Asvalayana Grihya Sutra
MOST of the questions referring to the Grihya-sûtra of Âsvalâyana will be treated of more conveniently in connection with the different subjects which we shall have to discuss in our General Introduction to the Grihya-sûtras. Here I wish only to call attention to a well-known passage of Shadgurusishya, in which that commentator gives some statements on the works composed by Âsvalâyana and by his teacher Saunaka. As an important point in that passage has, as far as I can see, been misunderstood by several eminent scholars, I may perhaps be allowed here to try and correct that misunderstanding, though the point stands in a less direct connection with the Grihya-sûtra than with another side of the literary activity of Âsvalâyana.
Shadgurusishya 1, before speaking of Âsvalâyana, makes the following statements with regard to Âsvalâyana's teacher, Saunaka. 'There was,' he says, 'the Sâkala Samhitâ (of the Rig-veda), and the Bâshkala Samhitâ; following these two Samhitâs and the twenty-one Brâhmanas, adopting principally the Aitareyaka and supplementing it by the other texts, he who was revered by the whole number of great Rishis composed the first Kalpa-sûtra.' He then goes on to speak of Âsvalâyana—'Saunaka's pupil was the venerable Âsvalâyana. He who knew everything he had learnt from that teacher, composed a Sûtra and announced (to Saunaka that he had done so) 2.' Saunaka then destroyed his own Sûtra, and
determined that Âsvalâyana's Sûtra should be adopted by the students of that Vedic Sâkhâ. Thus, says Shadgurusishya, there were twelve works of Saunaka by which a correct knowledge of the Rig-veda was preserved, and three works of Âsvalâyana. Saunaka's dasa granthâs were, the five Anukramanîs, the two Vidbânas, the Bârhaddaivata, the Prâtisâkhya, and a Smârta work 1. Âsvalâyana, on the other hand, composed the Srauta-sûtra in twelve Adhyâyas, the Grihya in four Adhyâyas, and the fourth Âranyaka: this is Âsvalâyana's great Sûtra composition 2.
Here we have an interesting and important statement by which the authorship of a part of the Aitareyâranyaka, which would thus be separated from the rest of that text, is ascribed, not to Mahidâsa Aitareya, but to an author of what may be called the historical period of Vedic antiquity, to Âsvalâyana.
But what is the fourth Âranyaka to which this passage refers? Is it the text which is now set down, for instance, in Dr. Râgendralâla Mitra's edition, as the fourth Âranyaka of the Aitareyinas?
Before we give an answer to this question, attention must be called to other passages referring, as it could seem, to another part, namely, the fifth part of the Âranyaka.
Sâyana, in his great commentary on the Rig-veda, very frequently quotes the pañkamâranyaka as belonging to Saunaka. Thus in vol. i, p. 112, ed. Max Müller, he says: pañkamâranyaka aushnihatrikâsîtir iti khande Saunakena sûtritam surûpakritnum ûtaya iti trîny endra sânasim rayim iti dve iti. There is indeed in the fifth Âranyaka a chapter beginning with the words aushnihi trikâsîtih, in which the words quoted by Sâyana occur 3. Similar quotations, in
which the fifth Âranyaka is assigned to Saunaka, are found in Sâyana's commentary on the Âranyaka itself; see, for instance, p. 97, line 19, p. 116, line 3.
Thus it seems that the authorship of both the fourth and the fifth Âranyaka was ascribed to teachers belonging to the Sûtra period of Vedic literature, viz. to Saunaka and to Âsvalâyana respectively. And so we find the case stated by both Professor Weber, in his 'Vorlesungen über indische Literaturgeschichte 1,' and Dr. Râgendralâla Mitra, in the Introduction to his edition of the Aitareya Âranyaka 2.
But we must ask ourselves: Are the two books of the Âranyaka collection, ascribed to those two authors, really two different books? It is a surprising fact that Shadgurusishya, while speaking of Âsvalâyana's authorship of the fourth book, and while at the same time intending, as he evidently does, to give a complete list of Saunaka's compositions, does not mention the fifth Âranyaka among the works of that author. In order to account for this omission the conjecture seems to suggest itself that Shadgurusishya, when speaking of the fourth Âranyaka as belonging to Âsvalâyana, means the same work which Sâyana sets down as the fifth, and which he ascribes to Saunaka. At first sight this conjecture may seem perhaps rather hazardous or unnatural; however I believe that, if we compare the two texts themselves which are concerned, we shall find it very probable and even evident. What do those two Âranyaka books contain? The fourth is very short: it does not fill more than one page in the printed edition. Its contents consist exclusively of the text of the Mahânâmnî or Sakvarî verses, which seem to belong to a not less remote
antiquity than the average of the Rig-veda hymns. They can indeed be considered as forming part of the Rig-veda Samhitâ, and it is only on account of the peculiar mystical holiness ascribed to these verses, that they were not studied in the village but in the forest 1, and were consequently received not into the body of the Samhitâ itself, but into the Âranyaka. They are referred to in all Brâhmana texts, and perhaps we can even go so far as to pronounce our opinion that some passages of the Rig-veda hymns themselves allude to the Sakvarî verses:
yak khakvarîshu brihatâ ravenendre sushmam adadhâtâ Vasishthâh
(Rig-veda VII, 33, 4).
rikâm tvah posham âste pupushvân gâyatram tvo gâyati sakvarîshu (Rig-veda X, 71, 11).
So much for the fourth Âranyaka. The fifth contains a description of the Mahâvrata ceremony. To the same subject also the first book is devoted, with the difference that the first book is composed in the Brâhmana style, the fifth in the Sûtra style 2.
Now which of these two books can it be that Shadgurusishya reckons as belonging to the 'Âsvalâyanasûtraka?' It is impossible that it should be the fourth, for the Mahânâmnî verses never were considered by Indian theologians as the work of a human author; they shared in the apaurusheyatva of the Veda, and to say that they have been composed by Âsvalâyana, would be inconsistent with the most firmly established principles of the literary history of the Veda both as conceived by the Indians and by ourselves. And even if we were to admit that the Mahânâmnî verses can have been assigned, by an author like Shadgurusishya, to Âsvalâyana,—and we cannot admit
this,—there is no possibility whatever that he can have used the expression 'Âsvalâyanasûtrakam' with regard to the Mahânâmnîs; to apply the designation of a Sûtra to the Mahânâmnî hymn would be no less absurd than to apply it to any Sûkta whatever of the Rik-Samhitâ. On the other hand, the fifth book of the Âranyaka is a Sûtra; it is the only part of the whole body of the Âranyaka collection which is composed in the Sûtra style. And it treats of a special part of the Rig-veda ritual the rest of which is embodied in its entirety, with the omission only of that very part, in the two great Sûtras of Âsvalâyana. There seems to me, therefore, to be little doubt as to the fifth Âranyaka really being the text referred to by Shadgurusishya, though I do not know how to explain his setting down this book as the fourth. And I may add that there is a passage, hitherto, as far as I know, unnoticed, in Sâyana's Sâma-veda commentary, in which that author directly assigns the fifth Âranyaka not, as in the Rig-veda commentary, to Saunaka, but to Âsvalâyana. Sâyana there says 1: yathâ bahvrikâm adhyâpakâ mahâvrataprayogapratipâdakam Âsvalâyananirmitam kalpasûtram aranyeऽdhîyamânâh pañkamam âranyakam iti vedatvena vyavaharanti.
Instead of asserting, therefore, that of the two last Âranyakas of the Aitareyinas the one is ascribed to Saunaka, the other to Âsvalâyana, we must state the case otherwise: not two Âranyakas were, according to Sâyana and Shadgurusishya, composed by those Sûtrakâras, but one, viz. the fifth, which forms a sort of supplement to the great body of the Sûtras of that Karana, and which is ascribed either to Saunaka or to Âsvalâyana. Perhaps further research will enable us to decide whether that Sûtra portion of the Âranyaka, or we may say quite as well, that Âranyaka portion of the Sûtra, belongs to the author of the Srauta-sûtra, or should be considered as a remnant of a more ancient composition, of which the portion studied in the forest has survived, while the portion
which was taught in the village was superseded by the more recent Âsvalâyana-sûtra.
There would be still many questions with which an Introduction to Âsvalâyana would have to deal; thus the relation between Âsvalâyana and Saunaka, which we had intended to treat of here with reference to a special point, would have to be further discussed with regard to several other of its bearings, and the results which follow therefrom as to the position of Âsvalâyana in the history of Vedic literature would have to be stated. But we prefer to reserve the discussion of these questions for the General Introduction to the Grihya-sûtras.
1 1. The (rites) based on the spreading (of the three sacred fires) have been declared; we shall declare the Grihya (rites).
2 2. There are three (kinds of) Pâkayagñas, the hutas, (i.e. the sacrifices) offered over the fire; over something that is not the fire, the prahutas; and at the feeding of Brâhmanas, those offered in the Brahman.
3 3. And they quote also Rikas, 'He who with a piece of wood or with an oblation, or with knowledge ("veda").'
4 4. Even he who only puts a piece of wood (on the fire) full of belief, should think, 'Here I offer a sacrifice; adoration to that (deity)!'
(The Rik quoted above then says), 'He who with an oblation'—and, 'He who with knowledge;' even by learning only satisfaction is produced (in the gods).
Seeing this the Rishi has said, 'To him who does not keep away from himself the cows, to him who longs for cows, who dwells in the sky, speak a wonderful word, sweeter than ghee and honey.' Thereby he means, 'This my word, sweeter than ghee and honey, is satisfaction (to the god); may it be sweeter.'
(And another Rishi says), 'To thee, O Agni, by this Rik we offer an oblation prepared by our heart; may these be oxen, bulls, and cows.' (Thereby he means), 'They are my oxen, bulls, and cows (which I offer to the god), they who study this text, reciting it for themselves (as their Svâdhyâya).'
(And further on the Rik quoted above says), 'He who (worships Agni) with adoration, offering rich sacrifices.' 'Verily also by the performing of adoration (the gods may be worshipped); for the gods are not beyond the performing of adoration; adoration verily is sacrifice'—thus runs a Brâhmana.
1 1. Now he should make oblations in the evening and in the morning of prepared sacrificial food,
2 2. To the deities of the Agnihotra, to Soma Vanaspati, to Agni and Soma, to Indra and Agni, to Heaven and Earth, to Dhanvantari, to Indra, to the Visve devâs, to Brahman.
3 3. He says Svâhâ, and then he offers the Balis—
4. To those same deities, to the waters, to the herbs and trees, to the house, to the domestic deities, to the deities of the ground (on which the house stands),
5 5. To Indra and Indra's men, to Yama and Yama's men, to Varuna and Varuna's men, to Soma and Soma's men—these (oblations he makes) to the different quarters (of the horizon, of which those are the presiding deities).
6. To Brahman and Brahman's men in the middle,
7. To the Visve devâs, to all day-walking beings—thus by day;
8. To the night-walking (beings)—thus at night.
9. To the Rakshas—thus to the north.
10. Svadhâ to the fathers (i.e. Manes)'—with these words he should pour out the remnants to the south, with the sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder.
1 1. Now wherever he intends to perform a sacrifice, let him besmear (with cowdung) a surface of the dimension at least of an arrow on each side; let him draw six lines thereon, one turned to the north, to the west (of the spot on which the fire is to be placed); two (lines) turned to the east, at the two different ends (of the line mentioned first); three (lines) in the middle (of those two); let him sprinkle that (place with water), establish the (sacred) fire (thereon), put (two or three pieces of fuel) on it, wipe (the ground) round (the fire), strew (grass) round (it), to the east, to the south, to the west, to the north, ending (each time) in the north. Then (follows) silently the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire).
2. With two (Kusa blades used as) strainers the purifying of the Âgya (is done).
3 3. Having taken two Kusa blades with unbroken tops, which do not bear a young shoot in them, of the measure of a span, at their two ends with his
thumbs and fourth fingers, with his hands turned with the inside upwards, he purifies (the Âgya, from the west) to the east, with (the words), 'By the impulse of Savitri I purify thee with this uninjured purifier, with the rays of the good sun'—once with this formula, twice silently.
4 4. The strewing (of grass) round (the fire) may be done or not done in the Âgya offerings.
5 5. So also the two Âgya portions (may optionally be sacrificed) in the Pâkayagñas.
6 6. And the (assistance of a) Brahman (is optional), except at the sacrifice to Dhanvantari and at the sacrifice of the spit-ox (offered to Rudra).
7 7. Let him sacrifice with (the words), 'To such and such a deity svâhâ!'
8. If there is no rule (as to the deities to whom the sacrifice belongs, they are) Agni, Indra, Pragâpati, the Visve devâs, Brahman.
9 9. (Different Pâkayagñas, when) offered at the same time, should have the same Barhis (sacrificial grass), the same fuel, the same Âgya, and the same (oblation to Agni) Svishtakrit.
10. With reference thereto the following sacrificial stanza is sung:
'He who has to perform (different) Pâkayagñas, should offer them with the same Âgya, the same
[paragraph continues] Barhis, and the same Svishtakrit, even if the deity (of those sacrifices) is not the same.'
1 4_1. During the northern course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon, under an auspicious Nakshatra the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation (of a Brahmakârin), the cutting of the beard, and marriage (should be celebrated).
2. According to some (teachers), marriage (may be celebrated) at any time.
3. Before those (ceremonies) let him sacrifice four Âgya oblations—
4. With the three (verses), 'Agni, thou purifiest life' (Rig-veda I X, 66, 10 seq.), and with (the one verse), 'Pragâpati, no other one than thou' (Rig-Veda X, 121, 10).
5 5. Or with the Vyâhritis.
6 6. According to some (teachers), the one and the other.
7 7. No such(oblations), according to some (teachers).
8. At the marriage the fourth oblation with the verse, 'Thou (O Agni) art Aryaman towards the girls' (Rig-veda V, 3, 2).
1 5_1. Let him first examine the family (of the intended bride or bridegroom), as it has been said above,
[paragraph continues] 'Those who on the mother's and on the father's side.'
2. Let him give the girl to a (young man) endowed with intelligence.
3. Let him marry a girl that shows the characteristics of intelligence, beauty, and moral conduct, and who is free from disease.
4 4. As the characteristics (mentioned in the preceding Sûtra) are difficult to discern, let him make eight lumps (of earth), recite over the lumps the following formula, 'Right has been born first, in the beginning; on the right truth is founded. For what (destiny) this girl is born, that may she attain here. What is true may that be seen,' and let him say to the girl, 'Take one of these.'
5 5. If she chooses the (lump of earth taken) from a field that yields two crops (in one year), he may know, 'Her offspring will be rich in food.' If from a cow-stable, rich in cattle. If from the earth of a Vedi (altar), rich in holy lustre. If from a pool which does not dry up, rich in everything. If from a gambling-place, addicted to gambling. If from a place where four roads meet, wandering to different directions. If from a barren spot, poor. If from a burial-ground, (she will) bring death to her husband.
1 1. (The father) may give away the girl, having decked her with ornaments, pouring out a libation of water: this is the wedding (called) Brâhma. A son born by her (after a wedding of this kind) brings purification to twelve descendants and to twelve ancestors on both (the husband's and the wife's) sides.
2 2. He may give her, having decked her with ornaments, to an officiating priest, whilst a sacrifice with the three (Srauta) fires is going on: this (is the wedding called) Daiva. (A son) brings purification to ten descendants and to ten ancestors on both sides.
3 3. They fulfil the law together: this (is the wedding called) Prâgâpatya. (A son) brings purification to eight descendants and to eight ancestors on both sides.
4 4. He may marry her after having given a bull and a cow (to the girl's father): this (is the wedding called) Ârsha. (A son) brings purification to seven descendants and to seven ancestors on both sides.
5 5. He may marry her, after a mutual agreement has been made (between the lover and the damsel): this (is the wedding called) Gândharva.
6 6. He may marry her after gladdening (her father) by money: this (is the wedding called) Âsura.
7 7. He may carry her off while (her relatives) sleep or pay no attention: this (is the wedding called) Paisâka.
8 8. He may carry her off, killing (her relatives) and cleaving (their) heads, while she weeps and they weep: this (is the wedding called) Râkshasa.
1. Now various indeed are the customs of the (different) countries and the customs of the (different) villages: those one should observe at the wedding.
2. What, however, is commonly accepted, that we shall state.
3 3. Having placed to the west of the fire a mill-stone, to the north-east (of the fire) a water-pot, he should sacrifice, while she takes hold of him. Standing, with his face turned to the west, while she is sitting and turns her face to the east, he should with (the formula), 'I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness seize her thumb if he desires that only male children may be born to him;
4. Her other fingers, (if he is) desirous of female (children);
5. The hand on the hair-side together with the
thumb, (if) desirous of both (male and female children).
6 6. Leading her three times round the fire and the water-pot, so that their right sides are turned towards (the fire, &c.), he murmurs, 'This am I, that art thou; that art thou, this am I; the heaven I, the earth thou; the Sâman I, the Rik thou. Come! Let us here marry. Let us beget offspring. Loving, bright, with genial mind may we live a hundred autumns.'
7 7. Each time after he has lead her (so) round, he makes her tread on the stone with (the words), 'Tread on this stone; like a stone be firm. Overcome the enemies; tread the foes down.'
8 8. Having 'spread under' (i.e. having first poured Âgya over her hands), her brother or a person acting in her brother's place pours fried grain twice over the wife's joined hands.
9 9. Three times for descendants of Gamadagni.
10. He pours again (Âgya) over (what has been left of) the sacrificial food,
11. And over what has been cut off.
12. This is the rule about the portions to be cut off.
13 13. 'To god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice,
to Agni; may he, god Aryaman, loosen her from this, and not from that place, Svâhâ!
'To god Varuna the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Varuna, &c.
'To god Pûshan the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Pûshan, &c.'—with (these verses recited by the bridegroom) she should sacrifice (the fried grain) without opening her joined hands, as if (she did so) with the (spoon called) Sruk.
14 14-15. Without that leading round (the fire, she sacrifices grain) with the neb of a basket towards herself silently a fourth time.
15. Some lead the bride round each time after the fried grain has been poured out: thus the two last oblations do not follow immediately on each other.
16. He then loosens her two locks of hair, if they are made, (i.e. if) two tufts of wool are bound round her hair on the two sides,
17. With (the Rik),'I release thee from the band of Varuna' (Rig-veda X, 85, 24).
18. The left one with the following (Rik).
19 19. He then causes her to step forward in a northeastern direction seven steps with (the words), 'For sap with one step, for juice with two steps, for thriving of wealth with three steps, for comfort with four steps, for offspring with five steps, for the seasons
with six steps. Be friend with seven steps. So be thou devoted to me. Let us acquire many sons who may reach old age!'
20 20. Joining together their two heads, (the bridegroom? the Âkârya?) sprinkles them (with water) from the water-pot.
21. And she should dwell that night in the house of an old Brâhmana woman whose husband is alive and whose children are alive.
22 22. When she sees the polar-star, the star Arundhatî, and the seven Rishis (ursa major), let her break the silence (and say), 'May my husband live and I get offspring.'
1 1. If (the newly-married couple) have to make a journey (to their new home), let him cause her to mount the chariot with the (verse), 'May Pûshan lead thee from here holding thy hand' (Rig-veda X, 85, 26).
2 2. With the hemistich, 'Carrying stones (the river) streams; hold fast each other' (Rig-veda X, 53, 8) let him cause her to ascend a ship.
3. With the following (hemistich) let him make her descend (from it).
4 4. (He pronounces the verse), 'The living one they bewail' (Rig-veda X, 40, 10), if she weeps.
