The Taittiriya Upanishad, Complete Translation

Creation

Text and translation by Jayaram V

The Taittiriya Upanishad belongs to the Taittiriya school of the Yajurveda and hence the name. It is divided into three chapters and 32 sections, of which the first chapter, Sikhshavalli, containing 13 sections deals with siksha or the study of phonetics or pronunciation, which is an important branch of the Vedic studies. The second chapter, Brahmandavalli is divided into nine sections. It deals with various aspects of Brahmand, the Universal Egg or manifest Brahman, such as the course of evolution, matter and life, life and mind, Brahman as the source of creation and so on. The third chapter is named Bhriguvalli. It is divided into 10 sections which deal with an enquiry of Brahman by sage Bhrigu, in a conversation with his father, Varuna. The following is a complete, original translation of the Taittiriya Upanishad by Jayaram V with notes and Sanskrit text.


Chapter 1 - Siksa Valli

Section 1

Invocation

1. aum sam no mitrah sam varunah; sam no bhavaty aryama; sam na indro brihaspatih; sam no visnururukramah; namo brahmane; namaste vayo; tvam eva pratyaksam brahmasi; tvam eva pratyaksam brahma vadisyami; ritam vadisyami; satyam vadisyami; tanmamavatu; tadvaktaramavatu; avatu mam; avatu vaktaram; aum santih santih santih.

1. May Mitra be favorable to us. May Varuna be favorable. May Aryaman be favorable to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be favorable to us. May Vishnu, of wide strides, be favorable to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutations O Vayu. You, verily, are the visible Brahman. You alone I declare as the visible Brahman. I declare (you) as the controller. I declare (you) as the truth. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. Aum. Peace. Peace. Peace.

Notes: Sam means calm, peaceful, kind, favorably disposed, or satisfied. The Vedic sacrifices are meant to propitiate the gods with the offerings of food which they require, and make them peaceful, calm and favorably inclined towards the worship-pers so that having become gratified with the offerings they receive, they shower their blessings upon them and help them achieve their desired goals. Ritam (rtam) means order and regularity found in creation. It refers to the smooth and orderly progression of events commonly found in Nature such as the passing of time or movements of days and nights, seasons, planets, and the universal laws of Nature. Vayu, as the mover of the mid-region, is invoked in this verse as the controller of that orderly flow of events. He is also invoked as Brahman because he is invisible, expan-sive, carrier of things such as sound and speech and the source of breath (prana).

Section 2

The Study of Pronunciation

1. aum siksam vyakhyasyamah: varnah svarah, matra balam, sama santanah, ityuktah siksadhyayah.

1. Aum, we shall now explain the subject of pronunciation. The letters, tone, emphasis, articulation, and combination. Thus, is explained as the study of pronunciation.

Notes: The study of these has a lot of significance in Vedic education, because the success of a priest who participates in the Vedic ceremonies depends upon his ability to pronounce the words in the chants correctly, for which he needs to know how to articulate the words, where to stress them, where to pause and how to use the cor-rect pitch to create the right vibrations and produce the right combination of sounds and conditions for the divinities to descend from the heaven and accept the offer-ings.

Section 3

The Great Combinations

1. saha nau yasah, saha nau brahmavarcasam atha tat samhitaya upanisadam vyakhyasyamah, pancasv adhikara-nesu, adhilokam, adhijyautisam, adhividyam, adhiprajam, adhyatmam, ta mahasam hita ityacaksate.athadhilokam prit-hivi purvarupam, dyauruttararupam; akasah sandhih, vayuh sandhanam, ityadhilokam.

1. May fame come to us both. May the radiance of Brahman come to us both. Now, we shall explain the secret knowledge of the combinations under five headings: with reference to the world, the shining objects, knowledge, progeny and the body. They are the great combinations, they say. Now, with regard to worlds. The earth is the prior form. The heaven is the later form. The space is their meeting place, the air is the connector. This is with regard to the worlds.

Notes: The teacher wished for the success of everyone in the group. He did so be-cause Vedic society valued correct pronunciation of the hymns chanted during the sacrifices. The reputation of a teacher depended very much upon the success of his students. Since this was a class about pronunciation, the teacher rightly prayed for the success of both. This section is about samhitas or combinations the connection that exists between the individual objects and what connects them.

2. athadhijautisam, agnih purvarupam, aditya uttararupam, apah sandhih, vaidyutah sandhanam, ityadhijyautisam.

3. Now, with regard to the shining objects. Fire is the prior form, the sun is the later form, the water is their meeting place, lightning is their connector. This is with regard to the heavenly lights.

3. athadhividyam, acaryah purvarupam, antevasy uttararupam, vidya sandhih, pravacanam sandhanam, ityadhividyam.

3. Now with regard to knowledge. The teacher is the prior form, the student is the later form, knowledge is their meeting place, the teaching is the connector. This is with regard to knowledge.

4. athadhiprajam, mata purvarupam, pitottararupam, praja sandhih, prajananam sandhanam, ity adhiprajam.

4. Now, with regard to progeny. The mother is the prior form, the fa-ther the later form, the progeny is their meeting place. The act of procreation is the connector This is with regard to progeny.

5. athadhyatmam, adhara hanuh purvarupam, uttara hanuru-ttararupam, vaksandhih, jihva sandhanam, ityadhyatmam.

5. Now with regard to the body. The lower jaw is the prior form. The upper jaw is the later form. Speech is the meeting place. Tongue is the connector. This is with regard to the body.

6. itima mahasamhitah, ya evam eta mahasamhita vyakhyata veda, sandhiyate prajaya pasubhih, brahmavarcasenannad-yena suvargyena lokena.

6. These are the great combinations. Whoever knows these combina-tions thus explained, is united with progeny, cattle, the splendor of Brahman, food and the heavenly world.

