Sankhayana Grihya Sutra
THE Grihya-sûtra ascribed to Sâṅkhâyana, which has been edited and translated into German by myself in the XVth volume of the Indische Studien, is based on the first of the four Vedas, the Rig-veda in the Bâshkala recension 1, and among the Brâhmana texts, on the Kaushîtaka. Its reputed author, whom we ordinarily find called by his family name, Sâṅkhâyana, had the proper name Suyagña. This we may infer from the lists of Vedic teachers given in different Grihya texts where they describe the Tarpana ceremony. Though in these lists the order of names varies very much, yet the two names Suyagña and Sâṅkhâyana are constantly placed side by side, so that this fact alone would render it probable that they belonged to the same person. Thus we read in the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya IV, 10 = VI, 1:
Kaholam Kaushîtakim, Mahâkaushîtakim, Suyagñam Sâṅkhâyanam, Âsvalâyanam, Aitareyam, Mahaitareyam.
Here we have grouped together the two Brâhmana authors (with the fictitious doubles, the great Kaushîtaki, the great Aitareya) and the two corresponding Sûtra authors belonging to the two chief branches of the Rig-veda literature; first comes one Brâhmana author (for Kahola Kaushîtaki is one person) with the Sûtra author connected with him, then the second Sûtra author and the corresponding Brâhmana teacher.
In the Sâmbavya-Grihya (Indische Studien, XV, 154) the corresponding passage runs thus:
Gârgya- Gautama- Sâkalya- Bâbhravya- Mândattavya
[paragraph continues] [sic]- Mândûkeyâh Suyagña- Sâmkhyâyana- Gâtukarnyeyâh [sic] Paimga [sic]- Sâmbavy’-Aitareyâh.
The same Grihya still more explicitly bears witness to the name of Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana, by adding at the end of the list, from which these names are quoted the following words: Suyagña Sâkhâyanas [sic] tri[pya]tu, i.e. 'May Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana satiate himself (with the water offering).'
In the Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 4, we read:
Kaholam Kaushîtakam Mahâkaushîtakam Paiṅgyam Mahâpaiṅgyam Suyagñam Sâṅkhâyanam Aitareyam Mahaitareyam.
We may also quote here a Kârikâ given by Nârâyana 1 in his great commentary on the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya (I, 1, 10):
Atrâranipradânam yad adhvaryuh kurute kvakit
matam tan na Suyagñasya, mathitam so ’tra nekkhati.
It would perhaps be hazardous to claim for the author of this Kârikâ the authority of an independent witness, for very likely he may have derived his knowledge from the lists of teachers which we have quoted before. But at all events the concordance of the three Grihya texts furnishes a proof which, I think, cannot be set aside by another testimony which we must mention now. At the end of the Kaushîtaki-Âranyaka (Adhyâya 15) we find a Vamsa or list of the teachers by whom the knowledge contained in that Âranyaka is supposed to have been handed down. The opening words of this list run thus:
'Om! Now follows the Vamsa. Adoration to the Brahman! Adoration to the teachers! We have learnt (this text) from Gunâkhya Sâṅkhâyana, Gunâkhya Sâṅkhâyana from Kahola Kaushîtaki, Kahola Kaushîtaki from Uddâlaka Âruni, &c:
It is a very natural supposition that the author of this list intended to begin with the name of the Doctor eponymus, if we may say so, of the Sûtras of his school, and then to proceed to name the Doctor eponymus of the Brâhmanas, and after him the more ancient teachers and
sages. But whether the author of this passage really supposed this Gunâkhya Sâṅkhâyana to be the author of the Sâṅkhâyana-sûtras, or not, we shall be justified in following rather the unanimous statements of the texts previously quoted, and in accepting in accordance with them, as the full name of our Sûtrakâra, the name Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana.
The Grihya-sûtra which has been here translated presupposes, as all Grihya-sûtras do, the existence of the Srauta-sûtra, with which it is intimately connected and which is referred to in the Grihya in several instances 1.
Here the question arises whether the Grihya-sûtra was composed by the same author to whom the authorship of the Srauta-sûtra belongs, so that the two texts form together, and would, in the conception of their author, be intended to form, one great body of Sûtras, or, on the other hand, whether the Grihya-sûtra is a later addition to the Srauta-sûtra. On this question I have ventured, in the preface to my German edition of Sâṅkhâyana 2, to offer a few remarks which, however, I feel bound to say do not seem to myself quite decisive. I there pointed out that the Grihya-sûtra contains a few aphorisms which we should rather expect would have found their place in the Srauta-sûtra, if the two texts were composed by the same author and on a common plan 3. But, apart from the possibility that in a work of such considerable extent as that collection of Sûtras would be, such trifling incongruences or irregularities might very easily escape the attention even of a very careful author, there is still another objection that may be urged against the inference drawn by me from such passages. It can be shown 4 that the Grihya texts which we possess are based to some extent on one common original, from which they have taken verbatim, or nearly verbatim, a certain number of aphorisms. Thus if we were to suppose that Sâṅkhâyana,
or whosoever the author of this Grihya-sûtra may have been, found the aphorisms on which I once based my argument, in that original text, this would explain the occurrence of those passages in a portion of the great body of Sûtras different from that in which we should expect to meet them. Now several of the passages in question recur identically in other Grihya texts, so that we may infer indeed that they are taken from that lost original, and we have no means to judge whether the other similar passages are not taken from it also. I believe, therefore, that the opinion which I once pronounced regarding the relation in which the two Sûtra texts stand to each other, cannot be vindicated, and that it is better to leave that question unanswered until perhaps further discoveries throw a new light on it.
For the reconstruction of the correct text of the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya, and occasionally also for its interpretation, it is of considerable importance that we possess, besides the Devanâgarî MSS. of the text and of the commentaries, a South Indian MS. written in the Grantha character (MS. Whish 78 in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society, London) which contains a Grihya based on that of Sâṅkhâyana and following it, during the greater part of the work, nearly word for word 1. It is designated in the MS., at the end of the single Adhyâyas, as 'Kaushîtaka-Grihya.' It therefore professes to follow the teaching of the same Brâhmana which is adhered to also by the Sûtra school of Sâṅkhâyana. A metrical commentary, which in the MS. follows after the text, names in its opening Sloka a teacher Sâmbavya as the author of this Sûtra. The Sloka runs thus:
Natvâ Kaushîtakâkâryam Sâmbavyam sûtrakrittamam
grihyam tadîyam samkshipya vyâkhyâsye bahuvismritam.
('Having bowed to the most excellent author of Sûtras, to Sâmbavya, the Âkârya belonging to the Kaushîtaka school, I shall compose a short commentary on his Grihya, which has been forgotten by many.')
The name of this Sâmbavya does not occur among the
teachers enumerated in the description of the Tarpana ceremony, neither in Sâṅkhâyana IV, 10, nor in Âsvalâyana III, 4; but in the list of the Sâmbavya-Grihya itself it is found (see above, p. 4); and besides it seems to me also to be mentioned in Âsvalâyana-Grihya IV, 8, 24, in which passage it will scarcely be considered too bold to conjecture Sâmbavya instead of Sâmvatya.
Though the MS. of the Sâmbavya-Grihya is very confused, and full of blunders of all sorts, yet it deserves to be attentively studied by all scholars who are accustomed to look, if not in theory yet in practice, on the agreement of a few Vedic text MSS., or of a few Indian commentaries, as if it had a claim to an unassailable authority to which European Orientalists would have no right to deny their faith. In the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya a number of passages are found in which corrupt readings or perverse explanations are supported by all the Sâṅkhâyana MSS. and by all the Sâṅkhâyana commentaries, and if, by a rare and fortunate chance, the Sâmbavya Grantha MS., which is unaffected by the blunders of the Devanâgarî MSS., had not been discovered in the south of the peninsula, these readings and explanations would seem to rest on the unanimous agreement of tradition. Perhaps it seems unnecessary to dwell on this point, for very few Orientalists, if any, would be prepared to assert that Indian tradition is infallible. But when looking over many of the editions and translations of the Vedic texts; even such as have been published in the last years, one finds plentiful occasion to observe that in hundreds of passages tradition has been practically treated, by scholars of very high merit, as if it had an authority not very far removed from infallibility. A case like that of which we have to speak here, in which a whole set of MSS., and occasionally also of commentaries, can be tested by a MS. of a nearly related text, written in a different character and in a distant part of India, will strengthen our belief that we are right in judging for ourselves, even if that judgment should oppose itself to such authorities as Nârâyana or Râmakandra or Gayarâma.
Perhaps it will not be out of place to add here, as an
illustration of these remarks, a few observations on one of the passages in which the rejection of the traditional Sâṅkhâyana reading, together with the traditional Sâṅkhâyana explanation, is confirmed by the Sâmbavya MS., though no doubt, even without the aid of that MS., we ought to have formed the right conclusions for ourselves. At Sâṅkhâyana II, 4, 1. 2 the traditional reading is:
Mama vrate hridayam te dadhâmi mama kittam anu kittam to astu | mama vâkam ekamanâ gushasva Brihaspatish tvâ niyunaktu mahyam iti | kâmasya brahmakaryasyâsâv iti.
Sâṅkhâyana is treating here of the Upanayana, or the initiation of the student who is received by a teacher and intends to study the Veda with him. The teacher on that occasion is to pronounce the Mantra which we have just transcribed, and which translated into English would run thus:
'Under my will I take thy heart; after my mind shall thy mind follow; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy heart; may Brihaspati join thee to me.' 'Of the Brahmakarya of Kâma (or lust), N.N.!'
The MSS. give the end of the passage as we have printed it above, kâmasya brahmakaryasyâsâv iti. This Nârâyana explains in the following way. Brahmakarya here means the observances which the student has to keep through certain periods of time before the different texts which he has to learn can be taught him. First comes the Sâvitrî verse, for which he prepares himself by observing the sâvitra vrata; this lasts either one year, or three days, or the Sâvitrî can also be taught him immediately (see chap. 5, 1-3). Then follows the sukriya vrata, of three days, or twelve days, or one year, or any other period of time according to the teacher's pleasure (chap. 11, 10); by this vrata the student is enabled to study the main portion of the Veda. Finally come the sâkvara, vrâtika, aupanishada observances, each of which has to last one year, and which refer to the different parts of the Âranyaka (see chap. 11, 11 seq., and the sixth book). Now the formula of which we treat here refers principally to the sâvitra
vrata. The teacher announces to the student how long he has to keep that vrata. He says (Sûtra 1), 'May Brihaspati join thee to me (Sûtra 2) for a brahmakarya (i.e. a vrata) of such and such (kâmasya) a time (one year, three days, &c.); N.N.!' Kâma (the pleasure) would thus stand here as an expletive which was to be replaced in each single case by the indication of the real space of time that depended on the teacher's pleasure ('. . . niyunaktu mahyam sâmvatsarikasya trairâtrikasya vânvakshikasya vâ sâvitrasya brahmakaryasyâmukâmukasarmann iti vâkyasamyogo gñeyah'). The same should take place at the corresponding forms of Upanayana which had to precede the entrance of the student upon the sukriya, sâkvara, &c. observances. This is the explanation of Nârâyana, with which Râmakandra and all the other commentaries agree. It will scarcely be necessary to observe that the singular use of k â ma, on which this traditional explanation rests, is neither in accordance with the meaning of the word, nor supported by any parallel texts. So, even before I had the opportunity of collating the Sâmbavya MS., I had no doubt that the system of the Vratas has nothing at all to do with our Sûtra, and that its text should be made intelligible by a slight alteration touching only the quantity of the a in two syllables, by writing, Kâmasya brahmakâry asy asâv iti (thou art the Brahmakârin of Kâma, N.N.!), as we read in Âsvalâyana I, 20, 8, kasya brahmakâryasi, prânasya brahmakâry asi. Afterwards I found that the Grantha MS. of Sâmbavya gives the very reading which I had conjectured.
Passages like this are not very rare in the Grihya-sûtras. In the other Sûtras we are not in the same favourable position of possessing a MS. which enables us, as the Grantha MS. of Sâmbavya does, to test their text.
We cannot conclude these introductory remarks without speaking of the later additions tacked on at the end of the original body of the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya-sûtras 1. There are unmistakable indications that the fifth and sixth books are later additions. The fifth book is
designated as a parisishta in a Kârikâ quoted by Nârâyana:parisishtâd âvasathye pârvanâtikrame karuh
Vaisvânarâyâgnaye kâgnaye 1 tantumate tathâ.
('According to the Parisishta, if one of the half-monthly sacrifices has been omitted, a mess of rice should be offered on the sacred domestic fire to Agni Vaisvânara and to Agni Tantumat.')
The passages of the Parisishta here referred to are the two first aphorisms of V, 4:
'Now if a half-monthly sacrifice has not been performed, one or the other of them, then a mess of rice (is to be offered)—
'With (the words), "To Agni Vaisvânara svâhâ! To Agni Tantumat svâhâ!'"
There are, besides, several passages in which Nârâyana himself mentions the fifth book under the designation of Pariseshâdhyâya 2. And even if we had not the authority of the Kârikâ and of Nârâyana, the contents alone of the fifth book would raise our suspicion against its genuineness. The matter ordinarily treated of in the Grihya texts is brought to an end in Adhyâyas I-IV; in the fifth book we find diverse supplementary additions on points discussed before; rules, which no doubt would have been given at their proper place, had the fifth book been composed at the same time, and by the same author, as the preceding books 3. Besides, we find different prâyaskitta oblations treated of, and a description of two ceremonies which are mentioned, as far as I know, in no other Grihya-sûtra, but belong to the rites frequently described in such works as Purânas, Parisishtas, and later Dharma texts: the consecration of ponds or wells (chap. 2), and the consecration of gardens (chap. 3).
There can thus be little doubt as to the secondary character of the fifth book. And this alone suffices to
furnish an important argument in favour of the same view with regard to the sixth book also. This view is furthermore supported by the opening invocation in that book, addressed to Brahman and to a number of mythological beings and Vedic sages and teachers. It is evident that by such an invocation this book is characterised as a separate treatise, presupposing of course the main body of the Sâṅkhâyana-sûtras, but not forming part of it in the same sense in which, for instance, the second or the third Adhyâya does. The object of that treatise is the exposition of the ritual connected with the study of the Rahasya texts. The sixth book, composed no doubt by a later adherent of the Sâṅkhâyana school, returns, in fact, to, and enlarges on, matters that have already found their proper place in the original Grihya-sûtra at II, 12, and partly also at IV, 7.
3:1 See IV, 5, 9.
4:1 Manuscr. Chambers 712 (Berlin Royal Library), fol. 12 b.
4:2 Comp. Pâraskara-Grihya I, 2, 5: aranipradânam eke.
5:1 See, for instance, Grihya I, 16, 1 (Srauta IV, 16, 2).
5:2 Indische Studien, vol. xv, pp. 11, 12.
5:3 The Sûtras with reference to which I made that observation are I, 8, 14; 14, 13-15; II, 15, 10. Comp. Srauta-sûtra II, 7, 12; IV, 21.
5:4 I intend to give some proofs of this in the General Introduction to the Grihya-sûtras which will be given in the second volume of these translations.
6:1 Comp. the statements given with regard to that text in my German edition of Sâṅkhâyana, Indische Studien, XV, 4 seq.
9:1 Comp. the remarks in my German edition of Sâṅkhâyana, Ind. Studien. XV, 7.
10:1 vâgnaye the MS.
10:2 Nârâyana on I, 9, 3; 10, 2.
10:3 The Paddhati inserts the paraphrase of several of these rules into the explanation of the first Adhyâya.
ADHYÂYA I, KHANDA 1.
1 1. Now henceforth we shall declare the Pâkayagñas.
2 2. When (a pupil) is going to return (from his teacher), let him keep that fire (as his domestic fire) on which he has put the last piece of wood (as required by the regulations for a student),
3. Or (he should keep) his nuptial fire.
4. Some declare (that the domestic fire should be kindled) at the time of the division of the inheritance.
5 5. Or that after the death of the householder the eldest one himself (should kindle it).
6. (It should be kindled) on the day of the new moon of the month of Vaisâkha or on another (new moon day).
7. Some say (that the fire should be kindled) according to the (sacrificer's) wishes under the (corresponding) constellation.
8 8. He should light his fire at one of the following places, viz. in the house of a Vaisya who is rich in
cattle, at a frying-pan, or (at the fire of) one who offers many sacrifices.
9 9-11. Some say that (the fire should be fetched from one of the above-mentioned places) in the evening and in the morning.
10. The inauguration (of the fire) by an evening offering should be learnt from the Adhvaryus, according to (my) teacher.
