Hymns of Rigveda and Atharvaveda Found in Yajurveda

Vedic Yajna

Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith

Contents


PREFACE.

THE YAJURVEDA—derived from the roots yaj, to sacrifice or, worship, and vid, to know,—is the Knowledge of Sacrifice or Sacrificial Texts and Formulas as distinguished from the Rigveda or Knowledge of Recited Praise, the Sâmaveda or Knowledge of Chanted Hymns, and the Atharva or Brahmaveda which is the Knowledge of Prayer, Charm, and Spells. Though ranking second in the Indian enumeration of the Vedas and containing much that is of very ancient origin, its compilation in its present form, exhibiting as it does the almost complete development of castes and mixt castes and considerable advance in arts and sciences, trades, handicrafts and occupations, is evidently of later date than that even of the Atharva. The Samhitâ or Collection of its hymns, texts, and formulas, constituting the hymn-book and prayer-book of the Adhvaryu priests as distinguished from the Hotar, the Udgâtar, and the Brahman, the special priests, respectively, of the three other Vedas, owes its origin to the increasing multiformity and complication of the Indian ritual and the recognized insufficiency of the simple and unsystematically arranged Collection of Rigveda Hymns to meet the requirements of the performers of various essentially important rites and ceremonies.

The Yajurveda, owing to a schism among its earliest teachers and their followers, was divided into two distinct Samhitâs or Collections called—probably from the names of the Rishis or inspired Seers who, ate respectively their reputed compilers—the Taittirîya and the Vâjasaneya or Vâjasaneyi; the former and older being known also by the title Krishna or Black—probably from its dark or obscure appearance, the collection of sacrificial texts and formulas being perplexingly intermingled with the Brâhmana or exegetical portion which explains them and teaches their ritual application—, and the latter being called Sukla or White, the revised, systematic and clear collection, containing the texts and formulas by themselves with a totally distinct Brâhmana, the Satapatha, as an appendix. In the two divisions, besides these essential points of difference, are found occasional verbal and orthoepic variations which are generally of little importance. The order of rites and ceremonies is substantially identical, but the White contains a few more texts than the Black.

The Samhitâ of the White Yajurveda consists of forty Adhyâyas or Books containing, with frequent repetitions of the same text, about two thousand verses. A large portion of these are Richas or Strophes borrowed—frequently with variations—from the Rigveda, and sometimes from the Atharva these, of course, are metrical. Nearly equal in quantity are the Yajus texts or sacrificial formulas—the most characteristic portion, from which the Veda derives its name—composed in measured prose 'which rises now and then,' as Professor Weber observes, 'to a true rhythmical swing,' and long passages, such as the lists of victims to be tied up and dedicated at the Asvamedha and the Purushamedha, which are necessarily in the simplest prose.

For further information with regard to this Veda the reader should consult Professor Weber's History of Indian Literature (English Translation by John Mann and Theodor Zachariae: Trübner's Oriental Series); Professor Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature; Professor J. Eggeling's Introduction, Vol. XII. of the Sacred Books of the East, or, for a briefer account, Mrs. Manning's Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I. pp. 107-109.

My translation follows the fine edition of the White Yajurveda or Vâjasaneyi-Sanhitâ, in the two recensions—the Mâdhyandina and the Kânva—, with Mahîdhara's Commentary, the Vedadîpa, or Lamp of Knowledge, written towards the close of the sixteenth century, published under the patronage of the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India Company in 1849 at Berlin by Dr. Albrecht Weber, at that time Docent of the Sanskrit language at that University. This excellent edition consisting of three Parts the latter two of which contain the Satapatha-Brâhmana in the Mâdhyandina recension with extracts from the Commentaries of Sâyana, Harisvâmin, and Dvivedaganga, and the Srautra-Sûtra of Kâtyâyana with extracts from the Commentaries of Karka and Yâjñikadeva, has not been reprinted and is now practically unobtainable. In India the text of the Mâdhyandina recension with Mahîdhara's Commentary has been issued in a cheap form at Calcutta by Pandit Jîbânanda Vidyâsâgara, B. A., Superintendent of the Free Sanskrit College, of which a second edition appeared in 1892; and a lithographed edition of the text with a Hindi translation of Mahîdhara's Commentary was published in 1874, at Besma in the North-Western Provinces, by Râjâ Giriprasâdavarman of that place. A cheap edition of the text, in unbound MS. form, has been published at Bombay.

No separate translation of the whole Samhitâ or Collection of Texts and Formulas has appeared in any European language. It was Professor Weber's intention, as signified in his History of Indian Literature, to bring out a translation giving the ceremonial belonging to each verse, together with a full glossary, but 'this promise has not been fulfilled, owing to the pressure of other labours.' This scholar had previously published a Latin translation, with annotations in the same language, of Books IX. and X. in his Vâjasaneya-Sanhitae Specimen (Breslau, 1846), and more recently a German version of Book XVI. in Indische Studien II. pp. 14 ff., and of the list of men and women to be dedicated at the Purushamedha in his treatise on Human Sacrifice among Indians of the Vedic Age reprinted in his Indische Streifen I. pp. 76-84. Of Book XL. as an Upanishad there are several translations into English.