5. They constantly carry the nuptial fire in front.
6 6. At lovely places, trees, and cross-ways let him murmur (the verse), 'May no waylayers meet us' (Rig-veda X, 85, 32).
7. At every dwelling-place (on their way) let him look at the lookers on, with (the verse), 'Good luck brings this woman' (Rig-veda X, 85, 33).
8 8. With (the verse), 'Here may delight fulfil itself to thee through offspring' (Rig-veda X, 85, 27) he should make her enter the house.
9 9. Having given its place to the nuptial fire, and having spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the neck to the east, with the hair outside, he makes oblations, while she is sitting on that (hide) and takes hold of him, with the four (verses), 'May Pragâpati create offspring to us' (Rig-veda X, 85, 43 seq.), verse by verse, and with (the verse), 'May all the gods unite' (Rig-veda X, 85, 47), he partakes of curds and gives (thereof) to her, or he besmears their two hearts with the rest of the Âgya (of which he has sacrificed).
10. From that time they should eat no saline food, they should be chaste, wear ornaments, sleep on the ground three nights or twelve nights;
11. Or one year, (according to) some (teachers); thus, they say, a Rishi will be born (as their son).
12 12. When he has fulfilled (this) observance (and has had intercourse with his wife), he should give the bride's shift to (the Brâhmana) who knows the Sûryâ hymn (Rig-veda X, 85);
13. 'Food to the Brâhmanas;
14. Then he should cause them to pronounce auspicious words.
1 1. Beginning from the seizing of (the bride's) hand (i.e. from the wedding), he should worship the domestic (fire) himself, or his wife, or also his son, or his daughter, or a pupil.
2. (The fire) should be kept constantly.
3. When it goes out, however, the wife should fast: thus (say) some (teachers).
4 4. The time for setting it in a blaze and for sacrificing in it has been explained by (the rules given with regard to) the Agnihotra,
5 5. And the sacrificial food, except meat.
6. But if he likes he may (perform the sacrifice) with rice, barley, or sesamum.
7. He should sacrifice in the evening with (the formula), 'To Agni svâhâ!' in the morning with (the formula), 'To Sûrya svâhâ!' Silently the second (oblations) both times.
1. Now the oblations of cooked food on the (two) Parvan (i.e. the new and full moon) days.
2. The fasting (which takes place) thereat has been declared by (the corresponding rules regarding) the Darsapûrnamâsa sacrifices.
3 3. And (so has been declared) the binding together of the fuel and of the Barhis,
4 4. And the deities (to whom those oblations belong), with the exception of the Upâmsuyâga (offerings at which the formulas are repeated with low voice), and of Indra and Mahendra.
5. Other deities (may be worshipped) according to the wishes (which the sacrificer connects with his offerings).
6. For each single deity he pours out four handsful (of rice, barley, &c.), placing two purifiers (i.e. Kusa blades, on the vessel), with (the formula), 'Agreeable to such and such (a deity) I pour thee out.'
7. He then sprinkles them (those four portions of Havis with water) in the same way as he had poured them out, with (the formula), 'Agreeable to such and such (a deity) I sprinkle thee.'
8. When (the rice or barley grains) have been husked and cleansed from the husks three times, let him cook (the four portions) separately,
9. Or throwing (them) together.
10. If he cooks them separately, let him touch the grains, after he has separated them, (and say,) 'This to this god; this to this god.'
11. But if he (cooks the portions) throwing (them) together, he should (touch and) sacrifice them, after he has put (the single portions) into different vessels.
12 12. The portions of sacrificial food, when they
have been cooked, he sprinkles (with Âgya, takes them from the fire towards the north, places them on the Barhis, and sprinkles the fuel with Âgya with the formula, 'This fuel is thy self, Gâtavedas; thereby burn thou and increase, and, O burning One, make us increase and through offspring, cattle, holy lustre, and nourishment make us prosper. Svâhâ!'
13 13. Having silently poured out the two Âghâras (or Âgya oblations poured out with the Sruva, the one from north-west to south-east, the other from south-west to north-east), he should sacrifice the two Âgya portions with (the formulas), 'To Agni svâhâ! To Soma svâhâ!'—
14 14. The northern one belonging to Agni, the southern one to Soma.
15 15. It is understood (in the Sruti), The two eyes indeed of the sacrifice are the Âgya portions,
16 16. 'Therefore of a man who is sitting with his face to the west the southern (i.e. right) eye is northern, the northern (i.e. left) eye is southern.'
17 17. In the middle (of the two Âgya portions he
sacrifices the other) Havis, or more to the west, finishing (the oblations) in the east or in the north.
18. To the north-east the oblation to (Agni) Svishtakrit.
19 19-20. He cuts off (the Avadâna portions) from the Havis from the middle and from the eastern part;
20. From the middle, the eastern part and the western part (the portions have to be cut off) by those who make five Avadânas;
21. From the northern side the portion for Svishtakrit.
22 22. Here he omits the second pouring (of Âgya) over (what is left of) the sacrificial food.
23 23. 'What I have done too much in this ceremony, or what I have done here too little, all that may Agni Svishtakrit, he who knows it, make well sacrificed and well offered for me. To Agni Svishtakrit, to him who offers the oblations for general expiation, so that they are well offered, to him who makes us succeed in what we desire! Make us in all that we desire successful! Svâhâ!'
24 24. He pours out the full vessel on the Barhis.
25 25. This is the Avabhritha.
26. This is the standard form of the Pâkayagñas.
27. What has been left of the Havis is the fee for the sacrifice.
1. Now (follows) the ritual of the animal sacrifice.
2 2. Having prepared to the north of the fire the place for the Sâmitra fire, having given drink (to the animal which he is going to sacrifice), having washed the animal, having placed it to the east (of the fire) with its face to the west, having made oblations with the two Rikas, 'Agni as our messenger' (Rig-veda I, 12, 1 seq.), let him touch (the animal) from behind with a fresh branch on which there are leaves, with (the formula), 'Agreeable to such and such (a deity) I touch thee.'
3. He sprinkles it from before with water in which rice and barley are, with (the formula), 'Agreeable to such and such (a deity) I sprinkle thee.'
4. Having given (to the animal) to drink of that (water), he should pour out the rest (of it) along its right fore-foot.
5. Having carried fire round (it), performing that act only (without repeating a corresponding Mantra), they lead it to the north.
6 6. In front of it they carry a fire-brand.
7 7 This is the Sâmitra (fire).
8 8. With the two Vapâsrapanî ladles the 'performer' touches the animal.
9. The sacrificer (touches) the performer.
10 10. To the west of the Sâmitra (fire) he (the Samitri) kills (the animal), the head of which is turned to the east or to the west, the feet to the north; and having placed a grass-blade on his side of the (animal's) navel, (the 'performer') draws out the omentum, cuts off the omentum, seizes it with the two Agnisrapanîs, sprinkles it with water, warms it at the Sâmitra (fire), takes it before that fire, roasts it, being seated to the south, goes round (the two fires), and sacrifices it.
11 11. At the same fire they cook a mess of food.
12 12. Having cut off the eleven Avadânas (or portions which have to be cut off) from the animal, from all its limbs, having boiled them at the Sâmitra (fire),
and having warmed the heart on a spit, let him sacrifice first from the mess of cooked food (mentioned in Sûtra 11);
13. Or together with the Avadâna portions.
14 14. From each of the (eleven) Avadânas he cuts off two portions.
15 15. They perform the rites only (without corresponding Mantras) with the heart's spit (i.e. the spit on which the heart had been; see Sûtra 12).
1 1. At a Kaitya sacrifice he should before the Svishtakrit (offering) offer a Bali to the Kaitya.
2 2. If, however, (the Kaitya) is distant, (he should send his Bali) through a leaf-messenger.
3 3. With the Rik, 'Where thou knowest, O tree' (Rig-veda V, 5, 10), let him make two lumps (of food), put them on a carrying-pole, hand them over to the messenger, and say to him, 'Carry this Bali to that (Kaitya).'
4. (He gives him the lump) which is destined for the messenger, with (the words), 'This to thee.'
5. If there is anything dangerous between (them and the Kaitya), (he gives him) some weapon also.
6 6. If a navigable river is between (them and the Kaitya, he gives him) also something like a raft with (the words), 'Hereby thou shalt cross.'
7 7. At the Dhanvantari sacrifice let him offer first a Bali to the Purohita, between the Brahman and the fire.
1 1. The Upanishad (treats of) the Garbhalambhana, the Pumsavana, and the Anavalobhana (i.e. the ceremonies for securing the conception of a child, the male gender of the child, and for preventing disturbances which could endanger the embryo).
2 2. If he does not study (that Upanishad), he
should in the third month of her pregnancy, under (the Nakshatra) Tishya, give to eat (to the wife), after she has fasted, in curds from a cow which has a calf of the same colour (with herself), two beans and one barley grain for each handful of curds.
3. To his question, 'What dost thou drink? What dost thou drink?' she should thrice reply, 'Generation of a male child! Generation of a male child!'
4. Thus three handfuls (of curds).
5 5. He then inserts into her right nostril, in the shadow of a round apartment, (the sap of) an herb which is not faded,
6 6. According to some (teachers) with the Pragâvat and Gîvaputra hymns.
7. Having sacrificed of a mess of cooked food sacred to Pragâpati, he should touch the place of her heart with the (verse,) 'What is hidden, O thou whose hair is well parted, in thy heart, in Pragâpati, that I know; such is my belief. May I not fall into distress that comes from sons.'
1. In the fourth month of pregnancy the Sîmantonnayana (or parting of the hair, is performed).
2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, when the moon stands in conjunction with a Nakshatra (that has a name) of masculine gender—
3 3. Then he gives its place to the fire, and having spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the neck to the east, with the hair outside, (he makes oblations,) while (his wife) is sitting on that (hide) and takes hold of him, with the two (verses), 'May Dhâtri give to his worshipper,' with the two verses, 'I invoke Râkâ' (Rig-veda II, 32, 4 seq.), and with (the texts), 'Negamesha,' and, 'Pragâpati, no other one than thou' (Rig-Veda X, 121, 10).
4. He then three times parts her hair upwards (i.e. beginning from the front) with a bunch containing an even number of unripe fruits, and with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, and with three bunches of Kusa grass, with (the words), 'Bhûr bhuvah, svar, om!'
5. Or four times.
6. He gives orders to two lute-players, 'Sing king Soma.'
7 7. (They sing) 'May Soma our king bless the human race. Settled is the wheel of N.N.'—(here they name) the river near which they dwell.
8. And whatever aged Brâhmana woman, whose husbands and children are alive, tell them, that let them do.
9. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice.
1 1. When a son has been born, (the father) should, before other people touch him, give him to eat from gold (i.e. from a golden vessel or with a golden spoon) butter and honey with which he has ground gold(-dust), with (the verse), 'I administer to thee the wisdom ('veda') of honey, of ghee, raised by Savitri the bountiful. Long-living, protected by the gods, live a hundred autumns in this world!'
2. Approaching (his mouth) to (the child's) two ears he murmurs the 'production of intelligence:' 'Intelligence may give to thee god Savitri, intelligence may goddess Sarasvatî, intelligence may give to thee the two divine Asvins, wreathed with lotus.'
3 3. He touches (the child's) two shoulders with (the verse), 'Be a stone, be an axe, be insuperable gold. Thou indeed art the Veda, called son; so live a hundred autumns'—and with (the verses), 'Indra, give the best treasures' (Rig-veda II, 21, 6), Bestow on us, O bountiful one, O speedy one' (Rig-veda III, 36, 10).
4. And let them give him a name beginning with
a sonant, with a semivowel in it, with the Visarga at its end, consisting of two syllables,
5. Or of four syllables;
6. Of two syllables, if he is desirous of firm position; of four syllables, if he is desirous of holy lustre;
7. But in every case with an even number (of syllables) for men, an uneven for women.
8. And let him also find out (for the child) a name to be used at respectful salutations (such as that due to the Âkârya at the ceremony of the initiation); that his mother and his father (alone) should know till his initiation.
9. When he returns from a journey, he embraces his son's head and murmurs, 'From limb by limb thou art produced; out of the heart thou art born. Thou indeed art the self called son; so live a hundred autumns!'—(thus) he kisses him three times on his head.
10. The rite only (without the Mantra is performed) for a girl.
1 1. In the sixth month the Annaprâsana (i.e. the first feeding with solid food).
2. Goat's flesh, if he is desirous of nourishment,
3. Flesh of partridge, if desirous of holy lustre,
4. Boiled rice with ghee, if desirous of splendour:
5. (Such) food, mixed with curds, honey and ghee he should give (to the child) to eat with (the verse), 'Lord of food, give us food painless and strong;
bring forward the giver; bestow power on us, on men and animals.'
6. The rite only (without the Mantra) for a girl.
1. In the third year the Kaula (i.e. the tonsure of the child's head), or according to the custom of the family.
2. To the north of the fire he places vessels which are filled respectively, with rice, barley, beans, and sesamum seeds;
3. To the west (the boy) for whom the ceremony shall be performed, in his mother's lap, bull-dung in a new vessel, and Samî leaves are placed.
4 4. To the south of the mother the father (is seated) holding twenty-one bunches of Kusa grass.
5. Or the Brahman should hold them.
6. To the west of (the boy) for whom the ceremony is to be performed, (the father) stations himself and pours cold and warm water together with (the words), 'With warm water, O Vâyu, come hither!'
7. Taking of that (water), (and) fresh butter, or (some) drops of curds, he three times moistens (the boy's) head, from the left to the right, with (the formula), 'May Aditi cut thy hair; may the waters moisten thee for vigour!'
8 8. Into the right part (of the hair) he puts each
time three Kusa bunches, with the points towards (the boy) himself, with (the words), 'Herb! protect him!'
9. (With the words,) 'Axe! do no harm to him!' he presses a copper razor (on the Kusa blades),
10. And cuts (the hair) with (the verse), 'The razor with which in the beginning Savitri the knowing one has shaved (the beard) of king Soma and of Varuna, with that, ye Brâhmanas, shave now his (hair), that he may be blessed with long life, with old age.'
11. Each time that he has cut, he gives (the hairs) with their points to the east, together with Samî leaves, to the mother. She puts them down on the bull-dung.
12. 'With what Dhâtri has shaven (the head) of Brihaspati, Agni and Indra, for the sake of long life, with that I shave thy (head) for the sake of long life, of glory, and of welfare'—thus a second time.
13 13. 'By what he may at night further see the sun, and see it long, with that I shave thy (head) for the sake of long life, of glory, and of welfare'—thus a third time.
14. With all (the indicated) Mantras a fourth time.
15. Thus three times on the left side (of the head).
16 16. Let him wipe off the edge of the razor with (the words), 'If thou shavest, as a shaver, his hair with the razor, the wounding, the well-shaped, purify his head, but do not take away his life.'
17. Let him give orders to the barber, 'With lukewarm water doing what has to be done with water, without doing harm to him, arrange (his hair) well.'
18 18. Let him have the arrangement of the hair made according to the custom of his family.
19. The rite only (without the Mantras) for a girl.
1. Thereby the Godânakarman (i.e. the ceremony of shaving the beard, is declared).
2. In the sixteenth year.
3. Instead of the word 'hair' he should (each time that it occurs in the Mantras) put the word 'beard.'
4 4. Here they moisten the beard.
5 5. (The Mantra is), 'Purify his head and his face, but do not take away his life.'
6 6. He gives orders (to the barber with the words), 'Arrange his hair, his beard, the hair of his body, and his nails, ending in the north.'
7 7-8. Having bathed and silently stood during the rest of the day, let him break his silence in the presence of his teacher, (saying to him,) 'I give an optional gift (to thee).'
8. An ox and a cow is the sacrificial fee.
9 9. Let (the teacher) impose (on the youth the observances declared below) for one year.
1. In the eighth year let him initiate a Brâhmana,
2. Or in the eighth year after the conception;
3. In the eleventh a Kshatriya;
4. In the twelfth a Vaisya.
5. Until the sixteenth (year) the time has not passed for a Brâhmana;
6. Until the twenty-second for a Kshatriya;
7. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vaisya.
8. After that (time has passed), they become patitasâvitrîka (i.e. they have lost their right of learning the Sâvitrî).
9. No one should initiate such men, nor teach them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor have intercourse with them.
10 10. (Let him initiate) the youth who is adorned and whose (hair on the) head is arranged, who wears a (new) garment that has not yet been washed, or an antelope-skin, if he is a Brâhmana, the skin of a spotted deer, if a Kshatriya, a goat's skin, if a Vaisya.
11. If they put on garments, they should put on dyed (garments): the Brâhmana a reddish yellow one, the Kshatriya a light red one, the Vaisya a yellow one.
12. Their girdles are: that of a Brâhmana made of Muñga grass, that of a Kshatriya a bow-string, that of a Vaisya woollen.
13. Their staffs are: that of a Brâhmana of Palâsa wood, that of a Kshatriya of Udumbara wood, that of a Vaisya of Bilva wood.
1. Or all (sorts of staffs are to be used) by (men of) all (castes).
2 2. While (the student) takes hold of him, the teacher sacrifices and then stations himself to the north of the fire, with his face turned to the east.
3. To the east (of the fire) with his face to the west the other one.
4. (The teacher then) fills the two hollows of (his own and the student's) joined hands with water, and with the verse, 'That we choose of Savitri' (Rig-veda V, 82, 1) he makes with the full (hollow of his own hands the water) flow down on the full (hollow of) his, (i.e. the student's hands.) Having (thus) poured (the water over his hands) he should with his (own) hand seize his (i.e. the student's) hand together with the thumb, with (the formula), 'By the impulse of the god Savitri, with the arms of the two Asvins, with Pûshan's hands I seize thy hand, N.N.!'
5. With (the words), 'Savitri has seized thy hand, N.N.!' a second time.
6. With (the words), 'Agni is thy teacher, N.N.!' a third time.
7. He should cause him to look at the sun while the teacher says, 'God Savitri, this is thy Brahmakârin; protect him; may he not die.'
8. (And further the teacher says), 'Whose Brahmakârin art thou? The breath's Brahmakârin art thou. Who does initiate thee, and whom (does he initiate)? To whom shall I give thee in charge?'
9. With the half verse, 'A youth, well attired, dressed came hither' (Rig-veda III, 8, 4) he should cause him to turn round from the left to the right.
10. Reaching with his two hands over his (i.e. the student's) shoulders (the teacher) should touch the place of his heart with the following (half verse).
11 11. Having wiped the ground round the fire, the student should put on a piece of wood silently. 'Silence indeed is what belongs to Pragâpati. The student becomes belonging to Pragâpati'—this is understood (in the Sruti).
1. Some (do this) with a Mantra: 'To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great Gâtavedas. Through that piece of wood increase thou, O Agni; through the Brahman (may) we (increase). Svâhâ!'
2. Having put the fuel (on the fire) and having
touched the fire, he three times wipes off his face with (the words), 'With splendour I anoint myself.'
3. 'For with splendour does he anoint himself'—this is understood (in the Sruti).
4. 'On me may Agni bestow insight, on me offspring, on me splendour.
'On me may Indra bestow insight, on me offspring, on me strength (indriya).
'On me may Sûrya bestow insight, on me offspring, on me radiance.
'What thy splendour is, Agni, may I thereby become resplendent.
'What thy vigour is, Agni, may I thereby become vigorous.
'What thy consuming power is, Agni, may I thereby obtain consuming power'—with (these formulas) he should approach the fire, bend his knee, embrace (the teacher's feet), and say to him, 'Recite, sir! The Sâvitrî, sir, recite!'
