6 barks of trees, and 2 valkalas (hemp, jute), cloth is fashioned. And that cloth should be used in preparing the parivesha-kriya or halo-forming tube.

It is stated in "Ksheeree-pata kalpa":

In the realm of milk-yielding trees, dugdha-pranaalee, patapaadapa, payodharee, panchavatee, and virinchi are the 5 most suitable for manufacture of milk-cloth useful for vimaanas.

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"Patapradeepikaa" also says, "Among the milk-trees, the best for producing milk-cloth are the following five, payodharee, panchavatee, viranchi, patapaadapa and dugdhapranaalika.

The six bark-trees are godaakanda, kurangaka-niryaasa, aandolikaaviyatsaara, lavika, prishatka, and kshmaamala. In conjunction with the milk from milk-trees these barks produce cloth which is flawless, strong, and soft.

For the two valkalas, according to "Agatatva-nirnaya" out of 5000 kinds of valkalas from shaarikaa to panchamukhee, the two named simhikaa and panchaanga are said to be excellent for producing the milk-cloth required for vimaanas.

The composition of the cloth is as follows:

Dudgdhapranaalika milk 8 parts, 10 parts of the milk juice of the patavriksha, 7 parts of payodaree or cocoanut milk, 18 parts of the milk of the 5 vata or ficus trees, and 12 parts of virancha tree.

The ambikaa-shatka composition is 10 parts of godaa-kanda, 17 parts of gum from kurangaka, 15 parts of aandolikaa viyatsaara, 12 parts lavika, 20 parts of prishatka, and 15 parts of kshmaamala.

The two jute cloth proportions are given in "Shana-nirnaya chandrikaa," as 28 parts of simhikaa jute, and 18 parts of panchaangavalkala jute.

These proportions of 5 ksheera or milk, 6 ambika or barks, and 2 valkalas or jutes, should be mixed together and unified, and boiled in paakaadhaana yantra and churned a number of times, and processing with acids 12 times, should be filled in pata-garbha kriya or cloth-making yantra, and milk-cloth of excellent quality obtained. The parivesha kriyaa-tube made out of this cloth will, by manipulation of the concerned switch, expel smoke from the vimaana, and by quick advancing and reverse revolutions of the wheel will spread the smoke all round so as to envelope the vimaana by means of the smoke-screen.

The Kiranaakarsha-Naala:

16 parts of the 305th variety of glass, 5 parts of kaancholikaabharana, 6 parts of nagakesara or merua ferrea,--aletris hyacinthoides, 4 parts of

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couries, sunflower, and Indian spikenard, 8 parts of pure borax, iron dross, onion juice, cuscus grass powder, ruby glass, the three varieties of salt-petre, sand, essence of suranjikaa, viranchi flour, essence of black-mica, essence of bael fruit, and juice of flower buds, these twelve ingredients, in the proportion of 27, 5, 7, 3, 8, 7, 3, 11, 8, and 12, are to be filled in the frog-shaped crucible, and placed in the frog-shaped furnace, and melted with 300 degrees of heat with the help of two-winged bellows. The resulting liquid is to be poured into the darpana yantra or glass-making machine, so as to produce the kiranaakarshana or rays-attracting yantra.

The tube made of this glass should be fixed at the top of the concerned yantra.

Next- the pratibimba-arka-kiranaakarshana naala, or tube for attracting the reflection of the solar says:

According to "Naalikaa-nirnaya," the essence of squash gourd, juice of momardica, 2 parts, of the salt of the two wheeled root vegetable, 3 parts of salt of simhamoola, 122nd type of glass, essence of white mica, jelly stone, borax, root of Bengal-madder, thorn at the root of bamboo, lead, mercury, these 15 ingredients are to be mixed in the proportion of 5, 12, 4, 3, 7, 3, 11, 4, 9, 12, 20, 18, 12, 5, 20. The mixture should be filled in the crucible known as samavargika, and heated in the furnace of the same name, and heated to the degree of 315, with the aid of bellows called suraghaa. The resulting liquid should be poured into the mirror--making machine. The resulting product will be a fine bimbaarka-kiranaadarsha, or reflected solar ray attracting mirror. This should be fixed in the central portion of the vimaana and in the 10th kendra, with five circled screws.

Now we deal with the crest crystal of the vimaana. The crest-crystals are of 103 kinds. They are named in "Mani-kalpa-pradeepika" as belonging to the 12th class of 32 groups of crystals. Their names are shankara, shaantaka, kharva, bhaaskara, Mandana, kalaantaka, deeptaka, nandaka, chakrakantha, panchanetra, Rajamukha, Raakaasya, kaalabhyrava, chintamani, koushika, chitraka, bhaskara, uduraaja, viraaja, kalpaka, kaamikodbhava, panchasheershna, paarvanika, panchaaksha, paaribhadraka, isheeka, kaashabhrit, kaala, kanjaasya, kowtika, kalaakara, kaarmika, vishaghna, panchapaavaka, symhikeya, roudramukha, manjeera, dimbhika, pingala, karnika,

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krodha, kravyaada, kaala-kowlika, vinaayaka, vishwamukha, paavakaasya, kapaalaka, vijaya, viplava, praanajanghika, kaarmukha, prithu, shinjeera, shibika, chanda, jambaala, kutilormika, jrimbhaka, shaakamitra, vishalya, kanka-gowrabha, suragha, suryamitra, shashaka, shaakala, shaktyaakara, shaambhavika, shibika, shuka, bherunda, mundaka, kaarshnya, puruhoota, puranjaya, jambaalika, sharngika, jambeera, ghanavarshmaka, chanchvaaka, chaapaka, ananga, pishanga, vaarshika. Raajaraaja, naagamukha, sudhaakara, vibhakara, trinetra, bhoorjaka, kumuda, koorma, kaarmuka, kapila, granthika, paashadhara, damaruga, ravi, munjaka, bhadraka.

These are the 103 crystals suitable for being fixed as crest-jewels of the vimaana. One of them is to be fitted to the central pinnacle at the top of the vimaana, and the wires from the electric dynamo should be connected to it, so that it might be supplied with power. On the upper side should be attached wires for collecting solar rays, so that the two forces might act in combination.

The switch-gear for connecting the vimaana with the solar energy is explained in "Brihath-kaandika." Sandhaana-keelakaas are of 25 kinds. Their names are pinjuleeka, keeranaka, dimbhaka, paarvateeyaka, kachchapa, gaaruda, uddanda, shaktipa, govidaaraka, pavanaasya, panchavaktra, vajraka, kankana, ahirbudhnya, kundalika, naakula, oornanaabhika, trimukha, saptasheershanya, panchaavartha, paraavatha, aavarta, naabhika, oordhvaasya, shilaavarta.

Amongst these the 9th, govidaaraka, is best suited to connect the vimaana with the solar beams for safe navigation. This is Pariveshakriyaayantra.

Next Angopasamhaara yantra:

During the passage of sun and other planets in the 12 houses of the zodiac, owing to the varying speeds of their progressive and retrogressive motions, conflicting forces are generated in the zodiacal regions, and their collisions will let loose floods of fierce forces which will reduce to ashes the parts of the plane which get involved with them. The pilot should get warned by the ushna-pramaapaka yantra, or heat-measuring instrument, and quickly fold the concerned parts and ensure their safety.

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It is described in "Yantrasarvasva" as follows:

Purifying the metal sumrileeka mixed with manjeera, a pedestal should be cast, 12 feet long, 18 inches thick, and shaped as a square or circle. Then mixing the magnetic stone and dimbika, after purifying them with acids, cast a pole 3 feet thick and 30 feet tall, with springs, as in an umbrella, at the foot, in the middle and at the upper end, and fix it in the centre of the pedestal. Rods made of mixed metal like umbrella rods, provided with 5 springs, should connect the springs in the pole with the several limb mechanisms of the vimaana. Two revolving wheel springs with two tubes with 3 faces and 3 wheeled springs should be fixed at the bottom of the pole, near the spring. Above there should be fixed an oiling tube which will keep all the springs well-oiled. When a particular limb of the plane has to be contracted the spring at the foot of the pole should be turned so as to induce the spring of the part to operate so as to contract or open up the part as need be so that the danger to the part will be prevented. By the operation of the angopasamhaara yantra, any part of the plane can be folded up to avoid danger and opened out subsequently.

Vistritaasyaa kriyaa yantra or wide-opening mechanism:

When the various powers, subterranean, eight cardinal points, earth, cloud, electricity, and oceanic, consemble in padma-mukha, a power called vishambharee is generated. It breaks through the earth, emitting great heat, mounts with a 300 linka speed to the upper sky regions, and reaching the aerial routes, envelopes the vimaana, and affects the personnel inside causing grave physical disabilities, and paralysing the brain. For the purpose of curbing it and nullifying it, the vistritaasyakriyaa yantra is to be installed in the vimaana.

According to "Yantrasarvasva," a foot-plate, of an arm's length, and 22 inches thick, and round-shaped, is to be made of the wood of the sacred peepul tree. A pole of an arm's thickness, and 32 inches high, is to be fixed in the middle of it. Reversible wheeled double-switches should be fixed along its height, connecting each of the sectional mechanisms in the vimaana, through tubes reaching to the bhastrikaa naala or bellows tube attached to the mechanisms. At the foot of the pole three revolving wheels, and at its back the contracting switches, have to be fixed

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First peetha or footplate, then pillar, then revolving springs, jointure tubes, two-wheeled keelakas, two-winged bellows, three wheel moving mechanism, contracting mechanism, are eight constituent parts of this machine.

First the triple wheeled mechanism should be switched on. That will set the double wheels in motion. That will make all the springs attached to the pillar begin to operate. The two winged bellows attached to the double-wheels will open up. Wind will rush out and force through all the sandhi-naalas or jointure tubes. That will set the bellows in the central operating; thereby the bellows of the sectional mechanisms will come into play, and air will flow out in a flood, and taking hold of the vishambharaa shakti expel it to the aerial regions where it will get lost. Thus the personnel inside the vimaana will be saved from disabilities and restored to normalcy.

Vyroopya mirror: Says "Yantrasarvasva",

When enemy planes come intent on destroying the vimaana, the vyroopya mirror is intended to frustrate them. Its parts are, peetha or stand, central switch-gear, electric pole, smoke tube, betel-nut oil, triple-wheeled spring, three satchels, smoke light, and contraction tube.

The peetha or seat should be 2 feet wide and 2 feet tall, and circular, and made of bael tree wood. 12 centres are to be marked therein. At each centre revolving joints should be fixed. Jyotistambha or electric pole, 24 inches thick and 24 inches tall and made of vyroopya darpana glass, is to be fixed in the centre. In front of it the electric machine should be fixed in the 2nd kendra. In the 3rd kendra should be fixed the turning smoke tubes with winding wires. The oil vessel should be fixed in the 5th kendra. The 3 satchels, with 3 mouths, one foot high and made of milk-leather should be fixed in the 6th 7th, 8th and 9th kendras, up to the smoke tube. In the tenth kendra should be fixed the smoke-extinguishing tube mechanism, and the light-extinguishing tube in the eleventh kendra. The winding wire tube should be fixed in the 12th kendra.

