Suggested Further Reading
Notes and References
1. Donald A. Mackanzie, Myths
of Pre-Columbian America, Blackie & Sons Ltd, UK,
p.222, 381, 382, 476, 500 etc.
………………………, Buddhism in Pre-Christrian
Britain, Blackie & Sons Ltd, UK, 1922, p.46, 54,
92-93, 101, etc.
Chamanlal, Hindu America, Hosiapur V. V.
Research Institute, 1956., pp.233-255.
Mahabharat Critical Edition.
India’s Contribution to World Culture and Thought,
Vivekananda Kendra, Madars.
2. Suppression and destruction of
archaeological evidences and misinterpretation of such evidences have
been orchestrated work of the interested groups working at national
and international levels.
Destruction of Bamiyan Buddha statues.
Looting of Kabul musuem and destruction of Kanishka stature etc.
Looting of sites of Mohanjadaro and sealing of them.
Looting of Bagdad musuem and disappearance of 5000 years old
3. R. C. Majumdar, Hindu
Colonies, Firmas K. L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta, 1974.
Reginald Le May, The Culture of South-East Asia,
National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1962.
4. Rajendra Chola with his naval
fleet and army reached many countries in 12th century and
conquered the lands – Jave, Sumatra, Borneo, Ilamuridesam etc., He
left their representatives and returned. The Chinese too acknowledged
their suzertainty and in fact, mentioned the Eastern Ocean as
“Chola’s Ocean” in their records.
5. Colloquium on the Date of
Khurukshetra War Based on Astronomical Data held in
Bangalore on January 5th and 6th 2003. Based on
planetary software, B. Narahari Achar and others prove that the
traditional date about 3100 BCE tally with the stellar and planetary
position as depicted in the Mahabharata when compared with the
6. That script was developed only
after Asokan Brahmi (3rd cent.BCE) and therefore, Indian
could have leaned to write only after 3rd cent.BCE.
Moreover, as Mahabharat mentions about Buddhists and Yavanas, it could
have incorporated such details only after 3rd cent.BCE.
7. M. Winternitze, A
Histrory of Indian Literatrure, University of Calcutta,
1978, Vol.I, Part.II, p.408.
The inscriptional evidences proving that already about 500 CE, the
Mahabharata was no longer an actual epic, but a sacred text-book and
religious discourse is given by the following authors:
R. G. Bhandarker, JBRAS, 10, 1871-2, pp.81 ff.
K. T. Telang, SDE, Vol.8, pp.28 ff
G. Buhler and J. Kirste, Indian Studies, II, SWA, 1892.
8. The authorities differ in dating
the Sangam literature, as they differ about the existence of Sangam,
correlation of megalithic culture with Sangam period, Aryan-Dravidian
controversies, Kumarikkandam hypotheses etc.
Particularly, the western scholars – Asko Parpola (2000) -
recently try to place it upto 8th century CE and of course,
this is nothing but revival and presentation of views of K. N.
Sivaraja Pillai, L. D. Swamikannu Pillai etc., in different way under
the guise of archaeological and linguistic evidences.
9. Only Ettuttogai and Pattuppattu
have been taken for interpretation in this paper.
10. M. Raghava Iyengar, Araychi Toghuthi, Tamil
University, Tanjavur, 1984, pp.177-184.
12. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India,
Oxford University Press, Madras, 1966, p.88.
13. N. K. Sahu, Kharavela, Orissa State
14. K. P. Jayswal,
15a. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, History of Tamils From the
Earliest times to 650 A.D, C. Coomasawmy Naidu & Sons,
Madras, 1929, pp.88-90.
15b. M. Ragava Iyengar, opt.cit, pp.70-77.
21. C. V. Vaidya, Mahabharata – A Criticism,
Cosmos Publications, New Delhi, 1983 (1905 Reprint), pp.9-12, 22-36
22. C. R. Deshpande, Transmission of the Mahabharata
Tradition, Institute of Advanced Study, Simla, 1978.
23. M. R. Joshi, Distorted Text of Mahabharata,
Itihas Darpan, Vol.IX, No.2, July 2003, pp.50-53
24. K. V. Ramakrishna Rao, Sir Isaac Newton and
India, Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Chennai, 2003,
25. Madhwacharya, Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnayam,
26. Sukthankar, Critical Studies in Mahabharat,
V. S. Sukthankar Memorial Edition Committee, Pune, 1944.
27. M. Raghava Iyengar, opt.cit, Valmiki and South
Ibid, Ramayana and Tamil Tradition, pp.16-51.
28. The impression of an Akkadian cylinder seal that,
according to its inscription, belonged to “Su-lisu, Meluhha
29. Asko Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script,
Cambridge University Press, UK, 2000, pp.11-15, 170 etc.
30. S. Kalyanaraman, a paper presented during the National
Seminar held at Pondicherry on “Indus Valley Civilization: A Review
of Recent Research” on September 28, 2003. Also available in the
31. Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, Penguin
Books, USA, 1980, P.218
The Great Epic
300-100 BCE to be the probable date of the Mahabharata.
Cambridge History of India
He gives the limits 4th cent.BCE to 4th cent. CE
s.11, t.V, 1915, p.122
Concludes from the agreement between the geography of the
Buddhist Mahamayuri with that of Mahabharata, that the latter
received its final redaction in the first three or four
34. Bupaya on the river bank in at Hlaung Gyaung in
Pagan (between Irawati and Salwin rivers) is the oldest temple, which
contains a stone sculpture with Dasavatara, where, the 9th one is
Buddha assigned to 10th cent.CE. Therefore, it is evident that
Dasavatara concept had already been established in India to come to
Pagan in 10th century.