5. Seizing with his (i.e. the student's) garment and with (his own) hands (the student's) hands (the teacher) recites the Sâvitrî, (firstly) Pâda by Pâda, (then) hemistich by hemistich, (and finally) the whole (verse).
6. He should make him recite (the Sâvitrî) as far as he is able.
7. On the place of his (i.e. the student's) heart (the teacher) lays his hand with the fingers upwards, with (the formula), 'Into my will I take thy heart; after my mind shall thy mind follow; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy will; may Brihaspati join thee to me.'
1. Having tied the girdle round him and given him the staff, he should impose the (observances of the) Brahmakarya on him—
2. (With the words), 'A Brahmakârin thou art. Eat water. Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time. Devoted to the teacher study the Veda.'
3. Twelve years lasts the Brahmakarya for (each) Veda, or until he has learnt it.
4. Let him beg (food) in the evening and in the morning.
5. Let him put fuel on (the fire) in the evening and in the morning.
6. Let him beg first of a man who will not refuse,
7. Or of a woman who will not refuse.
8. (In begging he should use the words), 'Sir, give food!'
9 9. Or, '(Sir, give) Anupravakanîya (food).'
10 10. That (which he has received) he should announce to his teacher.
11. He should stand the rest of the day.
12 12. After sunset (the student) should cook the Brâhmaudana (or boiled rice with which the Brâhmanas are to be fed) for the Anupravakanîya sacrifice (the sacrifice to be performed after a part of the Veda has been studied), and should announce to the teacher (that it is ready).
13. The teacher should sacrifice, while the student takes hold of him, with the verse, 'The wonderful lord of the abode' (Rig-Veda I, 18, 6).
14. A second time with the Sâvitrî—
15 15. And whatever else has been studied afterwards.
16. A third time to the Rishis.
17. A fourth time (the oblation) to (Agni) Svishtakrit.
18 18. Having given food to the Brâhmanas he should cause them to pronounce the end of the Veda (study).
19. From that time (the student) should eat no saline food; he should observe chastity, and should sleep on the ground through three nights, or twelve nights, or one year.
20 20. When he has fulfilled those observances, (the teacher) performs (for him) the 'production of intelligence,' (in the following way):
21 21. While (the student) towards an unobjectionable direction (of the horizon) sprinkles thrice (water) from the left to the right with a water-pot round a
[paragraph continues] Palâsa (tree) with one root, or round a Kusa bunch, if there is no Palâsa, (the teacher) causes him to say, 'O glorious one, thou art glorious. As thou, O glorious one, art glorious, thus, O glorious one, lead me to glory. As thou art the preserver of the treasure of sacrifice for the gods, thus may I become the preserver of the treasure of the Veda for men.'
22 22. Thereby, beginning with his having the hair cut, and ending with the giving in charge, the imposing of observances has been declared.
23. Thus for one who has not been initiated before.
24. Now as regards one who has been initiated before:
25 25. The cutting of the hair is optional,
26 26. And the 'production of intelligence.'
27 27. On the giving in charge there are no express rules (in this case);
28 28. And on the time.
29 29. (He should recite to him) as the Sâvitrî (the Rik),'That we choose of god Savitri' (Rig-veda V, 82, 1).
1 1. He chooses priests (for officiating at a sacrifice) with neither deficient nor superfluous limbs, 'who on
the mother's and on the father's side (&c.),' as it has been said above.
2. Let him choose young men as officiating priests: thus (declare) some (teachers).
3. He chooses first the Brahman, then the Hotri, then the Adhvaryu, then the Udgâtri.
4 4. Or all who officiate at the Ahîna sacrifices and at those lasting one day.
5 5. The Kaushîtakinas prescribe the Sadasya as the seventeenth, saying, 'He is the looker-on at the performances.'
6 6. This has been said in the two Rikas, 'He whom the officiating priests, performing (the sacrifice) in many ways' (Rig-veda VIII, 58, I. 2).
7 7. He chooses the Hotri first.
8. With (the formula), 'Agni is my Hotri; he is my Hotri; I choose thee N.N. as my Hotri' (he chooses) the Hotri.
9. With (the formula), 'Kandramas (the moon) is my Brahman; he is my Brahman; I choose thee N.N. as my Brahman' (he chooses) the Brahman.
10. With (the formula), 'Âditya (the sun) is my Adhvaryu; (he is my Adhvaryu, &c.)'—the Adhvaryu.
11. With (the formula), 'Parganya is my Udgâtri; (he is my Udgâtri, &c.)'—the Udgâtri.
12 12. With (the formula), 'The waters are my reciters of what belongs to the Hotrakas'—the Hotrakas.
13 13-14. With (the formula), 'The rays are my Kamasâdhvaryus'—the Kamasâdhvaryus.
14. With (the formula), 'The ether is my Sadasya'—the Sadasya.
15. He whom he has chosen should murmur, 'A great thing thou hast told me; splendour thou hast told me; fortune thou hast told me; glory thou hast told me; praise thou hast told me; success thou hast told me; enjoyment thou hast told me; satiating thou hast told me; everything thou hast told me.'
16. Having murmured (this formula), the Hotri declares his assent (in the words), 'Agni is thy Hotri; he is thy Hotri; thy human Hotri am I.'
17. 'Kandramas (the moon) is thy Brahman; he is thy Brahman (&c.)'—thus the Brahman.
18. In the same way the others according to the prescriptions (given above).
19 19. And if (the priest who accepts the invitation)
is going to perform the sacrifice (for the inviting person, he should add), 'May that bless me; may that enter upon me; may I thereby enjoy (bliss).'
20 20. The functions of an officiating priest are not to be exercised, if abandoned (by another priest), or at an Ahîna sacrifice with small sacrificial fee, or for a person that is sick, or suffering, or affected with consumption, or decried among the people in his village, or of despised extraction: for such persons (the functions of a Ritvig should not be exercised).
21 21. He (who is chosen as a Ritvig) should ask the Somapravâka, 'What sacrifice is it? Who are
the priests officiating? What is the fee for the sacrifice?'
22. If (all the conditions) are favourable, he should accept.
23. Let (the officiating priests) eat no flesh nor have intercourse with a wife until the completion of the sacrifice.
24. 'By this prayer, O Agni, increase' (Rig-veda I, 31, 18)—with (this verse) let him offer (at the end of the sacrifice) an oblation of Âgya in (his own) Dakshinâgni, and go away where he likes;
25. In the same way one who has not set up the (Srauta) fires, in his (sacred) domestic fire with this Rik, 'Forgive us, O Agni, this sin' (Rig-veda I, 31, 16).
1 1. When he has chosen the Ritvigas, he should offer the Madhuparka (i.e. honey-mixture) to them (in the way described in Sûtras 5 and following);
2. To a Snâtaka, when he comes to his house;
3. And to a king;
4. And for a teacher, the father-in-law, a paternal uncle, and a maternal uncle.
5. He pours honey into curds,
6. Or butter, if he can get no honey.
7. A seat, the water for washing the feet, the Arghya water (i.e. perfumed water into which flowers have been thrown), the water for sipping, the honey-mixture,
a cow: every one of these things they announce three times (to the guest).
8. With (the verse), 'I am the highest one among my people, as the sun among the thunderbolts. Here I tread on him whosoever infests me'—he should sit down on the seat (made of) northward-pointed (grass).
9. Or (he should do so) after he has trodden on it.
10. He should make (his host) wash his feet.
11. The right foot he should stretch out first to a Brâhmana,
12. The left to a Sûdra.
13. When his feet have been washed, he receives the Arghya water in the hollow of his joined hands and then sips the water destined thereto, with (the formula), 'Thou art the first layer for Ambrosia.'
14. He looks at the Madhuparka when it is brought to him, with (the formula), 'I look at thee with Mitra's eye.'
15. He accepts it with his joined hands with (the formula), 'By the impulse of the god Sâvitrî, with the arms of the two Asvins, with the hands of Pûshan I accept thee.' He then takes it into his left hand, looks at it with the three verses, 'Honey the winds to the righteous one' (Rig-veda I, 90, 6 seqq.), stirs it about three times from left to right with the fourth finger and the thumb, and wipes (his fingers) with (the formula), 'May the Vasus eat thee with the Gâyatrî metre'—to the east;
16. With (the formula), 'May the Rudras eat thee with the Trishtubh metre'—to the south;
17. With (the formula), 'May the Âdityas eat thee with the Gagatî metre'—to the west;
18. With (the formula), 'May the Visve devâs eat thee with the Anushtubh metre'—to the north.
19. With (the formula), 'To the beings thee'—he three times takes (some of the Madhuparka substance) out of the middle of it.
20. With (the formula), 'The milk of Virâg art thou'—he should partake thereof the first time,
21. With, 'The milk of Virâg may I obtain'—the second time,
22 22. With, 'In me (may) the milk of Padyâ Virâg (dwell)'—the third time.
23. (He should) not (eat) the whole (Madhuparka).
24. He should not satiate himself.
25. To a Brâhmana, to the north, he should give the remainder.
26. If that cannot be done, (he should throw it) into water.
27. Or (he may eat) the whole (Madhuparka).
28 28. He then makes a rinsing of his mouth follow (on the eating of the Madhuparka) with the water destined thereto, with (the formula), 'Thou art the covering of Ambrosia.'
29. With (the formula), 'Truth! Glory! Fortune! May fortune rest on me!'—a second time.
30. When he has sipped water, they announce to him the cow.
31. Having murmured, 'Destroyed is my sin; my sin is destroyed,' (he says,) 'Om, do it,' if he chooses to have her killed.
32. Having murmured, 'The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the Vasus' (Rig-veda VIII, 101, 15),
[paragraph continues] (he says,) 'Om, let her loose,' if he chooses to let her loose.
33 33. Let the Madhuparka not be without flesh, without flesh.
End of the First Adhyâya.
1 1. On the full moon day of the Srâvana month the Srâvana ceremony (is performed).
2. Having filled a new jug with flour of fried barley, he lays (this jug) and a spoon for offering the Balis on new strings of a carrying pole (and thus suspends them).
3. Having prepared fried barley grains, he smears half of them with butter.
4. After sunset he prepares a mess of cooked food and a cake in one dish and sacrifices (the cooked food) with the four verses, 'Agni, lead us on a good path to wealth' (Rig-veda I, 189, 1 seqq.), verse by verse, and with his hand the (cake) in one dish with (the formula), 'To the steady One, the earth-demon, svâhâ!'
5. (The cake) should be (entirely) immersed (into the butter), or its back should be visible.
6. With (the verse), 'Agni, do not deliver us to evil' (Rig-veda I, 189, 5) he sacrifices over it (the butter) in which it had lain.
7 7-8. With (the verse), 'May the steeds at our invocation be for a blessing to us' (Rig-veda VII, 38, 7) (he sacrifices) the besmeared grains with his joined hands,
8. The other (grains) he should give to his people.
9. Out of the jug he fills the spoon with flour,
goes out (of the house) to the east, pours water on the ground on a clean spot, sacrifices with (the formula), 'To the divine hosts of the serpents svâhâ!' and does reverence to them with (the formula), 'The serpents which are terrestrial, which are aerial, which are celestial, which dwell in the directions (of the horizon)—to them I have brought this Bali; to them I give over this Bali.'
10. Having gone round (the Bali) from left to right, he sits down to the west of the Bali with (the words), 'The serpent art thou; the lord of the creeping serpents art thou; by food thou protectest men, by cake the serpents, by sacrifice the gods. To me, being in thee, the serpents being in thee should do no harm. I give over the firm one (i.e. the spoon) to thee.'
11. 'Firm one, (I give) N.N. (in charge) to thee! Firm one, (I give) N.N. (in charge) to thee!'—with (these words he gives) his people, man by man, (in charge to the serpent god);
12. 'Firm one, I give myself in charge to thee!'—with these words himself at the end.
13. Let no one step between it (i.e. the Bali, and the sacrificer), until the giving in charge has been performed.
14 14. With (the formula), 'To the divine hosts of the serpents svâhâ!'—let him offer the Bali in the evening and in the morning, till the Pratyavarohana (i.e. the ceremony of the 'redescent').
15 15. Some count (the days till the Pratyavarohana)
and offer the corresponding number of Balis already on that day (on which the Sravanâ ceremony is performed).
1. On the full moon day of Âsvayuga the Âsvayugî ceremony (is performed).
2 2. Having adorned the house, having bathed and put on clean garments, they should pour out a mess of cooked food for Pasupati, and should sacrifice it with (the formula), To Pasupati, to Siva, to Samkara, to Prishâtaka svâhâ!'
3. He should sacrifice with his joined hands a mixture of curds and butter (prishâtaka) with (the formula), 'May what is deficient be made full to me; may what is full not decay to me. To Prishâtaka svâhâ!'
4 4. 'United with the seasons, united with the manners, united with Indra and Agni, svâhâ!
'United with the seasons, united with the manners, united with the Visve devâs, svâhâ!
'United with the seasons, united with the manners, united with Heaven and Earth, svâhâ!'—with (these formulas) a mess of cooked food is offered at the
[paragraph continues] Âgrayana sacrifice by one who has set up the (sacred Srauta) fires.
5. Also by one who has not set up the (Srauta) fires (the same offering is performed) in the (sacred) domestic fire.
1 1. On the full moon of Mârgasîrsha the 'redescent' (is performed)—on the fourteenth (Tithi),
2. Or on (the Tithi of) the full moon (itself).
3 3. Having again renovated the house by (giving a new) coating (to the walls), by spreading out (a new roof), and by levelling (the floor), they should sacrifice after sunset (oblations) of milk-rice with (the texts), 'Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the forefoot and with the hind-foot, these seven daughters of Varuna and all that belong to the king's tribe. Svâhâ!
'Within the dominion of the white one no serpent has killed anything. To the white one, the son of Vidârva, adoration! Svâhâ!'
4. Here no oblation to (Agni) Svishtakrit (is made).
5 5. 'May we be secure from Pragâpati's sons'—thus he murmurs while looking at the fire.
6. (Saying), 'Be happy and friendly to us'—he should think in his mind of the winter.
7. To the west of the fire is a well-spread layer (of straw); on that he should sit down, murmur (the verse), 'Be soft, O earth' (Rig-veda I, 22, 15), and lie down (on that layer) with his people, with the head to the east and the face to the north.
8. The others, as there is room.
9. Or following on each other from the eldest to the youngest.
10 10. Those who know the Mantras, should murmur the Mantras.
11 11. Arising (they should) three times (murmur the verse), 'From that place may the gods bless us' (Rig-veda I, 22, 16).
12 12. The same (verse) a fourth time with their faces to the south, to the west, and to the north.
13. Having arisen, having murmured the hymns sacred to the Sun and the auspicious hymns, having prepared food and given to the Brâhmanas to eat, he should cause (them) to pronounce auspicious words.
1 1. On the eighth days of the four dark fortnights of (the two seasons of) winter and Sisira the Ashtakâs (are celebrated).
2 2. Or on one (of these days).
3. The day before, he should offer to the Fathers (i.e. Manes)—
4. Boiled rice, boiled rice with sesamum seeds, rice-milk—
5. Or cakes made of four Sarâvas (of ground grain)—
6. Sacrificing with the eight (verses), 'May the lower (Fathers) and the higher arise' (Rig-veda X, 15, 1 seqq.), or with as many (verses) as he likes.
7 7. Then on the next day the Ashtakâs (are celebrated) with an animal (sacrifice) and with a mess of cooked food.
8. He may also give grass to an ox,
9. Or he may burn down brushwood with fire—
10. With (the words), 'This is my Ashtakâ.'
11. But he should not omit celebrating the Ashtakâ.
12. This (Ashtakâ) some state to be sacred to the Visve devâs, some to Agni, some to the Sun, some to Pragâpati, some state that the Night is its deity, some that the Nakshatras are, some that the Seasons are, some that the Fathers are, some that cattle is.
13 13. Having killed the animal according to the
ritual of the animal sacrifice, omitting the sprinkling (with water) and the touching of the animal with a fresh branch, he should draw out the omentum and sacrifice it with (the verse), 'Carry the omentum, Gâtavedas, to the Fathers, where thou knowest them resting afar. May streams of fat flow to them; may all these wishes be fulfilled. Svâhâ!'
14 14. Then (follow oblations) of the Avadâna portions and the cooked food, two with (the two verses), 'Agni, lead us on a good path to wealth' (Rig-veda I, 189, 1 seq.), (and other oblations with the texts), 'May summer, winter, the seasons be happy to us, happy the rainy season, safe to us the autumn. The year be our lord who gives breath to us; may days and nights produce long life. Svâhâ!
'Peaceful be the earth, happy the air, may the goddess Heaven give us safety. Happy be the quarters (of the horizon), the intermediate quarters, the upper quarters; may the waters, the lightnings protect us from all sides. Svâhâ!
'May the waters, the rays carry our prayers (to the gods); may the creator, may the ocean turn away evil; may the past and the future, (may) all be safe to me. Protected by Brahman may I pour forth songs. Svâhâ!
'May all the Âdityas and the divine Vasus, the Rudras, the protectors, the Maruts sit down (here). May Pragâpati, the abounding one, the highest ruler, bestow vigour, offspring, immortality on me. Svâhâ!
'Pragâpati, no other one than Thou (Rig-veda X, 121, 10).'
15. The eighth (oblation) is that to (Agni) Svishtakrit.
16 16. He should give to the Brâhmanas to eat: this has been said.
1. On the following day the Anvashtakya (i.e. the ceremony following the Ashtakâ, is performed).
2 2. Having prepared (a portion) of that same meat, having established the fire on a surface inclined towards the south, having fenced it in, and made a door on the north side of the enclosure, having strewn round (the fire) three times sacrificial grass with its roots, without tossing it, turning the left side towards the fire, he should put down the things to be offered, boiled rice, boiled rice with sesamum seeds, rice-milk, meal-pap with curds, and meal-pap with honey.
3 3. (The ceremony should be performed) according to the ritual of the Pindapitriyagña.
4 4. Having sacrificed (of those sorts of food) with the exception of the meal-pap with honey, let him give (lumps of those substances) to the Fathers.
5. And to (their) wives, with the addition of rum and the scum of boiled rice.
6. Some (place the lumps to be offered) into pits, into two or into six:
7. In those situated to the east he should give (the offerings) to the Fathers.
8. In those to the west, to the wives.
9 9. Thereby the ceremony celebrated in the rainy season on the Mâgha day, in the dark fortnight after the full moon of Praushthapada (has been declared).
10 10. And thus he should offer (a celebration like the Anvashtakya) to the Fathers every month, observing uneven numbers (i.e. selecting a day with an uneven number, inviting an uneven number of Brâhmanas, &c.).
11. He should give food at least to nine (Brâhmanas),
12. Or to an uneven number;
13 13. To an even number on auspicious occasions or on the performance of meritorious deeds (such as the consecration of ponds, &c.);
14. To an uneven number on other (occasions).
15 15. The rite is performed from left to right. Barley is to be used instead of sesamum.
1 1. When going to mount a chariot he should touch the wheels with his two hands separately with (the words), 'I touch thy two fore-feet. Thy two wheels are the Brihat and the Rathantara (Sâmans).'
2 2. 'Thy axle is the Vâmadevya'—with (these words he touches) the two (naves) in which the axle rests.
3. He should mount (the chariot) with the right foot first, with (the words), 'With Vâyu's strength I mount thee, with Indra's power and sovereignty.'
4. He should touch the reins, or if the horses have no reins, (he should touch) the horses with a staff, with (the words), 'With Brahman's splendour I seize you. With truth I seize you.'