The operation of the mechanism is as follows:

Drawing the electrical energy from the dynamo, it must be applied to the triple-wheeled mechanism. That will be set in motion. The wires

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proceeding from there will convey the power to all the other mechanisms and set them in motion. Kendras 3, 4, and 5, will become active. When kendra, 9 is switched on the koshas attached thereto will become active. From the 5th kendra the current should be passed to the oil vessel. The oil will then convert itself into poisonous .gas. The gas should be filled in the 3 satchels and the 3 tubes. The fumes from two of the tubes should then be discharged towards the enemy planes. They will encircle the enemy planes and envelope them with a smoke-screen. Then the betelnut oil should be lighted, and fluxed in the jyoti stamhha or light-pillar. The light within the pillar will suffuse it with red glow like a china rose; and pervade the sky. Then the electric glow should be applied to that glow. The resulting glow will be multi-coloured like a rain-bow, with violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. Then the poison-fumes from the 3rd tube should be drawn through the air tube, and let into the multicolour-glowing light-pillar. The fume will burst into light, and then should be passed through tube into the vyroopya-darpana. The light glow will pervade the mirror and attain 3000 degree intensity, causing a blinding glare and paralising the enemy. Then the gas in the three satchels should be projected with 25 linka speed towards the smoke screen enveloping the enemy. Then the smoke from the tubes should be projected with 28 linka speed into that screen. Then the smoke filled glow will flood over the enemy personnel and affect their body joints, organs, mind, vision, and induce inertness, and make them all fall down senseless. Then the pilot could change his air-route and proceed forward safely.

Then Padmachakra mukha yantra:

According to "Yantra sarvasva," its parts are, peetha or pedestal, pillar, tubular pole, electric wiring, glass lotus petals, lotus formation process, places where the lotuses are to be located, wind inhaling and leather-bellows mechanism, contracting and expanding switches, triple-wheel fixing arrangement, air flow outlets, folding up mechanism. These are the 12 parts of the padmachakra mukha yantra.

The peetha or seat should be made of the wood of pippala or the holy fig tree, 8 feet and 3 feet high, and square or circular. Mark 12 fixing centres on it. From the central pillar draw lines towards the 12 spots. The central pole, two tubular posts on either side of it, electric wire in eastern centre,

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lotus petals in the north, formation of lotus in the northern and southern centres, fixing of the lotuses from the north-east to the south-east corner, to the east air-filling bellows. In the north west corner the contracting switch, and the expansion switch in the south-west corner, triple-wheel revolving mechanism on the eastern side, air flow outlets underneath each lotus. To its south, the contraction switch.

These are the 12 parts to be fixed in the 12 centres. The production of the parts is as follows:

The central pivot should be made of abhra-mrid-darpana, or mica-sand glass. According to "Darpana-prakarana"--

5 parts of rambhasatva (plantain stem?), 8 of manjoosha (madder root?), 5 parts of kaanta (ayaskaanta? sooryakaanta?), 8 parts of kravyaada (jataamaamsi), 3 parts of aadhaka essence, 7 parts of tortoise shell essence, 18 of bhalyatvak, 3 essence of kudmala or flower buds, 8 of bamboo salt, 3 of hooves, 28 parts of shoonya-mrid or mica ash, 4 of trivikrama kshaara, 2 of conch, 5 of mercury, 8 of salts, 1 of creepers, 3 of silver, 3 of eye-ointment, these 18 ingredients, purified, filled in crucible, placed in varaatakunda furnace and boiled to 200 degrees, and slowly filled in darpana yantra, will yield an excellent abhra-mrid darpana.

Two tubular poles of the size of an arm, made of this glass, should be placed on either side of the pivot. From the central pole electrical wiring should be connected to the 12 centres. In the centre of the switch tubes should be placed the lotus petals, and 150 finely made glass lotus petals should be spread on the northern side electric wires.

The petals are to be made, according to Lalla, by mixing 15 parts of the mica glass, with 4 parts of sourika salt, duly mixed and finely powdered and melted in pattikaa machine, when like onion-skin layers, petals will take shape. Then the wires attached to the petals should be brought together from the several centres, and attached to the lotus forming mechanism. By turning the concerned wheel the petals will move towards the centre and form a lotus. Each petal will then become a tube, and by their juggling each

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tube will form 2 petals. The air-attracting mechanism should be placed in front and set to work. With a shrieking noise the air will be sucked in by each tube and the petals will shoot the air far into the outer air.

It is said in "sandhaana-patala--"

The scattering of a blizzard which may obstruct the progress of the vimaana is only possible by means of the padma-sandhaana and not otherwise. Therefore the spots where the lotuses are to be inserted are now indicated. On the eastern side from the north east to the south east the lotuses are to be erected in seven places in close order. Beneath the seven lotuses should be fixed seven leathern bellows capable of deep draughts of air. On the north west corner should be fixed the double-wheeled contracting mechanism.

According to "Kriyaa saara," by turning the main wheel in right motion, and the upper wheel in reverse motion at full speed, the yantra will suffer contraction. This machine is composed of 6 wheels spread out, 5 naalaas or tubes, 12 wires and 12 openings, and 12 keys which will cause contraction of the 12 parts, with widened mouth at the upper and lower parts, and provided with 2 revolving keys. By placing such a contracting machine in the north-west corner, the machine could be contracted when desired.

Now we shall deal with the expanding mechanism. It is round like a water pot, with 12 wheels and mouths, having 12 tubes with rods inside with 12 revolving springs for ascending motion, and with a central spring for filling with air. With such a mechanism the yantra can be made to stretch its parts. This should be fixed in the south west corner.

Then at the eastern face the triple-wheeled revolving spring, called "bhraamanee-keelaka", should be fixed.

It has 3 ivory wheels, consists of 3 poles, wooden top shaped like shimshumaara, with wheels with spring on top. By its operation the several parts of the yantra are set in motion, and by the operation of the concerned springs, the yantra will expand. Therefore the 3 wheeled bhraamanee mechanism should be properly fixed at the eastern kendra with 5 bolts.

Underneath the lotuses air flow routes should be provided. There should be openings 12 inches wide, 2 inches high, be leather-covered, made

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of pippala wood, with 7 tubes for the flow of wind. Seven such tubes should be fixed beneath the seven lotuses, and provided with keys.

In the southern centre the contracting mechanism or upasamhaara keela, with 12 outlets, should be fixed.

Owing to the seasonal changes forces will generate in the joints of the outer space, and combining with the oceanic forces will reach the realm of air and cause a commotion which will spread out with fierce force into the farthest air pockets, and let loose typhoons which reach the vimaana, and produce a dusty excrescence which will induce chicken-pox-like skin eruptions on the pilots and other occupants, and also break up the vimaana. In order to suck up that foul wind-flow, and expel it out of the vimaana, the padma-patra-mukha yantra is prescribed.

Next Kuntinee-shakti-yantra:

Now we shall deal with kuntinee-shakti yantra. In mid-summer, out of the myriad heat rays of the sun, by the union of the 3, 5, and 10th class of rays, a fierce force of blazing heat named kulakaa is generated.

It is said in "Ritukalpa",

From the solar heat generative source 3 Mahaakshoni and 21 crores 500 lakhs 16 thousand and nineteen heat rays emanate. They are classified into 5 crores 8 thousand and 107 groups in Vaalmeeki ganita. Each group is divisible into 100 sub-groups. Of these when the rays of sub-groups 3, 5, 10 from the second group get mixed up in the heart of summer, a force called Kulakaa with fiery intensity is generated; and when it moves into the path of the flying vimaana, the plane will be reduced to ashes. To protect against that the kuntinee-shakti yantra should be installed in the neck portion of the vimaana.

Sage Narayana also says:

Amongst the divisions of the heat rays of the summer sun, the second group has 85000 rays. Out of them those numbered 8, 3, and 10 are specially intense, and they attract the pramlochana shakti from koorma portion of the universe, and produce a fierce heat-wave called kulikaa. If a vimaana happens

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to encounter it in its course, it will be burnt to ashes. To safeguard against that the kuntinee-shakti yantra should be installed in the neck section of the vimaana.

Lallaachaarya also confirms:

Out of the many groups of the heat-rays of summer, numbers 3, 5, and 10 in the 32nd division of the 2nd group of rays' tend to contact the pramlochana shakti in koorma and produce a fierce force called kulakaa which will destroy the vimaana. The erection of the kuntinee-shakti yantra in the vimaana will prevent it from such destruction.

According to "Yantra Sarvasva",

Among the constituent yantras of the vimaana, the kuntinee-shakti yantra is required to protect it from the combustible heat waves known as kulikaa in summer. Its parts are ground-plate, central switch-board, acid vessel cloth, with folds, chakradanti naala, milk cloth, tube covering switches, revolving wheel equipped with electric wiring, and contracting mechanism.

The peetha or ground-plate should be 3 feet wide and foot high, and round like a drinking bowl, seven kendras or centres commencing from the eastern side, turning switches in the seven centres, the acid vessel in the central kendra.

"Kriyaasaara" Says:

For capturing kulikaa the oil from gunja or the seeds of the shrub abrus and tobacco leaves, and mercury and shanaka crystal are recommended for use. The oils or acids of the seeds and tobacco leaves are to be filled in goblet like cup made of glass made of naaga, crownchika, and sowrambha metal, add purified mercury, and fix in the central kendra. Then apply the solar rays to the vessel. By the action of the rays on the acids the crystal in the vessel will become charged with a cold frigid force called krownchinee. Then when the kulikaa force enters the vessel with its fierce heat, it will be sucked in by the cold-storage crystal.

In the left kendra the cloth with folds should be fixed. Says "Patakalpa.--"

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In order to confine in the crystal the fierce heat of kulikaa it should be wrapped in the folds of a cloth of fine and strong texture made of spikenard and jute yarn, with 5 folds and 3 openings. From the openings 3 glass tubes should be projected with downward bends into 3 wide mouthed vessels. To the north--east must be fixed the chakradanti naala for attracting the kulikaa force. Snake-skin, gum of srini, woollen yarn, soft grass, should be boiled together and lac-coloured cloth-like glass prepared, and purified with sundikaa wood oil. It should he rolled in coils just as a snake circles up in coils and sleeps. The tiny glass tubes should be attached at the bottom of the chakradanti as directed.

Then ksheeree-pata naala, or milk-cloth tube is to be fixed. Made of milk-cloth with wide-opening, strong, soft, a tube should he inserted in the mouth of the chakradanti, and its end should be made to reach the hole in the peetha. Through that the kulikaa force makes its exit. After placing ksheeree pata naala like this with key, the electric wire connected central operating switch should be placed in the west. And to the north-east of it the vistritaasya or opening out switch should be fixed.

Says "Kriyaasaara":

It should have two satchels, two openings, two right-revolving and reverse-revolving wheels. In the eastern opening should be fixed the 2 right-revolving wheels. And in the northern mouth should be fixed the 2 reverse motion wheels. And as in an umbrella, sticks connecting all the parts with the centre, for the purpose of expansion and contraction by turning a switch. By operating the switch in the eastern opening all parts will open out or expand. By operation of the northern switch all parts will close up. This is the upasamhaara keelakaa.

Having enumerated the parts of the yantra, their operation is now given. First the electric switch. By putting it on, the Bhraamanee chakra or pivotal wheel will revolve setting in motion individual parts as and when desired by turning their respective switches. Then electric current should be passed to the acid containing the crystal. Solar rays also should then be passed into it. Thereby, in the acid there will be generated a female shakti of 5 nyankas called sowlikaa. Similarly in the crystal there will be generated a male shakti of 8 nyankas called chulikaa. By operation of the electric

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current the two shaktis will get unified and produce an extremely cold shakti called "crownchinee," capable of attracting the kulikaa. That crownchinee force should be projected through naala or tube towards the kulikaa, like imbedding a gunja pea in a lump of lac. Thereby the crownchinee will drag the kulikaa inside the yantra through the tube and drop it into the acid vessel where it will be imbibed by the crystal.