Section 4

A Teacher's Prayer for Knowledge and Prosperity

1. yas candasam risabho visvarupah, candobhyo, adhyamritat sambabhuva, sa mendro medhaya sprinotu, amritasya deva dharano bhuyasam, sariram me vicarsanam, jihva me madhumattama, karnabhyam bhuri visruvam, brahmanah koso, asi medhaya pihitah, srutam me gopaya.

1. He who is the bull among the desires, who assumes all forms, who is born from the immortal Vedic meters, may that great Indra cheer me with his intelligence. O divinity, may I be a possessor of immortality. May my body be vigorous; may there be exceeding sweetness in my tongue; may I hear profusely with my ears. You are the sheath of Brahman, covered by intelligence, protect my knowledge of the sruti (Vedas).

Notes: Srutam means what is heard, usually with regard to the hymns of the Vedas. This prayer seeking protection against loss of that knowledge through memory lapse.

2. avahanti vitanvana, kurvana, aciramatmanah, vasam si ma-ma gavasca, annapane ca sarvada, tato me sriyamavaha, lomasam pasubhih saha svaha, a ma yantu brahmacarinah svaha, vi ma, a, ayantu brahmacarinah svaha, pra ma, a, ayantu brahmacarinah svaha, damayantu brahmacarinah svaha, samayantu brahmacarinah svaha

2. Thereafter, may you bring to me the goddess of fortune, who is the carrier, the multiplier (of riches), and the long lasting maker for herself and for me of clothes, cows, food and drink for all times. May you bring her to me together with wool and cattle. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me from every side. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me variously. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me in a proper manner. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me restraining their bodies. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me restraining their minds. Svaha.

Notes: This is a prayer to Indra seeking his help in obtaining favors from Sri Mahalakshmi, the goddess of prosperity. It is a continuation of the previous verse and presents some difficulty in translating it literally. The seeker first extols the god-dess as the carrier, multiplier and accomplisher of all good things in life. She does it not only for herself but for her devotees also at all times. Having made that observa-tion, the seeker then asks Indra to help him in getting her favors. A teacher's prosperity depends upon having more students. Therefore he is seeking the help of Indra to propitiate the goddess and obtain wealth in the form of cattle, wool, clothes, food and drink and students. Svaha means "personally (sva) I am (aha)," a word ut-tered for emphasis with each offering dropped or poured into the sacrifice.

3. yaso jane, asani svaha, sreyan vasyaso, asani svaha, tam tva bhaga pravisani svaha, sa ma bhaga pravisa svaha, tasmin sahasrasakhe ni bhagaham tvayi mrije svaha, yatha apah pravata ayanti, yatha masa aharjaram, evam mam brahmacarinah, dhatarayantu sarvatah svaha, prativeso'si pra ma bhahi pra ma padyasva.

3. May I become famous among people. Svaha. May I become renowned among the wealthy. Svaha. May I enter into you, O Abode of Light. Svaha. May you, O Abode of Light, enter into me. In You, that river of thousand branches, O Abode of Light, may I wash away my sins. Svaha. As water flows down a slope, as months into a year so, O Giver, may students of chaste conduct come to me from all directions. Svaha. You are the resting place. For me you shine. You come to me again and again.

Section 5

The Four Mystic Utterances

1. bhur bhuvah suvah iti va etah tisro vyahritayah, tasam u ha smaitam caturthim, mahacamasyah pravedayate, maha iti, tat brahma, sa atma, anganyanya devatah, bhuriti va ayam lokah, bhuva ityantariksam, suvarityasau lokah maha ityadityah, adityena vava sarve loka mahiyante.

1. Bhur, bhuvah, suvah, these, verily, are the three mystic utterances. Besides them, there is the fourth, Mahah, made know by the son of Mahacamasa. That is Brahman, that is the Self, its limbs are other gods. Bhur is this world; bhuva is the mid-region; suvah is that world above, maha is sun. By the sun indeed all worlds become great.

Notes: Vyahritis are the mystic utterances used in daily prayers by the Vedic house-holders, while invoking the divinities. This in brief is the structure of the universe in the Vedic cosmology, the earth, the mid world, the higher world of heaven and the great world of the immortals. This division is with regard to the worlds (adhiloka).

2. Bhur iti va agnih, bhuva iti vayuh, suvarityadityah, maha iti candramah, candramasa vava sarvani jyotimsi mahiyante.

2. Bhur, verily is this fire; bhuva verily is this air; suvah verily is the sun; maha verily is the moon. By the moon indeed all the shining objects become great.

Notes: This interpretation of the four utterances is with regard to the shining objects (adhijyotisa).

3. bhur iti va ricah, bhuva iti samani, suvariti yajumsi maha iti brahma, brahmana vava sarve veda mahiyante,

3. Bhur, verily is the Rigveda hymn; bhuva verily is the Saman; suvah verily is the Yaju formula; maha verily is Brahman. By the Brahman indeed all the Vedas become great.

Notes: This interpretation of the four worlds is with regard to knowledge (adhividya).

4. bhuriti vai pranah, bhuva ityapanah, suvariti vyanah, maha ityannam, annena vava sarve prana mahiyante.

3. Bhur, verily is the incoming breath; bhuva verily is the downward breath; suvah verily is the diffused breath; maha verily is the food. By food indeed all the breaths become great.

Notes: This interpretation of the four worlds is with regard to the body (adhyatma).

5. ta va etas catasras caturdha, catasras catasro vyahritayah, ta yo veda, sa veda brahma, sarve, asmai deva balim avahanti.

5. These verily are the four of the four. Four (explanations) of the four utterances. He who knows them, he knows Brahman. To him all gods bring offerings.