5. When (the horses) put themselves in motion, he should murmur, 'Go forward to thousandfold successful vigour, divine chariot, carry us forward!'—(and the verse), 'Free, strong be thy limbs!' (Rig-veda VI, 47, 26.)
6 6. With this (verse he should touch also) other articles of wood.
7. 'May the two oxen be strong, the axle firm' (Rig-veda III, 53, i7)—with (this verse) he should touch (each) part of the chariot (alluded to in that verse).
8. With (the verse), 'The earth, the good protectress, the unattained heaven' (Rig-veda X, 63, 10) (he should ascend) a ship.
9. With a new chariot he should drive round a widely known tree or round a pool that does not dry up, with his right side turned towards it, and then should fetch branches which bear fruits,
10. Or something else that belongs to the household.
11. (He then) should drive (in that chariot) to an assembly.
12. Having murmured, while looking at the sun, (the verse), 'Make our renown highest' (Rig-veda IV, 31, 15), he should descend.
13. 'To the bull among my equals' (Rig-veda X, 166, 1)—(this verse he should murmur) while approaching (that assembly?).
14. 'May we be called to-day Indra's best friends' (Rig-veda I, 167, 10)—when the sun is setting.
15. 'Thus I address you, O daughters of heaven, while you arise' (Rig-veda IV, 51, 11)—when day appears.
1. Now the examination of the ground (where he intends to build a house).
2. (It must be) non-salinous soil of undisputed property,
3. With herbs and trees,
4. On which much Kusa and Vîrana grass grows.
5. Plants with thorns and with milky juice he should dig out with their roots and remove them—
6. And in the same way the following (sorts of plants), viz. Apâmârga, potherbs, Tilvaka, Parivyâdha.
7. A spot where the waters, flowing together from all sides to the centre of it, flow round the resting-place, having it on their right side, and then flow off to the east without noise—that possesses all auspicious qualities.
8. Where the waters flow off, he should have the provision-room built.
9. Thus it becomes rich in food.
10. On a spot which is inclined towards the south, he should have the assembly-room constructed; thus there will be no gambling in it.
11. (But others say that) in such (an assembly-room) the young people become gamblers, quarrelsome, and die early.
12. Where the waters flow together from all directions, that assembly-room (situated on such a spot) brings luck and is free from gambling.
1. Now he should examine the ground in the following ways.
2. He should dig a pit knee-deep and fill it again with the same earth (which he has taken out of it).
3. If (the earth) reaches out (of the pit, the ground is) excellent; if it is level, (it is) of middle quality; if it does not fill (the pit, it is) to be rejected.
4. After sunset he should fill (the pit) with water and leave it so through the night.
5. If (in the morning) there is water in it, (the ground is) excellent; if it is moist, (it is) of middle quality; if it is dry, (it is) to be rejected.
6. White (ground), of sweet taste, with sand on the surface, (should be elected) by a Brâhmana.
7. Red (ground) for a Kshatriya.
8. Yellow (ground) for a Vaisya.
9. He should draw a thousand furrows on it and should have it measured off as quadrangular, with equal sides to each (of the four) directions;
10. Or as an oblong quadrangle.
11 11. With a Samî branch or an Udumbara branch he sprinkles it (with water), going thrice round it, so that his right side is turned towards it, reciting the Santâtîya hymn.
12. And (so he does again three times) pouring out water without interruption, with the three verses, 'O waters, ye are wholesome' (Rig-veda X, 9, 1 seqq.).
13 13. In the interstices between the bamboo staffs he should have the (single) rooms constructed.
14. Into the pits in which the posts are to stand, he should have an Avakâ, i.e. (the water-plant called) Sîpâla put down; then fire will not befall him: thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
15 15. Having put (that plant) into the pit in which the middle-post is to stand, he should spread (on it) eastward-pointed and northward-pointed Kusa grass and should sprinkle (on that grass) water into which rice and barley have been thrown, with (the words), 'To the steady one, the earth-demon, svâhâ!'
16 16. He then should, when (the middle-post) is being erected, recite over it (the two verses), 'Stand here, fixed in the ground, prosperous, long-lasting (?),
standing amid prosperity. May the malevolent ones not attain thee!
'To thee (may) the young child (come), to thee the calf . . .; to thee (may) the cup of Parisrut (come); (to thee) may they come with pots of curds.'
1. (Over) the bamboo staff, when it is put on (the middle-post, he recites the hemistich),
2. 'Rightly ascend the post, O staff, bestowing on us long life henceforward.'
3. On four stones, on which Dûrvâ grass has been spread, he should establish the water-barrel with (the words), 'Arise on the earth'—
4 4. Or with (the verse), 'The Araṅgara sounds, three times bound with the strap. It praises the welfare; may it drive away ill.'
5. He then should pour water into it with (the verse), 'Hither may king Varuna come with the plentiful (waters); at this place may he stay contented; bringing welfare, dropping ghee may they lie down together with Mitra.'
6 6. He then 'appeases' it (in the following way).
7 7. He puts gold into water into which rice and barley have been thrown, and (with that water) he sprinkles it three times, going round it with his right side turned towards it, with the Santâtîya hymn.
8 8. And (so he does again three times) pouring out
water without interruption, with the three verses, 'O waters, ye are wholesome' (Rig-veda X, 9, I seqq.).
9 9. In the middle of the house he should cook a mess of food, sacrifice (therefrom) with the four verses, 'Vâstoshpati, accept us' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 1 seqq.), verse by verse, should prepare food, should give to the Brâhmanas to eat, and should cause them to say, 'Lucky is the ground! Lucky is the ground!'
1 1. It has been declared how he should enter the house (when returning from a journey).
2. The house, when he enters it, should be provided with seed-corn.
3 3. He should have his field ploughed under the Nakshatras Uttarâh Proshthapadâs, (Uttarâh) Phâlgunyas, or Rohinî.
4. In order that the wind may blow to him from the field, he should offer oblations with the hymn, 'Through the lord of the field' (Rig-veda IV, 57), verse by verse, or he should murmur (that hymn).
5 5. He should speak over the cows when they go away, the two verses, 'May refreshing wind blow over the cows' (Rig-veda X, 169, I seq.).
6 6. When they come back, (he should recite the following verses,)
'May they whose udder with its four holes is full
of honey and ghee, be milk-givers to us; (may they be) many in our stable, rich in ghee.
'Come hither to me, giving refreshment, bringing vigour and strength. Giving inexhaustible milk, rest in my stable that I may become the highest one'
And, 'They who have raised their body up to the gods'—the rest of the hymn (Rig-veda X, 169, 3. 4).
7 7. Some recite (instead of the texts stated in Sûtra 6) the Âgâvîya hymn.
8 8. He should approach their herds, if the cows do not belong to his Guru, with (the words), 'Prospering are ye; excellent are ye, beautiful, dear. May I become dear to you. May you see bliss in me.'
End of the Second Adhyâya.
1. Now (follow) the five sacrifices:
2. The sacrifice to the Gods, the sacrifice to the Beings, the sacrifice to the Fathers, the sacrifice to Brahman, the sacrifice to men.
3. Here now, if he makes oblations over the (sacred) fire, this is the sacrifice to the Gods.
If he makes Bali offerings, this is the sacrifice to the Beings.
If he gives (Pinda offerings) to the Fathers, this is the sacrifice to the Fathers.
If he studies (Vedic) texts, this is the sacrifice to Brahman.
If he gives to men, this is the sacrifice to men.
4. These (five kinds of) sacrifices he should perform every day.
1 1. Now the rules how one should recite (the Vedic texts) for one's self.
2. He should go out of the village to the east or to the north, bathe in water, sip water on a clean spot, clad with the sacrificial cord; he should spread out, his garment being not wet, a great quantity of Darbha grass, the tufts of which are directed towards the east, and should sit down thereon with his face turned to the east, making a lap, putting together his hands in which he holds purifiers (i.e. Kusa blades), so that the right hand lies uppermost.
It is understood (in the Sruti), 'This is what Darbha grass is: it is the essence of waters and herbs. He thus makes the Brahman provided with essence.'
Looking at the point where heaven and earth touch each other, or shutting his eyes, or in whatever way he may deem himself apt (for reciting the Veda), thus adapting himself he should recite (the sacred texts) for himself.
3. The Vyâhritis preceded by (the syllable) Om (are pronounced first).
4. He (then) repeats the Sâvitrî (Rig-Veda III, 62, 10), (firstly) Pâda by Pâda, (then) hemistich by hemistich, thirdly the whole.
1 1. He then should recite for himself (the following texts, viz.) the Rikas, the Yagus, the Sâmans, the Atharvan and Aṅgiras hymns, the Brâhmanas, the Kalpa (Sûtras), the Gâthâs, the (texts in honour of kings and heroes, called) Nârâsamsîs, the Itihâsas and Purânas.
2. In that he recites the Rikas, he thereby satiates the gods with oblations of milk—in that (he recites) the Yagus, with oblations of ghee—the Sâmans, with oblations of honey—the Atharvan and Aṅgiras hymns, with oblations of Soma—the Brâhmanas, Kalpas, Gâthâs, Nârâsamsîs, Itihâsas and Purânas, with oblations of ambrosia.
3. In that he recites the Rikas, rivers of milk flow, as a funeral oblation, to his Fathers. In that (he recites) the Yagus, rivers of ghee—the Sâmans, rivers of honey—the Atharvan and Aṅgiras hymns, rivers of Soma—the Brâhmanas, Kalpas, Gâthâs, Nârâsamsîs, Itihâsas and Purânas, rivers of ambrosia.
4. After he has recited (those texts) as far as he thinks fit, he should finish with the following (verse),
'Adoration to Brahman! Adoration be to Agni! Adoration to the Earth! Adoration to the Herbs! Adoration to the Voice! Adoration to the Lord of the Voice! Adoration I bring to great Vishnu!'
1 1. He satiates the deities: 'Pragâpati, Brahman, the Vedas, the gods, the Rishis, all metres, the word Om, the word Vashat, the Vyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, the sacrifices, Heaven and Earth, the air, days and nights, the numbers, the Siddhas, the oceans, the rivers, the mountains, the fields, herbs, trees, Gandharvas and Apsaras, the snakes, the birds, the cows, the Sâdhyas, the Vipras, the Yakshas, the Rakshas, the beings that have these (Rakshas, &c.) at their end.'
2 2. Then the Rishis: 'The (Rishis) of the hundred (Rikas), the (Rishis) of the middle (Mandalas), Gritsamada,
[paragraph continues] Visvâmitra, Vâmadeva, Atri, Bharadvâga, Vasishtha, the Pragâthas, the Pavamâna hymns, the (Rishis) of the short hymns, and of the long hymns.'
3. (Then) with the sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder:
4 4. 'Sumantu, Gaimini, Vaisampâyana, Paila, the Sûtras, the Bhâshyas, the Bhârata, the Mahâbhârata, the teachers of law, Gânanti, Bâhavi, Gârgya, Gautama, Sâkalya, Bâbhravya, Mândavya, Mândûkeya, Gârgî Vâkaknavî, Vadavâ Prâtîtheyî, Sulabhâ Maitreyî, Kahola Kaushîtaka, Mahâkaushîtaka, Paiṅgya, Mahâpaiṅgya, Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana, Aitareya, Mahaitareya, the Sâkala (text), the Bâshkala (text), Sugâtavaktra, Audavâhi, Mahaudavâhi, Saugâmi, Saunaka, Âsvalâyana—and whatsoever other teachers there are, may they all satiate themselves.'
5 5. After he has satiated the Fathers man by man, and has returned to his house, what he gives (then), that is the sacrificial fee.
6 6. And it is also understood (in the Sruti), 'May he be standing, walking, sitting, or lying, (the texts belonging to) whatsoever sacrifice he repeats, that sacrifice indeed he has offered.'
7. It is understood (in the Sruti), 'Regarding this (Svâdhyâya) there are two cases in which the study (of the sacred texts) is forbidden: when he is impure himself, and when the place is.'
1. Now (follows) the Adhyâyopâkarana (i.e. the ceremony by which the annual course of study is opened);
2 2-3. When the herbs appear, (when the moon stands in conjunction) with Sravana, in the Srâvana month,
3. Or on the fifth (Tithi of that month), under (the Nakshatra) Hasta.
4 4. Having sacrificed the two Âgya portions, he should offer Âgya oblations (to the following deities, viz.) Sâvitrî, Brahman, Belief, Insight, Wisdom, Memory, Sadasaspati, Anumati, the metres, and the Rishis.
5. He then sacrifices grains with curds (with the following texts):
6. 'I praise Agni the Purohita'—this one verse (Rig-Veda I, 1, 1),
7 7. 'The Kushumbhaka (mungoose?) has said it'—'If thou criest, O bird, announce luck to us Sung by Gamadagni'—'In thy abode the whole world rests'
[paragraph continues] —'Come to our sacrifice, O you that are worthy of sacrifice, with care'—'Whosoever, be he ours, be he alien'—'Look on, look about'—'Come here, Agni, the Maruts' friend'—'The oblation, O king, cooked for thee'—each time two verses;
8. 'United is your will' (Rig-veda X, 191, 4)—this one verse;
9 9. 'That blessing and bliss we choose'—this one verse.
10 10. When he intends to study (the Veda together with pupils), he should, while the pupils take hold of him, sacrifice to those deities, and sacrifice to (Agni) Svishtakrit, and partake of the grains with curds; then (follows) the 'cleaning.'
11 11. Sitting down to the west of the fire on Darbha grass, the tufts of which are directed towards the east, he should put Darbha blades into a water-pot, and making a Brahmâñgali (i.e. joining his hands as a sign of veneration for the Brahman), he should murmur (the following texts):
12. The Vyâhritis preceded by (the syllable) Om (stand first); (these) and the Sâvitrî he should repeat three times and then recite the beginning of the Veda.
13. In the same way at the Utsarga (i.e. at the ceremony performed at the end of the term of Vedic study).
14. He should study six months.
15 15. One who has performed the Samâvartana (should live during that time) according to the regulations for Brahmakârins.
16 16. The others according to the rules.
17 17. Some say that he should have intercourse with his wife.
18. That (is a practice) sacred to Pragâpati.
19. This (Upâkarana) they call vârshika (i.e. belonging to the rainy season).
20 20. On the middle Ashtakâ they offer food to those deities, and descend into water.
21. They satiate those same deities (with water oblations),
22. (And besides) the Âkâryas, the Rishis, and the Fathers.
23 23. This is the Utsargana.
1 1. Instead of the Kâmya ceremonies (i.e. the ceremonies, prescribed in the Srauta-sûtra, by which
special wishes are attained, oblations of) boiled (rice) grains, for the attainment of those wishes, (should be made by the Grihya sacrificer).
2. He attains (thereby) those same wishes.
3. For a person that is sick, or suffering, or affected with consumption, a mess of boiled (rice) grains in six oblations (should he offered)—
4. With this (hymn), 'I loosen thee by sacrificial food, that thou mayst live' (Rig-veda X, 161).
5. If he has seen a bad dream, he should worship the sun with the two verses, 'To-day, god Savitri' (Rig-veda V, 82, 4, 5), and with the five verses, 'What bad dreams there are among the cows' (Rig-veda VIII, 47, 14 seqq.),
6. Or with (the verse), 'Whosoever, O king, be it a companion or a friend' (Rig-veda II, 28, 10).
7. When he has sneezed, yawned, seen a disagreeable sight, smelt a bad smell, when his eye palpitates, and when he hears noises in his ears, he should murmur, 'Well-eyed may I become with my eyes, well-vigoured with my face, well-hearing with my ears. May will and insight dwell in me!'
8 8. If he has gone to a wife to whom he ought not to go, or if he has performed a sacrifice for a person for whom he ought not to do so, or has eaten forbidden food, or accepted what he ought not to accept, or pushed against a piled-up (fire altar) or
against a sacrificial post, he should sacrifice two Âgya oblations with (the verses),
'May my faculties return into me, may life return, may prosperity return; may my goods return to me; may the divine power return into me. Svâhâ!
'These fires that are stationed on the (altars called) Dhishnyâs, may they be here in good order, each on its right place. (Agni) Vaisvânara, grown strong, the standard of immortality, may he govern my mind in my heart. Svâhâ!'
9. Or (he may sacrifice) two pieces of wood,
10. Or murmur (the same two verses without any oblation).
1. If the sun sets while he is sleeping without being sick, he should spend the rest of the night keeping silence, without sitting down, and should worship the sun (when it rises) with the five (verses), 'The light, O sun, by which thou destroyest darkness' (Rig-veda X, 37, 4 seq.).
2 2. If (the sun) rises (while he is sleeping without being sick), being fatigued without having done any work, or having done work that is not becoming, he should keep silence, &c., as before, and perform his worship (to the sun) with the following four (verses, Rig-veda X, 37, 9 seq.).
3 3. Invested with the sacrificial cord, constantly fulfilling the prescribed duties regarding the use of
water, he should perform the Sandhyâ (or twilight devotion), observing silence.
4. In the evening he should, turning his face to the north-west, to the region between the chief (west) point and the intermediate (north-western) point (of the horizon), murmur the Sâvitrî, (beginning) when the sun is half set, until the stars appear.
5. In the same way in the morning—
6. Standing, with his face turned to the east, until the disk (of the sun) appears.
7. If a dove flies against his house or towards it, he should sacrifice with (the hymn), 'O gods, the dove' (Rig-veda X, 165), verse by verse, or should murmur (that hymn).
8. 'We have thee, O Lord of the path' (Rig-veda VI, 53)—if he is going out for doing some business.
9 9. 'Bring us together, Pûshan, with a knowing one' (Rig-Veda VI, 54)—if he wishes to find something lost, or if he has strayed.
10. 'Journey over the ways, Pûshan' (Rig-veda I, 42)—if he is going out on a long or dangerous way.
1. Now when returning (home from his teacher) he should get the following things, viz. a jewel (to be tied round the neck), two ear-rings, a pair of garments, a parasol, a pair of shoes, a staff, a wreath, (pounded seed of the Karañga fruit) for rubbing with, ointment, eye salve, a turban; (all that) for himself and for the teacher.
2. If he cannot get it for both, only for the teacher.
3. He then should get a piece of wood of a tree which is sacrificially pure, in a north-eastern direction—
4. Sappy (wood) if he wishes for the enjoyment of food, or for prosperity, or for splendour; dry (wood), if for holy lustre,
5. (Wood) which is both (sappy and dry, in its different parts), if (he wishes) for both.
6 6. Having put the piece of wood on high, and having given a cow and food to the Brâhmanas, he should perform the ceremony of shaving the beard.
7 7. He should alter the texts so that they refer to himself.
8 8. With Ekaklîtaka (he should perform the rubbing).
9. Having washed himself with lukewarm water, and having put on two (new) garments which have not yet been washed, with (the verse), 'Garments with fat splendour you put on, (Mitra and Varuna)' (Rig-veda I, 152, 1); he should anoint his eyes with (the words), 'The sharpness of the stone art thou; protect my eye.'
10. With (the words), 'The sharpness of the stone
art thou; protect my ear'—he should tie on the two ear-rings.
11. After having salved his two hands with ointment, a Brâhmana should salve his head first,
12. A Râganya his two arms,
13. A Vaisya the belly,
14. A woman her secret parts,
15. Persons who gain their livelihood by running, their thighs.
16. With (the formula), 'Free from pain art thou, free from pain may I become'—he should put on the wreath.
17. Not (such a wreath) which is called mâlâ.
18. If they call it mâlâ, he should cause them to call it srag.
19. With (the formula), 'The standing-places of the gods are you; protect me from all sides'—he steps into the shoes, and with (the formula), 'The heaven's covering art thou'—he takes the parasol.