Then the patormikaa key should be turned, whereby the patormikaa will become wide open preventing any air from entering the crystal by covering it completely. Then the chakradanti key should be turned slowly, so that its mouth opens out and sucks the hot kulikaa from the crystal, and stores it inside itself. Then the key of the sookshmaadarsa naala, fine mirror tubes, should be operated. The kulikaa in chakradanti will emerge through the 3 tubes. Then the vistritaasya key should be operated quickly so that all the parts will open out, and the kulikaa shakti will get out and disappear, and the danger to the pilot will have passed. Then by operating the upasamhaara keelaka, the expanded parts will close up and the yantra will return to normalcy.

Now we shall deal with Pushpinee yantra. When the pilot has to travel during spring and summer months, the pushpinee yantra is intended to provide him with necessary comforts.

According to "Khetavilaasa":

In spring a force called sowrikaa emanates from the south-east. And in summer a force called panchashikhaa arises in the north-west and is intensified by the sun's rays. Panchashikhaa contains two kinds of poisons. Sowrikaa having fire and moon contents is cold and hot, cold internally, and hot externally. It generates warmth in all creations, making the human kind perspire, and the trees and vegetation bring out their milk and gums. Thereby their bodies are relieved of harmful materials likely to lead to diseases.

By its cold effect and attracting the spring effect from the solar rays, it permeates all things, and brings out shoots, tendrils, flowers and a glow in all trees and creepers. Similarly it effects the 7 physiological components of the human body and increases their vigour, strength, growth, and glow.

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Panchashikhaa shakti or force effects movable and immovable life adversely by its stultifying influence, shrinks and dries up the growth process of both vegetable and animal life and causes deterioration. To counteract this harmful effect of the season on the personnel of the vimaana, the pushpinee yantra is commended as one of the constituents of the aeroplane.

Its parts are, the base, the cold processing mirror, keelaka or key, cold generating crystal, acid vessel, electric wheel with 100 spokes.

The sunda-mud made glass is prepared, according to "Paarthiva-paaka Kalpa" as follows. Take salt, shinjeera, bone, and betel-nut salt, durona, kuruvinda grass (cyperus rotundus), gum, sowraashtra mud, virinchi vatika or banyan bark, silk cotton tree bark, and coir salt, these ingredients are to be taken in the proportion of 5, 12, 2, 3, 8, 3, 30, and 6, purified, filled in the crucible, and placed in the tortoise shaped furnace, boiled 32 times in 100 degree heat with the help of two faced bellows, and the resulting fluid poured into the cooling yantra. A pure and fine sunda-mud-glass will be formed.

With the glass thus produced by boiling 32 times, a base is to be formed 12 inches wide, 3 inches high, four-square or circular. From the centre of it 4 kendras or centres are to be marked. In the centre an arm-sized pivot made of the said glass should be fixed. On top of it is to be fixed the cold-processing mirror key. At its centre should be fixed the cold producing crystal. At the eastern centre should be placed the acid vessel.

Dravapaatra or acid vessel is described in "Kriyaasaara." It should be 12 inches wide and 12 inches high, shaped like a tumbler, circular, and hard like a cocoanut shell, and be made of the sheeta-ranjikaa glass.

The glass is described in "Darpana Prakarana". Shasha-piththa, udupiththa, borax, kutmala, jyotsnaa saara, rasonta kanda flour, kudupa-salt, mica salt, shoundeera jangha shalya flour, vaatohara, white niryaasa earth salt, and uragha.

These 12 ingredients should be taken in the proportion of 5, 3, 5, 1, 10, 10, 11, 8, 7, 2, 20, and 6, and after properly purifying them, fill them in lotus-shaped crucible, and placing it in the lotus shaped furnace filled with

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burning charcoal, and with the aid of the five-mouthed bellows blow the heat to 323 degrees temperature, and pour the liquid into the yantra. The resulting glass is called sheeta-ranjikaadarsa or cold-receptacle glass.

Cold-producing crystal is described in "Maniprakarana": 5 parts of couries and manjula powder, 4 parts udumbara salt, 3 of rubhna, 8 parts of varchulaka, 7 of sheeta ranjikaadarsha, 3 of vatu, 28 of shaalmali, 3 of salts, 7 of mercury, 8 of white mica, 8 of karkataanghri salt, 5 of chowlika satva, 15 of niryaasa earth, 25 of sampaathi bird kneebone--

These 14 ingredients, in the named proportions are to be purified and filled in mritkundala-moosha or earthen crucible, and placed in kulakundika furnace, and with the aid of tryambaka bellows blown into 300 degree temperature. Fill the boiled liquid into the mani-prasoothika, or crystal forming yantra. The crystal produced will be pure, hard, and intensely cold.

In front of it should be fixed .the electric panka wheel, with 100 spokes and electric wiring, and purified by 3 acids.

As per "Kriyaasaara," 12 parts of copper, 3 of collyrium, 8 of zinc, should be mixed and melted with 100 degree heat. It will become pure like gold, yellow, fine, soft, and strong. It is called pancha-loha or five-in-one metal by those who know. 100 leaves like those of lotus should be formed out of them. Then 3 navels, three navel keys, and 3 wires, and a sounding keelaka or key, or switch, or wheel.

First the navel wheels with hinged rods should be fixed so that the 100 petals will he made to revolve with due speed on the four sides of the wheel. Similarly by the side of the wheel in front of it, another 100 petals should be properly fixed for revolving in reverse direction. And electric wires should be fixed on both sides of the centre of the western wheel, for operating the 100 spoked electric panka or fan. Then the vessel should be filled with the cold generating acid. And encircling the cold-generating mani or crystal, it should be placed in another vessel in the centre. And copper wiring enclosed in milk-cloth should be attached to the wire in the acid vessel. Two wires from there with switches should be connected with the cold ranjikaa glass or mirror in right-turning fashion. Then current should be switched into the electric wiring in the crystal and acid. Then by the contact of the electric current the forces within the crystal and the acid will get active and their

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combined cooling and comforting quality will enter the cold ranjanikaa mirror and concentrate in it. On operating the switch attached to it, the cold effect will spread out all over the interior of the vimaana, and overcoming the scorching seasonal effect, make it comfortable and pleasant for the pilot, and restore his efficiency. Similarly the 100 spoked panka (fan?) should be switched on, when a breeze will be generated and air-condition the atmosphere of the pilots. Thus by the use of the crystal, acid, and panka, a state of pleasant comfort will be induced, and vigour, exhilaration, and competence will be injected into all the limbs of the body. Therefore this Pushpinee yantra should be installed in the southern section of the vimaana.

Next Pinjula Aadarsha or Pinjulaa Mirror:

By the collision of two winds giving rise to a whirlwind, and the fierce solar ray dashing against it, a lightning bolt erupts and strikes the unwary vimaana. To protect against such an event, the pinjula mirror is to be installed. An eight petalled lotus is to be made of the pinjula glass. Where the petals join, a circular dandaakaara should be made. At the back two hinged bolts should be fixed. They should be wound round by wires from the cold mirror. The back should be covered with a coir-made cloth covering. It should be fixed in the southern side of the vimaana, at an arm's height, facing the sun. The lightning will be absorbed by the projecting rods coiled with wires from the cold aadarsha mirror, and no evil effect will occur, and the pilot can proceed in safety.

And Naalapanchaka or Five tubes:

If the smoke from the kitchen over of the vimaana spreads, it will cause discomfort for people inside. Therefore the five tubes or pipes should be inserted for the smoke to go out and the air become clear. The pipes are to be manufactured as follows. Magnetic iron, pinjula mica, ghontaara metal, dhoomapaasya metal, and tortoise shell, are to be taken in the proportion of 1, 7, 5, 5, 8, purified, filled in crucible, and melted with 100 degree heat, and when ultimately cooled, a fine metal called vaataayanee metal, or window metal will result shining like gold.

With that metal 5 tubular outlets, 12 inches in diameter and 12 inches in length, should be fashioned. At one end of each of the tubes should be fixed

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a smoke-absorbing crystal. The tubes should be inserted in the 4 sides of the vimaana, forming outlets. One tube should be fixed at the ceiling. The dhoomapa crystals will attract the smoke and pass it to the outside, and clear the vimaana of its discomfort. Hence the necessity for the naalapanchaka, or five tubes.

Then Guhaa-garbha aadarsha yantra, or hidden mine discovering mechanism:

According to "Yantra Sarvasva" enemies would have placed mines and bombs underground for the destruction of the vimaana, unless they are discovered and de-fused in time there would be danger. Therefore the mine-finder yantra has to be installed in the vimaana.

Says kriyaasaara, out of the 72nd type of glass, make a triangular, a circular, and a quadrangular shaped glass mirrors. These are to be fixed as follows with bolts made of pancha-dhaaraa metal in a frame made of the wood of the anjishtha tree. The circular mirror should be fixed at the bottom facing downwards. The quadrangular mirror should be fixed facing upwards. The triangular mirror should be fixed to the west of these two, with a panchamukha keelee or 5 faced hinge. From the main pivot of the quadrangular mirror to the foot of the bolt at the south-east corner of the yantra, wires made of copper, tiles, and panchaasya metal should be drawn and connect them, and then the wire ends and chumbaka crystal should be placed in the mercuric-sulphur acid vessel. Four other wires should be made to circle the triangular mirror, pass through the mirror facing upwards, and fixed to the centre of the down-ward facing mirror. Then solar rays should be let in from the western side. A screen cloth coated with mirror-like gum should be placed opposite to the triangular mirror. Then the solar rays and electric current should be passed into the acid vessel containing the crystal. When the electrified rays from the crystal are passed on to the downward facing mirror, they will explore the ground over which the vimaana is to pass, and discover mines and bombs like mahagola and agni-garbha, which may have been inserted there and reflect their complete picture in the crystal in the acid vessel. The picture will then be projected to the screen opposite in clear detail, and by washing with chemicals present a perfect photograph of the buried mines and bombs, which could then be destroyed by due safety measures. Therefore the guhaa-garbha aadarsha yantra or mine-discovering yantra is essential for a vimaana.

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[paragraph continues] Its parts are as follows:

First the 72nd type of mirror, known as suranjitaadarsha. "Darpana Prakarana" says:

Madder-root, live coal, ox-gall, snake-gourd, mercury, karanja or galedupia arborea, copper, 3 kinds of sharkara (sugar or sand?), borax, sulphur, chaaru or silk-cotton bark, lac, kuranga, rouhinee, iron-rust, panchaanana, liquid amber, Shiva or brionia laciniosa, vishwa, mica, paarvanija, vydoorya gem stone, in the proportion of 11, 27, 5, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, 20, 3, 7, 3, 1, 32, 30, 38, 8, 7, 3, 9, 30, duly pulverised and filling in a beaked crucible, placed in a vaaraaha furnace, and heated to the 100th degree with the aid of the tortoise-shaped bellows. When the finely boiled liquid is poured in the cooling yantra, suranjika glass of exquisite quality will result, out of which three mirrors have to be fashioned for the guhaa-garbha-aadarsha yantra.

Aanjishtha Tree

Kriyaasaara says, "Many kinds of trees are suitable for use in making yantras. Of them all the tree called aanjishtha is the finest." "The trees having 5 qualities are 87 in number. The best among them all is aanjishtha," says "Udbhijya tatva saaraayanee."

Agatatvalaharee also says, the five qualities such as the capacity to capture reflections, and others, are found inherent in the Aanjishtha (or madder root) tree. Therefore out of all woods the wood of that tree is most suitable for use in this yantra.

Pancha-dhaara-loha

In making yantras, pivots of various metals are being used. But for use in connection with the guhaa-garbha-aadarsha, or hidden mine discovering instrument, the shankus or pivots made of pancha-dhaaraa-loha or five alloy metal are the best.