11. In the morning he shall offer a full oblation with a verse sacred to Vishnu, or silently.
12 12. The time for setting it (i.e. the domestic fire) in a blaze and for sacrificing on it has been explained by (the rules given with regard to) the Agnihotra.
13 13. And 'invested with the sacrificial cord,' &c., all these rules, as far as they are applicable, should be applied (here also) in consequence of the unity of the ritual.
14. With regard to this they quote also (the following Sloka):
15 15. 'The kinds of Pâkayagñas, the kinds of Haviryagñas, and again the kinds of Soma sacrifices,
'Twenty-one by number, these are proclaimed to be the kinds of sacrifice.'
12:1 I, 1. The ceremonies to be treated of are defined here as the Pâkayagñas (i.e. oblations of cooked offerings) just as in the opening sentence of the Pâraskara-Grihya they are called grihyasthâlîpâkâs. This is indeed the most characteristic form of offerings belonging to the domain of the Grihya ritual, though it would not be correct to state that the Grihya-sûtras treat exclusively of sacrificial ceremonies of this kind.
12:2 As to the duty of the Vedic student of putting every day a piece of wood on the sacred fire of his teacher, see below, II, 6, 8, and compare the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 58. According to a Kârikâ given by Nârâyana, and the Karmapradîpa (I, 6, 13). the prescription of this Sûtra regarding the time for the kindling of the sacred fire refers exclusively to the case of vâgdâna (betrothal). Comp. also Dr. Bloomfield's note on the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 76 (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, XXXV, 560). In the Kârikâ it is stated that if the betrothed girl dies after the fire has been kindled, but before the marriage, the sacrificer is not to forsake his fire, but to marry another girl; if he cannot find a bride, he should make the fire enter into himself according to the rules given by Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya V, 1, and himself become uttarâsramin, i.e. enter one of the two final Âsramas.
13:5 Nârâyana: 'If the fire has not been kindled at the time stated above, then, after the householder . . . i.e. the father, even if he should not have performed the âdhâna, or the elder brother has died, the eldest son (or the son who after his elder brother's death has become the eldest), after he has performed the Sapindîkarana (for the dead father or brother; see below, IV, 3, and the ninth chapter of the Parisishta [book V]), even if he has not divided the inheritance with his younger brothers (so that the time stated in the fourth Sûtra would not have arrived), should kindle the fire himself, i.e. without an officiating priest (ritvig). . . . Or the Sûtra should be divided into two; prete vâ grihapatau (or after the death of the householder), and svayam gyâyân (the eminent one himself), i.e. of Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas a gyâyân, which means a most eminent person, a Brâhmana, performs the Pâkayagñas himself; for the two other castes the Pâkayagñas have to be performed through an officiating priest: this is the meaning of this svayam (himself).' I have given this note of Nârâyana as a specimen of the entirely arbitrary and obviously misleading explanations which are unfortunately so frequently found in this author, as indeed in most of the other Sûtra commentators. As to the true meaning of this svayam I still adhere to the explanation which I proposed in my German edition of the text (p. 118), that in case no division of the inheritance takes place, the sacred fire should be kindled on behalf of all the joint-proprietors, but that only the eldest brother should act personally (svayam).
13:8 Or, 'at (the fire of) a person rich in cattle, in the house of a Vaisya,' &c.? The commentators (see p. 118 of the German p. 14 edition) differ as to whether in purupasu-vitkula one or two alternatives are contained, and it is interesting to see that the Sûtra authors themselves differed in this respect; Pâraskara (I, 2, 3), when declaring from what place the fire should be fetched, speaks of the house of a Vaisya rich in cattle; Âsvalâyana, on the contrary, who in the Grihya-sûtra does not expressly treat of the kindling of the domestic fire, in the corresponding passage of the Srauta-sûtra (II, 2, 1), gives the rule that the dakshinâgni is to be fetched from the house of a Vaisya or from a rich person.'
14:9-11 9-11. I now differ from the opinion which I pronounced in my German edition with regard to the relation in which these three Sûtras stand to each other. I think they ought to be understood thus: 9. Some teachers say that the fetching of the fire from its yoni, as taught in Sûtra 8, ought to be done twice; in the evening, so that the fire, after the necessary rites have been performed, goes out, and then again in the morning. 10. But my (the author's) teacher (comp. as to akâryâh, Kâtyâyana's Srauta-sûtra I, 3, 7; Professor Garbe's note on Vaitâna-sûtra 1, 3) is of opinion that the fire should be fetched only once, and that with this fire the ceremonies which are taught by the Adhvaryus are to be performed in the evening (see, for instance, Kâty. IV, 7. 8, which passage is paraphrased here by Nârâyana). 11. In the morning (according to the same teacher, not, as I once understood this passage, according to the eke referred to in Sûtra 9), a full oblation is to be offered, &c.
14:12 Srauta-sûtra II, 6, 2 seq.
15:13 Srauta-sûtra I, 1, 6. 7: yagñopavîtî devakarmâni karoti, prâkînâvîtî pitryâni, &c. The unity of the ritual of course means the unity of the two great domains of the Srauta and Grihya ritual.
15:15 With regard to the twenty-one kinds of sacrifice compare, for instance, Gautama VIII, 18-20; Max Müller, ZDMG. IX, p. lxxiii; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 326. The seven kinds of Pâkayagñas are the Ashtakâ sacrifices (see below, III, 12 seq.), the sacrifices offered at each Parvan (I, 3), the Srâddha (or funeral) sacrifices (IV, 1 seq.), the sacrifice of the Srâvanî full moon (IV, 19), of the Âgrahâyanî (IV, 17 seq.), of the Kaitrî (IV, 19), and of the Âsvayugî (IV, 16). The seven Havis sacrifices (belonging, as is the case also with the third division of sacrifices, to the Srauta ritual) are the Agnyâdheya, the Agnihotra, the sacrifices of the full and new moon, the Âgrayana, the three Kâturmâsya sacrifices, the Nirûdhapasubandha, and the Sautrâmanî. The seven kinds of Soma sacrifices (of which the more ancient texts mention only three or four samsthâs, see Weber, Indische Studien, IX, 1 20) are the Agnishtoma, the Atyagnishtoma, the Ukthya, the Shodasin, the Atirâtra, the Aptoryâma.
1. At the end of the sacrificial acts (follows) the distribution of food to Brâhmanas.
2. Voice, (pleasantness of) form, age, learning, moral character, (right) conduct are the qualities (required in the Brâhmanas who are to be invited thereto).
3. Learning, however, outweighs every (other qualification).
4. A learned one should not be passed over.
5. 'The threefold (knowledge, viz. that) which refers to the deities, that which refers to the Âtman, and that which refers to sacrifice,
'(Handed down) in the Mantras and in the Brâhmana: this is called learning.
6. 'A performer of the sacred rights, a man who has studied (the Veda), who is old in learning and devoted to austerities:
'He who gives food (even) once to such (a Brâhmana), hunger will not befall that man any more.
7. 'Whatsoever deity he may wish to satiate at any sacrifice,
'Destining it to that (deity) in his mind, he shall give (the food) to a person like that.
8. 'An oblation deposited in a person like that will never miss its way to the deity;
'Treasure of men, vessel of gods (in which they receive what is given to them) he is called.'
1 1. Now (follow) the ceremonies of the days of the new and full moon.
2 2. In the morning, when the sun shines on the
top of the great trees, that is the most auspicious time for all kinds of sacrifices, unless there be a special rule.
3 3. With a genial mind, clean, on a pure, protected spot, having cooked a full, thin mess of rice, he offers that cooked oblation to the deities of the festivals of the new and full moon, distributing it in the due way.
4 4. In the oblations of cooked food the acts of taking (the intended oblation), of putting it down (near the fire), and of sprinkling it (with water) are performed with regard to the deities of the (respective) Mantras.
5 5. And the rules about the portions to be cut off (from the sacrificial food, are valid).
6 6. But before the sacrifices of the new and full moon one should make offerings to the deities of the Anvârambhanîya ceremony.
7 7. The time for the new moon sacrifice is not elapsed until the full moon, nor that for the full moon sacrifice until the new moon.
8 8. And some say that the morning oblation may be made at the time of the evening oblation, in the case of danger.
9. But the time is fixed, as at the Agnihotra an expiation has been prescribed for him who has neglected the time.
10. At the two daily oblations one should use as sacrificial food either rice or barley or grains.
11. In case these are not at hand, other (sorts of sacrificial food are) not prohibited.
12. Some say that if he uses grains, he should wash them.
13. With the other (kinds of food) no such preparation takes place.
14 14-15. In the evening (he makes the oblation) to Agni, in the morning to Sûrya,
15. And after both silently to Pragâpati.
16. Some (say that) before the first oblation a piece of wood (is to be put on the fire).
17 17. The sprinkling with water as indicated (in the Srauta-sûtra).
16:1 3, 1. Most probably this rule should be divided into two Sûtras, so that atha darsapûrnamâsau would stand as the heading of the chapter; comp. below, chap. 18, 1, atha katurthîkarma; chap. 24, 1, atha gâtakarma, &c.
16:2 'If this is expressly stated, the oblation is to be made in night-time; for instance, at the Vâstoshpatîya ceremony it is stated, "The tenth oblation of the Sthâlîpâka, to Agni Svishtakrit at night" (see below, III, 4, 8).' Nârâyana.
17:3 On vighana, which I have translated thin, see the note in the German edition, pp. 119 seq.
The deities of the festivals of the new and full moon (i.e. of the rites which in the Srauta ritual correspond to that taught here) are, at the full moon, Agni and Agnîshomau, at the new moon, Agni, Vishnu, and Indrâgnî, who are preceded in both cases by Agni and Soma as the deities of the two âgyabhâgas (see below, ch. 9, 7), and followed by Agni Svishtakrit. For more detailed statements see Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer (Jena, 1879), pp. 102 seq.
17:4 For instance, the taking of the portion of food destined to Agni should be performed with the Mantra: Agnaye tvâ gushtam grihnâmi, &c. A number of ceremonies common to the Sthâlîpâka ritual and to the ordinary ritual of Âgya oblations, such as the strewing of Kusa grass round the fire, the ceremonies regarding the Pavitras (strainers), &c., have to be supplied here from the Âgya ritual given below (ch. 7 seq.); this may be looked upon as an argument in favour of our conjecture which will be stated in the preface (vol. ii of the Grihya-sûtras), that our text, as probably is the case also with the Pâraskara-sûtra, is based on an original, the opening sentences of which are preserved to us in Sâṅkh. I, 5, 1-5 = Pâraskara I, 4, 1-5, so that the first chapters of Sâṅkhâyana, and among them the exposition of the festivals of the full and new moon, would have been prefixed to the original commencement of the text.
18:5 On the avadânadharmâs comp. Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95; Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 122 seqq.
18:6 The Anvârambhanîyâ-ishti is the sacrifice taught in the Srauta texts which is to be performed before the sacrificer for the first time offers the Darsapûrnamâsa sacrifice. See Weber, Indische Studien, X, 330; Hillebrandt, loc. cit., p. 185. The deities of this ceremony are Agnîvishnû, Sarasvatî, and Sarasvat.
18:7 Comp. the expiatory sacrifice prescribed in the Parisishta book, V, 4.
18:8 The text here passes over from the two monthly sacrifices to the two daily ones, which correspond to the Agnihotra of the Srauta ritual.
19:14-15 14, 15. These are the same deities who are worshipped also at the Agnihotra.
19:17 Srauta-sûtra II, 6, 9-11. Comp. p. 120 of the German edition.
1 1. When he has risen in the morning and has sipped water, let him daily repeat his recital.
2. (This consists of, or is accompanied by, the following texts:) the two verses, 'To-day, god Savitar' (Rig-veda V, 82, 4-5); the hymn, 'Go away, Manasaspati' (X, 164); the hymn, 'Right and truth' (X, 190); the verses, 'Look down, ye Âdityas,' to the end of the hymn (VIII, 47, 11-18);
the verse, 'O Indra, the best treasures' (II, 21, 6); the verse, 'The swan dwelling in purity' (IV, 40, 5); the verse, 'Adoration to the great ones' (I, 27, 13); the verse, 'What we fear, Indra' (VIII, 50, 13); the verse, 'And of the sleep' (I, 120, 12); the verse, 'He who says to me, O king' (II, 28, 10); the hymn, 'Let glory be mine, Agni' (X, 128); and the five verses,' Bliss may create for us' (V, 51, 11 seq.).
19:1 4, 1. The Paddhati of Râmakandra understands svâdhyâyam adhîyîta as a prescription to perform the daily Brahmayagña (comp., for instance, Âsvalâyana-Grihya III, 2; Âpastamba I, 11, 22 seq.), which consists in the recitation of portions of the Veda; the hymns and verses stated in Sûtra 2 are, according to the same authority, to be repeated immediately after the recitation of the svâdhyâya ('svâdhyâyânantaram'). Nârâyana, on the contrary, considers that the svâdhyâya prescribed in Sûtra 1 consists of those very hymns and verses which are indicated in the second Sûtra. As to the Brahmayagña, he says that the ka at the end of the second Sûtra may be referred to it ('the word ka means that texts procuring a long life, such as Rig-veda I, 89, should be murmured, or an injunction of the Brahmayagña is intended'). At all events it is very difficult to believe that the recitation of the texts stated in this chapter should be quite independent from the daily Brahmayagña. About the performance of the Brahmayagña in our days comp. the note of Professor Bühler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. 43.
1 1. There are four kinds of Pâkayagñas, viz. the HUTA, the AHUTA, the PRAHUTA, and the PRÂSITA.
2 2. On the following five occasions, viz. the wedding, the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation (of the Brahmakârin), the cutting of the beard, and the parting of the hair, (on these occasions) in the outer hall—
3 3. To a place that has been smeared (with cow-dung), which is elevated, and which has been sprinkled (with water), he carries forward the fire,
4. Having kindled it by rubbing, according to some teachers, at his marriage.
5. During the northern course of the sun, in the
time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day he shall seize the hand of a girl,
6. Who should possess (the auspicious) characteristics (required),
7. Whose limbs should be proportionate,
8. Whose hair should be smooth,
9 9. Who should also have at her neck two curls turned to the right.
10. (Of such a girl) he shall know that she will give birth to six men.
20:1 5, 1. This Sûtra and the following ones down to the fifth are identical with Pâraskara I, 4, 1-5; it seems to me that we have here before us the opening Sûtras of a lost text from which this passage has been copied both by Sâṅkhâyana and Pâraskara. Comp. the preface of the second volume of the Grihya-sûtras.
With regard to the fourfold division of Pâkayagñas stated here comp. below, chap. 10, 7.
20:2 Comp. the Kârikâ quoted by Nârâyana, 'vivâhâdishu bâhyo ’gnir mandape ka tad ishyata iti.'
20:3 On the Agni-pranayana comp. the details given in the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, vol. xxxv), I, 64-69.
21:9 On âvartau comp. the note in the German edition, p. 121.
1 1. If he will acquire a wife, let him recite over the wooers (whom he sends to the girl's father) when they go away, the verse, 'Thornless' (Rig-veda X, 85, 23).
2. When they arrive, they take flowers, fruits, barley, and a pot of water.
3 3. They say thrice, 'Here I am, sir!'
4. When these words have been uttered, they ask the girl in marriage, reciting the clan names, the dwellers turning their faces to the east, the visitors to the west.
5. When the matter pleases both sides, let them touch a full vessel into which have been put flowers,
fried grain, fruits, barley, and gold, and let them recite (the formula), 'Undisturbed art thou, the undisturbable vigour of the gods, not cursed, protecting against a curse, unexposed to a curse. Might I straightway attain to truth. Put me into prosperity.'
6 6. With the verse, 'Offspring may produce us' (Rig-veda X, 85, 43), the Âkârya of the girl's (family), standing up, places (the vessel) on her head (saying), 'Offspring I put into thee, cattle I put into thee, splendour and holy lustre I put into thee.'
21:1 6, 1. 'The wooers, i.e. his own father, &c.' Nârâyana.
21:3 'When the father of the suitor and the others, together with their Âkârya, have arrived at the house of him who is to give away the girl, they station themselves in the hall, and the father of the suitor says thrice, "Here am I, N.N. (amukasarman), Sir!"—in these words he announces himself three times . . . . For at the house of the person who gives the girl away, there arrive also, in order to see the festivities, many other people. In order to distinguish himself from these, he pronounces his name.' Nârâyana.
22:6 The position of the words as well as the sense favours combining the genitive kanyâyâh with âkâryah, not with mûrdhani, though Râmakandra says that the varapakshâkârya is to be understood.
