Websites on Buddhist Studies

Buddhism Links

Links to Buddhist Studies

Buddhism Comes to Main Street - Article by Jan Nattier in The Wilson Quarterly (Spring 1997). Discusses the history and cultural and ethnic issues that form the most crucial differences within American Buddhism.

Buddhism in Brazil - Academic references on the expansion of Buddhism in Brazil. Also a web directory of Brazilian Buddhist centers, temples, monasteries, and Buddhist texts translated to Portuguese.

Buddhism in Europe - An annotated bibliography on Buddhism's historical development and contemporary state of affairs in Europe.

Buddhist Country Statistics - Lists Top 10 countries with most Buddhists, top 10 countries with highest percentage of Buddhists.

Buddhist Scriptures Information Retrieval (BUDSIR) - Project to record the 45 volumes of the Pali Tipitaka onto computer, together with the development of an application program for searching it. Project has completed a Thai translation of the Tipitaka, and versions of the original Pali text using Thai and Roman scripts, as well as a Thai-Pali dictionary.

Buddhist Studies Virtual Library

Cambridge Buddhist Institute - Serves as a focus for those interested in Buddhist studies in Cambridge, UK, both in the University of Cambridge and in the region.

Center for Buddhist Studies, National Taiwan University - Online Buddhist texts. Many in Chinese.

Chan and Zen Buddhism - A compilation of important links to materials for the study of Chan and Zen Buddhism, primarily for the use of college students.

College of Buddhist Studies - Offers certificate in Buddhist Studies. Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Dharma & Nirvana - Introduction to Buddhist principles

Foundation of Buddhist Thought - A two-year intermediate level online course taught by Geshe Tashi Tsering.

H-Buddhism - H-Net discussion group that serves as a medium for information exchange regarding academic resources, research projects, and scholarly publications for specialists in Buddhist Studies. Features archive, search, links to related resources, subscription details, and job listings.

Institute of Buddhist Studies - A seminary and graduate school affiliated with the Graduate Theological Union and associated with the Buddhist Churches of America. IBS offers a systematic educational program specializing in Contemporary Shin Buddhist Studies and culminating in a fully accredited Master of Arts degree which is jointly administered with the GTU.

International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism - International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism (IRIZ) at Hanazono University (Kyoto, Japan) is an academic research institution devoted to the study of Zen Buddhism, serving the needs of researchers, students, teachers, and practitioners of Buddhism. 48.000 character Chinese character database.

Japanese Buddhism - About Buddhism in Japan: the introduction to Japan; and the different sects, with dates.

Karmapa International Buddhist Institute, New Delhi - Offers a four-year program of Buddhist. Founded by HH the 16th Karmapa and emphazises the teachings of the Karma Kagyü school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Major of Seon Studies - Information on this program offered by South Korea's Dongguk University, including required courses.

Origins of Buddhism - A Christian analysis of the history and development of Buddhism.

Pali Language Sources and Resources - Original language of Buddhist sutras.

Resources for the Study of Buddhism - Links to both general Buddhist resources and specialized materials on Zen, Chinese Buddhism, Yogacara Buddhism, and various Buddhist sutras.

Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project - Download site for the first public domain electronic version of the Sri Lankan version of the Pali Canon.

Stanford Center for Buddhist Studies - Serves to coordinate, support, and develop the university's resources for Buddhist studies and other Asian religions in four general areas: scholarly research, academic communication, teaching, and public outreach.

Thinking in Buddhism: Nagarjuna's Middle Way - Academic thesis on early Buddhism, the historical context of Nagarjuna, Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika, and the Philosophy of Madhyamika. - The Vipassana Research Institute publishes the Tipitaka in the pali language on a CD-ROM.

UK Association for Buddhist Studies - Acts as a focus for Buddhist Studies in the UK, and is open to academics, post-graduates, and unaffiliated Buddhist scholars or interested Buddhist practitioners. Based at the University of Sunderland.

University of Bristol, Centre for Buddhist Studies

University of the West - Ch'an-affiliated Buddhist University, based in Rosemead, California.


Glossary of Pali & Buddhist Terms - Glossary that covers many Pali words and technical Buddhist terms.

Buddhism A to Z - Compiled by Ron Epstein, Ph.D.

Buddhism Glossary - On the website of a university Buddhist study and practise group.

Dharma Dictionary : Tibetan-English-Dictionary of Buddhist Teaching & Practice - An ongoing project involved in compiling Buddhist terminology and translation terms to bridge the Tibetan and English languages. Begun in 1979, it has slowly grown to a database of approx 5 megabytes with 65,000 entries.

Dukkha - An extensive discussion of "dukkha", a central term in Buddhism which is not directly translatable into English.

Glossary of Shin Buddhist Terms - Glossary of Shin Buddhist terms, from The Collected Works of Shinran.

Glossary of Terms - Adapted from the "talk.religion.buddhism" FAQ.

Glossary of Zen Terms - A glossary of Zen as used by the Kwan Um School of Zen.

Sesshin Glossary - Definitions of terms used at Zen retreats.