Kshvinkaa, iron-pyrites, copper, indra, and ruruka, purified, powdered, and filled in mrugendra moosha crucible and boiled to 300 degree heat with beaked bellows, will yield a 5 alloy metal, strong and heavy.

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Paara-granthika acid for insertion of the crystal, is described in "Moolikaarka prakaashikaa." Mercury, bamboo salt, Indian spikenard joint, paarvanika or clerodendrum phlomides, svarna seeds or Indian labernum seeds? or yellow thistle seeds?, and ghatotkaja or American aloe, in equal quantities, should be filled in a big bellied earthen pot, heated to yield a golden hued shining liquid, which is very useful for capturing reflections.

Chumbaka crystal is the one most suited for use in capturing reflections of objects. It is manufactured as per "Manipradeepikaa," with the following ingredients. Magnet, sand, borax, ivory, shoundika or long pepper, mercury, paarvana or clerodend rum phlomoides, copper, vermillion, iron-pyrites, grudhnika, souri or marking nut, buffalo hoop, vishwakapaala, cleaned and powdered, and filled in karpala crucible and baked in a furnace with the aid of owl-nosed bellows to 100 degrees, will yield a fine image producing crystal.

Pigment for coating the screen so as to present a clear picture, is called "Roopaakarshana-niryaasa," or image reproducing niryaasa or varnish. Out of 360 such varnishes that is the best.

Says "Niryaasa kalpa":

Moonstone, crownchaka, bamboo rice, five milks from banyan, fig, keg etc., trees, magnet, udusaara, mercury, mica, pearl, earth from ant-hill, saarasvata oil, and nakha or nail? these 16 articles to be taken in equal parts, purified, should be ground for a period of 30 days in the juice of the peacock's egg, then mixed with bilva oil and boiled for four yaamaas or twelve hours until it becomes a perfect gum or varnish. Some call it reflector varnish. Some call it virinchi-varnish.

The varnish is to be evenly spread on the special cloth called patadarpana, so that it may present as on a cinematograph screen, the pictures reflecting the location of anti-aircraft mines discovered by the roopaakarshana yantra.

The production of Pata-darpana is described in "Darpana-prakarana":

Gum, cotton, pratolikaa, kuranga or pallatory root, maatanga or keg tree bark, cowries, kshoneeraka, gholikachaapa, granite sand, parotikaa, sea-foam, priyangava, ghanjhotikaa, sugar-cane, rukma or argemone mexicana,

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kesara or mesua ferraa gum, earthen salt, suvarchala, urugha, bydaara oil, muchukunda flour, sinjaanu, anchaalika, turmeric, kaarmuka or acacia catechu, these ingredients in the proportion of 100, 58, 25, 28, 4, 12, 5, 3, 1, 30, 10, 5, 8, 12, 3, 13, 22, 27, 28, 3, 24, 7, 3, 13, should be cleansed, powdered, filled in a vessel, and boiled in the furnace with 100 degree heat, and the unified fluid should be poured on a flat surface so as to form an even surfaced sheet. After drying, the photographic niryaasa varnish is to be used to coat this sheet, for use in the Guhaa-garbha aadarsha-yantra.

Thamo yantra or Darkness creating yantra:

Vimaanaas are liable to be attacked by enemies with poison fumes of Rouhinee or krakachaarimani rays. As a protection against it the thamo yantra has to be installed in the vimaana. Out of 132 types of thamo-yantras, the 62nd variety is said to be the best for safe-guarding against poison fume and ray attacks by the enemy.

Black lead, aanjanika (collyrium?), vajra-tunda are to be powdered and mixed in equal quantities, filled in fish-shaped crucible and placed in crow shaped furnace, heated to 100 degrees, and poured into the cooling receptacle will yield a fine, light, strong thamo-garbha-loha, or darkness impregnated alloy metal, useful for making Thamo-yantra.

The peetha or stand is to be 3 feet wide and foot high, square or round. In the centre of it is to be fixed the pivot. At its front should be placed the vessel of the acid of guggala or Indian dellium. To the west should be fixed the mirror for enhancing darkness, and in the east should be fixed the solar ray attracting tube. In the centre should be fixed the wire operating wheel, and to its south should be fixed the main operating wheel or switch.

Its working is as follows. On turning the wheel in the south east, the two faced mirror fixed to the tube will revolve and collect the solar rays. By operating the wheel in the north west, the acid in the vessel will begin functioning. By slightly moving the wheel in the south-east, the solar rays will enter the crystal in the acid vessel. By turning the wheel in the west, the darkness intensifying mirror will begin to function. By turning the central wheel the rays attracted by the mirror will reach the crystal and

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envelop it. Then the main wheel should be revolved with great speed, when the darkness will be produced enveloping the vimaana and making it invisible, and the efforts of the enemies to attack it with poison gas and rays will miss their target and become ineffective. This yantra should be placed in the north-west sector of the Vimaana Panchavaataskandha-Naala.

Iron rust, shaarana, copper, suvarchala salt, in equal parts, to be filled in mayookha crucible, placed in jumboo-mukha furnace, and using kaakamukha bellows boiled to 102 degrees and cast in the yantra, will yield a pure, light, soft, strong, nice cool metal known as vaatadhaarana loha.

4 tubes, each 2 yards long and 1 yard high, should be prepared. Like the circular opening in the top of the vimaana two openings on each and one at the bottom should be prepared. Each tube should be inserted in the said openings. Another tube 12 feet long and 3 feet high should be fixed on the western side in the opening at the top. To each tube should be attached bellows' mouth operated by wheels. By turning the wheels of the 5 tubes the 5 poisonous winds will be sucked in and passed into the tubes to make their exit, without causing harm to the plane.

Lohasarvasva says:

There are 13 air layers known as Vrishni and others. By the force of the Panktiraadhasa Kendra, they tend to jostle each other, and generate fierce forces which will be destructive to the unwary vimaana which may get involved in them. Therefore the Pancha-Vaata-Skandha-Naala Yantra is to be inserted in the back portion of the vimaana; to safeguard against evil consequences.

Roudree Darpana Mirror.

From the south-eastern side of the earth-sun axis solar rays touch the turbulent forces in the etherial regions, and burst into flames, and vimaanas which may be out on their course may be destroyed by the flames. To prevent such a happening the roudree-darpana yantra should be installed in the bottom of the vimaana.

Says "Yantrasarvasva", "At the time when spring passes into summer, the forces in the junctional regions of the sky, on contact by fierce solar

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rays, burst into tumultuous flames, and destroy all things that pass through, Therefore the roudree darpana should be fitted in the vimaana as a safe-guard against that."

According to "Darpana Prakarana," iron rust, magnet, veera iron, borax, panchaanana metal, mica, honey, red castor bark, banyan, suryavarchula or sweet-salt, gold, alika, shaarkara or benzoin tree bark, pancha tikta or 5 sours, snake gourd, and paaduka, are to be powdered, cleaned, and in equal quantities filled in padmaasya crucible, and placed in vishvodara furnace and heated to 200 degrees. The molten liquid poured into the mould will yield excellent flame-proof roudree-darpana glass.

With this roudree-darpana glass a plank of 16 feet in dimension should be prepared. A pivot 25 inches thick should be fixed at the centre of the plank. At the edge Of the pivot, two wheels should be fixed revolving with right motion and reverse motion for expanding and contracting. A wheel equipped with rods for spokes should be fixed, the spokes being 15 inches from each other. Sheets made of roudree glass, washed with linseed, drona or lucas aspera, liquid amber, and madder root oils should be fixed to the rods with hinges. Similarly crystals made of roudree-darpana glass, with 5 facets, cleaned with the oils should be fixed at the end of the rods. Between each rod 18 leaves like lotus leaves with revolving keys should be fixed. The instrument is to be shaped like an umbrella. The leaves should be fixed at the pivot top with 8 keys.

When the burning flames are imminent, the pilot should turn the expansion wheel vigorously, and the umbrella will open up and provide a shielding cover for the vimaana. The lotus petals, the crystals, and the enveloping cover will protect the vimaana from the threatened danger.

Next, the Vaata-skandhana-naala.

According to "Gati-nirnaya-adhyaaya"

In the Aavaha and other giant wind spheres there are 122 kinds of different motions of the wind. In the summer season the 79th kind of motion occurs mostly. When the vimaana travels in the 4th region of the sky, it tends to zig-zag owing to the wind currents, and cause hardship to pilots and other occupants. Therefore as a safe-guard against it, the Vaatastambhana-naala-yantra should be installed in the bottom section of the vimaana.

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Says "Yantra Sarvasva",

The vaatastambhana naala yantra should be manufactured with the vaatastambhana metal only. According to "Lohatatva prakarana," dantee or croton seeds, suvarchala or sun-flower salt, mayoora or sulphur, lohapanchaka or copper, brass, tin, lead, and iron, bhrisundika, suranjika or sulphate of mercury, varaahaanghri loha, virohina or creya arboria, kuberaka, muraarikaanghri metal, ranjika or phosphorus, suhamsanetraka, dala or folia malabathy, courie sea-shell, mrinaalikaa or lotus stalk, to be powdered, cleaned, and in equal quantities filled in matsya or fish-shaped crucible, and placed in maaghima furnace, and with the aid of vijrimbhana bellows duly melted, will yield a molten liquid which when poured into the mould and cooled will yield an excellent vaatastambhana loha.

With that metal 6 naalas or tubes of 15 inches diameter, with wide openings should be prepared and fixed in the tail and centre and front of the vimaana 10 inches deep, east to west and north to south, and held together with hoop iron binders. At the mouth of each tube a vaatapaa or air imbibing crystal should be fixed by wires. Between the tubes flags or pennants made of cotton-cloth duly processed, should be tied. And wheels made of the special metal should be fixed above each pennant. When the vaataayanee wind blast blows, the pennants will flutter noisily, and the wheels fixed underneath them will also revolve as also the crystals. The fluttering pennants pass the blowing wind to the wheels which pass them on to the crystals, which will pass them into the tubes from which they will be ejected through openings to the outside. That will protect the vimaana from their interference.

Next Vidyuddarpana Yantra.

Sowdaaminee kalaa explains it as follows:

During the rainy season, when rain clouds gather in the sky, lightning of five kinds begin to play. They are named vaaruni, agnimukha, danda, mahat, raavanika. Of them, vaaruni and agnimukha are very active and fearful and are likely to be attracted by the roudree-darpana and other mirrors and cause fires which destroy the vimaana. In order to prevent that the vidyud-yantras should be installed in the front and the right side of the aeroplane.

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According to Yantra-Sarvasva:

In order to protect the plane from lightning, vaaruni and agni, the vidyuddarpana should be installed in the vimaana.

Darpana Prakarana explains its structure:

Kuranga or pallatory root, panchaasya metal, virinchi, shonaja or red lead, sand, alum, kutbha or hellebore, pearl, sundaaliga, mercury, yavakshaara or salt-petre, borax, bidouja salt, pingaaksha or terminalia chebula (?), cowries, and karbura or hedychum specatum, powdered and purified, in the proportion of 10, 7, 4, 3, 12, 2, 3, 7, 11, 27, 14, 3, 22, 18, 5, and 11, filled in padmaasya crucible, placed in vishvodara furnace, and with the aid of the 5 mouthed bellows heated to 500 degrees, the molten liquid will yield in the cooling mould a glass which is impregnated with 300 shaktis or forces, and can overpower the lightning blasts from the vaaruni and agni forces, shining with wonderful rays, and capable of spreading its own lighting force within 2 kshanas or a few seconds to a distance of 5 yojanas or 15 miles.