1 1. When assent has been declared (by the girl's father, the bridegroom) sacrifices.
2. He besmears a quadrangular space with cow-dung.
3 3. (Let him consider in the ceremonies to be performed,) of the two eastern intermediate directions, the southern one as that to which (the rites) should be directed, if the rites belong to the Manes,
of the two eastern intermediate directions, sacred to Îsâna, should be considered as that to which the ceremonies sacred to the gods, such as oblations, &c., are to be directed.'—Comp. Âsvalâyana-Sraut. I, 12, 4.}
4. The northern one, if the rites belong to the gods,
5. Or rather the east (itself) according to some (teachers).
6 6-7. He draws in the middle (of the sacrificial ground) a line from south to north,
7. Upwards from this, turned upwards, to the south one line, in the middle one, to the north one.
8. These he sprinkles (with water),
9 9. Carries forward the fire with the verse, 'I carry forward Agni with genial mind; may he be the assembler of goods. Do no harm to us, to the old nor to the young; be a saviour to us, to men and animals,'
10. Or (he carries it forward) silently,
11. Then he wipes with his wet hand three times around the fire, turning his right side to it. This they call SAMÛHANA (sweeping together).
12. Once, turning his left side to it, in the rites belonging to the Manes.
22:1 7, 1 seq. Here follows a description of the sacrifice which is to be performed when the girl's father has declared his assent (pratisrute) to give her away in marriage: this is the general model for all Grihya sacrifices.—'Varo guhoti,' Nârâyana.
22:3 'He here states an exception to the rule, "The ceremonies sacred to the Manes are directed towards the south" (Srauta-sûtra I, 1, 14) . . . . He should consider the south-eastern direction, sacred to Agni, as that to which the ceremonies are to be directed (prâkîm pûrvâm kalpayet) which are sacred to the Manes, such as p. 23prescribed in the Sûtra, "Let him make oblations every month to the Fathers" (IV, 1, 1) . . . . He states an exception to the rule, "The ceremonies sacred to the gods are directed towards the east" (Sraut. I, 1, 13) . . . . The northern
23:6-7 See the quotations from Râmakandra's and Nârâyana's commentaries, p. 123 of the German edition. An illustration of the form of the sthandila with the lines drawn thereon is given by Dr. Bloomfield in his note on the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 52 seq.; instead of the three lines, however, which are here prescribed in Sûtra 7, there are four indicated in accordance with the doctrine of that Parisishta and of Gobhila himself, which are stated to be sacred to Prithivî, Pragâpati, Indra, and Soma, while the line turned from south to north is sacred to Agni.
23:9 On the Agnipranayana (carrying forward of the fire) see the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 64-69.
1 1. Now (follows) the strewing (of grass) around (the fire).
2. He strews eastward-pointed Kusa grass around it, in three layers or in five layers,
3. Beginning on the east side, then to the west, then to the west.
4. He covers the roots (of the grass-blades) with the points.
5. And all kinds of rites are to be performed beginning south, ending north.
6 6. He places the Brahman south with the words, BHÛR BHUVAH SVAH,
7. Adorns him with flowers,
8 8. Carries forward on the north side the Pranîtâ waters with the words, 'Who carries ye forward?'—
9 9. Takes up with the left hand the Kusa blades, and arranges them (on the ground) with the right hand,
10. Bending his right knee,
11. The left when worshipping the Manes.
12. The strewing around (of the grass) is not necessary in the Âgya offerings,
13 13. Nor in the standing offerings, according to Mândûkeya.
14 14-16. He now measures off with the span (of his hand) two Kusa blades, which are not unequal, with unbroken points, bearing no young shoots in them, and severs them (from their roots) with a Kusa blade, saying, 'Purifiers are ye.'
15. There are two or three (of these Kusa strainers).
16. He holds them with their points to the east and sprinkles them (with water, saying), 'Belonging to Vishnu.'
17. With the two Kusa blades he sprinkles (water) around the fire three times, keeping his right side turned towards it,
18 18. Takes up the Âgya pot with the words, 'Milk of the cows art thou;'
19 19. Puts it on the fire with the words, 'For sap thee;'
20 20. Takes it from the fire towards the north with the words, 'For juice thee;'
21 21. And holding the two (Kusa) strainers with their points to the north, seizing them on both sides
with his two thumbs and fourth fingers, he bends them down, the points upwards, and dips them into the Âgya with the words,
'By the impulse of Savitar I purify thee with this uninjured purifier, with the rays of the good sun.'
22. (This) preparation of the Âgya (takes place) each time.
23. Let him not offer (Âgya) which has not been (thus) prepared.
24 24-25. Also the waters in the Sruva spoon (he purifies) with the words, '(By the impulse) of Savitar (I purify) you.'
25. This (is called) the PRANÎTÂ and the PROKSHANÎ water.
24:1 8, 1. Comp. the passages quoted in Professor Eggeling's note on Satapatha Br. I, 1, 1, 22.
24:6 Ordinarily there was no real Brahman present, and his place was filled by a bundle of Kusa grass that represented him. Nârâyana states that this bundle should consist of fifty blades of Kusa grass. Comp. also the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 89-90.
24:8 Comp. the passages quoted by Dr. Bloomfield, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländ. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxv, p. 565, note 2.
24:9 This Sûtra shows that the paristarana, though already treated of in Sûtras 1-4, is not to be performed till after the 'carrying forward' of the Pranîtâ water. Comp. Nârâyana's note on Sûtra 1 (p. 123 of the German edition). That this is indeed the order of the different acts is confirmed by Pâraskara I, 1, 2.
25:13 'In the standing offerings, such as the Vaisvadeva sacrifice in the morning and in the evening.' Nârâyana.
25:14-16 Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ I, 12 a.
25:18 Vâg. Samh. IV, 3 a.
25:19 Vâg. Samh. I, 22 d.
25:20 Vâg. Samh. I, 30 c.
25:21 Vâg. Samh. I, 12 b.—The division of Sûtras 21 and 22 should be after iti, not, as the Indian tradition has it, after rasmibhih.
26:24-25 24, 25. Râmakandra: 'He pours water into the Sruva and purifies this also, as he had done with the Âgya (Sûtra 21) . . . . He then pours a little portion of that water on to the Pranîtâ water (see above, Sûtra 8), and with the rest, which is called the Prokshanî water, he sprinkles the sacrificial food, the fuel, and the Barhis.'
1 1. The Sruva spoon (serves as) a vessel.
2. According to the purpose the properties (of the different things to be used at each oblation) should be chosen.
3 3. Taking up Kusa blades with the left, and the
[paragraph continues] Sruva at its bottom with the right hand, with the words, 'The hand of Vishnu art thou'—
4 4. He offers with the Sruva the Âgya oblations.
5 5. Beginning from the north-west side of the fire he offers (the Âgya) unintermittingly on the south side (of the fire) with (the verse), 'Thou Agni art full of foresight' (Rig-veda I, 31, 10).
6. Beginning from the south-west side of the fire he unintermittingly offers on the north side with (the verse), 'To whom these snowy mountains' (Rig-veda X, 121, 4).
7. To Agni belongs the northern Âgya portion, to Soma the southern.
8 8. In the middle (are made) the other oblations,
9. (With the words,) 'Agni is the begetter; may he give to me N.N. as my wife; svâhâ!
'Soma is rich in wives; may he make me rich in wives by N.N.; svâhâ!
'Pûshan is rich in kindred; may he make me rich in kindred by the father, the mother, the brothers of N.N.; svâhâ!'
10 10. At the Âgya oblations the offering of the two Âgya portions and of the Svishtakrit oblation is not standing,
11 11. Nor in the standing oblations, according to Mândûkeya.
12 12. The place for the insertion is the interval between the Mahâvyâhritis, the general expiation, and the oblation to Pragâpati.
13. If the oblation consists in Âgya, let him seize the Kusa blades in his left hand with his right hand at their points and with the left at their roots, and let him wet their points (with Âgya) in the Sruva, the middle and the roots in the Âgya pot;
14. In the oblations of cooked food, however, the points in the Sruk, the middle in the Sruva, the roots in the Âgya pot.
15. When he then has thrown them (into the fire) with the words, 'Agni's garment art thou,'
16. And has put on (the fire) three pieces of wood,
17 17. (Water) is sprinkled round (the fire) as stated above.
18. Oblations for which only the deities are indicated, but no texts prescribed, are to be made merely with the word SVÂHÂ, 'To such and such a deity svâhâ! To such and such a deity svâhâ!'
19 19. The ritual (here) declared of the sacrifice (to
be performed) when (the father's) assent (to give away his daughter) has been declared—
26:1 9, 1. 'When no special rule is stated, the Sruva is to be understood as the vessel (for the offering). Thereby the rule, "The Guhû is the vessel" (Srauta-sûtra III, 19, 5) is abolished (for the Grihya rites).' Nârâyana.
26:3 The manner of holding the Sruva in which the Âgya is, is described by Kâtyâyana, Sraut. I, 10, 6 seq., Stenzler's note on Pâraskara I, 1, 4.
27:4 As to the characteristics of Âgya (sacrificial butter), which is the substance offered at most of the Grihya sacrifices, comp the statements of the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 105 seq.
27:5 Avikkhinnam (unintermittingly) is explained in Nâr.'s commentary by ekadhârayâ.
27:8 8 seq. Here are indicated the chief oblations of this sacrifice (anyâ âhutayah pradhânabhûtâh, Nâr.), or the âvâpa (the insertion, Sûtra 12) which comes between the standing introductory and concluding oblations.
27:10 On Svishtakrit, comp. Weber, Indische Studien, IX, 217.
28:11 See chap. 8, 13.
28:12 This Sûtra prescribes where the âvâpa, i.e. the special characteristical offerings of each sacrifice, is to be inserted between the regular offerings that belong to the standing model. The same subject is treated of in the Srauta-sûtra in the two rules, I, 16, 3 and 4: 'Whatsoever is offered between the two Âgya portions and the Svishtakrit, that is called âvâpa; this is the chief part (pradhâna) (of the sacrifice); the other (oblations) are subordinate thereto (tadaṅgâni).' The position of the âvâpa among the other oblations is indicated by Pâraskara in the following rule (I, 5, 6): Between the general expiation and the oblation to Pragâpati, this is the place for the âvâpa.' (The word vivâhe at the end of this Sûtra seems to me to belong not to this rule, but to Sûtra 7.) Our Sûtra is identical with that of Pâraskara word for word; only instead of sarvaprâyaskitta, as Pâraskara has, we read here, mahâvyâhritisarvaprâyaskitta. This means, I believe, that the âvâpa, preceded and followed by the Mahâvyâhriti oblations (comp. below, I, 12, 13), should be placed between the Sarvaprâyaskitta and the Prâgâpatya oblation. The oblations made with the Mahâvyâhritayas are four in number; the corresponding formulas are: bhûh svâhâ, bhuvah svâhâ, svâh svâhâ, bhûr bhuvah svah svâhâ (comp. below, chap. 12, 12). The Sarvaprâyaskitta (general expiation) consists of two oblations, one with the three Mahâvyâhritayas, the other with the verse ayâs kâgne, quoted in the Srauta-sûtra III, 19, 3, and in Âsvalâyana's Srauta-sûtra I, 11, 13. (On the Sarvaprâyaskitta in the Srauta ritual, compare Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 166.) The Prâgâpatya oblation is performed with the formula Pragâpataye svâhâ. The discussions of Nârâyana on this Sûtra (see p. 125 of the German edition) evidently fail to bring out the true meaning of the text; according to this commentator the oblations follow each other in this order: the two Âgyabhâgas, the principal oblations (pradhânâhutayah), the Svishtakrit, the four Mahâvyâhriti oblations, the two Sarvaprâyaskitta oblations, the Prâgâpatya oblation. Finally we may mention the corrupt form in which the corresponding passage of the Sâmbavya-sûtra is preserved p. 29 in the MS. There the two Sûtras 10 and 11 are placed before the Mantra in Sûtra 9. This Mantra then is given down to svâheti, then follows âgyena, which seems to me to form part of the same Sûtra, and to refer to the oblations to which the Mantra belongs. Then the MS. goes on: mahâvyâhritishu sarvaprâyaskittâram (sic) etad âvâpasthânam âgyahavishi vyâhritishu sarvaprâyaskittâram (the syllables prâyaskittâram seem to be expunged) svishtakrito sthâlîpâke. In the commentary I find the following Slokas, which I give exactly as they are read in the MS.: tisrinâm vyâhritinâm ka prâyaskittâhutîr api yad antaram tad âpâpâsthânam sarpihpradhânake. sthâlîpâke vyâhritinâm yat tat svishtakritottaram âhutînâm pradhânânâm nânâdaivatakhandasâm yas tu kâlas tad âvâpasthânam itâkyate budhaih tatas tat tam ma ârabhya prâyaskittâhutih kramât.
29:17 See above, chap. 8, 17.
29:19 This Sûtra, though reckoned in the Indian tradition to p. 30 chap. 9, seems to me clearly to belong to the next chapter, and to contain the subject, to which the predicate is given in 10, 1. For pratisrute, see chap. 7, 1.
1 1. Forms the standard for all sacrifices that procure happiness,
2. And for all Âgya offerings,
3 3. For the sacrifice of animals which are tied to a branch,
4 4. And for the offerings of boiled (rice) grains and of cooked food.
5 5. These are performed, all the offerings of cooked food, without PRAYÂGA and ANUYÂGA oblations, without (the invocation of) the ILÂ, without NIGADA recitation, and without SÂMIDHENÎ verses.
6. There are also the following Slokas:
7 7. '(An oblation is called) HUTA, (if made) by the performing of the Agnihotra; AHUTA (i.e. unsacrificed, if) by the Bali offering; PRAHUTA (i.e. sacrificed up, if) by a sacrifice to the Manes; PRÂSITA (i.e. tasted, if) deposited as an offering in a Brâhmana.
8 8. 'Without raising his knees, with spread knees let him always offer his oblation; for the gods never accept an offering (that has been made holding the hand) not between (the knees).
9 9. 'But when he has repeated a text sacred to Rudra, to the Rakshas, to the Manes, to the Asuras, or that contains an imprecation, let him touch water, and so also when he has touched his own body.'
30:1 10, 1. 'As in the Srauta ritual the sacrifice of the full and new moon forms the standard for the ishtis, the pasubandha, &c., thus the pratisrut-kalpa is the standard for the vikritis of the Smârta ritual, such as the gâtakarman (chap. 24), &c.' Nârâyana.
30:3 'It is the standard of the sacrifices prescribed in the rules, "The animal (offered) to the teacher is sacred to Agni; to an officiating priest, to Brihaspati, &c."' Nârâyana. This refers to the sacrifice of animals which forms part of the Arghya ceremony; see II, 15, 4 seq.
30:4 Karûnâm pâkayagñânâm ka. Nârâyana.
30:5 On the five Prayâgas and the three Anuyâgas (introductory oblations and oblations following on the principal offerings) prescribed in the Srauta ritual, comp. Hillebrandt's Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 94 seq., 134 seq. On the Ilâ, see ibid., 122 seq.; on nigada, Weber's Ind. Studien, IX, 217, &c.; on the Sâmidhenî verses, Hillebrandt, loc. cit., pp. 74 seq. On this Sûtra compare also the passage in Kâtyâyana's Srauta-sûtra, VI, 10, 22 seq.
31:7 Comp. chap. 5, 1.
31:8 Comp. the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta I, 46, and the note, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 556. Nârâyana: dakshinam bâhum gânvor antare kritvety arthah, sarvadâ sarvasminn api karmani havir homadravyam guhuyât.
31:9 This verse is found also in the Karmapradîpa III, 8, 4.
1 1. Now when the bride is to be carried away (to the bridegroom's house) that night, or on the next, or on the third night,
2 2. On that night, when (the darkness of) night is gone, they wash the girl up to her head with (water that has been made fragrant by) all sorts of herbs and the choicest fruits together with scents;
3. They put on her a newly-dyed garment or (a new one) which has not yet been washed;
4 4. Then (the Âkârya of the bride's family) makes the girl sit down behind the fire, and while she takes hold of him he sacrifices with the Mahâvyâhritis, and then he makes Âgya oblations to Agni, to Soma, to Pragâpati, to Mitra, to Varuna, to Indra, to Indrânî, to the Gandharva, to Bhaga, to Pûshan, to Tvashtar, to Brihaspati, to the king Pratyânîka.
5. After they have regaled four or eight women, who are not widows, with lumps of vegetables, Surâ, and food, these should perform a dance four times.