Section 6

Meditating Upon Brahman

1. sa ya eso, antarahridaya akasah, tasminnayam puruso manomayah, amrito hiranmayah, antarena taluke, ya esa stana ivavalambate, sendrayonih, yatrasau kesanto vivartate, vya-pohya sirsakapale, bhurityagnau pratitisthati, bhuva iti vayau.

1. This space that is inside the heart, in that is the Person, who is en-veloped by mind, immortal and golden hued. Between the two palates that which hangs down like the nipple (of a cow), where (from outside) the roots of the hair divides the head into two, that is the source of Indra. He (the departing Purusha) saying,"Bhur," rests in fire, and saying, "Bhuva," (rests) in air.

2. suvar ity aditye, maha iti brahmani, apnoti svarajyam, apnoti manasaspatim, vakpatis caksus patih, srotrapatih vijnanapatih, etat tato bhavati, akasa sariram brahma, satyatma pranaramam mana anandam, santisamriddham amritam, iti pracinayogyopassva.

2. Saying,"Suvah," (he) rests in the sun; saying, "Maha," he rests in Brahman, attains self-rule, attain the lordship of the mind, attains the lordship of speech, lordship of sight, lordship of hearing, lordship of wisdom. Thereafter he becomes Brahman whose body is the space, whose nature is truth, in whom the breaths come to rest, whose mind is blissful, who flourishes with peace and immortality. Thus, O Pracinayogya, you should meditate (upon Brahman).

Section 7

The Fivefold Aggregates

1. prithivy antariksam dyaur diso, va avantaradisah, agnir vayur adityas candrama naksatrani, apa osadhayo vanaspataya akasa atma, ity adhibhutam, athadhyatmam, prano vyano, apana udanah samanah, caksuh srotram mano vak tvak, carma mamsam snavasthi majja, etad adhividhaya risir avocat, panktam va idam sarvam, panktena iva panktam sprinoti.

1. The earth, the mid-region, heaven, the quarters and the intermediate quarters; fire, air, the sun, the moon and the stars; water, plants, trees, space and the body; this is with regard to the elements (present in a being). Now, with regard to the bodily parts: prana, vyana, apana, udana, and samana; the eye, the ear, the mind, the speech and touch; skin, flesh, muscle, bone and marrow. Having seen this arrangement, a seer said: "All this is fivefold. With these the fivefold (aggregates) the fivefold (being) is filled up.

Notes: Adhibhtua is the physical or the material universe consisting of all the objects that are made up of the five elements. Adhyatma is what constitutes one's physical self or the mind and body. The last sentence is translated differently by different interpreters. The correct meaning is by these five aggregates, the body of the five-fold being is filled up.

Section 8

The Significance of Aum

1. aum iti brahma, aum itidam sarvam, aum ity etad anukritir ha sma va apyo sravayetyasravayanti, aum iti samani gayanti, aum somiti sastrani sam santi, aum ity adhvaryuh pratigaram pratigrinati, aum iti brahma prasauti, aum ity agnihotram anujanati, aum iti brahmanah pravaksyann aha brahmopapna vaniti, brahmaivopapnoti.

1. This Aum is Brahman. This Aum is all this. This word, which is Aum, invokes obedience. Moreover, when told, "Aum, recite," they recite. Uttering Aum, they sing the Samans. Uttering, "Aum, Som," they recite scriptures. Uttering Aum, the Adharvayu priest responds with praise. Uttering Aum, the Brahman priest indicates approval. Uttering Aum the Agnihotri priest gives permission (to the sacrificer) to make offerings (in the fire sacrifice). A Brahmana says Aum when he was about to begin the recitation (of the Vedas), wishing, "May I attain Brahman." Thus (wishing) he attains Brahman.

Notes: This verse explains both the ritual and spiritual significance of Aum. Aum is chanted in the beginning of various types of recitation and ritual chanting. Aum is chanted to indicate the beginning of rituals as well as compliance. Aum is chanted to know the Self and realize Brahman.

Section 9

The Order and Regularity of Life

1. ritam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, satyam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, tapas ca svadhyaya pravaca-ne ca, damas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, samas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, agnayas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, agnihotram ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, atithayas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, manu-sam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, praja ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, prajanas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, prajatis ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, satyam iti satyava ca rathitarah, tapa iti tapo-nityah paurusi-stih, svadhyaya pravacane eveti nako maud-galyah, taddhi tapas taddhi tapah.

1. Practice order and regularity (of your life) by self-study and teach-ing, truth by self-study and teaching, austerity by self-study and teaching, restraint of the body by self-study and teaching, sameness by self-study and teaching, the upkeep of daily fire sacrifices by self-study and teaching, the fire sacrifice by self-study and teaching, honoring the guests by self-study and teaching, serving the people by self-study and teaching, raising the offspring by self-study and teaching, procreation by self-study and teaching, and training the grandchildren by self-study and teaching. This is the truth, says Satyavacas, the son of Rathitara. This is austerity says Taponitya son of Parusisti. This is nothing but self-study and teaching says Naka, the son of Mudgala. That, indeed, is austerity. That, indeed, is austerity.

Notes: Svadhyaya means learning the Vedas by self-effort through recitation, re-membrance and contemplation. Rtam means the order and regularity of the world or the orderly flow of time and events as willed by God. Rtma is maintained by God by enforcing divine laws through duty. It is possible only when everyone, from the high-est to the lowest in the hierarchy of creation perform their obligatory duties selflessly. Duty (dharma) and order go hand in hand. And it has to be upheld in every aspect of life by a person who is bound to his duty (dharma) by means of self-study and teaching. Other aspects of dharma like truth, austerity, sacrifices, procreation, raising a family should also be practiced with the help of these two, self-study and teaching. Self-study increases one's own knowledge and awareness of dharma. Teaching increases the knowledge and awareness of others. When everyone in socie-ty has right knowledge, divine laws flourish and the order and regularity of the world is ensured. This is the essence of this verse. This is the truth. This is an austerity in itself. Nothing else is required to uphold dharma, other than self-study and teaching.