Zen Dictionary - A Japanese Zen dictionary of over 150 commonly used terms.


Buddhas of Bamiyan - A collection of high-quality photos of the Buddhas of Bamiyan taken prior to their destruction by the Taliban.

Buddha's World: History of Buddha and Buddhism - Historical material on Buddhism.

Buddhism on the Silk Road - The civilizations which flourished along the Silk Road in the first millennium CE were open to cultural and religious influences from both East and West. Many religions, including Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, gained new followers. But it was Buddhism, travelling the trade routes of the Silk Road, which became the common factor uniting the different peoples of the Silk Road.

Buddhist and Islam - The historical interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic cultures before the Mongol Empire.

Buddhist Councils - History of the Buddhist councils, which have been periodically convened since the Buddha's death, primarily for the purpose of ensuring the accuracy of the record of the Buddha's teachings.

The Buddhist History of Muktinath /Chumig Gyatsa - Information about the Hindu and Buddhist ancient pilgrimage site, Muktinath, on the Annapurna trekking route in Nepal, includes pictures, news and related links.

History of Buddhism - Overview of the history of Buddhism and the formation of the principal schools of Buddhism.

India and the West - A summary of the history of Indian Buddhism and contacts with the West.

The Questions of King Milinda - Story of the conversion to Buddhism of Milinda, king of Sagala, in the land of the Bactrian Greeks.

Thumbnails Of Threatened Afghan Greco-Buddhist Art - Thumbnails can be clicked on for enlarged views. This is on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) web site.

Timeline of Buddhist History

History - China

Chinese Doctrinal Classifications of Buddhism - In the fifth and sixth centuries CE, Chinese Buddhists employed p'an-chiao as a hermeneutical strategy to reconcile the discrepancies among the different teachings believed to have been taught by the Buddha. By resorting to the doctrine of expedient means, they were able to create a hierarchical framework within which the entire range of Buddhist teachings could be systematically organized into a coherent doctrinal whole.

Dafo - The worlds largest Buddha, in Leshan, China.

A Defense of Buddhism vs. Confucianism - A defense of Buddhism written to refute some of the charges against the new religion from India by Confucian and other Chinese. While the author and date of composition are uncertain, this kind of tract was common in China under the Southern Dynasties (420-589 CE).

Diamond Sutra: The World's Earliest Dated Printed Book - A copy of the Diamond Sutra is the world's oldest example of dated block printing.

Han Yu's Memorial to Buddhism - One of the leaders in the Confucian counterattack on Buddhism was the classical prose stylist and poet Han Yu (768-824 CE), who in 819 CE composed this vitriolic polemic attacking Buddhism. A champion of rationalism, Han Yu wished to suppress Daoism as well as Buddhism.

The Legend of Miao-shan - In China, Kuan-yin (Avalokitesvara) came to be most frequently worshipped in female form as the Goddess of Mercy. This transformation from an originally male deity into a female one seems to have occurred sometime during the Northern Sung dynasty (960-1126 CE) and is reflected in Kuan-yin's miracluous appearance in human form in the legend of Miao-shan.

A Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms - An account of the (394-414CE)journey by Fa-hsien and his companions. They visited as many of the Buddhist sacred shrines as they could, especially those associated with the presence of the Buddha. The selections presented here show the reasons for the estblishment of these shrines, the legends that surrounded them, and the ways in which they were maintained.

Shaolin Kung Fu History - History of how the Shaolin monks first originated in China, with details of their practice

History - India

Buddhist Ethics and Social Criticism - Essay on the development of Buddhist philosophy in India, including social criticism, polemics, personal ethics and morality and theories of human suffering and happiness.

The Buddhist Heritage - Research team involved in the exploration and restoration of forgotten Buddhist sites in India.

Decline and Fall of Buddhism in India - An account of the fall of the Buddhist kings, the resurgence of Hinduism and the entry of Islam to India.

Lumbini Buddha Temple - The Lumbini Buddha Temple including Buddhist Relics in India.

Lumbini On Trial: The Untold Story - Essay on the controversy regarding the exact location of Buddha's birthplace.

Mauryan Empire, Ashoka and the Defeat of Alexander the Great - History of the great Buddhist king Ashoka, and his grandfather, Chandragupta, who defeated Alexander the Great.

Ashoka - A short biography.

Ashoka, King of Behar: The Rock Edicts, c. 257 BCE - Excerpts from some of the Rock Edicts Ashoka used to spread Buddhism.

Ashoka (or Asoka)'s life - Extracts from the Rock and Pillar Edicts of the Indian king Ashoka (290-232 BC).

The Edicts of King Ashoka - Historical overview of what is known about Ashoka and a translation of his edicts.

The Edicts of King Asoka - Historical overview and translation of the edicts.

The Edicts of King Asoka - A translation by the Buddhist Publication Society of all of the known Rock Edicts of King Asoka.

The Life of Ashoka Mauryan - An account of his life, his rise to power, and his conversion and acts. Includes a few relevant pictures.

A Translation of the Edicts of Asoka - Description of his life and a translation of Ashoka's rock edicts.