With that lightning darpana glass should be constructed the Vidyuddarpana yantra. A plank, 20 feet in diameter and 1 foot high, square or circular in shape should be prepared, 4 glass tubes of crescent moon shape should be fixed around the peetha or plank. In the centre should be fixed a cage made of chumbuka glass, fitted with wires and 5 faced switches at each face, and 5 goblets made of vidyuddarpana. In the centre should be fixed a spire made of the same glass with 7 cross spokes and tubes, 8 faced and 10 angled. By turning the key inside, the spire is to revolve with speed. That will attract and contain the lightning emitted by the clouds. The rays will expel it to the outer air region, and incapacitate it. Then a snow-like cool temperature will render the interior of the vimaana safe and pleasant for the pilot and other occupants. Therefore this vidyuddarpana yantra should be installed duly in the vimaana.

Shabda-Kendra Mukha Yantra.

"Kriyaasaara"' says--

The spots from which sounds emanate in the sky are called shabda-kendras or sound centres. The different directions from which the sounds

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are projected are called shabda-kendra mukhas. The yantra which is meant to control the sounds so projected is called shabda-kendra mukha yantra.

Out of 304 classified sounds the sounds of water-laden clouds, wind, and lightning are said to be fiercest. In the 8th region of the sky these three sounds unify in the shishira Ritu or February-March period, and produce ear-splitting thunders. They would deafen pilots and others in the vimaana. As protection against that the shabda-kendra mukha yantra is to be installed.

It is said in Shabda-nibandhana, "By the combination of water, fire, air, and sky, sound is generated both among living and life-less objects. The sounds in the word "Shabdaha," i.e., sha, b, d, and ha, indicate water, fire air, and sky symbolically."

"Naamarthha-kalpa" says,

We shall deal with the nature of sound or "shabdaha". The word consisting of sounds sha, ba, da, and ha, stands for water, fire, air, and sky. By the combination of these four forces in various proportions, 304 different kinds of sounds are generated.

The Braahmana bhaaga of the Veda also says shabdaas are of 304 kinds, such as sphota or embryo, very feeble sound, feeble sound, manda or soft, very soft, fast, very fast, medium, very medium, great sound, thunder sound, and thunder-bolt sound.

It is said in Yantra-Sarvasva,

In the 8th region of the sky, by the concatenation of water-cloud, wind and fire, an extremely fearful thunder clap will occur which will blast the ears of pilots who may enter the region. To safeguard against that the vaataskandha mukha yantra is to be installed in the vimaana.

In the 8th region of the sky there are 307 centres of sound. From the 70th centre a fierce sound proceeds by the force of water. From the 312th centre a fierce sound produced by wind will emanate. Similarly from the 82nd centre a fierce sound generated by lightning will emanate. By collision of the three a terrible sound will result which will deafen the pilots of the vimaana. Therefore facing each sound emanation centre the shabdopasamhaara yantra is to be established.

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The construction of the yantra is as follows:

Gavyaarika, monkey's skin, duck-weed, shana-kosha or jute product, crounchika or lotus stalk, vaaripishtaka or shag, roonthaaka, flesh, elephant trunk, and tin, are to be purified, and the nine elements, other than the skin, in equal parts, filled in niryaasa yantra and baked for 3 days with buffalo bile, will yield a decoction of fine scarlet colour. Seven times this decoction should be spread on the skin, and left to dry in the sun. The skin will then acquire the capacity to suppress sound.

A box 2 feet long and 1 foot high made of badhira or deaf metal is to be made. Two pipes made of the same metal shaped like crane's beak, should be fixed inside it. Above it should be fixed an umbrella made of shabdapaa darpana, or sound-drinking glass. A crystal washed with tulasee or basil seed oil should be placed inside the monkey skin and sealed with rhinoceros gum. The sealed skin with crystal should be placed in the central pipe inside the box. Monkey skin alone should be placed in the pipe on the left side. Thin wires should connect them all and be fitted with hinges and switches. Above the canopy of the box a monkey skin shaped like lion's mouth should be connected by wire through a pipe to the crystal in the tube inside the box. The top of the box should be covered, securely.

Badhira loha or deaf-proof metal is explained in Lohatantra-Prakarana; lime fruit, laguda or sweet-scented oleander, virinchi, rishika or water-calteop, maaloora or Bengal quince, panchaanana metal, luntaaka, varasimhika or solenum xunthokurpum, kuravaka or gigantic swallow-wort, sarpaasya or mesua ferrea, vaakula or surinam medlar, jack-fruit, camphor and vatika or salvinia cusullata, in equal parts, purified, and filled in tryutee crucible, and heated in the furnace, will when cast produce a metal, cold, dark, sound-proof, powerful, able to control bleeding, and draw out missile parts from the war wounds of soldiers and healing them, and capable of reducing the effect of thunder claps.

The simhaasya bellows is to collect the fierce sound and transmit it to the crystal inside the metal box so that the monkey skin will absorb it and stifle its intensity. Therefore shabda-kendra mukha yantra should be installed in the vimaana.

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Vidyud-dwaadashaka Yantra, or Yantra of 12 lightnings is explained in Kriyaasaara.

In the realm of the comets and shooting stars in the sky, at the 8th region there are 30703221 shooting stars. 8000 of them are prone to lightnings, and 12 of them known as mahaakaala etc., are of importance.

Shakti-tantra says, "The 12 lightnings which form the eyes of the shooting stars are named, rochishee, daahakaa, simhee, patanga, kaalanemikaa, lataa, vrindaa, rataa, chandee, mahormee, paarvanee, mridaa."

Kheta-sarvasva Says:

Mahaakaala, mahaagraasa, mahaajwaalaamukha, visphulinga mukha, deerghavaala, khanja, mahormika, sphulinga-vamana, ganda, deergha-jihva, duronaka, and sarpaasya are 12 comets with 12 lightning eyes.

The lightning effects of the comets are extremely severe in the period of sharat or autumn, October and November, and vasanta or spring, March and April. By the collision of the solar rays and the lightnings a force called ajagara is created. When the vimaana reaches the 20th region of the sky, that force paralyses the plane. To protect against such happenings the vidyuddwaadasha yantra is to be installed.

Yantra Sarvasva also Says:

Vidyuddwaadasa yantra is excellent in protecting against the lightning effect of comets. Its details are as follow. First duly coated jataghana should be prepared. It should have 22 folds so as to cover the vimaana. Poundraka and other crystals should be fixed in each of the folds. Then mahorna acid should be placed inside in the north-east side of the vimaana. 8 rods, each of 6 arms length, made of anti-lightning glass should be fixed in the 8 directions over the cover of the vimaana. At the beginning, middle, and end of the vimaana canopy, spring wheels made of dambholee metal, 5 faced and interconnected should be fixed with revolving bolts. Cages made of wire should enclose the poundraka crystals, and the wire terminals should be attached to the spring wheels. The wire ends from 4 of the cages should have a common switch.

On the main wheel being put in speedy motion the 12 crystal cages will revolve, the enveloping cloth cover will spread out, and the lightning

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absorbing power of the cloth will be activated. The crystals will attract the ajagara lightning, bifurcate the comet lightning from the solar rays, and transmit it to the 8 rods. The rods will absorb and then transfer the lightning power to the folds of the power proof cloth. By operating the central switch in the enclosure, a force called vidyut-kuthaarika, or lightning-axe, will be generated in the acid, and it will attract the comet force from the cloth, and submerge it in the acid. Then by operating the end switch in the enclosure, the ajagara force in the acid will dart towards the pataghana cloth-cover and take refuge, where upon the blowing wind will evaporate it and nullify its effects, and the vimaana will be out of danger.

According to Darpana Prakarana,

Shundaala metal, mridakaantaka or mountain ebony, ghanodara, budilaakara or tamarind, vatsanaabha poison, pankaja or eclipta prostrala, kutilaraga, naga or mesua ferrea, white sand, vara or syndhava salt, garada, mica, garala, or honey product, mukha, shringa, sphatika crystal, avara, muktaaphala or pearl? guggulu or boswellia glabra, kaanta or steel, kuranja or Indian beach, natron, salt-petre, borax, copper, snake scale, udupa, barren tree, sonamukhee or Tinnevelly senna, brown barked acacia, jaambalika or citrus grass? lemongrass? kusha grass, kudmala or flower bud, gold, these 26 ingredients, purified and filled in crucible and placed in padmaakara furnace, and with the aid of simhaasya or lion-faced bellows heated to 300 degrees, and poured into the mould, will yield a fine anti-lightning glass.

Dambhola loha or thunderbolt metal is thus described in Lohatatitra-Prakarana:

Urvaaraka, kaaravika, kuranga, shundaalika, chandramukha, virancha, kraantodara, yaalika, simhavaktra, jyotsnaakara, kshwinka, pancha-mourtwika, metals should be purified and placed in mandooka-or frog-crucible, placed in the five faced furnace, and with the aid panchamukha or 5 mouthed bellows heated to 500 degrees, will yield the dambholi alloy.

Poundrika crystals are described in Maniprakarana which describes the poundrika crystal.

Poundrika, jrimbhaka, shibira, apalochana, chapalaghna, amshupamani,

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veeragha, gajatundika, taaraa mukha, maandalika, panchaasya, amrita sechaka, these 12 crystals are destroyers of ajigara.

Draavaka prakarana explains mahorna acid: pynaaka, panchamukha, ammonium chloride, wild liquorice, iron-pyrites, kudupa, vajrakanda, budila, mercury, steel, charcoal, mica, these in equal parts purified and boiled in acid boiler, will yield mahorna acid.

Praana-Kundalinee Yantra.

According to "Kheta-Sarvasva," where the contact of smoke, lightning and wind courses in the sky occurs is the praanakundalee position. The yantra which can control, restrain, and set in motion the forces of these three in their several courses, is called praana-kundalee yantra.

According to Kriyaasaara, the yantra which is installed in the praanakundalee kendra of the vimaana in order to control the forces of lightning, wind, and smoke, and adjusts their movements is called praana-kundalinee yantra.

Says Yantra-sarvasva, "In order to control the movements of the forces of smoke, electricity and wind, and make them disperse, move, halt, or make stunt move or reverse move, the praana-kundalinee yantra is installed in the vimaana. A peetha or stand 3 feet in diametre and 3 feet high, square or. circular, should be made of vrishala metal, with 8 kendras or central spots. In each central spot, two wheels with revolving hinges; small peethaas or plates with 3 holes, 4 teeth, 3 pivots, in their middle a central pivot, three red-coloured tubes or pipes with opening and closing wheels, and switches for right motion, and reverse motion, with a shabda-naala in the centre, with wheels (with hinges and rods) which will flap the wings; from the north-east and south-east kendras and the middle-kendra in the west up to the middle of the course of the yaana kundalinee revolving wheels with pivots. Motions are by means of hand wheels. By the operation of the several wheels the plane will be set in motion. From the central pivot of the 8 kendras strong wires should pass the eastern peetha or footboard through randhras or holes and reach the tops of the 3 tubes at the window. The 3 forces should be made to aid the motion of the vimaana, and the remnant of the force should be passed through the 8 tubes and get lost in the sky, leaving the vimaana unperturbed."

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Shaktyudgama Yantra

The eight powers of the planets and stars, at the time of full moon in the month of kaartika,--i.e., November-December, are pulled forcefully by mahaa-vaarunee shakti or great cold force. In the 137th route in the sky there is a jala-pinjooshikaa shakti which will attract and spread them all over, and there will be a fierce outburst of dew and snow. Then 3 currents will be generated: one will be a damp cold air flow; the second will be a wet dewy flow; and the third will be a cold air flow. When the vimaana approaches that region, the first force will divest it of all power. The second force will benumb the pilots and operators. The third force will envelop the vimaana and make it invisible. Thus overcome, the vimaana will crash. As protection against such a happening the shaktyudgama yantra should be fixed in the navel spot of the vimaana.