Section 10

Trisanku on Knowledge and Wisdom

1. aham vriksasya reriva, kirtih pristham gireriva, urdhvapa-vitro vajiniva svamritam asmi, dravinam savarcasam, sumedha amritoksitah, iti trisankor vedanuvacanam.

1. I am the mover of the tree (of my family). My fame is like the peak of a mountain. My mind is pure. I verily have as my food the nectar of immortality found in the sun. I am bright with the wealth (of knowledge). I am endowed with the right wisdom which is eternal and imperishable. Thus proclaimed Trisanku after knowing (the Self).

Notes: This verse is interpreted variously. According to some the tree is the tree of creation or the universe. I believe it is the reference to the family tree. When a person achieves liberation, he not only liberates himself, but also helps his ancestors im-mensely by uplifting them to the immortal world by his very achievement. Thus, Trisanku declared in this verse that he helped his ancestors to move to the higher world. Urdhvam is interpreted by some as the source. I believe the reference to the head or the mind, which constitute the uppermost part of the body is very clear.

Section 11

Farewell Advice to Students

1. vedam anucyacaryontevasinamanusasti, satyam vada, dhar-mam cara, svadhyayan ma pramadah, acaryaya priyam dhanam ahritya prajatantum ma vyavaccetsih, satyan na pramadi-tavyam, dharman na pramaditavyam, kusalan na pramadi-tavyam, bhutyai na pramaditavyam, svadhyaya pravaca-nabh-yam na pramaditavyam.

1. After teaching the Vedas, in the end, the teacher instructs the pupil. Speak the truth. Perform your duty. Do not neglect the self-study of the Vedas. After giving the gift desired by the teacher, do not break the chain of your progeny. Do not neglect truth. Do not neglect duty. Do not neglect your health. Do not neglect your material wellbeing. Do not neglect the self-study and the teaching of the Vedas.

2. devapitrikaryabhyam na pramaditavyam, matri devo bhava, pitri devo bhava, acarya devo bhava, atithi devo bhava, yany anavadyani karmani, tani sevitavyani, no itarani, yany asmakam sucaritani, tani tvayopasyani, no itarani.

2. Do not neglect your duties to gods and ancestors. May your mother be honored as a goddess by you; may your father be honored as a god by you; may your teacher be honored as a god by you; may your guest be honored as a god by you. Whatever actions are free from egoism, they should be practiced, not others. Whatever good conduct you find among us (teachers), that alone should be practiced, not others.

Notes: Anava means egoism or acting like a particle (anu) distinct from God. Actions arising out of egoism should be discarded since they lead to karmic consequences and bondage. Actions should be performed as an offering. A teacher should be a role model, but the teacher himself is suggesting here that students should not follow their teachers blindly. They should follow only that conduct of the teachers which is considered good (sucarita).

3. ye ke casmaccreyamso brahmanah, tesam tvayasanena prasvasitavyam, sraddhaya deyam, asradd-haya'deyam, sriya deyam, hriya deyam, bhiya deyam, samvida deyam, atha yadi te karmavicikitsa va vrittavicikitsa va syat.

3. Those brahmanas among us who are praiseworthy, their fatigue should be removed by offering them a seat. What is given should be given with sincerity, not to be given with insincerity, given plentifully, given with modesty, given with obedience, given with kindness. Now, if there is any doubt in you with regard to duties or if there is any doubt in you with regard to your profession.

4. ye tatra brahmanah sammarsinah, yukta ayuktah, aluksa dharmakamah syuh, yatha te tatra varteran, tatha tatra vartthah; athabhyakhyatesu, ye tatra brahmanah sammarsinah, yukta ayuktah, aluksa dharmakamah syuh, yatha te tesu varteran, tatha tesu vartethah, esa adesah, esa upadesah, esa vedopanisat, etadanusasanam, evamupasitavyam, evamu caita-dupasyam.

4. You should conduct yourself in such and such manner as those brahmanas who are competent to occupy the seat of a judge, who can discern the right from the wrong, who are not cruel, who are interested in performing actions for the sake of dharma would behave in such sit-uations. Now with regard to those who have been accused, you should conduct yourself in such and such manner as those brahmanas who are competent to occupy the seat of a judge, who can discern the right from the wrong, who are not cruel, who are interested in performing actions for the sake of dharma would behave in such situations. This is the command. This is the teaching. This is the secret teaching of the Vedas. This is the instruction. This one should follow. This alone should be followed.

Notes: Yuktayukta means right and wrong or what is appropriate and inappropriate and used in reference to discerning knowledge (vicaksana jnanam). This is an im-portant quality for any person who performs the functions of a judge. Sammarsina means to be qualified to sit upon the seat of a judge to deliver judgment. The sugges-tion given in this verse to the young students is if they have to judge any actions or speak against anyone who has been accused of doing wrong, they have to follow the best practices followed by wise people in society and uphold the values they uphold.

Section 12

A Joint Invocation for Divine Help

1. aum sam no mitrah sam varunah; sam no bhavaty aryama; sam na indro brihaspatih; sam no visnururukramah; namo brahmane; namaste vayo; tvam eva pratyaksam brahmasi; tvam eva pratyaksam brahma vadisyami; ritam vadisyami; satyam vadisyami; tanmamavatu; advaktaramavatu; avatu mam; avatu vaktaram; aum santih santih santih.