The Unknown Ashoka - A biography by Pradip Bhattacharya detailing Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism.


Analytical Psychology and Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin - Erika Gsell provides a brief scholarly comparison of some aspects of the theoretical and practical approaches of Nichiren Buddhism with aspects of Jungian analytical psychology.

BBC Religion & Ethics - Nichiren Buddhism - Provides overview of a Japanese Buddhist movement in the Mahayana tradition, also popular in the West; includes information on the Soka Gakkai, Nichiren Shoshu, and Nichiren Shu schools, highlighting background and doctrinal commonalities.

Buddhist Information of North America: Lotus Sutra Study Center - Offers biographies of various Lotus Sutra commentators, along with select academic lectures.

Ethics and the Lotus Suutra - Paper by Peggy Morgan which discusses ethical imperatives associated with historical and religious claims primarily within the Rissho Kosekai Buddhist experience.

The Lotus Sutra - Also known as the "White Lotus of the True Dharma" or "Saddharma-Pundarika Sutta". Translated by Burton Watson.

The Lotus Sutra - Translated By H. Kern (1884).

New Religious Movements: Nichiren Shoshu - Student paper profiling Nichiren Shoshu's history, beliefs, issues and controversies with links, abstracts, and bibliography.

New Religious Movements: Soka Gakkai - Student paper (University of Virginia, 1999) profiling Soka Gakkai's history, beliefs, issues and controversies. Includes links, abstracts and a print bibliography.

Nichiren and the Lotus Sutra - Syllabus and bibliography of works on Nichiren's historical background, career, philosophy and tradition by Jacqueline Stone.

Nichiren Shonin's View of Humanity - Endo Asai considers Nichiren's view of the human state in terms of both thought and actual circumstances. (PDF file, Adobe Acrobat reader software required).

Nichiren, the Buddhist Prophet of the Truth - Collection of quotes and summaries, with links to full text writings based on translations found in the Yampolsky edition of "Letters of Nichiren" (translated by Burton Watson et al.).

PHILTAR Encyclopedia Entry: Nichiren Buddhism - St Martin's College Department of Religion and Ethics synopsis of Nichiren Buddhism.

Presentation on the Lotus Sutra - Lectures on the Lotus Sutra by Rev. Shokai Kanai of the Nichiren Shu.

Review of "A Time to Chant: The Soka Gakkai Buddhists in Britain" - A review by Brian Brocking in the online Journal of Buddhist Ethics of "A Time to Chant: The Soka Gakkai Buddhists in Britain" authored by Bryan Wilson and Karel Dobbelaere.

Rissho University - Department of Nichiren Buddhism and a research institute in Nichiren Buddhist Studies established to educate student priests of the Nichiren sect of Buddhism.

Wikipedia: Lotus Sutra - Encyclopedia article describing the origins and teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

Wikipedia: Nichiren Buddhism - Encyclopedia entry detailing history of sects of Nichiren Buddhism with overview of commonalities.

Rebuking the Enemies of the Lotus - Article by Jacqueline Stone featured in a Special issue of the Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, which offers a brief historical overview outlining the origins of "Lotus exclusivism" in Nichiren's thought and how it affected the development of this branch of Buddhism. [PDF] (June 1, 1994)

Biographical Studies of Nichiren - Jacqueline Stone reviews disparate biographies of Nichiren in this article published in the Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. (PDF file, Adobe Acrobat reader software required).

Life of Nichiren Daishonin - Touches on the defining events of Nichiren Buddhist foundations chronicled in selected chapters from the book of the same title.

Renso Den - Online publication of booklet from Nichiren Daishonin produced for their 750th anniversary.

Synopsis of Nichiren and His Teachings - Thumbnail sketch of Nichiren and his creation of a new sect of Buddhism.

Wikipedia Entry: Nichiren - Highlights the major events of Nichiren's life.


Awakening 101 - An excellent online course on the mystical experience. It begins with the premise that Enlightenment is outside the scriptures. The broad range of links available on various descriptions of "Zen" experience is very useful.

Ch'an Buddhism and the Prophetic Poems of William Blake - An essay discussing the relation between William Blake's poetry and Zen.

Is Zen A Religion? - A philosophical essay

Logical Meanderings between West and East. - A comparison of Aristotle, Nagarjuna and Bhaskar.

On Zen Language and Paradoxes - A philosophical analysis of Zen koans by John King-Farlow.

Religion of the Samurai: A Study of Zen Philosophy and Discipline in Japan and China - 1913 classic book by Kaiten Nukariya. Complete online book.

Semantics And Zen - An essay on how the methods of General Semantics and Zen complement one another.

Truth and Zen - A comparison of the Aristotilian view of truth and Zen's view.

Tsung-Mi and the single word "awareness"(chih) - by Peter N. Gregory, from Philosophy East and West.

The Zen philosopher: A review article on Dogen scholarship in English - The nature and importance of Dogen's thought as representative of the philosophical structure of Zen Buddhism.

Zen Philosophy - A brief introduction to Zen thought.

Suggestions for Further Reading

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