27. (Prior to achieving the) high awareness (prajna, i.e similar to
samadhi) there are seven stages/ steps.
28. By the practice of yoga stages/ steps, the impurity diminishes. Thus, the acquisition of discrimination
(vivekakhyati) culminates in knowledge (jnana) (i.e. liberation).
29. There are eight stages/ steps (angas) (of yoga discipline): moral codes of conduct
(yamas), inner disciplines (niyamas), posture (asana), regulation of the breath
(pranayama), withdrawal of sense experience (pratyahara), concentration
(dharana), mediation (dhyana) and awareness (samadhi).
30. The five moral codes of conduct (yamas) are: non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness
(satya), non-stealing/ honesty (asteya), continence (brahmacarya), lack of greed,
31. These great disciplines (mahavrata) are universally valid, beyond social position
(jati), location/ place (desha) or (any particular) time (kala).
32. The five inner disciplines are: purity (both physical and mental) (shauca), contentment
(santosha), austerity (tapas), study (svadhyaya), devotion to God (ishvarapranidhana).
33. When the mind gets disturbed by (various) sounds/ words (vitarkas), one should use their opposites to counteract them.
34. Such negative thoughts leading to violence are caused by greed (lobha), anger
(krodha) and attachment (moha), either to oneself or to others. They vary in intensity as mild
(mridu), medium (madhya) or intense (adhimatra) causing endless pain (duhkha) and ignorance
(ajnana). They should be counteracted by thinking at their opposites.
35. In the presence of one that is being firmly established in non-violence (ahimsa), any hostility ceases.
36. When the truthfulness (satya) is firmly established, there is accomplishment of actions without effort.
37. When the non-stealing/ honesty (asteya) is firmly established, prosperity is obtained.
38. When continence (brahmacarya) is firmly established, vigour (virya) is obtained.
39. When lack of greed is firmly established, the knowledge of the purpose of life is obtained.
40. From (obtaining) purity (both physical and mental) (shauca), there is non-attachment towards one's own body and the bodies of others.
41. (From purity, shauca) one is capable of mental clarity, cheerfulness, ability to concentrate, control of senses and vision of the Self
42. Unlimited happiness is obtained from contentment (santosha).
43. From performing austerities (tapas), impurities (toxins) in the body are removed and the perception of the sense organs (becomes acute).
44. By study (svadhyaya) (of spiritual literature), the union with the presiding deity
(ishtadevata) (of that topic of study) is obtained.
45. Success in awareness (samadhi) comes from complete surrender to God (ishvarapranidhana).
46. The posture (asana) should be steady and comfortable.
47. Loosening of (body) tension during (the practice of) posture (asana), is done by thinking at the unlimited space
48. Thus, the opposites (i.e. pain or pleasure during the posture) have no effects.
49. Next to follow is the control of the breath (pranayama), that is the control of movements of inhalation, exhalation and hiatuses (i.e. pauses of breath known as
50. The stages of control of the breath (pranayama) (are three) as external (i.e. exhalation), internal (i.e. inhalation) and suppressed (i.e. retention). They vary by measuring the length, by counting of their number, by the specific place and timing of practice and (by degree) of subtlety.