6. The same deities (they worship also) on behalf of the man,
7. And Vaisravana and Îsâna.
8. Then follows the distribution of food to Brâhmanas.
31:1 11, 1. The ceremony described in this chapter is called Indrânîkarman. The goddess Indrânî is mentioned in Sûtra 4 among the deities to whom Âgya oblations are made.
31:2 Nisâkâle, nisâ madhyastham praharadvayam, tasmin kale atîte. Nârâyana.
On the anvârambha, comp. Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 224.
32:4 The 'king Pratyânîka' has given origin to a very curious misunderstanding in the Sâmbavya-Grihya and its commentary; see p. 127 of the German edition.
1. The bridegroom, who has bathed and for whom auspicious ceremonies have been performed, is escorted by happy young women, who are not widows, to the girl's house.
2. To these he shall not behave unobsequiously, except where forbidden food or a transgression is concerned.
3. Having obtained their permission, he then gives her the garment with (the verse), 'The Raibhî was' (Rig-veda X, 85, 6).
4. With (the verse), 'Mind was the cushion' (ibid. 7) he takes up the salve-box.
5 5. The verse for the Anointing is, 'May the Visve devâs anoint (or, unite),' (ibid. 47.)
6 6. 'As this (has protected) Sakî the beloved one, and Aditi the mother of noble sons, and Apâlâ who was free from widowhood, nay it thus here protect thee, N.N.!'—with these words (the. bridegroom) gives her into her right hand the quill of a porcupine (and) a string of three twisted threads,
7. With the verse, 'Shape by shape' (Rig-veda VI, 47, 18) a mirror into the left.
8. Her relations tie (to her body) a red and black, woollen or linen cord with three (amulet) gems, with the verse, 'Dark-blue and red' (Rig. veda X, 85, 28).
9. With the verse, 'Full of honey the herbs' (Rig-veda IV, 57, 3), (the bridegroom) ties (to her body) Madhûka flowers.
10 10. At the wedding one cow, when the Argha ceremony has been performed; in the house one cow: these are the two Madhuparka cows.
11 11. (The bridegroom) makes the girl sit down behind the fire, and while she takes hold of him he makes three oblations with the Mahâvyâhritis.
12. A fourth (oblation) with (the three Mahâvyâhritis) together is to be understood from this rule.
13. In this way, where no express rule is stated, in all sacrifices that procure happiness, one is to sacrifice before and afterwards with these same (Mahâvyâhritis).
33:5 12, 5. On the ceremony of 'salving together' (samañgana), comp. Pâraskara I, 4, 14; Gobhila II, 2, &c. Professor Stenzler is certainly wrong in translating Pâraskara's samañgayati by 'heisst sie beide zusammentreten' (according to Gayarâma's explication, sammukhîkaroti). It is clear from Sâṅkhâyana, that a real anointing of bridegroom and bride took place. This was performed, according to Gobhila, by the 'audaka' (this seems to be the same person that is mentioned in Pâraskara I, 8, 3), of whom it is said, pânigrâham (i.e. the bridegroom) mûrdhadese ’vasiñkati, tathetarâm. Nârâyana, on the contrary, in his note on our passage, says that it is the bridegroom who anoints the eyes of the girl with the verse quoted. But the word sam-añgana, and the obvious meaning of the whole rite, make it rather probable that both were anointed, and that this was done by a third person.
33:6 Comp. below, chap. 22, 8, where the use of a porcupine's quill is prescribed at the sîmantonnayana ceremony; and see chap. 22, 10.
34:10 As to the meaning of arhayitvâ I differ from the opinion of Nârâyana (see his note on p. 127 of the German edition), who takes gâm as the object of this verb (gâm arhayitvâ pûgayitvâ mâtâ rudrânâm ity rikam gapitvâ [comp. Pâraskara I, 3, 27]). The real meaning of arhayati is, to perform the Argha ceremony for a guest. Evidently in this Sûtra two different occasions are stated on which the Argha reception, eventually with the killing of a cow, should be performed; firstly, the bridegroom should be so received in the house of the bride's father; secondly, when the newly-married people have arrived at their own house, an Argha reception should there be offered to them, perhaps, as the commentaries state, by the Âkârya.
34:11 According to Nârâyana it is the Âkârya who performs the rite prescribed in this Sûtra; Râmakandra, on the contrary, refers it to the bridegroom, which seems to me right. Comp. Gobhila II, 1.
In Sâṅkhâyana's description of the wedding ceremonies the point at which the bride passes over from the paternal power into that of her new husband is not expressly indicated. Pâraskara (I, 4, 15) clearly indicates it (pitrâ prattâm âdâya), and in the Parisishta of the Âsvalâyana-Grihya this act of handing over the girl is treated of in detail (I, 22). On this depends the description in the Prayogaratna, fol. 69; comp. also Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, I, 210. The Paddhati of Râmakandra does not fail to mention the kanyâpradâna, but I do not think that the succession of the different rites is stated there correctly. According to the Paddhati the bridegroom goes to the house of the girl's father, and there, after the madhuparka has been offered, the bride is given over to him; he then (labdhavadhûkah) goes (chap. 12, 1), accompanied by young women, to the kautukâgâra, where the ceremonies described in chap. 12, 3 seq. take place. Pâraskara, on the contrary, describes the handing over of the garments, the anointing, &c., as preceding the giving over of the girl, and indeed it is scarcely possible to see in the acts of dressing, adorning the girl, &c., in which both the bridegroom and her relations p. 35 take part, anything but preparatory performances that precede the decisive moment. The sacrifice, on the contrary, which the bridegroom performs, according to chap. 12, 11, in common with his bride, seems to presuppose that he has already received her from her father; and the ceremonies described in chap. 13, the pânigrahana, the pronouncing of the Mantra, chap. 13, 4, which reminds one of the Roman formula ubi tu Gaius, the seven steps—all that should be understood not as intended to establish the power of the husband over his wife, but as presupposing that power and showing an exercise of it.
1. 'Be queen with thy father-in-law,' with this verse (Rig-veda X, 85, 46) her father or brother sacrifices with a sword's point on her head, or with the Sruva, standing while she is sitting, with his face turned to the west, while her face is turned to the east.
2. 'I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness' (Rig-veda X, 85, 36), with these words (the bridegroom) seizes with his right hand her right hand with the thumb, both hands being turned with the palms upwards, he standing while she is sitting, with his face turned to the west, while her face is turned to the east.
3. And when he has murmured the following five verses,
4 4. (He continues thus,) 'This am I, that art thou;
that art thou, this am I; the heaven I, the earth thou; the Rik art thou, the Sâman I. So be thou devoted to me.
'Well! Let us here marry. Let us beget offspring. Let us acquire many sons who may reach old age.'
5. (The Âkârya) fills, with the words bhûr bhuvah svah, a new water-pot,
6 6. Throws into it (branches) with milky sap and leaves, of a tree the name of which is masculine, together with Kusa grass,
7. And gold, according to some (teachers),
8. And hands it over to a student who observes silence.
9 9. They should walk round this Stheyâ water, (placed) to the north-east, so that they turn their right sides . towards it.
10. And after (the Âkârya) has placed a stone towards the northern direction,
11. (The bridegroom) makes her rise with the words, 'Come, thou joyful one,'
12. And makes her tread with the tip of her right foot on the stone, with the words, 'Come, tread on the stone; like a stone be firm. Tread the foes down; overcome the enemies.'
13. He then leads her round the fire so that their right sides are turned to it,
14. And gives her a second garment with the same text (chap. 12, § 3).
15. Her father or brother pours out of a basket fried grain mixed with Samî leaves into her joined hands.
16. The spreading under, the sprinkling over, and the second sprinkling over (are done) with Âgya.
17 17. She sacrifices those (fried grains).
35:4 13, 4. Nârâyana states that here four Brâhmanas should repeat p. 36 the Sûryâ hymn (Rig-veda X, 85) to the bride. That, according to Sâṅkhâyana, that hymn is recited at the wedding, is clear from chap. 14, 12.
36:6 Sakshîrânt sapalâsânt sakusân. Nârâyana's commentary divides sa kusân, and refers sa to the âkârya. But this sa would be superfluous, and the substantive to which sakshîrân and sapalâsân are to be referred, is, as both the nature of the case and the corresponding passages show, sâkhân and not kusân. Comp. the Srauta-sûtra IV, 17, 5: palâsasâkhâm sapalâsâm nikhâya, and a passage concerning the very rite here described, Âsvalâyana-parisishta I, 24: audumbaryârddhayâ. (read, ârdrayâ?) sâkhayâ sapalâsayâ sahiranyapavitrayâ sadûrvâpavitrayâ. The MS. of the Sâmbavya-sûtra has sakshîrân palâsân sakusân.
36:9 'The Stheyâ water has to be so placed that when the bride and the bridegroom walk (their seven steps, see chap. 14, 5 seq.), their right sides are turned towards it.' Nârâyana. Comp., regarding the Stheyâ water and its bearer, the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 26. 30. 35.
37:17 I believe that the words forming this Sûtra, tâñ guhoti, are taken from the same lost old Grihya text which Sâṅkhâyana has followed word for word also in I, 5, 1-5 and elsewhere. This is made probable by the comparison of Pâraskara I, 6, 2. The author of our text, while literally adopting the words of his original, has not quite succeeded in welding them together with his own statements; thus the sacrifice of grains is treated of in this Sûtra and in the first Sûtra of the next chapter, as if there were two different acts, while indeed it is one and the same.
1. 'This woman, strewing grains, prays thus, "May I bring bliss to my relations; may my husband live long. Svâhâ!"'—while the husband murmurs (this) text, she sacrifices standing.
2 2. (All the ceremonies,) beginning from the treading
upon the stone, (are repeated) in the same way for a second time,
3. And in the same way a third time.
4. Silently, if they like, a fourth time.
5 5. (The Âkârya?) makes (them) step forward in a north-eastern direction seven steps (with the words),
6. 'For sap with one step, for juice with two steps, for the prospering of wealth with three steps, for comfort with four steps, for cattle with five steps, for the seasons with six steps. Friend be with seven steps.'
7. (The Âkârya?) 'appeases' those (foot-steps) with water.
8 8. With the three Âpohishthîyâ verses (Rig-veda X, 9, 1-3) he wipes (them) with the Stheyâ water,
9 9. And sprinkles it on their heads.
10. (The bridegroom then) says, 'I give you a cow.'
11. Let him give something to the Brâhmanas each time at the Sthâlîpâkas and other rites;
12 12. To him who knows the Sûryâ hymn the bride's shift.
13 13-15. A cow is the optional gift to be given by a Brâhmana,
14. A village by a Râganya,
15. A horse by a Vaisya.
16 16. A hundred (cows) with a chariot (he gives to a father) who has only daughters.
17. To those versed in the sacrificial rites he gives a horse.
37:2 14, 2. The treading on the stone is prescribed in chap. 13, 12.
38:5 5, 7. According to Nârâyana it is the teacher who makes them walk the seven steps; the Paddhati says that the bridegroom or the Âkârya causes her to do so. Comp. Pâraskara I, 8, 1; Âsvalâyana I, 7, 19, &c.
38:8 Comp. chap. 13, 9.
38:9 Probably we should read mûrdhanî (acc. dual.), not mûrdhani. Âsvalâyana has sirasî. Of course the heads of both the bridegroom and the bride were sprinkled with water; comp. Âsvalâyana I, 7, 20, &c.
38:12 The Sûryâ hymn is Rig-veda X, 85. Comp. the note above on chap. 13, 4.
39:13-15 These Sûtras, treating of the fee for the sacrifice, are identical with Pâraskara I, 8, 15-18. Apparently they are taken from the same lost original from which several identical passages in the Sûtras of Pâraskara and Sâṅkhâyana seem to be derived (see the notes on chap. 5, 1; 13, 7). They stand rather out of place here, for they return to the same subject which had already been treated of in Sûtra 10, though in that Sûtra, as very frequently is the case in our text and in similar ones, only the case of the bridegroom being a Brâhmana has been taken notice of.
39:16 Comp. the passages quoted by Professor Stenzler on Pâraskara I, 8, 18. Nârâyana has the following note: 'To a duhitrimat, i.e. to the father of a girl who has no brother, he shall give a hundred cows and besides a chariot, in order to destroy the guilt brought about by marrying a girl who has no brother.' Possibly we should here emancipate ourselves from the authority of the commentators, and explain duhitrimat 'he who gives his daughter in marriage,' the bride's father. Comp. Âpastamba II, 11, 18; II, 13, 12; Weber, Indische Studien, V, 343, note 2.
1. The three verses, 'I loosen thee' (Rig-veda X, 85, 24), when she departs from the house.
2. 'The living one they bewail' (Rig-veda X, 40, 10), if she begins to cry.
3 3. The wife then smears the axle of the chariot with clarified butter with this (verse), 'They feasted, they got drunk' (Rig-veda I, 82, 2),
4. And with the two (verses), 'Pure are thy wheels,' 'Thy two wheels' (Rig-veda X, 85, 12. 16), of the two wheels the first with the first (verse) and the second with the second (verse),
5. And the two bulls.
6 6. After (the wife?) has put, with this (verse), 'In the box of the wheel' (Rig-veda VIII, 80, 7), a branch of a fruit-bearing tree into each of the holes destined for the pins,
7. Or, if (such branches) are (already) fixed, has recited (that verse) over them,
8. They then harness the two bulls with the two (verses), 'Harnessed be thy right one' (Rig-veda I, 82, 5-6), (the bridegroom) reciting the half-verse, 'White the two bulls' (Rig-veda X, 85, 10), over them when they have been harnessed.
9. Now should any part of the chariot break or burst, let him take the girl to the house of one who keeps the sacred fires,
10. And repair (the damage) with the verse, 'Cover thyself with the Khadiras' (Rig-veda III, 53, 19).
11. A knot with the verse, 'Him like a horse' (Rig-veda X, 143, 2).
12. He then murmurs the five verses, 'May prosperity give us' (Rig-veda V, 51, 11-15).
13. 'Adorned with Kimsuka flowers' (Rig-veda X, 85, 20), when she mounts the chariot;
14. 'May no waylayers meet us' (ibid. 32), at a cross-way;
15. 'Which the woman’s' (ibid. 31), near a cemetery;
16. The half-verse, 'O tree with thy hundred
branches' (Rig-veda III, 8, 11), he mutters near a big tree;
17. 'The good protectress' (Rig-Veda X, 63, 10), when she ascends a ship;
18. 'Carrying stones' (Rig-veda X, 53, 8), when she crosses a river;
19. Optionally (he) also (murmurs the same verse, if that is done) with the harnessed chariot;
20. 'Up may your wave' (Rig-veda III, 33, 13), at deep places (in the river);
21. And (at such places) let her not look out.
22. The seven verses, 'Here may delight' (Rig-veda X, 85, 27 seq.), when she has reached the house, omitting the verses already employed.
39:3 15, 3. Probably the use of this verse on this occasion rests on the assonance of its opening word akshan and aksha (rathâksha).
40:6 See Nârâyana's note on samyâgarta, p. 129 of the German edition.
1 1. 'A bull's hide'—this has been declared.
2 2. On that hide the husband makes her sit down and sacrifices, while she takes hold of him, four oblations (with the following formulas),
3. 'With god Agni, with the earth-world of the worlds, and the Rig-veda of the Vedas: therewith I appease thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'With god Vâyu, with the air-world of the worlds,
with the Yagur-veda of the Vedas: therewith I appease thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'With god Sûrya, with the heaven-world of the worlds, with the Sâma-veda of the Vedas: therewith I appease thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'With god Kandra, with the world of the quarters (of the horizon) of the worlds, with the Brahma-veda of the Vedas: therewith I appease thee, N.N., svâhâ!'
4. Or, 'Bhûh! What harm dwells in thee, bringing death to thy husband, death to thy husband's brother, that I make death-bringing to thy paramour, N.N., svâhâ!'—thus the first (of the before-mentioned formulas) may be joined with the first Mahâvyâhriti, the second with the second, the third with the third, the fourth with (the three Mahâvyâhritis) together.
5. With (the verse), 'With no evil eye' (Rig-veda X, 85, 44), let him besmear (her) eyes with Âgya salve.
6. (The bridegroom,) having touched the ends of her hair with the three (verses), 'How may us the resplendent one . . .' (Rig-veda IV, 31, 1-3),
7. And having quickly recited the four verses, 'And those divine medicines' (Rig-veda VIII, 18, 8), at the end (of that text) with the word svâhâ (pours out) the remainder on (her) head.