1. May Mitra be favorable to us. May Varuna be favorable. May Aryaman be favorable to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be favorable to us. May Vishnu, of wide strides, be favorable to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutations O Vayu. You, verily, are the visible Brahman. You alone I declare as the visible Brahman. I declare (you) as the con-troller. I declare (you) as the truth. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. Aum. Peace. Peace. Peace.

Chapter 2 - Brahmananda Valli

Section 1

Brahman and Creation

sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.

May He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; may we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hatred between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.

1. aum brahmavid apnoti param, tad esa, abhyukta, satyam jnanam anantam brahma, yo veda nihitam guhayam parame vyoman, so, asnute sarvan kaman saha, brahmana vipasciteti, tasmadva etasmadatmana akasah sambhutah, akasadvayuh, vayoragnih, agnerapah, adbhyah prithivi, prithivya osadhayah, osadhibhyo, annam, annatpurusah, sa va esa puruso, annnarasamayah, tasyedameva sirah, ayam daksinah paksah, ayamuttarah paksah, ayamatma, idam puccham pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. Aum, the knower of Brahman attains the Supreme. Of this there is the saying: He who knows Brahman as truth, knowledge, infinite, who is hidden in the cave (of the heart) and in the supreme space, enjoys all desires and becomes one with Brahman, the omniscient. From that (Brahman) who is this Self manifested space, from space air, from air fire, from fire water, from water the earth, from the earth the plants, from the plants food, from the food the being. This, verily, is the being who is made up of food. This, indeed, is his head. This (right side) is the southern quarter. This (left side) is the northern quarter. This (the middle part) is the body. This (lower side) is the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Section 2

The Importance of Food

1. annadvai prajah prajayante, yah kasca prithivim sritah, atho annenaiva jivanti, athainadapi yantyantatah, annam hi bhuta-nam jyestham, tasmat sarvausadhamucyate, sarvam vai te'an-namapnuvanti, ye, annam brahmopasate, annam hi bhutanam jyestham, tasmat sarvausadhamucyate, annad bhutani jayante, jatanyannena vardhante, adyate, atti ca bhutani, tasmadannam taducyata iti, tasmadva etasmadannarasamayat, anyo, antara atma pranamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya prana eva sirah, vyano daksinah paksah, apana uttarah paksah, akasa atma, prithivi puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati

1.From food only are produced all beings, whatsoever that dwell upon earth. Further, by food only they live and in the end to food only they return. Food alone is the eldest of the living beings. Therefore, it is called the universal medicine. Those who worship food as Brahman, they obtain all food. Food alone is the eldest of the living beings. There-fore it is called the universal medicine. From food, all beings are born; having born, by food they grow. It is eaten (by beings) and its eats beings. Therefore, it is called food. Now, different from this (body) which is made up of food is another body inside, which is made up of breath. By that (breath) is filled this (food body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, the in breath is its head, the diffused breath the right side, the downward breath is the left side, the space is the body, the earth is the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Section 3

Breath and Mind

1. pranam deva anu prananti, manusyah pasavasca ye, prano hi bhutanamayuh, tasmat sarvayusamucyate, sarvameva ta ayuryanti, ye pranam brahmopasate, prano hi bhutanamayuh, tasmat sarvayusamucyata iti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmat pranamayat, anyo' antara atma manomayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya yajureva sirah, rigdaksinah paksah, samottarah paksah, adesa atma, atharvangirasah puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. The organs act by following the breath; so do humans and the animals. Breath, indeed, is the life of beings. Therefore, it is called the life of all. Those who worship Brahman as breath they attain full life, for breath, indeed, is the life of beings. Therefore, it is called the life of all. This, indeed, is the soul of that prior (food) body. Now, different from this (breath body) which is made up of breath is another body inside, which is made up of mind. By that (mind) is filled this (breath body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, the Yajurveda is its head, the Rigveda the right side, the Samaveda is the left side, the teaching is the body, the hymns of Atharvan and Angirasa are the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Section 4

Mind and Intelligence

1. yato vaco nivartante, aprapya manasa saha, anandam brahmano vidvan, na bibheti kadacaneti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmanmanomayat, anyo, antara atma vijnanamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya sraddhaiva sirah, ritam daksinah paksah, satyamuttarah paksah, yoga atma, mahah puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. From where the words return, along with the mind, unable to attain it, that blissful Brahman he who knows does not fear even a little. This, indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (breath body). Now, different from this which is made up of mind is another body inside, which is made up of intelligence. By that (intelligence) is filled this (mental body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, faith is its head, the order and regularity of the world the right side, truth the left side, yoga the body, the great one (intelligence) the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Notes: Mind is usually considered a receptacle of thoughts. It does not produce thoughts. Thoughts are believed to exist in the space of Brahman and they enter the mind of a person according to his desires and inclinations in which intelligence said to play an important role. Intelligence gives us the ability to exercise our will. It is there-fore considered superior to the mind.

Section 5

Intelligence and Bliss

1. vijnanam yajnam tanute,karmani tanute, api ca, vijnanam devah sarve, brahma jyesthamupasate,vijnanam brahma cedveda, tasmaccenna pramadyati, sarire papmano hitva, sar-vankamansamasnuta iti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmadvijnanamayat, anyo, antara atma, anandamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah,tasya priyameva sirah, modo daksinah paksah, pramoda uttarah paksah, anan-da atma,brahma puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. Intelligence sets in motion the sacrifice. It sets in motion all obligatory duties. All the gods worship intelligence as Brahman, the eldest. He who knows Brahman as intelligence does not neglect (his duties). Getting rid of all the sins of his body, he attains all desires. This, indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (mental body). Now, different from this which is made up of intelligence is another body inside, which is made up of bliss. By that (bliss) is filled this (Self). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, pleasure is its head, happiness the right side, joy the left side, bliss the body, Brahman the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Section 6