20. With (the formula), 'Reed thou art; from the tree thou descendest; protect me from all sides'—(he takes) a staff of reed.
21 21. Having with the hymn 'Giving life' tied the jewel to his neck and arranged the turban (on his head), he should standing put the piece of wood (on the fire).
1 1. (He says), 'Memory and reproach and knowledge, faith, and wisdom as the fifth, what is sacrificed, and what is given, and what is studied, and what is done, truth, learning, vow—
'The vow which belongs to Agni together with Indra, with Pragâpati, with the Rishis, with the royal ones among the Rishis, with the Fathers, with the royal ones among the Fathers, with the human beings, with the royal ones among the human beings, with shine, over-shine, after-shine, counter-shine, with gods and men, with Gandharvas and Apsaras, with wild animals and domestic animals,—the vow, belonging to my own self, dwelling in my own self, that is my universal vow. Hereby, O Agni, I become addicted to the universal vow. Svâhâ!'
2 2. With (the hymn), 'Mine, Agni, be vigour' (Rig-veda X, 128, 1), verse by verse, he should put pieces of wood (on the fire).
3 3. He should pass that night at a place where they will do honour to him.
4 4. When, after having finished his (task of) learning, he has offered something to the teacher, or has received his permission, he should take a bath (which signifies the end of his studentship).
5. He (i.e. the Snâtaka) has to keep the following observances:
6. He shall not bathe in the night-time; he shall not bathe naked; he shall not lie down naked; he shall not look at a naked woman, except during sexual intercourse; he shall not run during rain; he shall not climb up a tree; he shall not descend into a well; he shall not swim with his arms across a river; he shall not expose himself to danger. 'A great being indeed is a Snâtaka'—thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
1 1. If (a student) wishes to be dismissed (by his teacher), he should pronounce before the teacher his (i.e. the teacher's?) name—
2 2. (And should say), 'Here we will dwell, sir!'
3. With a loud voice (the words) following after the name.
4. 'Of inhalation and exhalation'—(this he says) with a low voice,
5. And (the verse), 'Come hither, Indra, with thy lovely-sounding, fallow-coloured (horses)' (Rig-veda III, 45, 1).
6 6. The aged one then murmurs, 'To inhalation and exhalation I, the wide-extended one, resort with thee. To the god Savitri I give thee in charge'—and the verse.
7. When he has finished (that verse), and has muttered, 'Om! Forwards! Blessing!' and recited (over the student the hymn), 'The great bliss of the three' (Rig-veda X, 185)—(he should dismiss him).
8. On one who has been thus dismissed, danger comes from no side—thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
9. If he hears (on his way) disagreeable voices of birds, he should murmur the two hymns, 'Shrieking, manifesting his being' (Rig-veda II, 42, 43), and (the verse), 'The divine voice have the gods created' (Rig-veda VIII, 100, 11).
10. 'Praise the renowned youth who sits on the war-chariot' (Rig-veda II, 33, 11)—if (he hears disagreeable voices) of deer.
11. From the direction, or from the (being) from which he expects danger, towards that direction he should throw a fire-brand, burning on both sides, or having twirled about a churning-stick from the right to the left, with (the words), 'Safety be to me, Mitra
and Varuna; encounter the foes and burn them up with your flame. May they find none who knows them and no support; divided by discord may they go to death'—
12. He turns the churning-stick downwards with (the verse), 'The combined wealth of both, heaped together' (Rig-veda X, 84, 7).
1 1. If unknown danger from all sides (menaces him), he should sacrifice eight Âgya oblations with (the formulas),
'Prithivî (the earth) is covered; she is covered by Agni. By her, the covered one, the covering one, I ward off the danger of which I am in fear. Svâhâ!
'Antariksha (the air) is covered; it is covered by Vâyu. By it, the covered, the covering, I ward off the danger of which I am in fear. Svâhâ!
'Dyaus (the heaven) is covered; she is covered by Âditya (the sun). By her, &c.
'The quarters (of the horizon) are covered; they are covered by Kandramas (the moon). By them, &c.
'The waters are covered; they are covered by Varuna. By them, &c.
'The creatures are covered; they are covered by Prâna (the breath). By them, &c.
'The Vedas are covered; they are covered by the metres. By them, &c.
'All is covered; it is covered by Brahman. By it, &c. Svâhâ!'
2 11_2. Then, stationing himself towards the north, east, he murmurs the Svasti-Âtreya and, 'Of what we are in fear, Indra' (Rig-veda VIII, 61, 13 seqq.), down to the end of the hymn.
1. When a battle is beginning, (the royal Purohita) should cause the king to put on his armour (in the following way).
2 12_2. (The Purohita) stations himself to the west of (the king's) chariot with (the hymn?), 'I have brought thee hither; be here' (Rig-veda X, 173).
3. With (the verse), 'Like a thunder-cloud is his countenance' (Rig-veda VI, 75, 1), he should tender the coat of mail to him.
4. With the following (verse) the bow.
5. The following (verse) he should cause him to repeat.
6. He should murmur himself the fourth.
7. With the fifth he should tender the quiver to him.
8. When (the king) starts, the sixth.
9. The seventh (he recites) over the horses.
10. The eighth he should cause (the king) to repeat while looking at the arrows;
11. (The verse), 'Like a serpent it encircles the arm with its windings' (Rig-veda VI, 75, 14), when he ties to his arm the leather (by which the arm is protected against the bow-string).
12 12. He then mounts up to (the king on his chariot), while he is driving, and causes him to repeat the Abhîvarta hymn (Rig-veda X, 174) and the two verses, 'He who, Mitra and Varuna' (Rig-veda VIII, 101, 3 seq.).
13 13. He then should look at him with the Apratiratha, Sâsa, and Sauparna hymns.
14 14. The Sauparna is (the hymn), 'May the streams of honey and ghee flow forwards.'
15. (The king) should drive (in his chariot successively) to all quarters (of the horizon).
16. He should commence the battle in the line of battle invented by Âditya or by Usanas.
17 17-18. He should touch the drum with the three verses, 'Fill earth and heaven with thy roar' (Rig-veda VI, 47, 29 seqq.).
18. With (the verse), 'Shot off fall down' (Rig-veda VI, 75, 16), he should shoot off the arrows.
19 19. 'Where the arrows fly' (l.l. v. 17)—this (verse) he should murmur while they are fighting.
20. Or he should teach (the king the texts mentioned). Or he should teach (the king).
End of the Third Adhyâya.
1 1. If disease befalls one who has set up the (sacred Srauta) fires, he should leave his home (and go away) to the eastern, or northern, or north-eastern direction.
2. 'The sacred fires are fond of the village'—thus it is said.
3 3. Longing for it, desirous of returning to the village they might restore him to health-thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
4 4. Being restored to health, he should offer a Soma sacrifice, or an animal sacrifice, or an ordinary sacrifice, and take his dwelling (again in the village).
5 5. Or without such a sacrifice.
6. If he dies, one should have a piece of ground dug up to the south-east or to the south-west—
7. At a place which is inclined towards the south or towards the south-east.
8. According to some (teachers), inclined towards south-west.
9. (The piece of ground dug up should be) of the length of a man with upraised arms,
10. Of the breadth of one Vyâma (fathom),
11. Of the depth of one Vitasti (span).
12 12. The cemetery should be free from all sides.
13. It should be fertile in herbs.
14 14. But plants with thorns and with milky juice, &c., as stated above.
15 15. From which the waters flow off to all sides: this is a characteristic required for the cemetery (smasâna) where the body is to be burned.
16 16. 'They cut off (from the dead body) the hair, the beard, the hairs of the body, and the nails'—this has been stated above.
17 17. (They should provide) plenty of sacrificial grass and of butter.
18 18. They here pour clarified butter into curds.
19. This is the 'sprinkled butter' used for the Fathers (i.e. Manes).
1 1. (The relations of the dead person) now carry (his sacred) fires and (his) sacrificial vessels in that direction.
2. After them aged persons forming an odd number, men and women not going together, (carry) the dead body.
3. Some (say) that (the dead body should be carried) in a cart with a seat, drawn by cows.
4 4. (Some prescribe) a she-animal for covering (the dead body with its limbs):
5. A cow,
6. Or a she-goat of one colour.
7. Some (take) a black one.
8. They tie (a rope) to its left fore-foot and lead it behind (the dead body).
9. Then follow the relations (of the dead person), wearing their sacrificial cords below (round their body), with the hair-locks untied, the older fines first, the younger ones last.
10 10. When they have thus arrived at the place, the performer (of the rites) walks three times round the spot with his left side turned towards it, and with a Samî branch sprinkles water on it, with (the verse), 'Go away, withdraw, and depart from here' (Rig-veda X, 14, 9).
11. To the south-east, on an elevated corner (of that place), he places the Âhavanîya fire,
12 12-13. To the north-west the Gârhapatya fire,
13. To the south-west the Dakshina fire.
14 14. After that a person that knows (how to do it), piles up between the fires a pile of fuel.
15. After sacrificial grass and a black antelope's skin with the hair outside has been spread out there, they place the dead body thereon, which they have carried so as to pass by the Gârhapatya fire on its north-side, turning its head towards the Âhavanîya.
16 16. To the north (of the body they place) the wife (of the deceased),
17. And a bow for a Kshatriya.
18 18. Her brother-in-law, being a representative of her husband, or a pupil (of her husband), or an aged servant, should cause her to rise (from that place) with (the verse), 'Arise, O wife, to the world of life' (Rig-veda X, 18, 8).
19 19. The performer (of the rites) should murmur (that verse), if a Sûdra (makes her rise from the pile).
20. With (the verse), 'Taking the bow out of the hand of the deceased' (Rig-veda X, 18, 9), (he takes away) the bow.
21. It has been stated (what is to be done) in case a Sûdra (should perform this act).
22 22. Having bent the bow, he should, before the piling up (of the things mentioned below, which are put on the dead body) is done, break it to pieces, and throw it (on the pile).
1 1. He should then put the following (sacrificial) implements (on the dead body).
2. Into the right hand the (spoon called) Guhû.
3. Into the left the (other spoon called) Upabhrit.
4. On his right side the (wooden sacrificial sword called) Sphya, on his left (side) the Agnihotrahavanî (i.e. the ladle with which the Agnihotra oblations are sacrificed).
5. On his chest the (big sacrificial ladle called) Dhruvâ. On his head the dishes. On his teeth the pressing-stones.
6. On the two sides of his nose the two (smaller sacrificial ladles called) Sruvas.
7. Or, if there is only one (Sruva), breaking it (in two pieces).
8 8. On his two ears the two Prâsitraharanas (i.e. the vessels into which the portion of the sacrificial food belonging to the Brahman is put).
9. Or, if there is only one (Prâsitraharana), breaking it (in two pieces).
10. On his belly the (vessel called) Pâtrî,
11. And the cup into which the cut-off portions (of the sacrificial food) are put.
12. On his secret parts the (staff called) Samyâ.
13. On his thighs the two kindling woods.
14. On his legs the mortar and the pestle.
15. On his feet the two baskets.
16. Or, if there is only one (basket), tearing it (in two pieces).
17 17. Those (of the implements) which have a hollow (into which liquids can be poured), are filled with sprinkled butter.
18. The son (of the deceased person) should take the under and the upper mill-stone for himself.
19 19. And the implements made of copper, iron, and earthenware.
20 20. Taking out the omentum of the she-animal he should cover therewith the head and the mouth (of the dead person) with the verse, 'Put on the armour (which will protect thee) against Agni, by (that which comes from) the cows' (Rig-veda X, 16, 7).
21. Taking out the kidneys (of the animal) he should lay them into the hands (of the dead body) with the verse, 'Escape the two hounds, the sons of Saramâ' (Rig-veda X, 14, 10), the right (kidney) into the right (hand), the left into the left.
22. The heart (of the animal he puts) on the heart (of the deceased).
23 23. And two lumps (of flour or rice), according to some (teachers).
24 24. (Only) if there are no kidneys, according to some (teachers).
25 25. Having distributed the whole (animal), limb by limb (placing its different limbs on the corresponding limbs of the deceased), and having covered it with its hide, he recites, when the Pranîta water is carried forward, (the verse), 'Agni, do not overturn this cup' (Rig-veda X, 16, 8).
26. Bending his left knee he should sacrifice Âgya oblations into the Dakshina fire with (the formulas), 'To Agni svâhâ! To Kâma svâhâ! To the world svâhâ! To Anumati svâhâ!'
27 27. A fifth (oblation) on the chest of the deceased with (the formula), 'From this one verily thou hast been born. May he now be born out of thee, N.N.! To the heaven-world svâhâ!'
1. He gives order, 'Light the fires together.'
2 2. If the Âhavanîya fire reaches (the body) first, he should know, 'It has reached him in the heaven-world. He will live there in prosperity, and so will this one, i.e. his son, in this world.'
3 3. If the Gârhapatya fire reaches (the body) first, he should know, 'It has reached him in the air-world. He will live there in prosperity, and so will this one, i.e. his son, in this world.'
4 4. If the Dakshina fire reaches (the body) first, he should know, 'It has reached him in the world of men. He will live there in prosperity, and so will this one, i.e. his son, in this world.'
5 5. If (the three fires) reach (the body) in the same moment, they say that this signifies the highest luck.
6 6. While (the body) is burning, he recites over it the same texts, 'Go on, go on, on the ancient paths' (Rig-veda X, 14, 7).
7. Being burnt by a person who knows this, he goes to the heaven-world together with the smoke (of the funeral pile)—thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
8 8. To the north-east of the Âhavanîya fire he should have a knee-deep pit dug and should have an Avakâ, i.e. (the water-plant called) Sîpâla put down into it. From that (pit) he (i.e. the deceased) goes out and together with the smoke he goes up to the heaven-world—thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
9. After he has recited (the verse), 'These living ones have separated from the dead' (Rig-veda X, 18, 3), they turn round from right to left and go away without looking back.
10 10. When they have come to a place where standing water is, having once (plunged into it and) emerged
from it, they pour out one handful (of water), pronounce the Gotra name and the proper name (of the deceased), go out (of the water), put on other garments, wring out (the old garments) once, lay them away with their skirts to the north, and sit down until the stars appear.
11. Or they may enter (their houses), when still (a part) of the sun-disk is seen,
12 12. The younger ones first, the older ones last.
13. When they have come to the houses, they touch a stone, the fire, cow's dung, fried barley, sesamum seeds, and water.
14. Let them not cook food during that night.
15 15. Let them subsist on bought or ready-made food.
16. Let them eat no saline food for three nights.
17 17. Let them optionally for twelve nights avoid the distribution of gifts and the study (of Vedic texts), if one of the chief Gurus (has died).
18 18. Ten days after (the death of) Sapindas,
19. And of a Guru who is no Sapinda,
20. And of unmarried female relations.
21 21. Three nights after (the death of) other teachers,
22. And of a relation who is no Sapinda,
23. And of married female relations,
24. Of a child that has no teeth,
25. And of a dead-born child.
26. One day, after (the death of) a fellow-pupil,
27. And of a Srotriya of the same village.
1 1. The gathering (of the bones is performed) after the tenth (Tithi from the death), (on a Tithi) with an odd number, of the dark fortnight, under a single Nakshatra.
2 2. A man into a male urn without special marks, a woman into a female one without special marks.
3 3. Aged persons of an odd number, not men and women together (gather the bones).
4 4. The performer of the ceremony walks three times round the spot with his left side turned towards
it, and sprinkles on it with a Samî branch milk mixed with water, with the verse, 'O cool one, O thou that art full of coolness' (Rig-veda X, 16, 14).
5. With the thumb and the fourth finger they should put each single bone (into the, urn) without making a noise,
6. The feet first, the head last.
7 7. Having well gathered them and purified them with a winnowing basket, they should put (the urn) into a pit, at a place where the waters from the different sides do not flow together, except rain water, with (the verse), 'Go to thy mother Earth there' (Rig-veda X, 18, 10).
8. With the following (verse) he should throw earth (into the pit).
9. After he has done so, (he should repeat) the following (verse).
10 10. Having covered (the urn) with a lid with (the verse), 'I fasten to thee' (Rig-veda X, 18, 13), they then should go away without looking back, should bathe in water, and perform a Srâddha for the deceased.
1. They who have lost a Guru by death, or are afflicted by other misfortune, should perform on the new-moon day an expiatory ceremony.
2 2. Before sunrise they should carry their fire
together with its ashes and with its receptacle to the south with the half-verse, 'I send far away the flesh-devouring Agni' (Rig-veda X, 16, 9).
3 3. Having thrown that (fire) down at a place where four roads meet or somewhere else, they walk round it three times, turning their left sides towards it, beating their left thighs with their left hands.
4. They then should return home without looking back, bathe in water, have their hair, their beards the hair of their bodies, and their nails cut, and furnish themselves with new jars, pots, vessels for rinsing the mouth, wreathed with garlands of Samî flowers, with fuel of Samî wood, with two pieces of Samî wood for kindling fire, and with branches to be laid round the fire, with bull's dung and a bull's hide, fresh butter, a stone, and as many bunches of Kusa grass as there are young women (in the house).
5 5. At the time of the Agni(-hotra) he should kindle fire with the hemistich, 'Here may this other Gâtavedas' (Rig-veda X, 16, 9).
6. Keeping that (fire) burning, they sit till the silence of the night, repeating the tales of the aged, and getting stories of auspicious contents, Itihâsas and Purânas, told to them.
7 7. When all sounds have ceased, or when (the others) have gone to the house or the resting-place, (the performer of the ceremony) should pour out an uninterrupted stream of water, beginning at the south side of the door, with (the verse), 'Spinning the thread follow the light of the aerial space' (Rig-veda X, 53, 6), (going round the house), ending at the north side of the door.
8 8. Having then given its place to the fire, and having spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the neck to the east, with the hair outside, he should cause the people belonging to the house to step on that (hide) with (the verse), 'Arise to long life, choosing old age' (Rig-veda X, 18, 6).
9. With (the verse), 'This I lay round the living' (Rig-veda X, 18, 4), he should lay branches round (the fire).
10 10. After having with (the words), 'A mountain (i.e. a stone) they shall place between themselves and death,' placed a stone to the north of the fire, and having sacrificed with the four (verses), 'Go hence, O death, on another way' (Rig-veda X, 18, 1-4),
verse by verse, he should look at his people with (the verse), 'As the days follow each other' (ibid. 5).
11. The young women (belonging to the house) should, with each hand separately, with their thumbs and fourth fingers, with young Darbha blades, salve their eyes with fresh butter, and throw (the Darbha blades) away, turning their faces away.
12. (The performer of the ceremony) should look at them, while they are salving themselves, with (the verse), 'These women, being no widows, having noble husbands' (Rig-veda X, 18, 7).
13. With (the verse), 'Carrying stones, (the river) streams forward; take hold of each other' (Rig-veda X, 53, 8)—the performer (of the ceremony) first should touch the stone.
14. After that, stationing himself to the northeast, while (the others) go round with the fire, with bull's dung, and with an uninterrupted stream of water, repeating the three verses, 'O waters, ye are wholesome' (Rig-veda X, 9, i seqq.), he should murmur the verse, 'These have led round the cow' (Rig-veda X, 155, 5).
15. A tawny-coloured bull should he lead round—thus they say.
16. They then sit down at a place where they intend to tarry, having put on garments that have not yet been washed.
17. (There) they sit, avoiding to sleep, till sunrise.
18 18. After sunrise, having murmured the hymns sacred to the sun and the auspicious hymns, having
prepared food, having made oblations with (the hymn), 'May he drive evil away from us with his shine' (Rig-veda I, 97), verse by verse, having given to the Brâhmanas to eat, he should cause (them) to pronounce auspicious words.