Moreover, nearly the whole of the first eighteen Books has been incorporated—dissected and explained clause by clause—in the first nine Books of the Satapatha-Brâhmana; and an admirable translation of this vast work by Professor Julius Eggeling is now nearly completed in the Sacred Books of the East, four volumes (XII, XXVI., XLI., XLIII. of that series) having already appeared, and the concluding volume (XLV) being in the press. From this translation—which, but for its bulk and costliness would make half of my work superfluous—and from Professor Eggeling's annotations, I have derived the greatest assistance, and most gratefully record my obligations.

All that I have attempted to do is to give a faithful translation, to the best of my ability, of the texts and sacrificial formulas of the Veda, with just sufficient commentary, chiefly from Mahîdhara, to make them intelligible. Much additional information way be found in Professor A. Hillebrandt's Ritual-Litteratur, Vedische Opfer and Zauber (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie and Altertumskunde), Strassburg: 1897; and further minute details of the various sacrifices, rites and ceremonies are given in the Satapatha-Brâhmana as already mentioned, and in various articles, referred to in my notes, by Professor A. Weber, the great authority on the Yajurveda and all that is connected with it.

R. T. H. GRIFFITH.

KOTAGIRI, NILGIRIS
May, 1899.


INDEX OF HYMNS FROM THE RIGVEDA AND THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Rigveda Book 1

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 7-9 19
1. 63 248
2. 4 52
2. 7 274
3. 3 274
3. 4-6 195
3. 7 57
3. 10-12 195
6. 1 210
6. 2 210
6. 3 251
9. 1 270
10. 3 65
11. 1 107, 156
14. 3 273
15. 3 233
15. 9 234
18. 1-3 20
18. 6 266
22. 3 13
22. 13 64, 118
22. 17 37
22. 19 44, 118
23. 6 273
23. 17 48
24. 11 168, 196
25. 10 84
26. 10 186
27. 7 49
30. 7 89
31. 1 286
31. 12 281
34. 11 285
35. 2 273
35. 8-11 282
36. 9 92
36. 13 53
40. 1, 5 287
40. 3 278
40. 15 283
44. 13 269
45. 6 136
50. 1 66, 271
50. 2 66
50. 4 272
50. 6 271
50. 10 183, 300
62. 1, 2 281
71. 8 268
75. 5 267
79. 4-6 136
82. 2,3 23
84. 2 65
84. 3 65
84. 19 50
86. 1 84
89. 1-10 226
90. 6-8 118
90. 9 291
91. 1 179
91. 16-18 113
91. 19 33
91. 20, 21, 23 282
92. 6 109
92. 13 284
95. 1 267
96. 5 100, 157
97. 1-8 288
98. 1 232
98. 3 11
102. 1 271
105. 1 278
107. 1 60
112. 24,25 283
114. 1 145
114. 7, 8 141
115. 1 56, 120
115. 4 272
115. 5 272
132. 6 68
147. 2 105
154. 1, 2 38
154. 4-6 44
162. 220
162. 21 212
164. 31 296
164. 34 216
164. 49 297
165. 3 270
165. 4 276
165. 9 277
165. 15 285
186. 1 271
187. 1 280
189. 1 3, 42, 58

Rigveda Book 2

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 1 90
3. 11 159
6. 4 105
7. 6 97
9. 1 92
9, 3 158
10. 4, 5 90
23. 15 231
23. 19 287
27. 1 287
29. 6 274
30. 8 170
32. 6 281
33. 14 146
41. 1, 2 238
41. 7-9 195
41. 13 57

RigVeda Book 3

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
2. 7 276
9. 9 267
11. 2 207
12. 1 57
14. 5 171
22. 1-5 106
24. 1 77
26. 7 170
29. 3, 4 281
29. 8 92
29. 10 18, 106
29. 16 139
30, 1, 2 282
31. 6 274
34. 3 270
35. 6 234
37. 1 170
38. 4 270
45. 1 192
47. 2 58
47. 4 275
47. 5 57
51. 7 57
59. 6 96
62. 10 21, 206
62. 16 196

RigVeda Book 4

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 4, 5 196
1. 20 269
2. 16 182
2. 17 151
4. 1-5 115
7. 1 135, 267
10. 1 153
10. 1-3 137
15. 3 90
20. 1 191
20. 2 192
21. 1 191
31. 1-3 239
32. 1 275
40. 3,4 73
40. 5 84
42. 10 52
47. 1 238
54. 2 274
57. 8 109
58. 159-161
58. 5, 6 119

Rigveda Book 5

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 1 35
1. 12 135
5 1 17
6. 1, 2, 9 137
20. 1 181
24. 20
24. 1, 3, 4 137
25. 7 232
28. 3 268
33. 8 83
42. 4 62
44. 1 53
46. 2, 3 273
47. 3 156
50. 1 27, 97
62. 8 82
81. 1 37,87
81. 2 100
81. 3 88
82. 5 255
85. 2 32