Brahman, the Self in the Body

6. asanneva sa bhavati, asadbrahmeti veda cet, asti brahmeti cedveda, santamenam tato viduriti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, athato, anuprasnah, utavidvanamum lokam pretya, kascana gaccati u, aho vidvanamum lokam pretya kas-citsamasnuta u, so, akamayata, bahu syam prajayeyeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva, idam sarvamasrijata, yadidam kinca, tatsristva, tadevanupravisat, tadanupravisya, sacca tyacca abha-vat, niruktam caniruktam ca, nilayanam canilayanam ca, vijna-nam cavijnanam ca, satyam canritam ca satyamabhavat, yadid-am kinca, tatsatyamityacaksate, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. Non-existent, verily, becomes, when one knows thus, "Non-existence is this Brahman." Existent becomes by that knowing, when one knows thus, "Brahman does exist." This (Brahman), indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (bliss body). Now, (the answer) as to the following question. Whether anyone who knows not upon departing from this life go to the other world; or does anyone who knows upon departing from here attains that world? He desired, "May I become many; may I be born." He performed austerity. Having performed the austerity, out of that austerity, He created all this, whatever that is here. Having created it, he entered into it. Having entered into it, he became both the manifested (gross) and the unmanifested (subtle), the definable and the indefinable, the supporting and the non-supporting, the intelligent and the not-intelligent, the true and the untrue. The true became all this, what-ever. This is what they call the true. Regarding this there is also this verse.

Notes: This verse has been interpreted variously by different scholars. For me the correct meaning seems to be that Brahman who is both manifested and unmanifested, existence and non-existence (sat and asat), becomes existent for those who believe that He exists and becomes non-existent for those who believe that He does not exist. Thus God does not force the atheists and non-believers to think otherwise. As declared in the Bhagavadgita, He strengthens their faith in their non-belief according to their predominant thoughts (samskaras).

Section 7

The Blissful Nature of Brahman

1. asadva idamagra asit, tato vai sadajayata, tadatmanam svayamakuruta, tasmattatsukritamucyata iti, yadvai tat sukritam, raso vai sah, rasam hyevayam labdhvanandi bhavati, ko hyevanyatkah pranyat, yadesa akasa anando na syat, esa hyeva, a, anandayati, yada hyevaisa etasminnadrisye, anatmye, anirukte, anilayane, abhayam pratistham vindate, atha so, abhayam gato bhavati, yada hyevaisa etasminnudaramantaram kurute, atha tasya bhayam bhavati, tatveva bhayam viduso, amanvanasya, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. Non-existent, verily, this (world) was in the beginning. From that verily was born existence. It made itself as the Self (of the existence). Therefore, it is called a virtuous act. Verily, that which is well made is the delight of existence; for truly on obtaining the delight of existence one becomes blissful. Indeed, who can breathe in and breathe out, if this bliss does not exist in the space? This one alone is That which brings blissfulness. When this one (the existence) becomes established in That which is invisible, incorporeal, inexpressible and fearless, then does indeed one becomes fearless. When this one (existence) finds even the smallest distinction, then he becomes fearful. That, indeed, is the fear of the impure arising from the thoughts of separation (anava).

Notes: Fear and insecurity arise when we think we are distinct and different from the rest of creation. It makes us distrustful of the world and people around us and pro-tect ourselves from them. This notion of distinction also drives us into selfish and egoistic thinking whereby we indulge in desire-ridden actions and become bound to the cycle of births and deaths, which in itself is the cause of great fear. However, fear does not exist for those who find God everywhere and in everything. If you genuinely believe that Brahman exists in everyone and in everything, including yourself, that identification alone makes your fearless and assured. Anava means egoism or living like a small particle (anu) in the cosmic sea of creation. When this feeling prevails, one is bound to suffer from fear and insecurity, fear of the unknown, fear of gain and loss, fear of death, sin and suffering.

Section 8

Progressive States of Bliss

1. bhisa, asmadvatah pavate, bhisodeti suryah, bhisa, asmadag-niscendrasca, mrityurdhavati pancama iti, saisanandasya mimamsa bhavati, yuva syatsadhuyuva, adhyayakah, asistho dridhistho balist-hah, tasyeyam prithivi sarva vittasya purna syat, sa eko manu-sa anandah, te ye satam manusa anandah, sa eko manusyagan-dharvanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam manusyagandharvanamanandah, sa eko devagan-dharvanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam devagandharvanamanandah, sa ekah pitrinam ciralokalokanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam pitrinam ciralokalokanamanandah, sa eka ajanaja-nam devanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam ajanajanam devanamanandah, sa ekah karmade-vanam devanamanandah, ye karmana devanapiyanti, srotriy-asya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam karmadevanam devanamanandah, sa eko deva-namanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam devanamanandah, sa eka indrasya, a, anandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satamindrasya, a, anandah, sa eko brihaspateranandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam brihaspateranandah, sa ekah prajapateranandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

te ye satam prajapateranandah, sa eko brahmana anandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,

sa yascayam puruse, yascasavaditye, sa ekah, sa ya evamvit, as-mallokatpretya, etamannamayamatmanamupasankramati, eta-m pranamayam atmanam upasankramati, etam manomayam atmanam upasankramati, etam vijnanamayam atmanam upasankramati, etam anandamayam atmanamupasankramati, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.

1. From fear of Him Vatah (the wind) blows, from fear of Him the sun rises. From fear of Him the five divinities such as Agni (fire), Indra, and Mrityu (death) work. Now regarding the bliss of this one this is the (conclusion drawn from) philosophical enquiry.