19. A cow, a cup of metal, and a garment that has not yet been washed, constitute the sacrificial fee.
1 1. Now at a Srâddha ceremony, at that which is celebrated on the Parvan day, or for the attainment of special wishes, or at the Âbhyudayika Srâddha (i.e. the Srâddha celebrated when some good luck has happened), or at the Ekoddishta Srâddha (the Srâddha directed to a single dead person)—
2. He causes Brâhmanas who are endowed with learning, moral character, and correct conduct, or with one of these (characteristics), who have been invited in time, who have taken a bath, washed their feet, and sipped water, to sit down, as representatives of the Fathers, with their faces turned to the north, one for each one of the Fathers, or two for each, or three for each.
3. The larger their number is, the greater is the reward (which the sacrificer is entitled to expect).
4. But in no case one (Brâhmana) for all (the fathers).
5 5. Optionally (he may invite only one Brâhmana) except at the first (Srâddha).
6 6. By (the exposition of) the Pinda sacrifice (the corresponding rules) have been declared (for the Srâddha ceremonies also).
7. Having given water (to the Brâhmanas),
8 8. Having given to them double-folded Darbha blades, and a seat,
9 9. Having (again) given water (to them),
10. Having poured water into three vessels of metal, of stone, and of earthen-ware, or (into three vessels) made of the same substance, over which he has put Darbha grass,
And having recited over (that water the verse), 'For luck and help the divine waters' (Rig-veda X, 9, 4), he pours sesamum seeds into it with (the formula), 'Sesamum art thou; Soma is thy deity; at the Gosava sacrifice thou hast been created by
the gods. By the ancients thou hast been offered. Through the funeral oblation render the Fathers and these worlds propitious to us. Svadhâ! Adoration!'
12 12. (The different rites are performed) from the right to the left.
13 13. With (the part) of the other (i.e. left) hand between the thumb (and the fore-finger), because he wears the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, or with the right hand which he seizes with the left (he offers the Arghya water to the Fathers with the words), 'Father, this is thy Arghya. Grandfather, this is thy Arghya. Great-grandfather, this is thy Arghya'—having first offered (ordinary) water (to the Fathers).
14. When he is going to hand over that (Arghya water to the Brâhmanas who represent the Fathers, he says once each time), 'Svadhâ! The Arghya water!'
15 15. Over (the Arghya water) which has been
poured out, he should recite the verse, 'The celestial waters which have been produced on the earth, the aerial waters and the waters which are terrestrial, the gold-coloured ones, apt for sacrifice, may these waters bring us luck and be kind to us.' Pouring together what has been left (in the three Arghya vessels) he moistens his face with that water, if he desires that a son should be born to him.
16 16. 'He should not take up the first vessel, into which the Arghya water for the Fathers has been poured. Hidden the Fathers dwell therein: thus Saunaka has said.'
17 17. In that moment the gifts of perfumes, garlands, incense, lights, and clothes are offered (to the Brâhmanas).
18. Having taken some food (of the Sthâlîpâka prepared for the Pindapitriyagña), and having besmeared it with ghee, he asks (the Brâhmanas) for their permission by saying, 'I shall offer it in the fire,' or, 'I will sacrifice my offering in the fire,' or, 'I will offer it in the fire.'
19. The permission (is given in the words), 'It may be offered,' or, 'Sacrifice thy offering,' or, Offer it.'
20 20. He then sacrifices in the fire as stated above,
21 21. Or, if they give their permission, in the hands (of the Brâhmanas).
22. 'The mouth of the gods verily is the fire, the mouth of the Fathers is the hand'—thus says the Brâhmana.
23. If in the hands, he assigns to them other food, after they have sipped water.
24 24. The food (is put together) with the food.
25 25. It is said, 'What is given away and offered, that brings prosperity.'
26 26. When he sees that they are satiated, he should recite (the verses) containing the word m a dh u, and (the verse), 'They have eaten, they have enjoyed themselves' (Rig-veda I, 82, 2).
27 27. Having asked them, 'Relished?' and having taken the food, whatever food he has used, together with the Sthâlîpâka, in order to make lumps thereof, he should offer the rest (to the Brâhmanas).
28. After they have either accepted (that rest of food), or left it (to him), and have finished eating, he should, before they have sipped water, put down the lumps for the Fathers.
29. After they have sipped water, according to some (teachers).
30 30. Having strewn the food on the ground and suspended the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, he should dismiss the Brâhmanas, (saying to them), 'Say Om! Svadhâ!'
31. Or, 'So be it! Svadhâ!'
1 1. Now the spit-ox (sacrificed to Rudra).
2. In autumn or in spring, under the (Nakshatra) Ârdrâ.
3. The best of his herd,
4. (An ox) which is neither leprous nor speckled;
5 5. One with black spots, according to some;
6. If he likes, a black one, if its colour inclines to copper-colour.
7. He sprinkles it with water, into which he has thrown rice and barley,
8. From head to tail,
9. With (the formula), 'Grow up, agreeable to Rudra the great god.'
10 10. He should let it grow up. When it has cut its teeth, or when it has become a bull—
11 11. To a quarter (of the horizon) which is sacrificially pure,
12. At a place which cannot be seen from the village,
13. After midnight,
14. According to some, after sunrise.
15 15. Having caused a Brahman who is versed in learning and knows the practice (of this sacrifice), to sit down, having driven a fresh branch with leaves into the ground as a sacrificial post, (having taken) two creeping plants or two Kusa ropes as two girdles, and having wound the one round the sacrificial post, and tied the other round the middle of the animal's head, he binds it to the sacrificial post or to the girdle (which he had tied to that post) with (the formula), 'Agreeable to him to whom adoration (is brought), I bind thee.'
16 16. The sprinkling with water and what follows is the same as at the animal sacrifice.
17. We shall state what is different.
18. Let him sacrifice the omentum with the Pâtrî or with a leaf—thus it is understood (in the Sruti)—
19. With (the formulas), 'To Hara, Mrida, Sarva, Siva, Bhava, Mahâdeva, Ugra, Bhîma, Pasupati, Rudra, Saṅkara, Îsâna svâhâ!'
20. Or with the last six (parts of that formula),
21. Or with (the formula), 'To Rudra svâhâ!'
22 22. Let him make Bali offerings towards the four quarters (of the horizon), to each on four rings of Kusa net-work, with (the formulas), 'The hosts, Rudra, which thou hast towards the eastern direction,
to them this (offering is brought). Adoration to thee! Do no harm to me!' In this way the assigning (of the offerings is performed) according to the different quarters (of the horizon).
23. With the following four hymns he should worship the four quarters, viz. 'What shall we to Rudra,' 'These prayers to Rudra,' 'To thee, O father,' 'These songs to Rudra with the strong bow' (Rig-veda I, 43, 114; II, 33; VII, 46).
24. (This) worship to the quarters (of the horizon) (is performed) at all sacrifices to Rudra.
25. The husks and chaff (of the rice), the tail, the skin, the head, the feet (of the sacrificial animal) he should throw into the fire.
26 26. He should turn the skin to some use, according to Sâmvatya.
27 27. To the north of the fire, on rows of Darbha grass, or on rings of Kusa net-work, he should pour out the blood (of the sacrificial animal) with (the formula), 'Hissing ones! Noisy ones! Searching ones! Seizing ones! Serpents! What here belongs to you, take that.'
28. Then, turning to the north, (he assigns it) to the serpents (in the words), 'Hissing ones! Noisy ones! Searching ones! Seizing ones! Serpents! What here belongs to you, take that.'
Then the serpents take whatever has flowed down there of blood or of the contents of stomach and entrails.
29. All names, all hosts, all exaltations belong
to him;—to a sacrificer who knows that, he gives joy.
30. Even to a man who only with words sets forth (some part) of that (ceremony), he will do no harm; thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
31. He should not partake of that (sacrifice).
32 32. They should not take anything belonging to it into the village. For this god will do harm to (human) creatures.
33. He should keep away his people from the vicinity (of the place where he has sacrificed).
34. On an express injunction, however, he should partake (of that sacrificial food), for it will bring luck.
35. This spit-ox sacrifice procures wealth, (open) space, purity, sons, cattle, long life, splendour.
36 36. After he has sacrificed, he should let loose another (animal).
37. He should not be without such an animal.
38. Then he will not be without cattle—thus it is understood (in the Sruti).
39 39. Muttering the Santâtîya hymn, he should go to his house.
40. If disease befalls his cattle, he should sacrifice to that same god in the midst of his cow-stable—
41. A mess of cooked food, which he sacrifices in its entirety.
42. Having thrown the sacrificial grass and the Âgya into the fire, he should lead his cows through the smoke.
43. Murmuring the Santâtîya hymn, he should go in the midst of his cattle.
44. Adoration to Saunaka! Adoration to Saunaka!
End of the Fourth Adhyâya.
End of the Âsvalâyana-Grihya-sûtra.
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Sankhayana Grihya Sutra
- Khadira Grihya Sutra
- Paraskara Grihya Sutra
- Manusmriti the laws of Manu
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- Essays On Dharma
- Esoteric Mystic Hinduism
- Introduction to Hinduism
- Hindu Way of Life
- Essays On Karma
- Hindu Rites and Rituals
- The Origin of The Sanskrit Language
- Symbolism in Hinduism
- Essays on The Upanishads
- Concepts of Hinduism
- Essays on Atman
- Hindu Festivals
- Spiritual Practice
- Right Living
- Yoga of Sorrow
- Mental Health
- Concepts of Buddhism
- General Essays
153:1 See Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 230 seqq.; Indische Studien, I, 102.
153:2 This seems to me to be the meaning of sûtram kritvâ nyavedayat; p. 154 the case is similar to that where a pupil goes on his rounds for alms and announces (nivedayati) to his teacher what he has received. Prof. Max Müller translates these words differently; according to him they mean that Âsvalâyana 'made a Sûtra and taught it.'
154:1 Comp. Prof. Bühler's article in the Journal As. Soc. of Bengal, 1866, pp. 149 seqq.
154:2 Dvâdasâdhyâyakam sûtram katushkam grihyam eva ka katurthâranyakam keti hy Âsvalâyanasûtrakam.
154:3 See p. 448 of Dr. Râgendralâla Mitra's edition in the Bibliotheca Indica.
155:1 2nd edition, p. 53: Obwohl wir für das vierte Buch des letztern (i.e. of the Aitareya Âranyaka) sogar die directe Nachricht haben, dass es dem Âsvalâyana, dem Schüler eines Saunaka angehört, so wie auch ferner für das fünfte Buch desselben dieser Saunaka selbst als Urheber gegolten zu haben scheint, nach dem was Colebrooke Misc. Ess. I, 47 n. darüber berichtet.
155:2 P. 11: If this assumption be admitted, the proper conclusion to be arrived at would also be that the whole of the fifth Book belongs to Saunaka, and the whole of the fourth Book to Âsvalâyana. P. 12: The writings of both Âsvalâyana and Saunaka which occur in the Âranyaka, etc.
156:1 See Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 12, 13.
156:2 Thus Sâyana, in his note on V, 1, 1, says: Nanu prathamâranyakeऽpi atha mahâvratam Indro vai Vritram hatvetyâdinâ mahâvrataprayogoऽbhihitah, pañkameऽpi tasyaivâbhidhâne punaruktih syât. nâyam doshah, sûtrabrâhmanarûpena tayor vibhedât. pañkamâranyakam rishiproktam sûtram, prathamâranyakan tv apaurusheyam brâhmanam. ata eva tatrârthavâdaprapañkena sahitâ vidhayah srûyante, pañkame tu na ko py arthavâdoऽsti . . . . aranya evaitad adhyeyam ity abhipretyâdhyetâra âranyakandeऽntarbhâvyâdhîyate.
157:1 Sâma-veda (Bibl. Indica), vol. i, p. 19.
159:1 1, 1. The spreading (vitâna or, as it is also called, vihâra or vistâra) of the sacred fires is the taking of two of the three sacrificial fires, the Âhavanîya fire and the Dakshinâgni, out of the Gârhapatya fire (see, for instance, Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 216 seq.). The rites based on, or connected with the vitâna; are the rites forming the subject of the Srauta ritual, which are to be performed with the three fires.
159:2 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 5, 1; I, 10, 7. The division here is somewhat different from that given by Sâṅkhâyana; what Sâṅkhâyana calls ahuta, is here prahuta ('sacrificed up'); the prahutas of Sâṅkhâyana form here no special category; the prâsitas of Sâṅkhâyana are the brahmani hutâs of Âsvalâyana. Thus Âsvalâyana has three categories, while Sâṅkhâyana (and quite in the same way Pâraskara I, 4, 1) gives four. Nârâyana mentions as an example of prahuta sacrifices the baliharana prescribed below, I, 2, 3.
159:3 Rig-veda VIII, 19, 5, The mortal who with a piece of wood, or with an oblation, or with knowledge worships Agni, who with adoration (worships him) offering rich sacrifices,' &c.
160:4 The words of the Rik, 'with an oblation,' are here repeated, the Vedic instrumental âhutî being replaced and explained by the regular form âhutyâ.
The following Rik is taken from the eighth Mandala, 24, 20. The god compared there with a rutting bull is Indra.
The following verse is Rig-veda VI, 16, 47; we may doubt as to the correctness of the explanation given in our text, by which te te is referred to the persons studying the hymns of the Rishi. All these quotations of course are meant to show that the knowledge of the Veda and the performing of namas (adoration) is equivalent to a real sacrifice.
161:1 2, 1. This is the Vaisvadeva sacrifice; comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 14, &C.
161:2 The deities of the Agnihotra are Sûrya, Agni, and Pragâpati. On Soma Vanaspati see the quotations given in Böhtlingk-Roth's Dictionary s. v. vanaspati, 2.
161:3 I think the division of the Sûtras should be altered, so that svâheti would belong to Sûtra 2, and the third Sûtra would consist only of the words atha baliharanam. In this case we should have to translate,(1) Now he should make oblations, &c.
(2) With the words, 'To the deities of the Agnihotra (i.e. to Agni, to Sûrya, to Pragâpati), to Soma Vanaspati, &c., svâhâ!'
(3) Then (follows) the offering of the Balis.
Comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya II, 14, 4. 5, which passage seems to confirm the view expressed here.
161:5 Manu III, 87.
162:1 3, 1. Comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 7, 6 seq., where the statements regarding the lines to be drawn are somewhat different, and the note there.
162:3 Comp. the description of this act of purifying the Âgya, which is in some points more detailed, in Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 8, 14-21.
163:4 Comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 8, 12.
163:5 On the two Âgyabhâgas offered to Agni and Soma comp. below, chap. 50, 13; Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 5 seq.
163:6 Comp. on these exceptions the Sûtras below, I, 12, 7; IV, 8, 15.
163:7 Comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 18.
163:9 On the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit, see Indische Studien, IX, 257.
164:4_1 4, 1. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 5, 2-5.
164:5 With the words, bhûh, bhuvah, svah, and with the three words together.
164:6 Thus eight oblations are offered, four with the four Rikas quoted in the fourth Sûtra, and four with the Vyâhritis.
164:7 Neither the oblations with the Rikas nor those with the Vyâhritis.
165:4 I prefer the reading of the Bibliotheca Indica edition, countenanced by Nârâyana's commentary, durvigñeyâni lakshanânîti, &c. The lumps are to be taken from the eight places mentioned in Sûtra 5.
165:5 No doubt the correct reading is not that given by Nârâyana and accepted by Professor Stenzler, dvipravrâginî, but vipravrâginî, as four of Professor Stenzler's MSS. read (see his Variae Lectiones, p. 48, and the Petersburg Dictionary s. v. vipravrâgin).
166:1 6, 1. Comp. Vasishtha I, 30; Âpastamba II, 11, 17; Baudhâyana I, 20, 2.
166:2 Vasishtha I, 31; Âpastamba II, 11, 19; Baudhâyana I, 20, 5.
166:3 Baudhâyana I, 20, 3.
166:4 Vasishtha I, 32; Âpastamba II, 11, 18; Baudhâyana I, 20, 4.
166:5 Vasishtha I, 33; Âpastamba II, II, 20; Baudhâyana I, 20, 6.
166:6 Vasishtha I, 35 (where this rite is designated as Mânusha); Âpastamba II, 12, 1; Baudhâyana I, 20, 7.
167:7 Baudhâyana I, 20, 9.
167:8 Vasishtha I, 34 (where this rite is called Kshâtra); Âpastamba II, a 1, 2; Baudhâyana I, 20, 8. The text of this Sûtra seems to be based on a hemistich hatvâ bhittvâ ka sîrshâni rudadbhyo rudatîm haret; comp. Manu III, 33.
167:3 7, 3. Professor Stenzler is evidently right in taking asmânam as in apposition to drishadam. Nârâyana says, drishat prasiddhâ asmâ tatputrakah. tatrobhayoh pratishthâpanam siddham.
The sacrifice is that prescribed in Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 12, II. 12. Regarding the rite that follows, comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 13, 2.
168:6 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 4. 9. 13.
168:7 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 12.
168:8 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 13, 15. 16.
168:9 The two portions of fried grain poured over the bride's hands, together with the first (upastarana) and the second (pratyabhighârana) pouring out of Âgya, constitute the four Avattas, or portions cut off from the Havis. The descendants of Gamadagni were pañkâvattinas, i.e. they used to cut off five such portions (see Kâtyâyana I, 9, 3; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95); so they had to pour out the fried grain three times.
168:13 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 18, 3; 13, 17; 14, 1.
169:14-15 14, 15. According to those teachers whose opinion is related in Sûtras 6-14, the leading round the fire, the treading on the stone, and the offering of fried grain (with the three parts of the Mantra, Sûtra 1 3) are repeated thrice; then follows the offering prescribed in Sûtra 14, so that the last two offerings follow immediately on each other. This is not the case, if in the first three instances the order of the different rites is inverted, as stated in Sûtra 15.
In Sûtra 14 Nârâyana explains sûrpaputa by kona.
169:19 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 14, 5. 6; 13, 2; Pâraskara I, 8, 1.
170:20 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 14, 9; Pâraskara I, 8, 5.
170:22 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 17, 2 seq.; Pâraskara I, 8, 19.
170:18, 1. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 15, 13.
170:2 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 15, try. 18.
170:4 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 15, 2.
171:6 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 15, 24.
171:8 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 15, 22; 16, 12.
171:9 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 16, 1. 2.
171:12 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 14, 12.
172:1 9, 1. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 17, 3.
172:4 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, I, 12; Âsvalâyana-Srauta II, 2.
172:5 Âsvalâyana-Srauta II, 3, 1 seq. Nârâyana: By the prohibition of meat which is expressed in the words 'Except meat,' it is to be understood that the food to be sacrificed, as stated in other Sâstras, may likewise be chosen.
173:3 10, 3. See Âsvalâyana-Srauta I, 3, 28 Scholion; Kâty.-Srauta II, 7, 22.
173:4 See Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 111; my note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 3, 3.
174:13 Pâraskara I, 5, 3; Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 5 seq.
174:14 Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 7.
174:15 Professor Stenzler here very pertinently refers to Satapatha Brâhmana I, 6, 3, 38.
174:16 It is doubtful whether this paragraph should be considered as forming part of the quotation from the Sruti. The object of this passage is, in my opinion, to explain why the southern Âgyabhâga belongs to Soma, who is the presiding deity of the north, and the northern Âgyabhâga to Agni, the presiding deity of the south-east. Professor Stenzler's opinion about this paragraph is somewhat different.