Rigveda Book 6

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
4. 7 268
5. 7 171
7. 1 135, 268
11. 1 135
11. 6 135
16. 13 91, 134
16. 14 91
16. 15 92
16. 16 233
16. 28 150
16. 34 268
19. 1 58
44. 9 285
46. 1, 2 238
47. 11-13 192
47. 26-31 253
48. 1, 2 239
49. 4 274
49. 8 285
50. 14 286
52. 9 276
52. 13 274
59. 6 278
60. 5 275
70. 1 285
71. 3 275
71, 6 60
75.2 51
75. 16-18 154

Rigveda Book 7

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 3 158
8. 4 104
16. 1, 2 136
16. 7 263
23. 4 269
23. 6 192
26. 8 38
32. 22,23 238
35. 1 291
38. 7,8 74
39. 2 273
41. 284
59. 12 24
62. 5 197
66. 4 269
68. 16 292
74. 3 273
90. 3 237
91. 3-5 237
92. 1 52
94. 11 276
99. 3 37

RigVeda Book 8

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
3. 3, 4 277
3. 8 279
6. 1 58
6. 28 233
11. 1 29
11. 7 113
14. 13 182
19. 20 136
26. 21 238
27. 13 278
27. 14 279
42. 1 32
43. 4 267
43. 9 104
43. 13 113
44. 3 207
44. 16 18, 116, 134
45. 2 276
48. 13 180
49, 9 239
52. 12 273
58. 3 107
61. 12, 13 269
64. 1 119
64. 4 134
64. 15 97
65. 10 66
72. 7 273
73. 3 121
77. 1 232
78. 1 188
78. 2, 3 279
82. 4 272
88. 3 272
88. 5, 6 275
90. 1 278
90, 9 277
90. 11, 12 272
91. 20, 21 98
VÂLAKHILYA
HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
3. 7 21, 60
3. 9 277
4. 7 09 ???

Rigveda Book 9

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 1, 2 234
1. 6 172
11. 1 275
54. 1 19
61. 10-12 233
66. 19 177
66. 20 232
66. 21 65
67. 22, 23, 25 178
96. 11 179
110. 3 207

RigVeda Book 10

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
1. 1 102
1. 2 93
8. 6 116, 135
9. 1-3 94
13. 1 87
14. 6 179
14. 9, 16, 18 288
15. 1 179
15. 2 182
15. 3-5 180
15. 5 290
15. 6, 7 181
15. S 179
15. 11 180
15. 12 181
15 13 182
13. 14 181
16. 11 181
16. 12 182
17. 4 212
17. 10 26
17. 11 114
17. 12 55
18. 1 288
36. 12 269
37. 1 33
45. 4 101
45. 8 100
46. 7 267
50. 1 270
53. 8 289
57. 3-6 23
61. 3 54
63. 10 196
64. 6 74
72. 2 151
74. 4 271
81. 1-7 150
82. 25-31 151, 152
87. 22 90
88. 15 179
91. 14, 15 194
97. 75-96 109-111
101. 4, 3 108
103. 1-13 152-154
110. 1-11 250
120. 1 277
121. 1, 3 210
121. 4 226
121. 5 264
121. 7, 8 237
121. 10 83
123. 1 53
128. 9 285
129. 5 276
130. 7 286
131. 2 84, 173
131. 4 86
139. 1 155
139. 2 156
139. 3 108
141. 1 76
141. 3 75
141. 4 277
141. 5 76
152. 4 67, 170
157. 1-3 230
170. 1 271
173. 1 101
180. 2 170
185. 20
189. 17
191. 1 135

Atharva Veda

HYMN & VERSE. PAGE.
BOOK I.
4. 4 72
13. 1 292
35. 1, 2 286
BOOK II.
1. 2 265
6. 1-3 235
BOOK III.
2. 6 154
17. 5, 8, 9 109
19. 1, 3 99
BOOK IV.
1. 1 114
14. 3-5 157
BOOK V.
27. 1 236
BOOK VI.
53. 3 62
115. 3 188
123. 1, 2 169
BOOK VII.
6. 2, 3 196
16. 236
17. 4 62
25. 1 69
26. 8 38
69, 1 291
82. 3 235
82. 5 89
84. 1 235
89. 3 47
97. 1 63
97. 3, 4 62
BOOK IX.
6. 17 139
BOOK X.
8. 13 263
BOOK XII.
2. 8 290
BOOK XIX.
9. 14 292
47. 1 283
55. 1 98

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Source: Reproduced from the Texts of the White Yajurveda, tr. Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1899]. The text has been reformatted by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. This hymns have been divided into two parts at Hinduwebsite.com for convenience, books 1to 20 in part 1 and books 21-40 in part 2. The content section has been placed at the beginning of each part for easy reference and the same have been linked to the page numbers and book heading. While certain pages have been omitted from the online copy presented here such as the title page and the cover page, the index of hymns and verses from the Rigveda and the Athrvaveda has been presented in one page along with the preface for reader's convenient. While all possible care has been taken to reproduce the text accurately, we cannot guarantee the accuracy or the authenticity of the text produced. We strongly recommend referring the original copy of the book for serious study and academic projects and use this text for general reading and understanding.