If there were a young man, a good young man, well versed in the Ve-das, efficient in action, with steady mind and senses, strong and if the wealth of the earth were entirely for him only, that is one measure of human bliss. A hundred times of that bliss is one measure of the bliss of celestial humans known as the Gandharvas, so also (the bliss) of a per-son well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires. A hundred times of the bliss of celestial humans is one measure of the bliss of the divine celestials known as Deva Gandharvas, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of ancestors (pitrs) in their long-lasting world is one measure of the bliss of those who become gods by birth in the divine world of Ajana, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of those who become gods by birth in the di-vine world of Ajana is one measure of the bliss of those who become gods by duty known as karmadevas, who reach the gods by their sacrifices, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of those who become gods by duty is one measure of the bliss of the (immortal) gods, so also (the bliss) of a per-son well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of the (immortal gods) is one measure of the bliss of Indra, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of Indra is one measure of the bliss of Brihaspati, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of Brihaspati is one measure of the bliss of Prajapati, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

A hundred times the bliss of Prajapati is one measure of the bliss of Brahma, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.

He who is in this person, and who is in the sun above, He is one only. Whoever knows this, upon departing from this world, attains the body made up of food, attains the body made up of breath, attains the body made up of mind, attains the body made up of intelligence and attains the body which is made up of bliss.

Notes: Different types of men, gods and celestial beings are mentioned in this verse. The Gandharvas are celestial beings who inhabit the mid-region. They are endowed with ethereal bodies and exceptional artistic talents. They are classified here as hu-man gandharvas, who assume human form at will and visit the earth frequently, and as godly gandharvas, who inhabit Indra's heaven and entertain the gods. Three types of gods are mentioned. Those who are born as gods by virtue of the merit of their past lives, those who become equal to gods upon earth by virtue of their obligatory duties and sacrifices and the real gods who are immortal, who said to be thirty three. The last part of the verse signifies that whoever knows the nature of Brahman will have all the bodies in his next birth when he returns from the ancestral world.

Section 9

Offering Actions to the Self Within

1. yato vaco nivartante, aprapya manasa saha, anandam brahm-ano vidvan, na bibheti kutascaneti, etam ha vava na tapati, kimaham sadhu nakaravam, kimaham papamakaravamiti, sa ya evam vidvanete atmanam sprinute, ubhe hyevaisa ete atma-nam sprinute, ya evam veda, ityupanisat.

1. From where the words return, along with the mind, unable to attain it, that blissful Brahman who knows, he does not fear even a little. Such a person, verily, is not tormented by the thought, "Why did not I per-form good deeds? Why have I indulged in sinful actions?" Whoever knows this offers them to his Self. Indeed, he offers both to himself, who knows thus. Such is the secret teaching.

Notes: The knower of the Self is not troubled by the nature of his actions since he knows that the Self is the source of his action. Accordingly he offers all his actions to his Self, without desiring their fruit and thereby escapes from their consequences. Therefore, he is not troubled by the nature of his actions. Fear rules our minds. We fear for various reasons and philosophically speaking, our fear stems from the reali-zation or the understanding that we are lonely and helpless in this world. This fear is normal because we learn from our experience and perceptions that we are limited in many ways and against the forces of Nature we cannot prevail for long. Fear also arises, if you are a religious person, from the idea of sin and its consequences. Our actions are rooted in our desires and our desires lead to attachment and the continu-ation of our existence in the cycle of births and deaths. All these produce fear and that fear is our constant experience. This fear disappears only when we realize our eternal Nature and experiences oneness with Brahman.

Chapter 3 – Bhrigu Valli

Section 1

Varuna's Teachings to Bhrigu

aum, sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.

Aum, may He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; May we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hated between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.

1. bhrigurvai varunih, varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tasma etatprovaca, annam pranam caksuh srotram mano vacamiti, tam hovaca, yato va imani bhutani jayante, yena jatani jivanti, yatprayantyabhisamvisanti, tadvi-jijnasasva, tad brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva

1. Bhrigu, the son of Varuna, went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman." To him, he said this, "Food, breath, eye, ear, mind, speech." He said (further), "That from which these beings are born, that by which, when born, these beings live, that into which they enter upon departing, That you should know, That is Brahman. He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...

Section 2

Food is Brahman

1. annam brahmeti vyajanat, annaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, annena jatani jivanti, annam prayantyabhisam-visantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.

1. He realized that food was Brahman. From food, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by food, and upon departing they enter into food and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman."To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...

Section 3

Breath is Brahman

1. prano brahmeti vyajanat, pranaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, pranena jatani jivanti, pranam prayantyabhisa-mvisantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.

1. He realized that breath was Brahman. From breath, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by breath, and upon departing they enter into breath and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman." To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...

Section 4

Mind is Brahman

1. mano brahmeti vyajanat, manaso hyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, manasa jatani jivanti, manah prayantyabhi-samvisantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.

1. He realized that mind was Brahman. From mind, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by mind, and upon departing they enter into mind and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman. "To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...

Section 5

Intelligence is Brahman

1. vijnanam brahmeti vyajanat, vijnanaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, vijnanena jatani jivanti, vijnanam prayantya-bhisamvisantiti,tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupa-sasara,adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijnasasva,tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata,sa tapastaptva.

1. He realized that intelligence was Brahman. From intelligence, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by intelligence, and upon departing they enter into intelligence and become one with it. Having

realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman. "To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...

Section 6

Bliss is Brahman

1. anando brahmeti vyajanat, anandadhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, anandena jatani jivanti, anandam prayanty abhisamvisantiti, saisa bhargavi varuni vidya, parame vyoman pratisthita, sa ya evam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.

1. He realized that bliss was Brahman. From bliss beings are born here. Being born, they live by bliss and upon departing they enter into bliss and become one with it. This then is the knowledge taught by Varuna to (his son) Bhrigu, which (starting from food) becomes established in the highest (bliss). He who knows this becomes established (in the bliss). He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He be-comes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.