"Khetasangraha" says,

"Eight planets are, Mars, Sun, Saturn, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Jupiter, and Ruru. And krittikaa, shatabhisha, makha, mrigashiras, chitra, shravana, pushya, and ashvinee are eight luminous stars. In the course of their transit through space the planets and stars approach each other in the period of sharat or autumn generating eight forces."

"Chaara-nibandhana" also says, "According to the science of astronomy, planets and stars in the course of their perambulations happen to approach one-another. Then conflict arises between the magnetic and electric forces of planet and star, and eight cold forces are generated in consequence."

"Shakti-sarvasva" says, "When the star krittika comes near planet Mars, a force called shaktyudgamaa is generated. Similarly, by the star shatabhisha coming near the planet, Sun, a cold force called jwaalaamukhee is generated. By the nearness of mrigashiraa and Venus a damp cold windy force called mahojjwalaa is generated. By the approach of star makhaa to planet Saturn a force called shytya-damshtraa is generated. By the approach of chitta to Mercury a force called shytya-hymaa is generated. By the approach of shravana to Moon a cold wave force called sphoranee is generated. By the nearness of pushya to Ruru a force called mahormilaa in generated. And by the approach of ashwinee towards Jupiter a force called mandookinee is generated.

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These eight forces, shytyodgamaa, sheeta jwaalaa-mukhee, shytya-damshtraa, sheetarasa-jwaalaa, shytya hemaa, sphoranee, sheetarasa-ghanaatmikaa, and shytya-mandookinee, by mutual inter-play according to the seasons, will become six new forces."

Says "Ritukalpa,"--"In spring the differing forces will be 5, in summer 7. in the rainy season 8, in autumn 3, in hemanta or cold season 10, and in winter 2.

The 3 forces during autumn are as follows. The planet-star forces by contact with the sun's rays, assume 3 forms. Sheeta-jwaala, shytya-damshtraa, and shytyodgamaa, coalesce and become sheetarasa-vaata shakti. Shytya-rasa-jwaalaa, shytya hymaa, and sphoranee coalesce and become vaari sheetasheekaraa shakti. Shytya-ghanarasaa and shytya mandookinee become sheeta-vaata-rasa-praavaahika shakti."

Yantra Sarvasva Says,

"To protect the vimaana from the effects of these three forces the shaktyudgama yantra should be installed.

First with the shytyagraahaka loha or cold-absorbing metal, protective hoods should be prepared both for the pilot and for the plane. At the front and tail portion of the aeroplane cover should be fitted switches for contraction and expansion. In the front or elbow hinge of the supporting beam of the covers the two sandhi-keelie should be fitted. Three tubes should be prepared out of the cold-proof glass, and should be fitted in front and on either side of the pilot's cock-pit. Bhraamanee chakra or wheel should be fitted at the front. When the three shaktis or forces attack the vimaana, the expansion wheel should be revolved vigorously. It will first cover the pilots and then cover the entire plane also. By operating the bhraamanee wheel the attacking forces will be slowly absorbed, and the shaktis will be forced through the cold air tubes. By operating the main switch of the naala tantries, or wires, the forces will be made to go through the tubes into the outside air, and vanish therein. The pilot and the vimaana will both be saved from danger.

"Loha-tantra" describes the shytya-graahaka loha, or cold absorbing metal as follows:

Blue lotus, crowdika or rhinoceros horn or vaaraahi root, somakanda,

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vishwaavasu, crownchika alloy, chandrakaanta or moon-stone, vaardhyashvaka alloy, varuna tree, 5 kudmalas, simhaasya, shankhalavaa, and goose-berry, to be purified and in equal quantities filled in shundaalaka crucible, placed in chanchoomukha kunda, and with panchaanana bellows heated will yield a fine cold-capturing alloy.

"Darpana prakarana" describes cold-proof glass: lead, kapaalee, moonstone, castor, margosa seed, trinaanga or cus-cus grass, kshaara-traya or natron, salt-petre, and borax, suvarchalaa or sun-flower?, fine sand, bhaarika, collyrium or eye-black, kuranga or pallatory root, panchormikaa, chandrarasa, and shivarika, purified and in equal quantities filled in simhika crucible, placed in padmaakara furnace, and with the aid of shoorpodara bellows heated to 300 degrees, and poured into mould and cooled, will yield an excellent sheetaghna darpana or cold-proof glass.

Vakra-prasaarana Yantra:

Enemies attempt to destroy one's vimaana by missiles and dambholi and other mechanisms. The pilot should discover them by means of mukura and other yantras and immediately change course and avoid the trouble. Therefore the Vakraprasaarana yantra, or diversion enabling mechanism should be installed in the vimaana.

Yantra Sarvasva says,

"When there is danger from dambholi and 8 other kinds of destructive mechanisms contrived by enemies, in order to escape that danger the vakraprasaarana yantra is prescribed:

Sulphate of iron, sacred peepul gum, and copper 16 parts, krishnaaguru or black sandalwood 3 parts, zinc 5 parts, collyrium 1 part, should be purified and mixed and boiled with 100 degree heat. Aaraara copper alloy will be formed, goldish and light and hard. A wheel 3 feet wide and 3 feet high should be made out of it. It should have a pivot, and be installed in the bottom of the eeshaadanda axle moola of the vimaana. Four inches thick and of arm's length, with 16 wheels having band-saw toothed edges attached to two pivots, oil-cleaned, with 3 joints, with oil-cleaned rods attached to the saw-toothed wheels, with keys; in the middle should be fixed 2 keys which will eject

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smoke, and 2 keys which will shut off smoke. Proper wiring should connect the several parts. This will enable the vimaana to zigzag like a serpent, to reverse, and to divert so as to avoid the danger zone, and get out safely."

Shakti Panjarakeela Yantra:

In order to provide electric force to all parts of the vimaana and make them operate smoothly the shakti-panjara-keela yantra is to be installed.

According to Yantrasarvasva, "As a means of charging all parts of the vimaana with electric current the shakti-panjara-keela is prescribed. It is made as follows:

Steel, crownchika alloy, and iron, in the proportion of 10, 8, and 9, to be powdered and filled in crucible, and placed in aatapa furnace and heated to 100 degrees and charged with 10 degrees of electric current, will yield Shakti-garbha metal with which the yantra is to be made.

A peetha or plank of arm's length and equal height, should be made out of above metal. In the middle and at either end of the peetha three pivots with half moon shaped hinges should be fixed. A flat bar made of copper should be fixed and tightened with bolts. Pipes with holes are to be made out of the metal and equipped with rods fixed in the holes, and connected all round with wires, forming a strong caged globe. The cage should be fixed at the top of the copper band. For the rods and wires in the cage to receive electric current a switch should be duly fixed at the bottom of the cage. And switches should be provided for all the 32 parts of the vimaana for electric connection and disconnection. This enables the plane to career through the sky in any desired direction."

Shirah-Keelaka Yantra.

It is said in Kriyaa-saara, "When the plane is passing through a region of overhanging clouds, there is possibility of lightning striking and destroying the plane. As protection against that the shirah-keelaka yantra should be installed at the crest of the vimaana."

The Yantra is described in Yantra Sarvasva:

"When there is danger of lightning striking the plane, the shirah-keelaka yantra is to protect it. Therefore it is explained below. An umbrella, of the

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same size as the top of the vimaana, with ribs and metal covering should be made out of vishakantha metal. The umbrella stick, of arm's length, and peetha or stand, circular in shape, should be made out of the same metal. Then out of baka-tundila metal three wheeled keelakaas or hinges should be fixed at the front, back, and middle of the vimaana. The umbrella rod should be fixed in the middle of two keelakas.

The agnikuthaara crystal with metal cage should be fixed at the top like a crown. A three wheel switch revolving key should be fixed by the side of the pilot. Then wires made of kulishadhwamsa metal should be run from the crystal to the three wheeled revolving keelaka. In front of it shabda-naala tube with switch should be fixed. The yantra should be enclosed in a cover made of suranjikaa glass. When there is anticipatory thunder in the clouds, the glass covering cracks, and the tube of the wiring will emit sounds, and the wires will be severely shaken. When the pilot notices these signs, he should quickly set in motion the three-wheel keelee, which will revolve the umbrella with 100 linka speed. Then the crystal switch should also be turned, where-upon the crystal will also revolve with intense speed. By the speed of the revolution of the umbrella, the force of lightning will be stemmed, and the danger will be passed, leaving the vimaana and the pilot safe. That is the use of the shirah-keela yantra."

Shabdaakarshana yantra:

In order to tap or discover the sounds in the 8 directions of the vimaana, wired or wireless, up to 12 krosas or 27 miles, caused by birds or quadrupeds or by men, with 8 mechanisms, the shabdaakarshana yantra is prescribed to be fixed in the shoulder of the vimaana. A peetha or foot-plate four-cornered or round should be made out of bidaala metal, with a pivot in the centre. On either side should be fitted machines which will attract any kind of sound and repeat it. With the soft leather of roruva or grinjinee bird two ball-shaped domes should be fixed. Between them in a suraghaadarsa vessel katana-drava acid should be filled and the vessel should be installed. Above the acid vessel and between the two globes should be fixed sound spotting rod made of sound capturing ghantaara metal, fitted with a bunch of wires. It should be enclosed in a cover made of kwanaka glass. In the corner three thumb size wheeled knots should be fixed. From them to the rod fine strong wires should be connected. Enclosing the wires a karanda or

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container made by kwanaadarsa glass, with small holes should be placed. A vessel made of the same glass, shaped like a drona or grain measurer, should be placed on top of it. In the east and west and north and south 4 crystals named rudantee-ratikaa should be arranged with wires. Above it shabdaphenaka covering, with small shankus or screws fixed, should be placed. It should be covered by a covering made of kwanaadarsa glass, with 8 small holes. Wires starting from the screws and passing through the holes should reach the top of the covering. In the centre of it in an inch size hole simhaasya-danda-naala or tube should be fixed. In front of it a vaataapaakarshana chakra or wind wheel with 16 spokes with wires should be fixed. The wheels should be fixed in all 8 directions. In the simhaasya mukha naala or lion-faced tube on 8 sides revolving wheels should be fixed. 8 goblet like vessels made of pure vajeemukha metal should be fixed. Wires from the 8 holes of the covering should be placed in them. Similarly from the wind wheel wires should be connected to 8 screws in the 8 goblets on the simhaasya. Then from the 8 screws in shabda-phena, wires should be connected to the crystal in the acid vessel.

By the flow of wind the wheel turns with speedy right and left motion, and will set in motion the shabda-phena wheel. Then the wheels on the 8 screws also will turn. Then the sound detection rod made of sound-capturing ghantaara metal will be set in motion. Thereupon the two globes made of roruva-grinjinee skin will attract all sounds clearly and store inside themselves. By moving the central switch there the sounds will pass through the simhaasya tube and enter the dronaasya vessel, and make the sounds clearly audible to the hearer. The pilot will listen to the voices and direct the plane away from the vicinity of danger. Hence the shabdaakarshana yantra is prescribed.

This yantra is in 32 varieties. And it is distinct from the 32 parts constituting the vimaana.