174:17 Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 8.
175:19-20 19, 20. See above, the note on I, 7, 9 about the Avadâna portions and the peculiar custom of the descendants of Gamadagni with regard to them.
175:22 Comp. above, I, 7, 10. 'Here' means, at the Svishtakrit oblation.
175:23 Comp. Pâraskara I, 2, 11; Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 9, 4, 24. On the oblations for general expiation (sarvaprâyaskittâhuti) comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 9, 12, and the note.
175:24 'A full vessel which has been put down before, he should now pour out on the Barhis.' Nârâyana.
175:25 This pouring out of the vessel holds here the place of the Avabhritha bath at the end of the Soma sacrifice. See Weber, Indische Studien, X, 393 seq.
176:2 11, 2. The Sâmitra fire (literally, the fire of the Samitri, who prepares the flesh of the immolated animal) is the one mentioned below in Sûtras 7 and 10. Comp. Indische Studien, X, 345. 'I touch thee' is upâkaromi; comp. Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra VI, 3, 19. 26.
176:6 It seems that this fire-brand is the same which had been carried round the animal, according to Sûtra 5. Comp. Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra VI, 5, 2-5.
177:7 Comp. Sûtra 2.
177:8 On the two Vapâsrapanîs, comp. Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra VI, 5, 7; Indische Studien, X, 345. The act which is here attributed to the kartri ('performer'), belongs in the Srauta ritual to the incumbencies of the Pratiprasthâtri.
177:10 On the way in which animals had to b. killed at sacrifices, see Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 222 seq.
On the position of the head and the feet of the victim, comp. Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra VI, 5, 16. 17.
According to Kâtyâyana VI, 6, 8 seq. a grass-blade is placed on the dead animal's body before the navel (agrena nâbhim); through that grass-blade he cuts into the body and draws out the omentum.
'That fire' is, according to Nârâyana, not the Sâmitra but the Aupâsana fire. In the same way in the Srauta ritual the warming of the omentum is performed at the Sâmitra, the boiling at the Âhavanîya fire. Kâtyâyana VI, 6, 13. 16.
177:11 The Aupâsana fire is referred to.
177:12 The eleven portions are indicated by Kâtyâyana, Srauta-sûtra VI, 7, 6.
178:14 'A Pañkâvattin cuts off three portions. Having performed the Upastarana and the Pratyabhighârana (the first and second pouring out of Âgya) he sacrifices (the cut-off portions).' Nârâyana.
178:15 On the rites regarding the spit, see Kâtyâyana VI, 10, 1 seq.; Indische Studien, X, 346.
178:1 12, 1. There seems to be no doubt that Professor Stenzler is right in giving to kaitya in this chapter its ordinary meaning of religious shrine ('Denkmal'). The text shows that the Kaitya sacrifice was not offered like other sacrifices at the sacrificer's home, but that in some cases the offering would have to be sent, at least symbolically, to distant places. This confirms Professor Stenzler's translation of kaitya. Nârâyana explains kaitya by kitte bhava, and says, 'If he makes a vow to a certain deity, saying, "If I obtain such and such a desire, I shall offer to thee an Âgya sacrifice, or a Sthâlîpâka, or an animal"—and if he then obtains what he had wished for and 'performs that sacrifice to that deity: this is a kaitya sacrifice.' I do not know anything that supports this statement as to the meaning of kaitya.
178:2 'He should make of a leaf a messenger and a carrying-pole.' Nârâyana.
It is not clear whether besides this image of a messenger there was also a real messenger who had to carry the Bali to the Kaitya, p. 179 or whether the whole rite was purely symbolical, and based on the principle: In sacris ficta pro veris accipiuntur.
179:3 Comp. Pâraskara III, 11, 10.
179:6 Pâraskara III, 11, 11,
179:7 Comp. above, chap. 3, 6.
179:1 13, 1. Nârâyana evidently did not know the Upanishad here referred to; he states that it belongs to another Sâkhâ. Comp. Professor Max Müller's note on Brihad Âranyaka VI, 4, 24 (S.B.E., vol. xv, p. 222).
179:2 'He should give her the two beans as a symbol of the testicles, and the barley grain as a symbol of the penis.' Nârâyana.
180:5 Nârâyana (comp. also the Prayogaratna, folio 40; Âsvalâyanîya-Grihya-Parisishta I, 25; NIS. Chambers 667) separates this rite from the ceremony described in Sûtras 2-4. He says that Sûtras 2-4—as indeed is evidently the case—refer to the Pumsavana, and in Sûtra 5 begins the Anavalobhana (comp. garbharakshana, Sâṅkh. I, 21). To me it seems more probable that the text describes one continuous ceremony. There is no difficulty in supposing that of the Anavalobhana, though it is mentioned in Sûtra 1, no description is given in the following Sûtras, the same being the case undoubtedly with regard to the Garbhalambhana, of which a description is found in the Âsv.-Parisishta I, 25.
180:6 Two texts commencing â te garbho yonim etu and Agnir etu prathamah. See Stenzler's Various Readings, p. 48, and the Bibliotheca Indica edition, p. 61.
181:3 14, 3. Comp. above, chap. 8, 9. Regarding the two verses Dhâtâ dadâtu dâsushe, see Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 22, 7. The Negamesha hymn is Rig-veda Khailika sûkta, vol. vi, p. 31, ed. Max Muller.
181:7 Comp. Pâraskara I, 15, 8. The Gâthâ there is somewhat different. I cannot see why in the Âsvalâyana redaction of it nivishtakakrâsau should not be explained, conformably to the p. 182 regular Sandhi laws, as nivishtakakrâ asau. The wheel of course means the dominion.
182:1 15, 1. Comp. Âsv.-Grihya-Parisishta I, 26. I follow Professor Stenzler, who corrects maghonâm into maghonâ; comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 24, 4.
182:3 Vedo may as well be the nominative of veda as that of vedas ('property').
183:1 16, 1 seq. Comp. Sâṅkh.-Grihya I, 27, 1 seq. The two texts are nearly word for word identical.
184:4 He cuts off the hair four times on the right side (Sûtras 10-14), three times on the left side (Sûtra 15); each time three Kusa bunches are required. This is the reason why twenty-one bunches are prescribed.
184:8 Each of the four times and of the three times respectively that he cuts off the hair; see the preceding note.
185:13 Instead of yena bhûyas ka râtryâm, Pâraskara (II, 1, 16) has, yena bhûris karâ divam.
185:16 Comp. Pâraskara II, I, 19; Atharva-veda VIII, 2, 17.
186:18 On these family customs, see Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 40; Roth, Zur Literatur and Geschichte des Weda, p. 120; Max Müller, History of A. S. L., p. 54 seq.; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95.
186:4 18, 4. See above, chap. 17, 7.
186:5 See chap. 17, 16.
186:6 According to Nârâyana, he says to the barber (chap. 17, 17), 'With lukewarm water doing what has to be done with water, without doing harm to him, arrange his hair, his beard, the hair of his body, and his nails, ending in the north.'
186:7-8 7, 8. On restrictions like that contained in the eighth Sûtra as to the object in which the vara (optional gift) had to consist, see Weber, Indische Studien, V, 343.
187:9 See below, chap. 22, 22.
187:10 19, 10. By the 'arranging of the hair' the cutting of the hair is implied, as is seen from chap. 22, 22.
188:2 20, 2. He offers the oblations prescribed above, chap. 1, 4, 3 seq.
189:11 On the wiping of the ground round the fire, comp. above, chap. 3, 1; Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya I, 7, 11. Nârâyana here has the following remarks, which I can scarcely believe to express the real meaning of this Sûtra: 'Here the wiping of the ground round the fire is out of place, because the Samskâras for the fire have already been performed. As to that, it should be observed that the wiping is mentioned here in order that, when fuel is put on the fire in the evening and in the morning, the sprinkling of water and the wiping may be performed. But on this occasion (at the Upanayana) the student does not perform the wiping, &c., and silently puts a piece of wood on that fire.'
191:9 22, 9. Food for the Anupravakanîya offering; see Sûtra 12.
191:10 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 6, 7; Pâraskara II, 5, 8.
191:12 'The student should, according to the rules for the Pâkayagñas, cook the Anupravakanîya food and announce it to the teacher in the words, "The food is cooked."' Nârâyana.
192:15 Nârâyana mentions as such texts especially those belonging to the Âranyaka, viz. the Mahânâmnyas, the Mahâvrata, and the Upanishad. But there is no reason why we should not think quite as well of the Rig-veda Samhitâ itself.
192:18 'He should say, "Sirs! Pronounce the end of the Veda (study)." And they should reply, "May an end of the Veda (study) be made."' Nârâyana.
192:20 Comp. above, chap. 15, 2.
192:21 'The objectionable directions are three, the south, the southeast, the south-west.' Nârâyana.
Susravas, which I have translated by 'glorious,' at the same time means, 'endowed with good hearing,' i.e. successful in study. The student therefore by the same word prays for glory and for success in Vedic learning.
193:22 The rules stated above for the Upanayana, beginning with the prescription regarding the cutting of the hair (given chap. 19, so in the words, 'whose [hair on the] head is arranged;' see the note there), and ending with the ceremony prescribed chap. 20, 8, are to be extended also to other cases of the imposing of a vow, such, for instance, as that mentioned chap. 18, 9.
193:25 See chap. 79, 10.
193:26 See above, Sûtra 20.
193:27 See chap. 20, 8.
193:28 See chap. 4, 1.
193:29 Instead of the ordinary Sâvitrî, Rig-veda III, 62, 10.
193:1 23, 1. Comp. Srauta-sûtra IX, 3, 20; Grihya-sûtra I, 5, 1.
194:4 The Ahîna sacrifices are those which last more than one day, but not more than twelve days. (Indische Studien, IX, 373; X, 355.) The priests officiating at such sacrifices are the sixteen stated in the Srauta-sûtra IV, 1, 6. 7. Those besides the sixteen, though they are chosen (saty api varane) for taking part in the sacred performances, have not the rank of ritvigas (officiating priests); such are the Sadasya, the Samitri, and the Kamasâdhvaryavah (schol. Srautas. loc. cit.). See Max Müller's History of A. S. L., pp. 450, 469 seq. As to the Sadasya, however, there was some difference of opinion (see the next Sûtra).
194:5 On the office of the Sadasya, see Indische Studien, X, 136, 144.
194:6 The two Rikas quoted here belong to the tenth among the Vâlakhilya hymns, a hymn omitted in many of the Rig-veda MSS. They give no special confirmation to the rules stated in our text, but contain only a general allusion to the unity of the sacrifice, which the various priests perform in many various ways.
194:7 'If the four (chief) priests have to be chosen, the choosing of the Brâhmana stands first in order (see above, Sûtra 3); if all (the sixteen), then the choosing of the Hotri stands first in order.' Nârâyana.
195:12 The twelve priests of the sixteen (see § 4 note) who do not stand at the head of one of the four categories. Those at the head are enumerated in the Sutras
195:13-14 13, 14. See above, § 4 note.
195:19 Priests who only perform the Agnyâdheya for a person, are, according to Nârâyana's note on this Sûtra, not considered as p. 196 performing a sacrifice for him; consequently the formula given here is only to be used by priests who are elected for a Soma sacrifice. Stenzler translates, 'So spricht er, wenn er das Opfer durch sie vollziehen lassen will.' But this would be yakshyamânah, not yâgayishyan.
196:20 The tradition takes nîkadakshinasya as in apposition to ahînasya, and I have translated accordingly. But I cannot help thinking that the two words should be separated, so that we should have to translate, 'or at an Ahîna, or for a person that gives small sacrificial fee.' Thus the Brâhmana quoted by Âpastamba (see the commentary on the Pañkavimsa Brâhmana, vol. i, p. 6, ed. Bibl. Indica) gives the following questions which the Ritvig to be chosen should ask, 'Is it no Ahîna sacrifice? Is the Ritvig office not abandoned by others? Is the sacrificial fee plentiful?' It is a very singular fact, that on the one hand the assistance of a number of Ritvigas was unanimously declared necessary for the performance of an Ahîna sacrifice, while on the other hand it was considered objectionable, at least among some of the Vedic schools, to officiate at such a sacrifice. See Weber's Indische Studien, X, 150, 151.
On anudesyabhisasta Nârâyana says, sadesinâbhisastasyaivam eke. anye tu srâddhe pratishiddhasyety âhuh. It seems to me that anudesya (or rather ânudesya?) in Sâṅkhâyana-Sraut. V, 1, 10 (Indische Studien, X, 147) means the same, though the commentary on that Sûtra ascribes a different meaning to that word.
196:21 The Somapravâka is the messenger who invites the priests on behalf of the sacrificer to officiate at his intended Soma sacrifice. Comp. Indische Studien, IX, 308.
197:1 24, 1 seqq. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 15. The second Sûtra is paraphrased by Nârâyana thus, 'To a person that has performed the Samâvartana (see below, III, 8), when he comes on that day to his house with the intention of forming a matrimonial alliance.'
199:22 On Padyâ Virâg, see the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 7, 5.
199:28 Comp. above, Sûtra 13.
200:33 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 15, 2.
201:1 1, 1. Nârâyana's observation that the Srâvana full moon can fall also under certain other Nakshatras than Sravana itself, furnishes no reason why we should think here of solar months, as Prof. Stenzler proposes.
201:7-8 7, 8. See above, Sûtra 3. 9. See above, Sûtra 1.
202:14 On the Pratyavarohana, see the third chapter of this Adhyâya.
202:15 I.e. two Bali offerings for each day, one for the morning and one for the evening.
203:2 2, 2. 'The plural "They should sacrifice it" means, that while the sacrifice is performed by the householder, his sons and the other persons belonging to the house should touch him.' Nârâyana.
203:4 The Âgrayana sacrifice, which is offered when the sacrificer is going to partake of the first-fruits of the harvest, is treated of, with relation to a sacrificer who keeps the Srauta fires, in the Srauta-sûtra II, q. This Sûtra in my opinion should be understood as a supplementary addition to that chapter. Nârâyana refers the rule here given to the case of any incident or danger (âpad) which prevents the sacrificer from performing the ceremony in its fuller form, as prescribed in the Srauta-sûtra.
204:1 3, 1. On the ceremony of 'redescent,' comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 17; Pâraskara III, 2. The fourteenth Tithi of the bright fortnight, preceding the full moon, is referred to.
204:3 'Again' refers to chap. 2, 2. As to the words 'they should sacrifice,' comp. the note on the same Sûtra. The first Mantra reoccurs in Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 18, 1. The text of the second should be, na vai svetasyâdhyâkâre, &c.; comp. Pâraskara II, 14, 5.
204:5 The serpents are the children of Kasyapa (i.e. Pragâpati) and Kadrû; see Mahâbhârata I, 1074 seqq.
205:10 'The Mantras beginning from "Be soft, O earth" (Sûtra 7) down to the auspicious hymns (Sûtra 13).' Nârâyana.
205:11 It follows from Sûtra 12 that they are to turn here their faces to the east.
205:12 They mutter one Pâda of that verse, which is in the Gâyatrî metre, turned towards each of the three directions.
206:2 The statement of the Prayogaratna that in case the sacrificer should celebrate only one Ashtakâ festival, the Ashtakâ of the Mâgha month is to be selected, well agrees with the designation of this Ashtakâ as 'the one Ashtakâ' (ekâshtakâ); see Weber, Naxatra II, 341 seq.; Indische Studien, XV, 145.
206:7 7 seqq. Comp. the nearly identical passage in Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 14, 3 seqq. and the note there. Âsvalâyana evidently gives these rules not as regarding one special Ashtakâ but all of them.
206:13 Comp. above, I, 11, 1. 2. 10. As to the Mantra, comp. Sâṅkhâyana III, 13, 3.
207:14 I read, as Prof. Stenzler and the Petersburg Dictionary do, svârâ ksharâni. Comp. Pâraskara III, 3, 6.
208:16 See above, chap. 3, 13.
208:2 5, 2. The meat is that of the animal killed on the Ashtakâ day; see chap. 4, 53.
208:3 This ritual is given in the Srauta-sûtra II, 6 seq.
208:4 He sacrifices the two oblations prescribed in the Srauta-sûtra II, 6, 12, to Soma pitrimat and to Agni kavyavâhana.
209:9 Comp. the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 13, 1.
209:10 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 1, 1.
209:13 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 4, 4.
209:15 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 4, 6. 9.
209:1 6, 1. 'He should touch at the same time the right wheel with his right hand, the left wheel with his left hand.' Nârâyana.
210:2 On the Vedic form of the chariot and of the wheels, comp. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 247.
210:6 According to Nârâyana this Sûtra would refer only to other vehicles of wood, which he is directed to touch with that Rik when going to mount them. Perhaps the commentator is right; the wording of the Rik is well in keeping with his explanation.
213:11 8, 11. The hymn of which all verses (except a few) commence with, and frequently contain, the word sam (Rig-veda VII, 35).
213:13 The bamboo staffs (vamsa) rest on the chief posts (sthûnâ); see chap. 9, 1. 2.
213:15 Comp. chap. 1, 4.
213:16 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 3, 1 and the note there. How stâmirâvatîm should be corrected and translated is quite uncertain. Instead of poshasva Prof. Stenzler proposes to read poshasya, as Sâṅkhâyana has; I have adopted this correction.—In the second verse gâyatâm saha seems to be corrupt; comp. my note on Sâṅkhâyana III, 2, 9. Instead of parisritah we should read, as Sâṅkhâyana, Pâraskara, and the Atharva-veda (III, 12, 7) have, parisrutah.
214:4 9, 4. The meaning of Araṅgara is unknown to me; it seems to be a musical instrument. Comp. Atharva-veda XX, 135, 13.
214:6 The ground on which the house is to be built.
214:7 On the Santâtîya hymn, see above, chap. 8, Ir.
214:8 This Sûtra is identical with chap. 8, 12.
215:9 Comp. above, chap. 3, 13.
215:1 10, 1. See Srauta-sûtra II, 5, 17 seqq. It is there expressly stated that these rules refer also to an Anâhitâgni.
215:3 Sâṅkhâyana IV, 13, 1.
215:5 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 9.
215:6 Sâṅkhâyana, loc. cit.—Should the reading upa maitu be corrected into upa maita?
216:7 The hymn commencing â gâvo agman (hither came the cows) is Rig-veda VI, 28.
216:8 Perhaps the last words (which are repeated twice in order to mark the end of the Adhyâya) should be written sam mayi gânîdhvam, 'live with me in harmony together.'
217:1 1, 1 seqq. Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 1 seqq.
218:1 3, 1. On this and the following paragraphs comp. chiefly Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 6. Other enumerations, contained in the Veda itself, of the texts that were considered as forming the Veda or as attached to the body of the Veda, are found in the Satapatha Brâhmana XIV, 5, 4, 10 (Sacred Books, XV, 111), and in the Khândogya Upanishad VII, 1 (Sacred Books, I, 109)
219:1 4, 1. Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 9. Nârâyana: 'Having finished (the Svâdhyâya) he satiates with water oblations these deities.'
Pragâpati and the following words stand in the nominative; the verb to be supplied is tripyatu (tripyantu), 'may he (they) satiate himself (themselves).'
219:2 Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 10. Sâṅkhâyana has pâvamânâh, the (Rishis) of the Pavamâna hymns,' but pragâthâh as Âsvalâyana has, and not as we should expect, prâgâthâh.
220:4 The names from Kahola Kaushîtaki down to Âsvalâyana stand in the accusative; tarpayâmi, 'I satiate N.N.' is to be supplied.