8 8. Here some place a boy of good birth on both sides, in her lap, with this (verse), 'Into thy womb' (see below, chap. 19, 6),
9. Or also silently.
10. Into this (boy's) joined hands (the bridegroom) gives fruits and causes (the Brâhmanas) to wish an auspicious day.
11. Thus she becomes the mother of male children.
12. With the rest of the hymn, 'Stay ye here both' (Rig-veda X, 85, 42 seq.), they make them enter the house.
41:1 16, 1. In chap. 15, 22 it is said that the bride arrives at the house; in 16, 12, that she enters the house. Probably we are to understand, therefore, that the sacrifice prescribed in this chapter, Sûtras 2 seq., is performed before the house, like the Vâstoshpatîya karman (below, III, 4). The words, 'has been declared,' refer to the Srauta-sûtra (IV, r6, 2), 'Having spread a red bull's skin, with the neck to the north or to the east, with the hair outside, behind the fire, they sit down,' &c.
41:2 On anvârambha comp. the quotation in the note on chap. II, 2.
42:8 It should be noted that the verse â te yonim is quoted here only with the Pratika, while its full text is given below, chap. 19, 6. Can the Sûtras describing this ceremony with the kumâra ubhayatah-sugâta be a later addition?
1. With the verse, 'I praised Dadhikrâvan' (Rig-veda IV, 39, 6), let them drink together curds.
2 2-3. Let them sit silent, when the sun has set, until the polar-star appears.
3. He shows her the polar-star with the words, 'Firm be thou, thriving with me!'
4. Let her say, 'I see the polar-star; may I obtain offspring.'
5. Through a period of three nights let them refrain from conjugal intercourse.
6. Let them sleep on the ground.
7. Let them eat together boiled rice with curds, with the three verses, 'Drink and satiate yourselves' (Rig-veda VIII, 35, 10).
8. Let them serve the nuptial fire in the evening and in the morning with the words, 'To Agni svâhâ! To Agni Svishtakrit svâhâ!'
9. 'Let the two men Mitra and Varuna, let the two men, the Asvins both, let the man Indra and also Agni make a man grow in me. Svâhâ!'—with
[paragraph continues] (these words she offers) the first oblation if she is desirous of pregnancy.
10. For ten days they are not to set out (from home).
43:2-3 17, 2, 3. I have changed in the translation the division of these Sûtras; the native authorities divide after dhruvadarsanât, while I propose to divide after astamite.
1. Now the rites of the fourth day.
2. When the three nights have elapsed, he makes offerings of cooked food (with the texts),
3 3. 'Agni! Thou art expiation; thou art the expiation of the gods. What substance dwells in her that brings death to her husband, that drive away from her.
'Vâyu! Thou art expiation; thou art the expiation of the gods. What substance dwells in her that brings sonlessness, that drive away from her.
'Sûrya! Thou art expiation; thou art the expiation of the gods. What substance dwells in her that brings destruction to the cattle, that drive away from her.
'To god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Aryaman, loosen her from this, and not from that place.
'To god Varuna the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Varuna, &c.
'To god Pûshan the girls have made sacrifice, to Agni; may he, god Pûshan, &c.'
4. The seventh oblation with the verse, 'Pragâpati' (Rig-veda X, 121, 10).
5. The eighth to (Agni) Svishtakrit.
1. Let him pound the root of the Adhyândâ plant and sprinkle it at the time of her monthly period with the two (verses), 'Speed away from here; a husband has she' (Rig-veda X, 85, 21. 22), with svâhâ at the end of each, into her right nostril.
2. 'The mouth of the Gandharva Visvâvasu art thou'—with these words let him touch her, when he is about to cohabit with her.
3. When he has finished, let him murmur,
4. 'Into thy breath I put the sperm, N.N.!'
5. Or, 'As the earth is pregnant with Agni, as the heaven is with Indra pregnant, as Vâyu dwells in the womb of the regions (of the earth), thus I place an embryo into thy womb, N.N.!'
6 6. Or, 'May a male embryo enter thy womb, as an arrow the quiver; may a man be born here, a son after ten months.
'Give birth to a male child; may after him (another) male be born; their mother shalt thou be, of the born, and (to others) mayst thou give birth.
'In the male verily, in the man dwells the sperm; he shall pour it forth into the woman: thus has said Dhâtar, thus Pragâpati has said.
'Pragâpati has created him, Savitar has shaped him. Imparting birth of females to other (women) may he put here a man.
'From the auspicious sperms which the men pro—
duce for us, produce thou a son; be a well-breeding cow.
'Roar, be strong, put into her an embryo, achieve it; a male, thou male, put into her; to generation we call thee.
'Open thy womb; take in the man's sperm; may a male child be begotten in the womb. Him thou shalt bear; (having dwelt) ten months in the womb may he be born, the most excellent of his kin.'
45:6 19, 6. The first verse is that quoted already at chap. 16, 8. The text of the verses quoted in this Sûtra is very corrupt; see the notes on p. 36 of the German edition.
1. In the third month the Pumsavana (i.e. the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child),
2. Under (the Nakshatra) Pushya or Sravana.
3 3. Having pounded a Soma stalk, or a Kusa needle, or the last shoot of a Nyagrodha trunk, or the part of a sacrificial post which is exposed to the fire,
4. Or (having taken) after the completion of a sacrifice the remnants from the Guhû ladle,
5 5. Let him sprinkle it into her right nostril with the four verses, 'By Agni may good' (Rig-veda I, 1, 3), 'That sperm to us' (III, 4, 9), 'May he succeed who lights fire' (V, 37, 2), 'Of tawny shape' (II, 3, 9), with Svâhâ at the end (of each verse).
46:3 20, 3. On suṅgâ compare the note of Nârâyana and the verse quoted from the Karmapradîpa, p. 131 of the German edition.
On kusakantaka Nârâyana says, kusakantakam kuso darbhas tasya kantakah sûkî (sûka, MS. Berol. Orient. fol. 60z) tam vâ peshayitvâ. I do not understand why the commentators of Pâraskara, whom Professor Stenzler has followed in his translation of Par. I, 14, 4, make kantaka equal to mûla.
46:5 Nasto dakshinatah stands here as in chap. 19, 1. Âsvalâyana I, 13, 6 has dakshinasyâm nâsikâyâm, and so has also p. 47 Pâraskara I, 13. Comp. the natthukamma treated of in the Pâli Buddhist texts (Mahâvagga VI, 13) and in the medical literature.
1. In the fourth month the Garbharakshana (i.e. the ceremony for the protection of the embryo),
2. Sacrificing six oblations from a mess of cooked food with (the six verses of the hymn), 'Agni, joined with the prayer' (Rig-veda X, 162),
3. With (the verses), 'From thy eyes, thy nose' (Rig-veda X, 163), verse by verse besmearing her limbs with Âgya salve.
1. In the seventh month, at her first pregnancy, the Sîmantonnayana (or parting of the hair).
2. He causes her, after she has bathed and put on a (new) garment which has not yet been washed, to sit down behind the fire.
3. He sacrifices, while she takes hold of him, with the Mahâvyâhritis.
4. He cooks a mess of food,
5. According to some (teachers) boiled rice with Mudga beans.
6. The implements used and the Nakshatra should be of male gender.
7. (He then sacrifices with the following texts,) 'May Dhâtar give to his worshipper further life and safety; may we obtain the favour of the god whose laws are truthful.
'Dhâtar disposes of offspring and wealth; Dhâtar has created this whole world; Dhâtar will give a
son to the sacrificer: to him you shall sacrifice, an offering rich in ghee.'
(Besides) with the three verses, 'Negamesha, fly away' (Rig-veda Khailika sûkta, after X, 184, vol. vi, p. 31), and in the sixth place the verse, 'Pragâpati' (Rig-veda X, 121, 10).
8 8. (The husband then) parts her hair, upwards, beginning from the middle, with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, or with a Darbha needle together with unripe Udumbara fruits, with the words, 'Bhûr bhuvah svah.'
9. He lays down (the thing he has used) in her lap,
10 10. Ties (the fruits) to a string of three twisted threads and fastens them to her neck with the words, 'Rich in sap is this tree; like the sappy one be thou fruitful.'
11 11. (The husband) then says to lute-players, 'Sing ye the king—
12. 'Or if anybody else is still more valiant.'
13 13. Having poured fried grain into a water-pot, let him cause her to drink it with the six verses,
[paragraph continues] 'May Vishnu take care of thy womb,' 'I call Râkâ' (Rig-veda X, 184, 1; II, 32, 4-8).
14. Let him then touch her (with the words),
15 15. 'The winged one art thou, the Garutmat; the Trivrit (stoma) is thy head, the Gâyatra thy eye, the metres thy limbs, the Yagus thy name, the Sâman thy body.'
16 16-17. Let him cause her to sing merrily,
17. Wearing, if she likes, many gold ornaments.
18. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice.
48:8 22, 8. Comp. above, chap. 12, 6.
48:10 Nârâyana: tisribhis tantubhir vritte sûtre udumbaraphalâni . . . gale . . . badhnâti. I have translated accordingly. Pâraskara I, 15, 6 uses the same expression trivrit. Professor Stenzler there translates it, on the authority of Gayarâma, 'dreifache Haarflechte,' and says in his note on that passage that, according to Sâṅkhâyana, he would have to tie the things with a threefold string to the neck of the woman, as if Sâṅkhâyana's statement were different from that of Pâraskara. But both authors have the same word, and only the commentators differ in their explanations thereof.
48:11 Âsvalâyana more explicitly says (I, 14, 6), Somam râgânam samgâyetâm iti.
48:13 In my German translation there is a mistake which should be corrected. I have there referred shalrika to the verses Râkâm p. 79 aham, which are actually only five in number. The six verses are Vishnur yonim, &c., and the five verses mentioned.
49:15 Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ XII, 4.
49:16-17 16, 17. Nârâyana: modamânîm harshayuktâm tam mâṅgalikair gîtair gâyayet . . . mahâhemavatîm bahvâbharanayuktâm vâ gâyayet.
1. Let him pound the roots of the plants kâkâtanî, makakakâtanî, kosâtakî, of the egg-plant, and of the indigo plant, and besmear (therewith) the place in which she is going to be confined, in order to drive away the Rakshas.
1 1. Now the Gâtakarman (i.e. ceremony for the new-born child).
2 2. Let (the father) breathe three times on the new-born child and then draw in his breath with the words, 'Draw in your breath with the Rik, breathe within with the Yagus, breathe forth with the Sâman.'
3. Let him mix together butter and honey, milk curds and water, or grind together rice and barley, and give it to eat (to the child) thrice from gold (i.e. from a golden vessel or with a golden spoon),
4. With (the verse), 'I administer to thee honey food for the festival, the wisdom ("veda") raised by Savitar the bountiful; long-living, protected by the gods, live a hundred autumns in this world, N.N.!'(with these words) he gives him a name beginning with a sonant, with a semivowel in it, consisting of two syllables, or of four syllables, or also of six syllables; he should take a krit (suffix), not a taddhita.
5. That (name only) his father and his mother should know.
6. On the tenth day a name for common use, which is pleasing to the Brâhmanas.
7. Let him pulverise black and white and red hairs of a black ox, intermix (that powder) with those four substances (see Sûtra 3), and give it to eat (to the child) four times: such (is the opinion of) Mândûkeya.
8 8. If he likes (let him do so) with the words, 'Bhûh! The Rig-veda I lay into thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'Bhuvah! The Yagur-veda I lay into thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'Svah! The Sâma-veda I lay into thee, N.N., svâhâ!
'Bhûr bhuvah svah! Vâkovâkya (colloquies), Itihâsa, and Purâna—Om! All the Vedas I lay into thee, N.N., svâhâ!'
9. The production of intelligence (is performed) by thrice saying in his right ear, 'Speech!'
10. And let him recite over (the child the following text), 'Speech, the goddess, united with mind, together with breath, the child, uttered by Indra—may she rejoice in thee, the goddess, for the sake of joy, the great one, the sweet sounding, the music, full of music, the flowing, self-produced.'
11. Let him tie a piece of gold to a hempen string,
12 12. And bind it to (the child's) right hand until (the mother) gets up (from childbed).
13. After the tenth day let him give it to the Brâhmanas,
14. Or keep it himself.
49:1 24, 1. Comp. Dr. Speijer's essay on the Gâtakarman (Leiden, 1872). Nârâyana observes that, as it is prescribed below (chap. 25, 4) that a mess of food is to be cooked in the sûtikâgni, here the sûtikâgni is established, and sacrifice is performed therein. The Sûtra I, 25, 4, from which it is to be inferred that the sûtikâgni should be kept, is considered, accordingly, as a Gñâpaka (see Professor Bühler's notes on Âpastamba I, II, 7; Gautama p. 50 I, 31; Nârâyana's note on chap. 25, 4, p. 133 of the German edition).
50:2 Abhyavânya should be corrected into abhyapânya, as in IV, 18, 1 nearly all the MSS. read nivâta instead of nipâta. The Sâmbavya MS. reads in the text, trir abhyânyânuprânya; in the commentary trir anyapânyânuprânyâ. Comp., on the terminology of the different vital airs, Speijer, Gâtakarma, p. 64 seq.; Eggeling, S.B.E., vol. xii, p. 20.
51:8 Veti vikalpârthe. bhûr rigvedam ityâdikaturbhir mantrair asâv ity atra pûrveva (read pûrvavat?) kumâranâmagrahanapûrvakam kumâram prâsayet. Nârâyana.
51:12 Bâlasya dakshine haste. Nârâyana.
1 1. After ten days the getting up (of the mother from childbed).
2. Father and mother with washed heads, wearing (new) clothes which have not yet been washed;
3. And so also the child.
4 4. Let (the father) cook a mess of food in that same fire that has been kept from her confinement,
5. And let him make oblations to the Tithi of (the child's) birth and to three constellations with their (presiding) deities.
6. Let him place in the middle the oblation to that constellation under which (the child) is born; the deity, however, is constantly to precede (the corresponding Nakshatra).
7 7. (He then makes two other oblations with the verses,) '(May) this Agni, the excellent one, (give) thee to-day life for (our) prayers; give us life that we may live long,'—(and,) 'Life-giving, Agni, be strong by Havis; may thy face and thy seat be full of ghee; drinking ghee, the sweet honey of the cow, protect, as a father (protects) his son, here N.N.' The tenth oblation of the mess of cooked food with the verse, 'Thou, Soma, givest bliss to the old one' (Rig-veda I, 91, 7).
8. Having pronounced aloud (the child's) name,
9. And caused the Brâhmanas to say auspicious words,
10. And having sacrificed in the same way every month to the Tithi of (the child's) birth,
11 11. He sacrifices, when one year has expired, on the (ordinary) domestic fire.
51:1 25, 1. After ten days the impurity (asauka) that falls on the mother at her confinement, ceases; see Gautama XIV, 16; Manu V, 62; Vasishtha IV, 21.
52:4 Comp. the note on chap. 24, 1.
52:7 The first Mantra is corrupt; in the Âsvalâyana-Srauta-sûtra (II, 10, 4) its text runs thus, âyush te visvato dadhad ayam agnir varenyah, &c. Comp. Atharva-veda VII, 53, 6.
52:11 'The words "every month" (Sûtra 10) retain their value p. 53(here also). Thus the sûtikâgni is to be kept through one year. After the lapse of that year one should sacrifice every month on the domestic fire as long as his life lasts. As it is said "in the domestic fire," the sûtikâgni is not to be kept any longer.' Nârâyana.
1 1. To Agni, to the Krittikâs.
2. To Pragâpati, to Rohinî.
3. To Soma, to Mrigasiras.
4. To Rudra, to the Ârdrâs.
5. To Aditi, to the two Punarvasus.
6. To Brihaspati, to Pushya.
7. To the Serpents, to the Asleshâs.
8. To the Manes, to the Maghâs.
9. To Bhaga, to the two Phalgunîs.
10. To Aryaman, to the two Phalgunîs.
11. To Savitar, to Hasta.
12. To Tvashtar, to Kitrâ.
13. To Vâyu, to Svâti.
14. To Indra and Agni, to the two Visâkhâs.
15. To Mitra, to Anurâdhâ.
16. To Indra, to Gyeshtha.
17. To Nirriti, to Mûla.
18. To the Waters, to the Ashâdhâs.
19. To the Visve devâs, to the Ashâdhâs.
20. To Brahman, to Abhigit.
21. To Vishnu, to Sravana.
22. To the Vasus, to the Dhanishthâs.
23. To Varuna, to Satabhishag.
24. To Aga ekapad, to the Proshthapadâs.
25. To Ahi budhnya, to the Proshthapadâs.
26. To Pûshan, to Revatî.
27. To the two Asvins, to the two Asvinîs.
28. To Yama, to the Bharanîs.
53:1 26, 1. This chapter is not found in the Sâmbavya-Grihya, and Nârâyana expressly designates it as kshepaka khanda. It is a sort of appendix to the Sûtras 25, 5. 6; a sacrifice having there been prescribed to three Nakshatras with their presiding deities, an enumeration of the Nakshatras and deities is here given. Compare, on similar lists, Weber's second article on the Nakshatras seq. (Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1861), pp. 289 , 315, 367 seq.