Of the materials required for this yantra,--Byndaala Metal, according to Lohasarvasva, is made as follows:

Zinc, sharkara or quartz powder?, kaanta or steel, mica, shilaarasa, kamatha or benzoin, dimbhaari, areca-nut, karagrathinee, copper, virinchi, karna or sal tree, patalee or long blue cucumber, gumbhalee, dumbholika alloy, kshaara or chloride, kraantika, simha, panja or momordika, dalinee, mercury, eye-black powder or surma?, kshonika, veera or red-lead, yellow

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thistle, madder-root, mridarutee, brass, iron, these articles should be powdered, and purified in equal quantities, filled in shashamoosha crucible, placed in mandooka furnace, and with five-mouthed bellows heated to 200 degrees and melted to eye-level, when cast will yield a fine, light, blue, bydaala alloy.

Rutana acid is explained in "Moolikaarka prakaasikaa" as follows:

Yellow thistle, karanda or iron pyrites, wild liquorice, paarvani or chlorodendrum phlomaides, chanchooli or red castor, bhantikaa or madder root, kaarambha, vishwesha, chandikaa or sesbenia grandiflora, amara or Indian turnsole?, shundaalika, barbaraasya, sowrambha or tooth-ache tree?, praana-kshaara or ammonium chloride, virinchi, borax, arka or calotropis gigantia, surubhee or basil, these in the proportion of 4, 3, 3, 5, 7, 12, 15, 1, 3, 10, 24, 25, 30, 12, 20, 8, purified and filled in vessel and boiled to 108 degrees, will become a fine yellow rutana-draavaka acid.

Ghantaarava metal is explained in Lohatantra:

Bell-metal, aaraara, ruchaka or patron.?, gaaruda or emerald stone?, shalyakrintana, panchaasya, veerana, rukma or gold-metal, shukatunda, and sulochana, these 10 metals purified and powdered in the proportion of 5, 3, 12, 2, 3, 7, 5, 30, 4, 24, should be filled in shukti crucible, wrapped all round with earth, placed in alaabu shaped furnace, and boiled to 500 degrees up to eye level, should be poured into the mould. A fine, light, scarlet metal which will record all sounds will result.

Kwanadarpana mirror is explained in Darpana Prakarana:

Wild liquorice seeds, red catechu, false catechu, white catechu, garadaka or a poison, 8 kinds of salt, salyaaka, vara or sodium chloride, sharkaraa or granite powder, budilaka salt, jwaalaamukha or wolf's bane?, tundila or kayidonda, bydaala or arsenic?, shukatunda, ravimukha or magnifying glass, chancholika or red castor seed, arjuna or tin, luntaaka, varataala or yellow orpiment?, kuravaka or crimson thorny amaranth, kambodara, kaamuka or punnaaga or Alxandrian laurel or pinnay oil tree, these ingredients, after triple cleaning, are to be filled in padma crucible, placed in padmaakara furnace, and heated to 700 degrees, and poured in mould, will yield an excellent kwanadarpana glass.

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Rudantee-mani is explained in "Mani Prakarana":

Kshaaratraya or natron, salt-pare, borax, aanjanika or eye-black powder, kaanta or sun crystal, sajjeeka, vara or sodium chloride, karna or oxide of arsenic, cowrie shells, maakshika or iron pyrites, sharkara or granite grains, sphaatika or alum, kaamsya or bell-metal, mercury, taalakasatva or yellow orpiment, gyra or marking nut, ruruka, rouchyaka, kudupa, garada or aconite, panchamukha metal, shingara or iron dross, and shundolika or great leaved caledium, these 21 articles, purified, and filled in aanika crucible, placed in shouktika furnace and boiled to 103 degrees, and cast into maniyantra mould, becomes a fine rudantee crystal.

Ruchika mani also is explained in Maniprakarana:

Sea-foam, chamaree cat's nail and mouth bones, steel, paarthiva, granite grains, shilaarasa or liquid amber, mercury, praana-kshaara or ammonium chloride, alum, naaga, cowrie, maakshika or iron pyrites, shundaala or great-leaved caledium, rundaka or eagle wood, kudupa, suvarchala or natron, jambaalika, musk-cat's tooth, or yellow orpiment?, ranjaka, manjishtha or madder root, paarvani or stag-horn, rukma or gold quartz, yellow thistle, owl's nails, vara or ammonium chloride, oyster shell, these ingredients, purified and filled in equal proportion in nakhamukha crucible, placed in mahodara furnace and heated with the aid of six-faced bellows to eye-level, and poured into mould will yield a strong, dark, heavy rutikaa crystal.

Shabda phena mani is described in "Shabda-Mahodadhi":

"Take badaba sound from the sky, life-giving trait from water, the fire of air from the atmosphere, the echoing quality from boulder, the splitting quality from solar-rays, moss layer, sea-foam, bamboo, conch; manjishtha or madder root, kusha grass, gribhdnaka, rudra-shalya, gokarna or sal?, and musali or curculigo orchioides, in the proportion of 7, 22, 45, 13, 32, 19, 38, 14, 22, 38, 42, 13, 25, 9, and 23. These purified and boiled will yield shabdaphena."

From moss-layer to musali the ingredients should be purified, and in the said proportions should be filled in phenaakara yantra, should be baked for 3 days, and for a week the sankalana key-wheel of the yantra should be turned in full speed for half a ghatika daily, when foam will be formed. The foam should be filled in shakti-sammelana yantra. Then through 6 tubes

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the 6 shaktis or powers from praanana to sphotana should be injected into the foam patiently. On either side of the yantra switches should turn the mixing or churning wheel inside the yantra. Then moderate heat should be applied from praanana to sphotana power infusion. Then keeping it in the sun, electric power should be applied to the foam up to 85 degrees. This electric cooking should be done for 6 days. Then carefully extracting the foam from the yantra, it should be stored in the vaajeemukha metal box. That shabda-phena would be able to attract and record all kinds of sounds.

Vaajeemukha metal is described in "Lohatantra":

Copper 3 parts, sonamukhee or iron pyrites 2 parts, zinc 8 parts, veera or black metal 2 parts, kaanta or steel 3 parts, bambhaarika 1 part, kamsaarika 3 parts, panchaanana 6 parts, gowreemukha or mica? 2 parts, shundaalaka 6 parts, these 10 articles to be purified and filled in shundaalaka crucible, placed in shoorpaasya furnace and heated with vajraanana bellows and poured in vajraanana yantra and churned energetically for proper cohesion of the liquid, will yield vaajeemukha loha of light reddish brown colour.

Pataprasaarana yantra is described in Kriyaasaara:

In order to realise dangers to the vimaana en route, and shift directions towards safety, pataprasaarana yantra is prescribed. Says Patakalpa:

"Munja grass, lac, sal, red brinjal, shaambaree or arjuna tree bark, jute, raajaavarta or sphatikaari or hydrorgirum sulphuratum, darbha grass, kravyaada or Indian spikenard, with triple purification, and thrice exposing to soorya-puta or sun-baking, placing them in the cooking vessel, and baking for 3 days. Then the product should be filled in kuttinee yantra, and churned for 3 yaamaas or 3/8 of a day, then placed in cooking vessel and rebaked for 3 days. Then it must be poured into patakriyaa yantra or cloth-forming machine and churned, so as to form an even emulsion, and that will form a fine artificial cloth. It should then be coloured with seven colours. It should be rolled round a long pole, and the pole fixed in thrimukhee-naala yantra, and equipped with a key should be installed in the shoulder of the vimaana.

When the flag-like contraption shows red indicating danger ahead the pilot should loose height and reach safety. When favourable colours are

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shown, the pilot should note their significance and move the vimaana in the favourable direction.

Dishaampati Yantra: says "Kriyaasaara,"

"In its passage in the sky in the eight directions, the vimaana is likely to meet 15 fierce hurricanes called kowbera by the effects of the planetary forces With solar rays and unfavourable seasonal conditions. They will cause baneful skin effects on the occupants of planes and throat and lung troubles. To protect against that the Disaampti yantra is to be installed in the left shoulder of the vimaana."

The yantra is described in "Yantra Prakarana":

"In order to act as antidote to the poisonous effects of the kowbera winds, F shall describe the disaampati yantra. A peetha or foot plate, quadrangular or circular, should be made of paarvanee wood cured three times with requisite acids."

Paarvanee wood is described in "Agatatwa Laharee":

"Parvanee wood is wood which has very close joints as in sugarcane. It is red coloured, long leaved, decked with red flowers. It has small thorns, is antidote for snake-poison, is acrid in taste, and is used in driving away demons and other evil forces. It blooms in the dark half of the month."

In the centre of the peetha, a tube or pivot made of the 19th type of glass, with 9 holes, 9 switches, and 9 wires, and of arm's length, should be fixed. Eight kendras or centres should be spotted in its 8 directions. 8 naalas, pipes, or tubes, should be made 2 feet long, 6 feet high and 3 feet wide, and round in the middle. A lotus with 8 petals should be prepared and fixed on the top of the pivot. The whole should be covered with hare-skin. Manchoolika linen should cover its mukha or entrance. The wires in the tubes should be taken to the petals above the lotus and fixed in the joints.

Manchoolikaa linen is explained in "Pata-pradeepikaa":

Vaasantee or gaertnera racemosa creeper, mrida, ranjikaa or betel or madder root, ruchikaa or citron or castor, samvartakee or myrabalan belliriki, phaalgunee or sepistan plum, chanchora or red castor, arunakaanta

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or sun-flower, kudalinee, mandoorika or iron dross, maarikaa or cubed pepper, lankaari, kapivallaree or elephant pepper, vishadharaa, samvaalikaa, manjaree or ashoka, rukmaangaa or cassia fistula, dhundikaa or acacia sirisa, arka or gigantic swallow wort or madar, garudaa or coculus cordifolious, gunjaa or wild liquorice, and janjharaa.

Taking the twigs, shoots, leaves, buds, tendrils and barks of the above ingredients, and putting them in the baking vessel, they should be well cooked. Then add crowncha acid and boil again for 3 days. That will produce a soft white, pure, strong, fine manjoolikaa linen cloth.

Vaatapaa crystal should be placed in it. Amshupaa mirror should be placed at its front. When the Kowbera whirlwind contacts solar rays, then the amshupaa mirror will show a red and blue tinge. Then the keys of the nine tubes should be turned with great speed. By this a force will be generated in each tube, and passing to the hare-skin, a strong force called sammarshtikaa will be generated. The manjoolika cloth will receive that force and pass it to the lotus petals, and the petals by means of wires will transmit the force to vaatapaa crystal. The crystal, will, with the aid of sammarshtika force, absorb the Kowbera evil wind and throw it out through the lotus petal tube to merge in the outside atmosphere, and no harm will be caused to the occupants of the vimaana. Therefore disaampati yantra should be installed in the vimaana.

19th type mirror is described in Darpana prakarana:

Uraga-twak or snake-scales, pancha-mukha, vyaaghradanta or tiger's tooth, sand, salt, mercury, lead, white gum or shweta-niryaasa, mrittikaa, sphaatika or alum, ruruka, veera or red lead? mrinala or lotus tendril, ravikarpata, chanchola or red castor, vaalaja, panchapraanasaara or urinal salt of man, horse, ass, ox, and sheep, or ammonium chloride, shashodupa or benzoin shoot. These 18 ingredients in the proportion of 3, 7, 5, 22, 4, 15, 2, 5, 20, 7, 30, 15, 40, 23, 27, 13, 19, 18, purified thrice, filled in matsya moosha crucible, placed in nalikaa furnace, and with the aid of gomukhee bellows boiled to 99th degree, and poured into the mould, will yield pingala mirror.

Pattikaabhraka Yantra:

Says Kriyaasaara,

"In order to safeguard against the fires generated by the juxtaposition of planets during its course, the pattikaabhraka yantra is to be installed in the centre of the vimaana."