220:5 Nârâyana: 'He satiates his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, and goes to his house. What he then gives, for instance, food offered to guests, or given as alms (to religious beggars), is considered as the sacrificial fee for the Brahmayagña.'
220:6 Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 7, 3. 4.
221:2-3 5, 2, 3. Perhaps the division of these Sûtras should be altered, so that srâvanasya would belong to Sûtra 2. In this case we should have to translate, '2. When the herbs appear, (on a day on which the moon stands in conjunction) with Sravana. 3. Or on the fifth (Tithi) of the Srâvana month, under (the Nakshatra) Hasta.' Comp. srâvanasya pañkamîm, Par. II, 10, 2. If we count the month beginning with the bright fortnight, and assume that the full moon day of Srâvana falls, as the name of the month implies, on Sravana, the fifth Tithi of that month will fall indeed on Hasta. Comp. on the dates of the Upâkarana, Prof. Weber's remarks, Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra II, 322, and on the special symbolical signification of the Nakshatra Sravana in this connection, my note on Sâṅkhâyana IV, 5, 2.
221:4 On the two Âgya portions, comp. above, I, 3, 5; 10, 13 seqq.
221:7 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana IV, 5, 8. The verses with which the oblations are performed, are the first and last verses of each Mandala.
222:9 This is the last verse of the Rik-Samhitâ in the Bâshkala Sâkhâ. See my note on Sâṅkhâyana IV, 5, 9.
222:10 The expression, 'Those deities' would, according to Nârâyana, refer not only to the deities stated in Sûtra 4, but also to the deities of the first and last verses of the Mandalas (Sûtras 6 seqq.). On the grains with curds, comp. Sûtra 5. The technical sense of the 'cleaning' is explained in the Srauta-sûtra I, 8, 2; comp. Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 130, note 1. The sacrificer covers his joined hands with the Kusa grass spread out round the fire, and has water sprinkled on them.
222:11 On the term brahmâñgali, comp. Manu II, 71.
223:15 On the Samâvartana, see below, chap. 8 seq. The restrictions referred to consist in the interdiction of eating honey and meat, of having sexual intercourse, of sleeping in a bedstead and in the day-time, &c. Nârâyana.
223:16 I.e. the Brahmakârins.
223:17 I.e. one who has performed the Samâvartana.
223:20 After the six months (Sûtra 14) have elapsed, on the Ashtakâ of Mâgha.
223:23 Or Utsarga, see Sûtra 13.
223:1 6, 1. Nârâyana divides this Sûtra into two: 1. atha kâmyânâm sthâne kâmyâh; 2. karavah.
224:8 Nârâyana is evidently wrong in explaining kaityam yûpañ ka by agnikayanastham yûpam (which is not, as Prof. Stenzler takes it, der Opferpfahl auf einem Bestattungsplatze). Comp. Gobhila III, 3, 34; Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 4.
I have translated the second verse in Sûtra 8, as if the text had kalpantâm. The MSS. give kalpatâm. Atharva-veda VII, 67 has kalpayantâm.
225:2 7, 2. Perhaps we should correct the text, akarmasrântam anabhirûpena karmanâ vâ vâgyata iti, &c.
225:3 3 seq. See Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 9. There the same word anvashtamadesa occurs.
226:9 Mûlha may either mean, 'having lost his way,' or 'bewildered in his mind.' Nârâyana prefers the latter explanation ('pragñâhînah').
227:6 8, 6. 'On high' means 'not on the ground' (Nârâyana). On the gaudânikam karma (the shaving of the beard), comp. above, Adhyâya I, Kandikâ 18. The word 'ceremony' would mean here, according to Nârâyana, that he should perform the rite alone, without observing such prescriptions as stated above, I, 18, 7.
227:7 Thus, instead of 'Herb! protect him!' (I, 17, 8) he is to say, 'Herb! protect me!' and so on.
227:8 Ekaklîtaka is, according to Nârâyana and the Prayogaratna, the seed of such a Karañga fruit (Pongamia Glabra, Vent.) which contains only one grain of seed. Such grains are pounded before he rubs himself therewith.
228:21 On the hymn beginning with the words 'Giving life,' see Prof. Stenzler's note on this Sûtra. Its first verse is identical with Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ XXXIV, 50 (comp. also Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 1, 7), and so are most of its verses found in that Samhitâ or in the Atharva-veda; the whole of it occurs among the Rig-veda Khilas (vol. vi, p. 25, 2-12).
229:1 9, 1. '"My memory and my non-memory, that is my double vow"—in this way the twelve (parts of which the first section of the Mantra consists) should be recited.' Nârâyana. I think the commentator is wrong here, and that section should rather be recited as it is given in the text without any alteration; it forms a regular Sloka. Agneh instead of Agne is a conjecture of Prof. Stenzler, which I have adopted.
229:2 According to Nârâyana the hymn should be recited including the Khila, so that ten pieces of wood are offered. Now the hymn consists of nine verses; there can be, consequently, only one Khailika verse, which is, I suppose, the first verse of the Khila quoted above, p. 228.
229:3 By a Madhuparka (Nârâyana). Compare Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya III, 1, 14.
230:4 Nârâyana: He makes an offer to the teacher in the words, 'What is it that I can do for you?'—and what the teacher tells him, that he does.
230:1 10, 1. Nârâyana refers this rule to a student who has performed the Samâvartana and wishes to go away. But a comparison of Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 18 seems to make it probable that the ceremony described here has nothing to do with the Samâvartana.
I take this chapter rather for a description of the way in which a student has to take leave of his teacher when setting out on a journey. 'His name' is the teacher's name, according to Nârâyana.
230:2 Sâṅkhâyana II, 18, 1. Sâṅkh. has aham vatsyâmi; Âsvalâyana, idam vatsyârnah. The commentator says that instead of idam the Âsrama is to be named which the student chooses to enter upon, for instance, Devadatta, we will dwell in the state of a householder, sir!'
231:6 I have translated, as Prof. Stenzler has also done, according to Sâṅkhâyana's reading, prânâpânâ . . . tvayâ. The 'aged one' is the teacher, the verse that which is quoted in Sûtra 5.
232:1 11, 1. 'Covered' is vrita; 'I ward off' is the causative of the same verb, vâraye.
233:11_2 The Svasti-Âtreya is the part of the hymn V, 51, which very frequently contains the word svasti (vv. 11-15). There is a Khila appended to that hymn (Rig-veda, vol. iii, p. 30), which, according to Nârâyana, is also to be murmured on this occasion.
233:12_2 12, 2. According to Nârâyana the Pratîka here signifies not the verse, but the whole hymn, though a whole Pâda is given (comp. Srauta-sûtra I, 1, 17).
234:12 The Abhîvarta hymn begins with the word abhîvartena, and is ascribed to Abhîvarta Âṅgirasa.
234:13 The Apratiratha hymn is Rig-veda X, 103 (ascribed to Apratiratha Aindra); the Sâsa, X, 152 (ascribed to Sâsa Bhâradvâga). On the Sauparna, see the next Sûtra.
234:14 This hymn is not found in any Vedic Samhitâ, as far s I know, nor does it occur in the Suparnâdhyâya. I have followed Prof. Stenzler's conjecture pra dhârâ yantu instead of pradhârayantu, which is confirmed by Sâyana's note on Aitareya Brâhmana VI, 25, 7; VIII, 10, 4 (pp. 365, 399 ed. Aufrecht).
234:17-18 17, 18. According to Nârâyana the subject is the king.
235:19 Here the subject is the Purohita.
236:1 1, 1. Comp. Srauta-sûtra VI, 9, 1. The funeral rites according to the Grihya-sûtras have been treated of by Prof. Max Müller, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, vol. ix.
236:3 I.e. longing for the village. I here differ from Prof. Stenzler's translation, 'Indem sie, um nach dem Dorfe zu kommen, ihm Gutes wünschen.' Prof. Stenzler here follows Nârâyana, who has the following note, grâmam âgantum ikkhantoऽgnaya enam âhitâgnim âsamsante, ayam agado bhaved iti.
236:4 Comp. Srauta-sûtra VI, 9, 7.
236:5 Srauta-sûtra VI, 10, 1.
237:14 See above, II, 7, 5.
237:15 See the note on Sûtra 12.
237:16 See the Srauta-sûtra VI, 10, 2.
237:17 Dvigulpham barhir âgyañ ka. Nârâyana explains dvigulpha by prabhûta. Comp. bahulatrina, Kâtyâyana XXV, 7, 15.
237:18 'Here' means, at a ceremony directed to the Manes. Nârâyana.
237:12 Nârâyana: By the word smasâna (cemetery) two different smasânas are designated here, because below (Sûtra 15) a distinction is added (to the word smasâna), in the words, 'This is a characteristic required for the smasâna where the body is to be burned.' Thus the place where the body is burned, and the place where the gathered bones are deposited, both are called smasâna.
237:1 2, 1. In the direction stated above, chap. 1, 6.
238:4 See chap. 3, 20-25.
238:10 Kartodakena (i.e. kartâ udakena) is evidently the right reading, not gartodakena.
238:12-13 12, 13. The words, 'on an elevated corner' (Sûtra 11) have to be supplied.
239:16 The wife is made to lie down on the pile.
239:18 Possibly the words devarah and patisthânîyah refer to two different persons, so that we should have to translate, 'Her brother-in-law, (or some other) representative of her husband, &c.'
239:19 This refers to the case of the aged servant. The word for which we have put Sûdra here and in Sûtra 21, is vrishala.
239:22 See Sûtra 19.
240:1 3, 1. On the different implements mentioned in the following Sûtras, comp. Prof. Max Müller's paper in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, vol. ix, pp. vii seqq.; lxxviii seqq.
240:8 On the Prâsitra and the Prâsitraharanas, comp. Hillebrandt, Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, pp. 119 (with note 6), 120, 131.
241:17 Nârâyana explains âsekanavanti by bilavanti. On prishadâgya ('sprinkled butter') comp. the two last Sûtras of the first chapter.
241:19 The statement in Satapatha Brâhmana XII, 5, 2, 14 is somewhat different.
241:20 Anustaranyâ vapâm. See chap. 2, 4.
241:23 Nârâyana states that these lumps are not put, as one would be inclined to believe, on the heart, but into the hands of the deceased. Sûtra 24 shows that this interpretation is correct.
242:24 I.e. if there is no Anustaranî animal, which is considered as optional (see chap. 2, 4).
242:25 Comp. Kâtyâyana XXV, 7, 35.
242:27 He who is born out of the deceased, is Agni. See Satapatha Brâhmana II, 3, 3, 5; and also XII, 5, 2, 15.
242:2 4, 2. Satapatha Brâhmana XII, 5, 2, 10.
242:3 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 9.
243:4 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 11.
243:5 Satapatha Brâhmana l.l. § 12.
243:6 'The same texts' means that the texts indicated in the Srauta-sûtra VI, 10, 19 (twenty-four verses taken from the hymns X, 14, 16, 17, 18, 154) have to be recited.
243:8 Comp. above, II, 8, 14.
243:10 'All the Samânodaka relations (see Manu V, 60), men and women, should pour out one handful of water each. Pronouncing p. 244 the Gotra name and the proper name of the deceased, saying, for instance, "Devadatta, belonging to the Gotra of the Kâsyapas, this water is for thee!"—they sprinkle it out, with southward-turned faces.' Nârâyana.
244:12 Possibly praviseyuh (they should enter) belongs to this Sûtra. In Prof. Stenzler's edition and in the commentary of Nârâyana it is taken as belonging to Sûtra 11.
244:15 Vasishtha IV, 15. Nârâyana here observes, 'Some authorities omit this Sûtra.'
244:17 'Father and mother and the teacher who, after having performed the Upanayana for him, has taught him the whole Veda, are the chief Gurus. When these have died, they should avoid giving gifts and studying the Veda either for twelve nights, or for ten nights, this rule standing in correlation with the following one.' Nârâyana.
244:18 The Sapinda relationship is generally defined as the relationship within six degrees, though the statements in the different p. 245 texts do not exactly agree. See Âpastamba II, 15, -2; Manu V, 60; Gautama XIV, 13 (with Prof. Bühler's note, Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. 247, &c.).
245:21 Comp. Sûtras 17, 19.
245:1 5, 1. Nârâyana (comp. the Âsvalâyana-Grihya-Parisishta III, 7) understands this Sûtra in a different way. 'After the tenth Tithi of the dark fortnight, on a Tithi with an odd number, is e. on the eleventh, thirteenth, or fifteenth.' The single Nakshatras are those the name of which does not denote two Nakshatras (as, for instance, the two Ashâdhâs). Comp. Kâty.-Sraut. XXV, 8, 1; Manu V, 59.
245:2 Urns, with or without protuberances like female breasts, are considered as female or male accordingly.
245:3 See chap. 2, 2.
245:4 Comp. chap. 2, 10.
246:7 Nârâyana explains pavana by sûrpa. He says that the 'performer' (kartri) repeats this and the following texts.
246:10 They should give a Srâddha to the deceased exclusively, according to the Ekoddishta rite.' Nârâyana.
246:2 6, 2. According to Nârâyana the fire means here not the sacred domestic fire, but a common kitchen fire. I doubt whether the p. 247 commentator is right. The ceremonies described in the following Sûtras seem to point rather to a renewal of the sacred Grihya fire, the old one having proved unlucky to the sacrificer. In the same way, in the Srauta ritual, a sacrificer who, after having performed the Âdhâna, has bad luck, performs the Punarâdheya.
247:3 Comp. Kâtyâyana-Srauta-sûtra V, 10, r5.
247:5 The text has agnivelâyâm, which Nârâyana explains by agnihotraviharanakâle aparâhne. He states that the fire should be produced by attrition of two new kindling woods (arani), mentioned in Sûtra 4. The fire thus kindled is to be used, he says, as a kitchen-fire. Herein he seems to me to have misunderstood the meaning of the ceremony; see the note on Sûtra 2. The hemistich quoted in this Sûtra (which is the second half of the same verse of which the first half is prescribed in Sûtra 2) clearly points to the sacred quality of the fire in question; it runs thus, 'Here may this other Gâtavedas carry the offerings to the gods, the knowing one.'
248:7 The person who pours out the water is, as Nârâyana says, the kartri, i.e. the performer of the whole ceremony. The word cannot be translated, as Prof. Stenzler does, der Bestatter, no funeral ceremonies being here treated of.
248:8 See above, I, 8, 9. Here Nârâyana sees that the fire is the sacred one. He says, athasabdoऽsmin kâleऽgnyantaram aupâsanam upasamâdadhyâd iti gñâpanârtham.
248:10 The words, 'A mountain,' &c., stand at the end of the verse quoted in Sûtra 9.
249:18 See above, II, 3, 13.
250:1 7, 1. Comp. on the Srâddha ceremonies in general the note on Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 1, 1, and the quotations given there. The Pârvana Srâddha, which is celebrated on the new-moon day, is treated of by Sâṅkhâyana IV, 1, the Âbhyudayika Srâddha, IV, 4, the Ekoddishta Srâddha, IV, 2.
251:5 Anâdye. Of the different interpretations of this word which Nârâyana gives, it may suffice here to quote two. The first Srâddha may either mean the Pârvana Srâddha, because this stands first among the different kinds of Srâddha ceremonies enumerated in Sûtra 1; or it may mean the Sapindîkarana (see Sâṅkhâyana IV, 3), for this is the first occasion on which a dead person receives Srâddha oblations together with two others of the Fathers.
251:6 The sacrifice to the Manes, as forming part of the Srauta ritual, is explained in the Srauta-sûtra II, 6 seq.
251:8 Yâgñavalkya I, 229.
251:9 Yâgñavalkya I, 230. The reading of several words of the Mantra is doubtful, and the parallel texts, as Prof. Stenzler has not failed to observe, differ; especially the words pratnavadbhih prattah seem to me to be corrupt. The word pratnavat is only known to the Petersburg Dictionary as having the meaning, 'containing the word pratna,' which will not do here. Thus, I think that the reading pratnam adbhih priktah should be adopted; the translation would be, 'Anciently thou hast been mixed with water.'
252:12 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 4, 6.
252:13 The part of the hand above the thumb is called the 'Tîrtha belonging to the Manes;' see, for instance, Baudhâyana's Dharma-sûtra I, 8, 16. The sacrificer is here understood to wear his sacrificial cord suspended over the left shoulder (he is 'yâgñopavîtin'). But as the oblation here treated of is directed to the Manes, it is required that he should be prâkînâvîtin. Now he is considered as prâkînâvîtin, according to Nârâyana, not only if the cord is suspended over his right shoulder (which is the ordinary meaning of prâkînâvîtin), but also if the hand with which he performs the rites, and the shoulder over which he wears the sacred cord, are either both right or both left. Thus here, acting with the left-hand and wearing the cord over the left shoulder, he becomes prâkînâvîtin.
The last word (appûrvam) is separated by Nârâyana from the rest, so that it forms a separate Sûtra.
252:15 The sacrificer gives the water to the Brâhmanas, and these p. 253 pour it out. Instead of prithivî sambabhûvuh (prithivî being intended as a locative; see Lanman, Noun-inflection in the Veda, p. 389) we should read, no doubt, as the parallel texts have, payasâ sambabhûvuh: 'The celestial waters which have united themselves with milk.'
253:16 This is a Sloka.
253:17 Manu III, 209; Yâgñavalkya I, 231.
253:20 The oblations alluded to in this Sûtra are prescribed in the Srauta-sûtra, II, 6, 12. They are directed to Soma pitrimat and to Agni kavyavâhana.
254:21 According to Manu (III, 212) this is done only in case there is no fire. Possibly abhyanugñâyâm belongs to Sûtra 20, so that we should have to translate, 'He then sacrifices . . . if they give their permission. Or in the hands.'
254:24 'The food which is left from the oblations he puts with the food (Sûtra 23) which is to be eaten by the Brâhmanas, and has been put into the vessels.' Nârâyana.
254:25 Is srishtam to be understood in the sense of visrishtam? Nârâyana explains it by prabhûtam.
254:26 The verses containing the word madhu are Rig-veda I, 90, 6-8.
254:27 On the question, 'Relished?' compare Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 2, 5. For several kinds of Srâddha ceremonies a Sthâlîpâka is prescribed, for others it is not; for the Srâddhas of the last kind the words 'Together with the Sthâlîpâka' are not valid.
255:30 They reply, 'Om! Svadhâ!'
255:1 8, 1. According to Nârâyana, the 'spit-ox' sacrifice is so called because it is offered to Rudra the spit-wearer.
255:5 Kalmâsho nâma krishnabindukitah. Nârâyana.
255:10 This Sûtra should rather be divided into two.
255:11 I.e. to the east or the north.
256:15 Round the middle of the head means, between the two horns. Nârâyana.
256:16 See above, I, 11.
256:22 This Bali offering is performed, according to Nârâyana, before the Svishtakrit oblation of the chief sacrifice. On kusasûna the commentator has the note, 'Darbhastambais trinais ka kalpavad (or rather, as Prof. Stenzler writes, katakavad) grathitvâ sarveshâm agram grihîtvâ, ekîkritya grathitâh kusasûnâ ukyante.'
257:26 Perhaps Sâmvatya is a mis-spelling of the name of the well-known Grihya teacher Sâmbavya.
257:27 Darbhavîtâ is explained in the commentary by darbharâgi.
258:32 Instead of abhimâruka we ought to read abhimânuka. See Aitareya Brâhmana III, 34, and the Petersburg Dictionary s. v. abhimânuka.
258:36 He should destine another young animal in the way stated above (Sûtras 7 seqq.) to a new Sûlagava sacrifice.
258:39 Rig-veda VII, 35. Comp. above, II, 8, 11.
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