1. In the sixth month the Annaprâsana (i.e. the first feeding with solid food).
2 2-6. Goat's flesh, if he is desirous of nourishment,
3 3. Flesh of partridge, if desirous of holy lustre,
4. Fish, if desirous of swiftness,
5. Boiled rice with ghee, if desirous of splendour—
6. (Such) food, prepared with milk curds, honey, and ghee, he should give (to the child) to eat.
7 7. After he has made oblations with (the verses), 'Lord of food, give us food, painless and strong; bring forward the giver; bestow power on us, on men and animals;' 'Whatsoever' (Rig-veda IV, 12, 4); 'Even of great' (ibid. 5), 'Him, Agni, (lead) to long life and splendour; sharp strength (mayst thou), Varuna, king Soma, protection may Aditi, like a
mother, afford to him, and all the gods that he may reach old age'—
8. And has recited over (the child) the verse, 'Powers of life, Agni' (Rig-veda IX, 66, 19),
9. And has set him down on northward pointed Kusa grass with (the verse), 'Be soft, O earth' (Rig-veda I, 22, 15)—
10. The act of feeding is performed with the Mahâvyâhritis.
11. Let the mother eat the remnant.
54:2-6 27, 2-6. These rules stand here, in the beginning of the chapter, as introductory remarks; the act of feeding itself (Sûtra 10) does not follow till after the sacrifice and the other performances prescribed in Sûtras 7-9.
54:3 This rule evidently rests on the allusion of taittira (partridge flesh) to the Taittirîya school.
54:7 Both metre and construction show that the Pâda imam Agna âyushe varkase is incomplete; the Sâmbavya-Grihya and Taitt. Samhitâ II, 3, 10, 3 add kridhi after varkase.
1 1. After one year the Kûdâkarman (i.e. the tonsure of the child's head);
2. Or in the third year;
3. In the fifth for a Kshatriya;
4. In the seventh for a Vaisya.
5. Having placed the fire (in the outer hall; see chap. 5, 2)—
6. And having filled vessels with rice and barley, sesamum seeds and beans,
7. And having put down northwards bull-dung and a layer of Kusa grass for receiving the hair, a mirror, fresh butter, and a razor of copper,
8. He pours cold water into warm with (the verse), 'Mix yourselves, ye holy ones, with your waves, ye honied ones, mixing milk with honey, ye lovely ones, for the obtaining of wealth.'
9. 'May the waters moisten thee for life, for old age and splendour. The threefold age of Gamadagni, Kasyapa's threefold age, the threefold age of
[paragraph continues] Agastya, the threefold age that belongs to the gods, that threefold age I produce for thee! N.N.!'—with these words he sprinkles the right part of his hair three times with lukewarm water.
10. Having loosened the tangled locks, according to some (teachers), with a porcupine's quill,
11. And having anointed (his hair)with fresh butter,
12. He puts a young Kusa shoot among (the hairs) with the words, 'Herb, protect him!'
13. Having touched the hair and the Kusa shoot with the mirror,
14. He takes up the copper razor with the words, Sharpness art thou; the axe is thy father. Do no harm to him!'
15 15. With (the words), 'The razor with which in the beginning Savitar, the knowing one, has shaven the beard of king Varuna, and with which Dhâtar Brihaspati has shaven Indra's head, with that, ye Brâhmanas, shave this (head) to-day; blessed with long life, with old age be this man N.N.!' he cuts the tips of the hairs and the Kusa shoot.
16. In the same way a second time; in the same way a third time.
17. In the same way twice on the left side.
18. Under the armpits a sixth and a seventh time at the Godânakarman (ceremony of shaving the beard).
19. The Godânakarman is identical with the Kûdâkarman,
20. (It is to be performed) in the sixteenth or in the eighteenth year.
21. At the third turn of shaving, however, he gives a cow and a garment that has not yet been washed.
22. Silently the rites (are performed) for girls.
23. To the north-east, in a place covered with herbs, or in the neighbourhood of water they bury the hairs in the earth.
24 24. To the barber the vessels of grain. To the barber the vessels of grain.
55:1 28, 1. Kûlâkarman literally means, the preparing of the lock or the locks (left when the rest of the hair is shaven).
56:15 The parallel texts show that instead of Brihaspatir we have to read Brihaspater, instead of adya, asya. So the correct translation would be, '. . . with what Dhâtar has shaven Brihaspati's and Indra's head, with that do ye Brâhmanas shave this head of this (child).'
57:24 See Sûtra 6.
1 1. In the eighth year after the conception let him initiate a Brâhmana,
2. With an antelope-skin,
3. Or in the tenth year after the conception.
4. In the eleventh year after the conception a Kshatriya with the skin of a spotted deer,
5. In the twelfth year after the conception a Vaisya with a cow-hide.
6. Until the sixteenth year the time has not passed for a Brâhmana,
7. Until the twenty-second for a Kshatriya,
8. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vaisya.
9 9. After that (time has passed), they become patitasâvitrîka (men who have lost their right of learning the Sâvitrî).
10. Let them not initiate such men,
11. Nor teach them,
12. Nor perform sacrifices for them,
13. Nor have intercourse with them.
14 14. Or (let them initiate students of) all (castes) wearing a (new) garment that has not yet been washed.
And wearing a girdle.
15. The girdle of a Brâhmana (shall be) made of Muñga grass,
16. That of a Kshatriya (shall be) a bowstring,
17. That of a Vaisya a woollen thread.
18. The staff of a Brâhmana (shall be) made of Palâsa or of Bilva wood,
19. That of a Kshatriya of Nyagrodha wood,
20. That of a Vaisya of Udumbara wood.
21 21. That of the Brâhmana shall reach the tip of the nose,
22. That of the Kshatriya the forehead,
23. That of the Vaisya the hair.
24. Or all (sorts of staffs are to be used) by (men of) all (castes).
25. Whatsoever (the student) wears at his initiation, is at the disposal of the teacher.
26 26. Having had him shaved all round (his head) he should initiate him.
27. After (the student) has washed and adorned himself,
28 28. (And) after (the teacher) has sacrificed, both station themselves behind the fire, the teacher with his face turned to the east, the other with his face to the west.
29. Let him initiate him standing while (the other also) stands.
30 30. ['The firm, powerful eye of Mitra, glorious splendour, strong and prosperous, a chaste, flowing vesture, this skin I put on, a valiant (man).']
58:1 1, 1. With regard to the standing terminology of the Upanayana, or the initiation of the student, we may observe that upa-nî does not mean, as, for instance, Professor Stenzler seems to understand it, 'to introduce a student to his teacher.' Thus Pâraskara's Sûtra II, 2, 1, ashtâvarsham brâhmanam upanayet, &c., is translated by that distinguished scholar, 'Den achtjährigen Brâhmana soll er (beim Lehrer) einführen,' &c. (comp. also Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 19, 1). The texts clearly point to another translation of upa-nî, for they show that the person that introduces the student (upanayati or upanayate; the middle is used very frequently, for instance, Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 4, 1; Sâṅkh. II, I, 25) is not the father or a relation of the youth who could be supposed to lead him to the teacher, but the teacher himself; he introduces (upanayati) him to the brahmakarya, or introduces him with himself, and the student enters upon (upaiti) the brahmakarya, or enters with (upaiti) the teacher; he who has thus entered upon studentship, is consequently designated as upeta (Sâṅkh. IV, 8, 1; Pâraskara III, 10, 10), and for the initiation, which is usually called up an ay an a, occasionally also the word upâyana is used (see the Mânava-Grihya I, 22, quoted by Professor Jolly in his article, Das Dharma-sûtra des Vishnu, p. 79). The following passages may be quoted here as supporting our opinion on this terminology. At Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 3, 13 Saukeya says to Uddâlaka Âruni, 'I will enter (as a student) with the reverend One' (upâyâni bhagavantam); and Âruni replies, 'Come, enter (with me)!' (ehy upehi), 'and he initiated him' (tam hopaninye). Ibid. XI, 5, 4, 16 it is stated that according to some a teacher who has initiated a Brâhmana as a student (brâhmanam brahmakaryam upanîya) should abstain from sexual intercourse, for a student who enters upon studentship (yo brahmakaryam upaiti) becomes, as it were, a garbha, &c. Finally we may add that the Buddhist terminology regarding the entering into the order or upon a life of righteousness is clearly connected with that followed, for instance, in the dialogue between p. 59 Saukeya and Âruni. As Saukeya there says, upâyâni bhagavantam, we frequently read in the Pâli books expressions like this, upemi Buddham saranam dhammañ kâpi anuttaram, &c. (Dhammap. Atthakathâ, p. 97, ed. Fausböll), and as Âruni replies, ehy upehi, Buddha says to those who wish to be ordained, ehi bhikkhu, svâkkhâto dhammo, kara brahmakariyam, &c. (Mahâvagga I, 6, 32, &c.; S.B.E., vol. xiii, p. 74, note).
The counting of the years not from the birth but from the conception occurs both in the Brahmanical and in the Buddhist ordinances, comp. H. O., Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde, p. 354, note 1. Several Grihya texts (for instance, Âsv. I, 19, 1. 2) admit both ways of counting the years. The number of years given for the Upanayana of persons of the three castes (Brâhmanas 8-16, Kshatriyas 11-22, Vaisyas 12-24) is evidently derived from the number of syllables of the three metres which are so very frequently stated to correspond to the three castes, to the three gods or categories of gods (Agni, Indra, Visve devâs) &c., viz. the Gâyatrî, the Trishtubh, and the Gagatî. This is a very curious example, showing how in India phantastical speculations like those regarding the mystical qualities of the metres, were strong enough to influence the customs and institutions of real life.
59:9 9 seq. All these are standing expressions recurring nearly identically in most of the Grihya and Dharma-sûtras. In the rule contained in Sûtra 13 a number of the parallel texts have vivaheyuh or vivâhayeyuh, others have vyavahareyuh. Comp. Vasishtha XI, 75; Indische Studien, vol. x, p. 21.
60:14 This Sûtra should rather be divided into two, as indicated in the translation. As to the mekhalâ (girdle) comp. below, chap. 2, 1.
60:21 There is no doubt that prânasammito (which Nârâyana explains thus, 'prâna is the wind [or breath]; [the staff should] reach to the place where the wind leaves the body, i.e. to the tip of the nose') should either be corrected into, or explained as, ghrânasammito; the Sâmbavya MS. has ghrânântiko brâhmanasya. Comp. Gautama I, 26, &c. The parallel texts agree in assigning the longer staff to the higher, not as Sâṅkhâyana does, to the lower caste.
61:26 After the introductory remarks given in the preceding Sûtras the ritual itself of the Upanayana is now described.
61:28 Nârâyana: hutvâ’nâdesaparibhâshâtah (see above, I, 12, 13) purastâtsamgñakam hutvâ agnim sthâpitâgnim (see above, I, 5, 2) gaghanena . . . tishthatah.
61:30 This Sûtra is wanting in most of the MSS. (see the note, p. 48 of the German edition). It contains the Mantra with which the Agina (the hide mentioned in Sûtras 2, 4, 5 of this chapter) is put on. Nârâyana gives the Mantra which he says is taken from the Mâdhyandina-Grihya (in the Pâraskara-Grihya it is not found), after chap. 2, 3, and he states that the corresponding act to which it belongs has its place after the rites concerning the girdle (chap. 2, 1) and the sacrificial cord (2, 3).
1. 'Here has come to us, protecting (us) from evil words, purifying our kin as a purifier, clothing herself, by (the power of) inhalation and exhalation, with strength, this friendly goddess, this blessed girdle'—with these words, three times repeated, he ties the girdle from left to right thrice round.
2 2. (There should be) one knot, or also three, or also five.
3 3. He adjusts the sacrificial cord with (the words), 'The sacrificial cord art thou. With the cord of the sacrifice I invest thee.'
4 4. He fills the two hollows of (his own and the student's) joined hands (with water), and then says to him: 'What is thy name?'
5. 'I am N.N., sir,' says the other.
6 6-7. 'Descending from the same Rishis?' says the teacher.
7. 'Descending from the same Rishis, sir,' says the other.
8. 'Declare (that thou art) a student, sir.'
9. 'I am a student, sir,' says the other.
10. With the words, 'Bhûr bhuvah svah' (the teacher) sprinkles thrice with his joined hands (water) on the joined hands (of the student),
11 11. And seizing (the student's) hands with (his own) hands, holding the right uppermost, he murmurs,
12. 'By the impulse of the god Savitar, with the arms of the two Asvins, with Pûshan's hands I initiate thee, N.N.'
13. Those who are desirous of a host (of adherents, he should initiate) with (the verse), 'Thee, (the lord) of hosts' (Rig-veda II, 23, 1).
14. Warriors with (the verse), 'Come here, do not come to harm' (Rig-veda VIII, 20, 1).
15. Sick persons with the Mahâvyâhritis.
62:2 2, 2. Râmakandra: 'Let him make one, or three, or five knots, according to (the student's) Ârsheya,' i.e. accordingly as he belongs to a family that invokes, in the Pravara ceremony, one, or three, or five Rishis as their ancestors. Comp. Weber, Indische Studien, vol. x, p. 79.
62:3 On the sacrificial cord (upavita) comp. the Grihya-samgraha-parisishta II, 48 seq.
62:4 Nârâyana: Âkârya âtmano mânavakasya kâñgalî udakena pûrayitvâ, &c.
62:6-7 6, 7. A similar dialogue between the teacher and the student at the Upanayana is given in the Kausika-sûtra (ap. Weber, Indische Studien, X, 71). The student there says, 'Make me an Ârsheya (a descendant of the Rishis) and one who has relations, and initiate me.' And the teacher replies, 'I make thee an Ârsheya and one who has relations, and I initiate thee.' As in this passage of the Kausika-sûtra the teacher is represented as having the power of making, by the Upanayana ceremony, an Ârsheya of the student, thus, according to the view expressed by Professor Weber (loc. cit., p. 72 seq.), Sâṅkhâyana would even give it into the teacher's power to make the student his samânârsheya, i.e. to extend his own Ârsheya on as many pupils as he likes. Professor Weber understands the sixth Sûtra so that the teacher would have to say, samânârsheyo bhavân brûhi (Nârâyana: bhavân brûhîti brahmakârî bhavân brûhîty atah [Sûtra 8] simhâvalokananyâyenâtrânushagyate. According to Râmakandra's Paddhati he is p. 63 only to say samânârsheyah). The student answers, samânârsheyo ’ham bho; Professor Weber, who supplies the imperative asâni, translates this, 'May I have the same Ârsheya, sir!'
I think it more natural to simply translate the teacher's question, 'Art thou samânârsheya?' (or, supplying bhavân brûhi from Sûtra 8, 'Declare that thou art samânârsheya'), and the student's reply, I am samânârsheya, sir!' Thus we ought possibly to consider these formulas, which state a fictitious, ideal samânârsheyatva of the teacher and the students as a trace, and as far as I can see as the only trace, of an ancient rule requiring a real samânârsheyatva of teacher and student. As long as the ritual differences between the different Gotras, of which, as is well known, only a few traces have survived in the Vedic tradition, had retained their full importance, it can indeed scarcely have been considered as admissible that a young Brâhmana should be confided to the guidance of a teacher who sacrificed and invoked the gods in another way than the customs of the pupil's own family required.
63:11 Nârâyana: dakshinottarâbhyâm dakshina uttara upari yayos tau dakshinottarau, &c.
1 1. 'Bhaga has seized thy hand, Savitar has seized thy hand, Pûshan has seized thy hand, Aryaman has seized thy hand. Mitra art thou by right, Agni is thy teacher, and I, N.N., both of us. Agni, I give this student in charge to thee. Indra, I give this student in charge to thee. Sun, I give this student in charge to thee. Visve devâs, I give this student in charge to you, for the sake of long life, of blessed offspring and strength, of increase of wealth, of mastership of all Vedas, of renown, of bliss.'
2 2. 'In Indra's course I move; in the sun's course I move after him'—with these words he turns round from left to right,
3. And grasping down with the span of his right hand over (the student's) right shoulder he touches the place of his heart with the words, 'May I be dear to thy inviolate heart.'