Section 7

Food and Breath

1. annam na nindyat, tadvratam, prano va annam, sariram annadam, prane sariram pratisthitam, sarire pranah pratisthitah, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad an-nam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.

1. Do not speak ill of food, that should be the vow. Breath verily is food, the body is the eater of food. In the breath does the body rest. In the body does the breath rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.

Section 8

Food and Water

1. annam na paricaksita, tad vratam, apo va annam, jyotir annadam, apsu jyotih pratisthitam, jyotisy apah pratisthitah, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad annam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, ma-han bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.

1. Do not reject food. That should be the vow. Water, verily is food, fire is the eater of food. In water, does fire rest. In fire, does water rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.

Section 9

Food and Earth

1. annam bahu kurvita, tadvratam, prithivi va annam, akaso, annadah, prithivyam akasah pratisthitah, akase prithivi pratisthita, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad an-nam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahankirtya.

1. Make food plentiful. That should be the vow. The earth, verily is food, space is the eater of food. In space does the earth rest. In the earth does space rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He be-comes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.

Section 10

The Importance of Offering Food

1. na kancana vasatau pratyacaksita,tadvratam, tasmadyaya kaya ca vidhaya bahvannam prapnuyat, aradhyasma annamityacaksate, etadvai mukhato, anam raddham, mukhato, asma annam radhyate, etadvai madhyato, anam raddham, madhyato, asma annam radhyate, edadva antato, annam raddham, antato, asma annam radhyate.

1. Do not refuse lodging to anyone. That should be the vow. Therefore, by any method whatsoever, one should gather plenty of food, so that people can say, "There is food readily available to him." If this food is given early, food comes to the giver early. If the food is offered in the middle, food comes to the giver in the middle. If the food is given in the end, food comes to the giver in the end.

Notes: If the food is given early means if the food is offered to the guest quickly and readily at the very beginning without letting the guest wait for it. If the food is of-fered in the middle means if the food is offered with some delay or hesitation after letting the guest wait for it. If the food is offered in the end means, if the food is offered with great reluctance after everyone in the house ate or offering the left overs at the end of a long wait.

2. ya evam veda, ksema iti vaci, yogaksema iti pranapanayoh, karmeti hastayoh, gatiriti padayoh, vimuktiriti payau, iti manusih samajnah, atha daivih, triptir iti vristau, balamiti vidyuti.

2. He who knows this, as preservation in speech, as keeping what is acquired in the in breath and downward breath, as action in the hands, as movement in the feet, as release in the anus, these are the signs (of Brahman) in humans. Now, as to (the signs) in the deities, satisfaction in rains, strength in the lightning.,

3. yasa iti pasusu, jyotiriti naksatresu, prajatiramritamananda ityupasthe, sarvamityakase, tatpratisthetyupasita, pratisthavan bhavati, tanmaha ityupasita, mahanbhavati, tanmana ityupa-sita, manavanbhavati

3. As fame in cattle, light in the stars, procreation, immortality and bliss in the sexual organs, as everything in space (one should meditate upon Brahman). One should contemplate upon That as the support, then one is supported. One should contemplate upon that as greatness, then one becomes great. One should contemplate upon That as the mind, then one becomes a thinker.

4. tannama ityupasita, namyante, asmai kamah, tadbrahme-tyupasita, brahmavanbhavati, tadbrahmanah parimara ityupa-sita, paryenam mriyante dvisantah sapatnah, pari ye, apriya bhratrivyah, sa yascayam puruse, yascasavaditye, sa ekah.

4. One should worship That bowing down, then for him all desires bow down. One should worship That as supreme, then one becomes en-dowed with the Supreme. One should worship That as Brahman's means of destruction, then one's rivals who envy him will perish, so also those rivals whom he dislikes.

5. sa ya evam vit, asmallokat pretya, etam annamayam atmanam upasankramya, etam pranamayam atmanam upasan-kramya, etam manomayam atmanam upasankramya, etam vijnanamayam atmanam upasankramya, etam anandamayam atmanam upasankramya, iman llokankamanni kamarupya-nuancaran, etat sama gayannaste, ha vu ha vu ha vu.

5. He who knows this, upon departing from this world, attains this self made of food, attains the self made of breath, attains the self made of mind, attains the self made of intelligence, attains the self made of bliss. In these worlds, he goes up and down, eating the food he desires, assuming the forms he desires. He sits singing this chant (of great joy), "Aha, oho, aha, oho, aha, oho."

6. aham annam aham annam aham annam, aham annadah, aham annadah, aham annadah, aham slokakrit aham slokakrit aham slokakrit, aham asmi prathamaja ritasya, purvam devebhyo, amritasya nabhayi, yo ma dadati sa ideva ma, vah, aham annam annam adantamadmi, aham visvam bhuvanam abhyabhavam, suvarna jyotih, ya evam veda, ityupanisat.

6. I am food, I am food, I am food, I am the eater of food. I am the eater of food. I am the eater of food. I am the binding agent, I am the binding agent, I am the binding agent. I am the first born of the cosmic order, before the gods and the center of Immortality. He who offers me, he alone protects me. He who eats food (without offering), I, as food, eat him. I, as the Supreme Lord, overpower the whole world. I am the golden light like that of the sun. Whosoever knows this (becomes so). This is the secret teaching.

The Peace Chant

aum sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.

Aum, may He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; May we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hated between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.

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Attribution: Reproduced with permission from the Selected Upanishads, A Collection of 14 Upanishads with Devanagari Script, Translation and Notes, Editor and Translation: Jayaram V, Published by PurelifeVision Books, USA, 2013.