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It is said in "Yantrasarvasva,"

In the course of its planetary motions, two planets sometimes get too near each other, when by the conflict of their giant forces, fires will burst out. They are known as jwaalaamukhee or flame-tongued, and will destroy the vimaana and those inside it. As protection against it, pattikaabhraka yantra should be installed in the vimaana.

The yantra should be made out of the 3rd type of mica amongst the 3rd group of its classification.

It is said in "Shownakeeya,"

"The names of mica belonging to the 3rd group are shaarada, pankila, soma, maarjaalika, rakta mukha, and vinaashaka. The yantra should be made of soma variety."

Somaabhra is described in Loha-tantra:

"It is sky-coloured, fine, strong, absorbent, cure for eye diseases. Its touch is cooling to the body. It has diamond content, and is cure for urinal trouble. It exhibits scarlet lines with whorls. These are the qualities of somaabhraka."

The mica should be purified twice with brinjal and mataa seed oil and melted, and a pattika two feet wide and of arm's length high should be fashioned. A koorma peetha or tortoise-shaped foot-plate 16 inches wide and arm's length high should be made with vaari vriksha. A shanku or pivot should be made like the pattika. Revolving wheels with keys and shoundeerya manis or crystals should be fixed. From the main, centre wires should be attached to it to the end of the pattika. On the other side an ivory vessel should be fixed, and filled with shyvaala acid, and adding mercury ravichumbaka manis or crystal should be placed in it. The wires should be connected to the inside of the vessel containing these things. From the pivot it should be covered with shringinee. The root of the naala or pivot should be fixed to face the sky. The mica shanku with five revolving wheel key attachments should be fixed in the centre of the peetha, and the acid purified pattika should be fixed on top of it in the centre of the vimaana covering.

When the jwaalaamukhee erupts from the planetary contact and reaches the direction of the vimaana, the main switch of the pivot should be operated, a cold wave will arise through the wires from the acid vessel, and passing

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through the five wheels reach the pattika, and contacting the jwaalaamukhee force will draw it and push it to the crystal in the centre of the enclosure, and the crystal will thrust it through the naala or pipe to the outside atmosphere where the flame force will get extinguished.

Soorya Shaktyapakarshana Yantra or Solar heat extracting Yantra:

In order to relieve the excessive cold of the winter months, the soorya shaktyapakarshana yantra should be installed on the vimaana.

Says Yantra Sarvasva,

"In order to protect from the cold of the 4 winter months the solar heat storing machine is now explained. The 27th kind of mirror capable of capturing solar heat is to be used in its making."

It is said in Darpana prakarana:

Sphatika or alum, manjula or madder root, sea-foam, sarja salt or nation, sand, mercury, garada or aconite, kishora or wild liquorice, gandhaka or sulphur brimstone, karbura or yellow orpiment, praanakshaara or ammonium chloride, in the proportion of 12, 1, 5, 1, 13, 12, 8, I0, 27, 4, 3, 7, 8, 5, 1. 5, 8, 3, 9, 2, purified, to be filled in antarmukha crucible, placing it in shuka-mukha furnace, and boded. Then pour it into antarmukha yantra or vessel and turn the churning key. When cooled in the mould a fine, light, strong, golden. coloured, solar heat collecting glass will be formed.

From this glass prepare a pattika or plank, 80 inches long, 20 inches wide, and 1 inch thick. Three spots are to be marked on it. Two naalas or pipes, of arm's size, with 10 inch mouth, crescent shaped peetha should be prepared. Another peetha, 2 feet long, and 6 feet high, should be prepared. The crescent shaped peetha should be fixed in it. On its two sides the 2 naalaas should be fixed. Between them a pivot 88 inches long and 3 inches wide should be fixed. The other pattika should be fixed on its top. At its 3 marked spots, lotus shapes with petals made of the above glass with two faces with goblets on them should be fixed. The two naalaas or pipes should be filled with shyvaala or moss acid and shrini acid. Chhaayaamukha crystal should be placed in them. At the foot of the shanku jyotsnaa acid should be placed. Cold absorbing wires with key switches with ball bearings should be fixed in

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the jyotsnaa acid. The wires should be taken between the neighbouring naalas, taken round the two lotus positions on the sides of the pattika, and then made to surround the central lotus, and lead on and placed inside the jyotsna acid. Then the other naala should be made to cover the acid vessel, and fixed so as to have its opening through the bottom of the vimaana.

On the approach of winter cold into the vimaana, the main wheel at the foot of the shanku should be turned at high speed. That will energise the head wires of the pattika, making the lotus petals active, and the wind will draw the cold and pass to the central acid vessel through the wires, and the acids in the 2 naalas will draw in the cold and pass to the chaayaamukha mani, which by its own force will pass the cold force to the jyotsnaadravaka, which will eject it through the naala to the atmosphere outside for being dissolved. The vimaana will thus be saved from the cold force through the soorya-shaktyapakarshana yantra.

Apasmaara dhooma prasaarana yantra or poison-gas fume spreading machine:

Says Kriyaasaara,

"When the enemy plane is trying to destroy your vimaana, Apasmaara dhooma prasaarana yantra should be provided in the vimaana to combat it."

Yantra Sarvasva Says:

"Apasmaara dhooma prasaarana yantra is prescribed for protection of vimaana from enemy planes. It should be manufactured with khoundeera metal only, and not with anything else."

Kshoundeera loha is described in Lohatantra:

8 parts of kshwinka or zinc, 5 parts of mercury, 7 parts of krowncha alloy, 3 parts of kaanta or steel, 4 parts of hamsa or metallic silver, 1 part of maadhweeka, and 5 parts of ruru, these ingredients to be purified and filled in crucible, placed in chhatreemukha furnace, and with the acid of surasa bellows heated to 100 degrees heat, and cast in mould will yield excellent kshoundeera alloy.

Filling this loha in pattikaayantra, applying 300 degree heat and churning a fine strong pattikaa will be formed. With that, a shape like bellows, 5 arm's length high, and 3 arm's wide should be formed. It should be provided

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with a mukha-naala or nozzle 6 feet in size. Its mouth should be like that of peshanee yantra. The opening should be covered and keyed. Three satchels should be attached at its bottom. In the middle an aavarana or covering with hare-skin, circular and provided with switch. Smoke or gas filling switch should be provided at its base. Above it a choorna paatra or powder vessel should be fixed. The switch key should be beneath the middle of the vessel. Thus four bellows should be prepared.

When the enemy plane's attack is expected, the aavaaraka bhastrika or enveloping bellows should shield the vimaana, and the 4 bellows should be fixed on the dikpeethaas or side seats above the aavarana or covering, and electricity should be applied to the choorna-paatra or powder keg. Immediately the powder becomes smoke. The bellows' mouth should be opened and the key turned. The emerging smoke fumes will enter the 4 small bellows, and from them reach the central kunda and spread all around and reach the bellows' mouth. Then on turning that key, the fumes will be emitted from all the bhastrikaas or bellows, and encompass the enemy plane and disable its occupants. That plane will be destroyed and the danger to one's vimaana overcome.

Stambhana Yantra
or Halting machine:

Kriyaasaara says,

When power is generated by conflicting forces in the water-charged regions, shrieking hurricanes and whirl-winds will arise and set out in a mad career of destruction. To safeguard against their onslaughts, the Stambhana yantra should be installed in the bottom of the vimaana.

Yantra sarvasva says,

In order to protect the plane from the attacks of giant wind blasts, vimaana stambhana yantra is described as follows:

A peetha, one fourth the size of the vimaana floor, quadrangular, should be made out of vakratunda metal, three feet in thickness. In its 8 quarters spots should be marked for fixtures. An enclosure with openings, revolving toothed wheels made of the same metal, wheel rods with revolving keys, a metal band which is to encircle it thrice, toothed wheels, pivots, and switches and hinges, and three-stranded wire ropes, should also be of the same metal. In the 8 selected spots naalaas or pivots with wheels and wiring should be fixed. Through the naala or pipe at the contraction switch of the vimaana,

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wires should be passed through the other naalas to the central pivot, and tied at the foot of the revolving wheel. When the dreaded wind current is observed the switch or wheel for the contraction or folding of the expanded vimaana parts should be turned, as also the 8 side wheel turning switches. That will reduce the speed of the vimaana. Then the switches of the 8 pivots on the peetha or foot-plate should be turned. The entire speed of the vimaana will be extinguished thereby. The wheel at the central pivot of the peetha should then be turned, so that the vimaana will be halted completely. Then the switch of the plane-wings should be turned. The flapping of the wings will produce winds which will encircle the vimaana and form a globe protecting it. Then by turning the switch of the brake-rod, the vimaana becomes motionless. Therefore the Yaana-sthambhana yantra should be fixed at the bottom centre of the vimaana.

Vyshvaanara-naala yantra:

Kriyaasaara says,

For the purpose of providing fire for passengers to perform agnihotra or daily fire rituals, and for the purpose of cooking food, Vyshwaanara naala yantra is to be fitted up at the navel centre of the vimaana.

Yantra-sarvasva says,

To provide fire for travellers in vimaanas, vyshwaanara naala yantra is now described. A 2 feet long and 12 inches wide peetha or foot-plate should be made out of naaga metal, quadrangular or circular in shape. Three kendras or spots should be marked thereon. Three vessels should be made of copper and karpara or (black jack?) zinc blended metal. One vessel should be filled with sulphur-brimstone acid. Another should be filled with rookshaka bdellium acid, or croton seed acid? And manjishta or madder root acid should be filled in another vessel. The three vessels should be placed on the 3 kendra spots on the peetha.

In the sulphur acid vessel the prajwaalaka mani or flame producing crystal should be placed. In the rookshaka acid vessel the dhoomaasya mani or smoke crystal should be placed. In the manjishtha acid vessel the mahoshnika mani, or heat producing crystal should be placed.

In the places in the vimaana where kitchens are located, and where sacred agnihotra fires are needed by passengers, keelaka sthambhas or pivots should be fixed. The acid vessels should be connected with power wires from the central pivot. The wires should be attached to the manis or crystals in

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the acid vessels. At the top of the central pole jwaalaamukhee mani should be fixed in the centre of chumbakee keela with glass covering. On either side of it sinjeeraka mani and dridhikaa mani should be fixed. From each mani a wire should be stretched from the top of the central pole and fixed at the granthikeela at the foot of the pole. From there up to the cooking spots and agnihotra spots, a circle should be formed like a kulya, and metal tubes should be fixed therein. Wires should be drawn through the tubes to the fire places and fixed to the kharpara metallic pattikas therein.

First the bhadramushti keelaka should be revolved. The acid in the vessel will become heated. The heat generated in the rookshna acid will pass into the manjishtha mani, and generate smoke in the mahoshnika mani. By the force of that acid intense heat will be generated. And by the heat generated in the sulphuric acid vessel flames will erupt in the prajwaalika mani. The smoke, heat and flames will pass through the wires to the sinjeeraka, dridhikaa and jwaalaa-mukhee manis. Then the chumbaka wheel should be turned vigorously, whereupon the smoke, heat, and flames will reach the key at the top of the central pole. And on that keelee being turned, they will reach the central switchboard keelee at the foot of the pole. When that switch is put on, the heat and flames will reach the metal bands of the cooking ovens and religious fire places, and generate fires. Therefore vyshwaanara naala yantra should be fixed at the navel centre of vimaana.

We have so far dealt with anga yantras or constituent machines of the vimaana. We proceed next to deal with Vyoma-yaanas or Aeroplanes.

Vymaanika Shastra - Design element

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