4. Having silently turned round from right to left,
5 5. And then laying his hand with the fingers upwards on his (i.e. the student's) heart, he murmurs:
64:1 3. 1. T. Nârâyana: 'Instead of asau (N.N.) he puts the name of the student in the vocative case.' I think rather that the teacher here pronounced his own name. Comp. asâv aham bho, chap. 2, 5, &c., and the Mantra in Pâraskara II, 2, 20.
The text of the Mantra shows that the Âkârya here seizes the hand of the Brahmakârin; comp. Âsvalâyana I, 20, 4-6, where it is stated that he seizes the student's hand together with the thumb, quite in the way prescribed for the wedding at Sâṅkh. I, 13, 2. Comp. also Pâraskara II, 2, 1 7. Nârâyana: mânavakasya grihîtasamputa evâkâryo Bhagas ta imam mantram gapan, &c.
64:2 Literally, 'he turns round, following his right arm.' Nârâyana here has the following note, 'Âkâryo bator dakshinam bâhum hastam aindrîm âvritam iti mantrenânvâvartayet. ayam arthah, âkârya imam mantram gaptvâ tam batum ka vâkayitvâ pradakshinâvartam kârayet.' I believe that the commentator here, as he frequently does, instead of interpreting the text of Sâṅkhâyana, fathers p. 65 on him statements belonging to other Sûtras, in this case probably to Âsvalâyana I, 20, 9. As our text has not anvâvartya but anvâvritya; and in the Mantra not âvartasva but âvarte, we must conclude that he turned round himself, and, as far as the statements of the text go, did not cause the pupil to do so.
65:5 The gesture is the same as that prescribed in the Pâraskara-Grihya I, 8, 8 to the bridegroom at the wedding; the Mantra there is identical with Sâṅkh. II, 4, 1, the only difference consisting in the name of the god who is invoked to unite the two: at the wedding this is Pragâpati, of course, because he is 'lord of offspring,' at the Upanayana, Brihaspati, the Brahman κατ᾽ εξοχήν among the gods. It is very natural that at the Upanayana and at the Vivâha, which both are destined to establish an intimate union between two persons hitherto strangers to each other, a number of identical rites should occur, for instance, the seizing of the hand; see the note on Sûtra 1.
1 1. 'Under my will I take thy heart; my mind shall thy mind follow; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy heart; may Brihaspati join thee to me.'
2 2. 'Thou art the Brahmakârin of Kâma, N.N.!'
3 3. With the same text (see chap. 3, 2) he turns round as before,
4. And touching with the span of his right hand (the student's) right shoulder, he murmurs:
5 5. 'A student art thou. Put on fuel. Eat water. Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time. Keep silence till the putting on of fuel.'
6. With (the words), 'Thine, Agni, is this piece of wood,' he puts the fuel on (the fire), or silently.
65:1 4, 1. Comp. Pârask. I, 8, 8, and the note on chap. 3, 3. See also Atharva-veda VI, 94, 2.
65:2 As to Kâmasya brahmakâry asi, see my remarks in the Introduction, p. 9.
65:3 He turns round as described, chap. 3, 2. Nârâyana here also explains paryâvritya paryâvartanam kârayitvâ. See our note above, loc. cit.
66:5 According to Nârâyana the student correspondingly answers, to the teacher's word, 'A student art thou,' 'I will' (asâni), to 'Put on fuel,' 'I will put it on,' &c. Eating water means sipping water after having eased oneself. On the putting on of fuel, comp. Sûtra 6 and chap. 10. The whole formula given in this Sûtra is already found in the Satapatha Brâhmana XI, 5, 4, 5.
1 1. After one year (the teacher) recites the Sâvitrî (to the student),
2. (Or) after three nights,
3. Or immediately.
4 4-6. Let him recite a Gâyatrî to a Brâhmana,
5. A Trishtubh to a Kshatriya,
6. A Gagatî to a Vaisya.
7. But let it be anyhow a verse sacred to Savitar.
8. They seat themselves to the north of the fire,
9 9. The teacher with his face turned eastward, the other westward.
10 10-11. After (the student) has said, 'Recite, sir!'—
11. The teacher, having pronounced the word OM, then causes the other one to say, 'Recite the Sâvitrî, sir!'
12. He then recites the Sâvitrî to him, the verse 'That glorious (splendour) of Savitar' (Rig-Veda III, 62, 10); (firstly) pâda by pâda, (then) hemistich by hemistich, (and finally) without a stop.
66:1 5, 1. The study of the Veda is opened by the Sâvitrî. Comp. Satapatha Brâhmana, loc. cit., §§ 6 seq.
66:4-6 The Gâyatrî which the teacher shall recite to a Brâhmana is the same verse of which it is said below, chap. q, II, that it belongs to Visvâmitra (Rig-veda III, 62, to); the Trishtubh which is taught to the Kshatriya is a verse ascribed to Hiranyastûpa, Rig-veda I, 35, 2; the Gagatî which is to be repeated to a Vaisya is Rig-veda IV, 40, 5, belonging to Vâmadeva, or Rig-veda I, 35, 9, belonging to Hiranyastûpa. See the note on chap. 7, 10.
66:9 The same position is prescribed, in the same words, for the study of the main part of the Veda, below, chap. 7, 3; during p. 67 the study of the Âranyaka the position is slightly different (VI, 3, 2). According to Nârâyana this Sûtra would contain a nishedha of the Sûtras 828 and 829 of the Rig-veda-Prâtisâkhya (p. ccxcii of Professor Max Müller's edition).
67:10-11 10, 11. The Indian tradition divides these Sûtras after âkâryah, so that the words adhîhi bho would have to be pronounced by the teacher. Thus also Nârâyana explains, âkârya adhîhi bho 3 iti mânavakam uktvâ, &c. In my opinion it is the student or the students who say adhîhi bho. Thus the Prâtisâkhya (Sûtra 831, ed. Max Müller) says, 'They invite him with the words adhîhi bho 3, all the students the teacher, having embraced his feet.' Comp. also below, IV, 8, 12, the greater part of which Sûtra is word for word identical with these rules; VI, 3, 6; Gautama I, 46; Gobhila II, 10, 38.
1 1-2. 'Waters are ye by name; happy ones are ye by name; sappy ones are ye by name; undecaying ones are ye by name; fearless ones are ye by name; immortal ones are ye by name. Of you, being such, may I partake; receive me into your favour'—with these words (the teacher) makes the student sip water three times,
2 2. And hands over to him the staff with the five
verses, 'Blessing may give us' (Rig-veda V, 51, 11-15).
3 3. An optional gift is the fee for the sacrifice.
4 4. After (the teacher) has led him round the fire, turning his right side towards it, (the student) goes through the village to beg food.
5. (Let him beg,) however, of his mother first,
6. Or of a woman who will not refuse.
7 7. Having announced the alms to his teacher, he may eat (the food himself) with the master's permission.
8. The daily putting on of fuel, the going for alms, the sleeping on the ground, and obedience to the teacher: these are the standing duties of a student.
67:1-2 6, 1, 2. Râmakandra: '. . . with this Mantra which the teacher tells him, and which he (the student) pronounces, he sips water p. 68 three times . . . He (the teacher) then gives him again the staff, which he had given him before silently.' I do not think that this double handing over of the staff agrees with the real meaning of the text; Gobhila also (II, 10) and Âsvalâyana (I, 22, 1) prescribe the dandapradâna after the repetition of the Sâvitrî, without mentioning that the same had been already done before; Pâraskara II, 2, II speaks of the handing over of the staff before the recital of the Sâvitrî, and does not state that it should be repeated afterwards.
All these ceremonies, the teaching of the Sâvitrî as well as the dandapradâna, were considered as forming part of the Upanayana, even though a longer or shorter space of time (chap. 5, 1-3) might elapse between the first arrival of the student at the teacher's house and the performing of these rites. This follows from chap. 11, Sûtras 2-4.
67:2 These five verses have already occurred above at I, 15, 12.
68:3 Comp. I, 14, 13-15.
68:4 4 seq. On the student's begging of alms compare the more detailed rules in Pâraskara II, 5; Âpastamba I, 3, &c.
68:7 Comp. the passages quoted by Professor Bühler on Âpastamba I, 3, 31 (S.B.E., vol. ii, p. 22).
1 1. Now (follows the exposition) of the study of the Veda.
2 2. Both sit down to the north of the fire,
3. The teacher with his face to the east, the other one to the west.
4 4. After (the student) has reverentially saluted the teacher's feet and has sprinkled his (own) hands (with water),
5. And has kneeled down with his right knee on young Kusa shoots at their roots,
6 6. And has grasped round (those Kusa shoots) in 'heir middle with his hands, holding the right uppermost,
7. The teacher, having seized them at their tops
with his left hand, and with his right hand sprinkling them with water, then makes the other say:
8 8. 'Recite the Sâvitrî, sir!' says the other.
9. 'I recite the Sâvitrî to thee!' says the teacher.
10 10. 'Recite the Gâyatrî, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the Gâyatrî to thee!' says the teacher.
11. 'Recite the verse of Visvâmitra, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the verse of Visvâmitra to thee!' says the teacher.
12. 'Recite the Rishis, sir!' says the other.
I recite the Rishis to thee!' says the teacher.
13. 'Recite the deities, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the deities to thee!' says the teacher.
14. 'Recite the metres, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the metres to thee!' says the teacher.
15. 'Recite the Sruti, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the Sruti to thee!' says the teacher.
16. 'Recite the Smriti, sir!' says the other.
'I recite the Smriti to thee!' says the teacher.
17 17. 'Recite faith and insight, sir!' says the other.
'I recite faith and insight to thee!' says the teacher.
18 18-20. In that way, according to what Rishi each hymn belongs to and what its deity and its metre is, thus (with the corresponding indications of Rishi, &c.) let him recite each hymn;
19 19. Or also, if he does not know the Rishis, deities, and metres, the teacher recites this verse, 'That glorious (splendour) of Savitar' (Rig-veda III, 62, 10), pâda by pâda, hemistich by hemistich, (and finally) without a stop, and says, when he has finished, 'This (verse belongs to Savitar; it is a Gâyatrî; Visvâmitra is its Rishi).'
20. Let him thus recite (the hymns belonging to) each Rishi, or (each) Anuvâka;
21 21. Of the short hymns (in the tenth Mandala) an Anuvâka,
22. Or as much as the master may think fit.
23. Or optionally he may recite the first and last hymn of (each) Rishi,
24 24. Or of (each) Anuvâka,
25. (Or) one (verse) of the beginning of each hymn.
26. The teacher may optionally say at the beginning of the hymn, 'This is the commencement.'
27 27. This has been (further) explained in (the treatise about) the Rishisvâdhyâya.
28 28. When (the lesson) is finished, he takes the young Kusa shoots, makes of cow-dung a pit at their roots, and sprinkles water on the Kusa (shoots) for each hymn.
29 29. For the rest of the day standing and fasting.
69:1 7, 1. Nârâyana: 'Now (atha), i.e. after the observance of the Sukriya vrata,' &c. On the Sukriya vrata which has to be undergone before the Anuvakana treated of in this chapter can be performed, see the note on chap. 4, 1, and below, chap. II, 9. One would have expected that in the arrangement of Sâṅkhâyana the rites belonging to the Sukriya vrata would precede the exposition of the Anuvakana. Perhaps it was in consequence of the exact analogy of the Sukriya with the Sâkvara, Vrâtika, Aupanishada vratas, that the description of the former has been postponed till the latter had to be treated of.
Râmakandra's Paddhati has the following remark here, 'Now the way of studying the Veda, called Anuvakana, is set forth. This can be done only after the Sukriya vrata has been enjoined on the student; before that nothing but the Sâvitrî can be taught to him.'
69:2 2 seq. Comp. above, chap. 2, 8 seq.
69:4 The way in which this reverential salutation should be performed is described below, IV, 12, 1 seq.
69:6 On dakshinottarâbhyâm, see chap. 2, 11 and Nârâyana's note there.
70:8 8 seq. Comp. Weber's Indische Studien, vol. x, p. 131 seq.
70:10 Comp. the note on chap. 5, 4-6. Nârâyana states, in accordance with these Sûtras of the fifth chapter, that in case the student belongs to the second or third caste, an Ûha (i.e. a corresponding alteration of the formulas; from the Srauta-sûtra, VI, 1, 3 the definition is quoted here sabdavikâram ûham bruvate) takes place. If he is a Kshatriya, he has to say, 'Recite the Trishtubh, sir!'—'Recite the verse of Hiranyastûpa (Rig-veda I, 35, 2), sir!' A Vaisya has to say, 'Recite the Gagatî, sir!'—'Recite the verse of Hiranyastûpa (or, of Vâmadeva, Rig-veda I, 35, 9 or IV, 40, 5), sir!'
70:17 Comp. Indische Studien, X, 132, note 1.
71:18-20 I do not think that Professor Weber (Indische Studien, X, 132) has quite exactly rendered the meaning of these Sûtras when he says, 'The teacher then (i.e. after the formula of Sûtra 17 has been pronounced) teaches him first the Rishi, the deity, and the metre of each Mantra. In case he does not know them himself for a Mantra, he recites the holy Sâvitrî (tat Savitur varenyam). After this he teaches him in due order either (1) the single Rishis, i.e. the hymns belonging to each Rishi, or (2) the single Anuvâkas,' &C.—It does not seem quite probable to me that the student should have had to learn first the Rishis, deities, and metres of the whole Veda, before the text of the hymns was taught him; I rather believe that hymn by hymn the indication of the Rishis, &c. preceded the anuvakana of the text itself, and with this opinion the statement of Nârâyana agrees, 'Evam pûrvoktena prakârena rishidevatâkhandahpûrvakam tam tam Agnim îla ityâdikam mantram mânavakâyâkâryoऽnubrûyât.'
71:19 According to Nârâyana by esheti (literally, 'This [is the Rik]') it is meant that the teacher, after having recited the Sâvitrî in the three ways mentioned, should say to the student, 'This Rik is in the Gâyatrî metre. If recited pâda by pâda, it has three pâdas. Thus also this Rik, if recited hemistich by hemistich, has two Avasânas (pauses), the first at the end of the hemistich, the second at the end of the third karma (or pâda). Thus also this Rik is recited without stopping; at the end of the three karanas, or of the twenty-four syllables, the pause (avasâna) should be made. Thus I recite to thee the Sâvitrî; I recite to thee the Gâyatrî; I recite to thee the verse of Visvâmitra.' 'For,' adds Nârâyana, 'if the Gâyatrî has been recited, the whole complex of the Veda being of that very p. 72 substance, a complete knowledge thereof has been produced.' The commentator then indicates a shorter form for the teacher's words which our Sûtra prescribes by esheti, 'This verse belongs to Savitar; it is a Gâyatrî; its Rishi is Visvâmitra.'
72:21 The Kshudrasûktas are the hymns Rig-veda X, 129-191.
72:24 24 seq. This seems to be an abridged method by which students who had not the intention of becoming Vedic scholars, and probably chiefly students of the Kshatriya and Vaisya caste, could fulfil their duty of learning the Veda; a student who knew the first and last hymn of a Rishi, or of an Anuvâka, was, as would seem from these Sûtras, by a sort of fiction considered as though he had known the whole portion belonging to that Rishi, or the whole Anuvâka.
72:27 Nârâyana explains Rishisvâdhyâya by mantrasamhitâ. He says, The Anuvâkana which has been declared here, is to be understood also with regard to the svâdhyâya, i.e. to the Samhitâ of the Mantras.' I think there is a blunder in the MS., and instead of tad api svâdhyâye . . . gñeyam we ought to read tad rishisvâdhyâye . . . gñeyam. In this case we should have to translate the quoted passage, '. . . is to be understood with regard to the Rishisvâdhyâya, i.e. to, &c.'—I think, however, that the true meaning of the Sûtra is different from what Nârâyana believes it to be. The expression vyâkhyâtam apparently conveys a reference to another treatise in which the rules regarding the Rishisvâdhyâya would seem to have been fully set forth. The Srauta-sûtra contains p. 73 no passage which could be the one here referred to; we may suppose, therefore, that either a chapter of a Prâtisâkhya is quoted here, or a separate treatise on the special subject of the Rishisvâdhyâya. References to such treatises are found in the Sûtra texts in several instances, of which the most important is that in the Gobhila-Grihya I, 5, 13, 'On what day the moon becomes full, the knowledge thereof is contained in a special text; that one either should study or ascertain when the Parvan is from those who have studied it.'
73:28 Nârâyana: 'First stand the Mantras, then the Brâhmana, because it contains the viniyoga (the ritual use of the Mantras), then the Smriti texts such as Manu, &c. When he has repeated these texts to the student, after the end of the Anuvâkana, the teacher should take from the student the Kusa blades which had been taken up before for the sake of the Anuvâkana (see Sûtras 5 seq.),' &c.—The teacher is made the subject of this rule also by Râmakandra. On yathâsûktam Nârâyana observes that according to some teachers these water oblations were directed to the Rishis of the different hymns (rishîn uddisyeti kekit). This statement seems to be countenanced by IV, 6, 6. Comp. the note below on IV, 9, 1.
73:29 'This rule concerns the Brahmakârin.' Nârâyana. See also Âsvalâyana I, 22, 11.
1 1. In the afternoon, having obtained by begging fried barley grains, he shall sacrifice them with his hand on the fire according to the rites of the Âgya oblations with the text, 'The lord of the seat, the
wonderful' (Rig-veda I, 18, 6 seq.), verse by verse, down to the end of the hymn,
2 8_2. Causing the teacher by (the gift of) food to pronounce auspicious wishes.
73:1 8, 1. This is the Anupravakanîyahoma treated of by Âsvalâyana at I, 22, 12 seq. There it is stated that this sacrifice should be performed as well after the recitation of the Sâvitrî as after the other p. 74 portions of the Veda, for instance, as the commentary there has it, after the Mahânâmnîs, the Mahâvrata, and the Upanishad have been recited. Nârâyana indicates the time of this sacrifice in the words, 'On that same fast-day (chap. 7, 29) in the afternoon.'
74:8_2 'He shall, by pronouncing such words as svasti bhavanto bruvantu, dispose the teacher favourably so that he may say svasti!' Nârâyana.
1 9_1. In the forest, with a piece of wood in his hand, seated, he performs the Sandhyâ (or twilight devotion) constantly, observing silence, turning his face north-west, to the region between the chief (west) point and the intermediate (north-western) point (of the horizon), until the stars appear,
2 9_2. Murmuring, when (the twilight) has passed, the Mahâvyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, and the auspicious hymns.
3. In the same way in the morning, turning his face to the east, standing, until the disk of the sun appears.
10, 1 10_1. When (the sun) has risen, the study (of the Veda) goes on.
74:9_1 9, 1, On the Sandhyâ ceremony comp chiefly Baudhâyana II, 7. Samitpâni of course is not samyatapâni, as Nârâyana explains it. On anvashtamadesa comp. Professor Stenzler's note on Âsvalâyana III, 7, 4.
74:9_2 The Svastyayanas are texts such as Rig-veda I, 89; IV, 31.
74:10_1 10, 1. This Sûtra evidently should be placed at the end of the ninth chapter; comp. IV, 6, 9. The fact that, as the commentary observes, the words nityam vâgyatah (chap. 9, Sûtra 1) are to be p. 75 supplied here also points in the same direction. That this Sûtra has nothing to do with the Agniparikaryâ, of which the tenth chapter treats, becomes evident also from Râmakandra's Paddhati.
2. Every day in the evening and in the morning,
3. He establishes the fire (in its proper place), wipes (with his hand the ground) round (it), sprinkles (water) round (it), bends his right knee,
4 4. (And puts fuel on the fire with the texts,) 'To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great Gâtavedas; may he, Gâtavedas, give faith and insight to me. Svâhâ!
'Firewood art thou; may we prosper. Fuel art thou; splendour art thou; put splendour into me. Svâhâ!
'Being inflamed make me prosperous in offspring and wealth. Svâhâ!
Thine is this fuel, Agni; thereby thou shalt grow and gain vigour. And may we grow and gain vigour. Svâhâ!'
5. Having then sprinkled (water) round (the fire),
6. He approaches the fire with the verse, 'May Agni (vouchsafe) to me faith and insight, not-forgetting (what I have learned) and memory; may this praiseful Gâtavedas give blessing to us.'
[7 7. He makes with ashes the tripundhra sign (the sign of three strokes) which is set forth in the (treatise on the) Sauparnavrata, which is revealed, which agrees with the tradition handed down by the ancients, with the five formulas 'The threefold age' (see above, I, 28, 9), one by one, on five (places), viz. the forehead, the heart, the right shoulder and the left, and then on the back.]
8. He who approaches the fire after having sacrificed thus, studies of these Vedas, one, two, three, or all.
75:4 Nârâyana: samidham iti mantraliṅgât samidhâm homah, mantraprithaktvât karmaprithaktvam iti nyâyât.
In the Atharva-veda XIX, 64, 1 the MSS. have Agne samidham âhârsham. Professors Roth and Whitney have conjectured in this passage agre instead of Agne. It is shown by our passage and the corresponding ones in the other Sûtras that the true reading is Agnaye. Instead of ahârsham we should read âhârsham, as all the parallel texts have. In the passage 'Firewood art thou; might we prosper,' there is a play upon words untranslatable in English, 'edhoऽsy edhishîmahi.' Perhaps instead of samiddho mâm samardhaya we should read samriddho mâm samardhaya. As the Mantra referred to the Samidh-offering, samriddha could very easily be supplanted by the participle of sam-idh. In the parallel texts indicated p. 139 of the German edition it should be, Vâg. Samh. II, 14 a.
76:7 This Sûtra is wanting in one of the Haug MSS. and in the Sâmbavya MS.; Râmakandra's Paddhati takes no notice of it. I take it for a later addition. It should be noticed that the words dakshinaskandhe . . . ka pañkasu form a half Sloka.
1 1. Now (follows) the directing to the (special) observances.
2 2-4. The rules for it have been explained by the initiation.
3. He does not recite the Sâvitrî.
4 4. Some say that the handing over of the staff forms the end (of this ceremony).
5. During the northern course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon—
6 6. The teacher having abstained through one day and one night, from sexual intercourse and from eating flesh—
7 7. With the exclusion of the fourteenth day and of the eighth (of the half-month),
8. And of the first and last, according to some (teachers),
9 9. Or on what day else the constellation seems lucky to him, on that day he shall direct (the student) to the duties of holiness according to the Sukriya rite.
10 10. Let him observe (those) duties through three days, or twelve days, or one year, or as long as the master may think fit.
11. The Sâkvara (observance), however, (is to be kept) one year.
12. (So also) the Vrâtika and Aupanishada (observances).
13 13. When the time has elapsed, when the duties
have been observed, when the Veda has been studied down to the Samyu-Bârhaspatya-(hymn), let (the teacher then), should he intend to instruct (the student) in the secret (part of the Veda), ascertain the time (through which the student has to observe the special rites) and the rules to be observed, from the (special) directions (that are handed down on this subject).
76:1 11, 1. On the four Vratas, of which the Sukriya precedes the study of the main part of the Veda, the Sâkvara, Vrâtika, and Aupanishada that of the different sections of the Âranyaka, see the note on chap. 7, I and the Introduction, p. 8. On the name of the Sukriya Râmakandra says, sukriyasabdo vedavâki, tatsambandhâd vratam api sukriyam.
76:2-4 2, 4. See the note on chap. 6, 1. 2.
77:4 On the dandapradâna, see chap. 6, 2.
77:6 The pleonasm brahmakaryam upetya . . . brahmakârî should be removed by expunging brahmakârî, which is omitted in the Sâmbavya text. Comp. chap. 12, Sûtra 8; VI, 1, 2.
77:7 Comp. below, IV, 7, 7.
77:9 In the Sâmbavya text this Sûtra has a fuller form. It runs there thus, '. . . he shall direct (the student) to the duties of holiness according to the Sukriya rite, the teacher saying, "Be a Sukriya-brahmakârin;" the other one replying, "I will be a Sukriya-brahmakârin." Thus also at the other observances he shall pronounce each time the name of the observance to which he directs him.'
77:10 Comp. above, II, 5, 1.
On kâlaniyamam, see Nârâyana's note, pp. 140 seq. of the German edition.
1 1. After (the student) has eaten something in the morning, in the afternoon, to the north-east—
2. Having sacrificed, the teacher then asks him with regard to those deities to whom he has been given in charge (see above, chap. 3, 1), 'Hast thou fulfilled the duties of holiness before Agni, Indra, the Sun, and the Visve devâs?'
3. If he answers, 'I have fulfilled them, sir!'—
4. The teacher three times envelops, from the left to the right, with a fresh garment the face (of the student) who is standing behind the fire, in front of the teacher, with his face to the east.
5 5. He turns the skirt (of that garment) upwards so that it cannot slip down,
6 6. (And says) 'Leaving off for three days the putting on of fuel, the going for alms, the sleeping on the ground, and the obedience to the teacher, fast in the forest, in a god's house or in a place where Agnihotra is performed, keeping silence, with earnest care.'
7. Here some (teachers) prescribe the same observances only for one night, during which he is to stand.
8 8. The teacher refrains from eating flesh and from sexual intercourse.
9. When those three days or that night has elapsed, going out from the village he shall avoid to look at the following (persons or things) that form impediments for the study (of the Veda):
10 10. Raw flesh, a Kandâla, a woman that has lately been confined, or that has her courses, blood, persons whose hands have been cut off, cemeteries, and all sorts of corpse-like (animals?) which enter (their dens?) with the mouth first (?), keeping them away from the place where he dwells.
11. Going out (from the village) in a north-eastern direction the teacher sits down on a clean spot. turning his face to the east.
12 12. When the sun has risen, he recites, in the way prescribed for the Veda-study, (the Âranyaka texts to the student) who is to keep silence and who wears a turban.
13 13. This rule is to be observed only for the Mahânâmnî verses.
14. At the sections however that follow (after the Mahânâmnîs) the other one hears while the teacher recites them for himself.
15. He gives (to the teacher) the turban, a vessel, a good cow.
16. (The teacher accepts the gifts) with the verses,
[paragraph continues] 'Thou him' (Rig-veda I, 18, 5), and, 'High in the sky' (Rig-veda X, 107, 2), or (he accepts them) all with the Pranava (i.e. the syllable Om).
17. Here some prepare a mess of rice for the Visve devâs at all sections (of the Âranyaka);
18 18. For the gods to whom he has been given in charge, according to Mândûkeya.
78:1 12, 1 seq. The Indian tradition (with the exception only, as far as is known to me, of the Sâmbavya commentary) refers the ceremonies described in this chapter, like those treated of in chap. 11, as well to the Sukriya as to the Sâkvara and the other Vratas. This is not correct. The eleventh chapter gives the rites common to the four Vratas; the Sukriya vrata is connected with no special ceremonies beside those, so that the exposition of this Vrata is brought to an end in that chapter. The last Sûtra of chap. 11 marks the transition to the special rites which are peculiar to the three other Vratas, and are connected with the character of mystical secrecy attributed to the Âranyaka, and thus it is with the exclusion of the Sukriya that the twelfth chapter refers only to those Vratas. The difference which we have pointed out between the two chapters finds its characteristic expression in Sûtras 9 and 11 of chap. 11, compared with chap. 12, 13. 14; in the former Sûtras the statements there given are expressly extended to the Sukriya, the Sâkvara, the Vrâtika, and the Aupanishada, while in the latter passage mention is made first of the Mahânâmnîs, i.e. the text corresponding to the Sâkvara vrata, and then the uttarâni prakaranâni (the following sections) are referred to, i.e. the Mahâvrata and the Upanishad, so that the Sukriya vrata or the texts, the study of which is entered upon by that Vrata, are left out here.
There is a good deal of confusion in the several commentaries p. 79 with regard to the succession of the different ceremonies taught in this chapter. They all agree in stating that after the lapse of the year through which the Vrata is kept, a ceremony is performed called Uddîkshanikâ, i.e. the giving up of the Dîkshâ, or preparatory observance. This Uddîkshanikâ consists chiefly in the teacher's ascertaining whether the student has fulfilled the duties involved by the Vrata (see Sûtras 2 and 3). Besides that, there is no doubt that a repetition of the Upanayana (chap. 11, 2) also formed part of the preparatory rites for the study of the Âranyaka. As to the way in which these different ceremonies and the other rites described in this chapter would have to be arranged according to our text, it is perhaps best to follow the statements given in an epitome from the bâlâvabodhanârtham Rishidaivatakhandopaddhati (MS. Berol. Chambers, 199 a, fols. 13-16); the slight confusion therein is not difficult to get rid of. There we read, 'The Sâkvara, however, is to be kept one year (chap. 11, 11). When the Uddîkshanikâ has been performed, and three nights (chap. 12, 6) or one day and one night (ibid. 7) have elapsed, the Upanayana should be performed as above (chap. 11, 2), with this difference that at the end of the formula mama vrate, &c. (chap. 4, 1) one should say, "May Brihaspati join thee to me for the holy observance of the Sâkvara through one year, O Devadatta!" (On this formula, resting on a misunderstanding of chap. 4, Sûtra 2, see the Introduction, p. 8.) The rest is the same as at the Sukriya. Then, when the year (chap. 11, 11) has elapsed, and the Uddîkshanikâ has been performed, and the three days or the night have passed (chap. 12, 6. 7), he should go out of the village . . . and in the north-eastern direction,' &c. (here follows the description of how the secret doctrines should be taught to the student, according to Sâṅkh. VI). The confusion showing itself in the double mention of the Uddîkshanikâ, before and after the Upanayana, should no doubt be put to the account of the excerptor or perhaps even of the MS.; what the meaning of the original Paddhati was is sufficiently shown in the remarks on the following Vratas, for instance, on the Vrâtika (fol. 16), 'Now follows the Vrâtika vrata. It lasts one year (chap. p. 80 11, 12). When the Sâkvara has reached its end [here we find added at the margin of the MS.," After the Uddîkshanikâ has been performed." These words ought not to be received into the text; in the corresponding passage on the Aupanishada vrata they are not found] he performs the whole ceremony, beginning from the smearing (of the Sthandila with cow-dung), the drawing of the lines, &c., as at the Upanayana . . . and then, when one year has elapsed, he performs the Uddîkshanikâ, and the rules [given in chap. 12, 9 seq.] are observed as above.' I think that here the meaning of the text is correctly represented; first comes the Upanayana, then follows the Vrata lasting one year, then the Uddîkshanikâ. After this ceremony the teacher gives to the student the directions mentioned in chap. 12, 16; then follow the three days, or the one night (chap. 12, 6. 7), and finally they both go out of the village to the north-east, and in the forest they recite the Rahasya.
On the whole ceremonies connected with the study of the Âranyaka the sixth book should be compared.
80:5 Nârâyana: Vastrasya dasâh prântabhâga[m] uparishtât kritvâ tathâ badhnîyâd yathâ na sambhrasyeta adhastân na patati tathâ vidheyam.
80:6 The things which the student here is ordered to leave off for three days are the same that are mentioned above, chap. 6, 8, as his standing duties. According to Nârâyana this would be the Âdesa mentioned in chap. II, 13.
81:8 Comp. chap. II, 6.
81:10 With Sûtikâ is meant a woman during the first ten days after her confinement, for which period the asauka lasts.—Apahasta is rendered by Nârâyana by khinnahasta; the comment on the Sâmbavya-Grihya mentions âyudhâṅkitahastâms ka. The translation of the last words of this Sûtra (sarvâni ka savarûpâni yâny âsye na [or âsyena?] praviseyuh svasya vâsân nirasan) is absolutely uncertain. Nârâyana says that such animals as lions, serpents, &c. are designated in common use as savarûpâni. (This literally means, 'having the form of a corpse.' Immediately afterwards Nârâyana gives a nearly identical explanation of savarûpa as different from the one stated first. So perhaps we may conjecture that his first explanation rests on a reading sarparûpâni; comp. the reading sarvarûpa of Pâraskara.) Of these the animals entering their dwelling-places with the mouth first (âsyena) are to be understood here as forming, when looked at, an impediment for the study. Nârâyana then says that other authorities understand sava in the sense of a dead human body; then savarûpâni are beings having the form thereof (tadrûpâni), such as dogs, jackals, &c. The words yâny âsyena praviseyuh signify that the study is impeded also on the sight of lions, tigers, &c.; for these enter their dwelling-places with their faces first (? anumukhaih kritvâ). The words svasya vâsân nirasan mean, p. 82 according to Nâr., 'when he—i.e. the teacher—goes out of his dwelling-place.' Râmakandra says that savarûpa either means lions, snakes, and other dangerous animals, or nails, horns, and other such things that fall off or are severed from the body. The text of the Sâmbavya MS. is sarvâni ka syâmarûpâni yâvânyâ (?) praviseyuh, which the commentary explains, sarvâms ka bhakshyavargâms ka. I think there can be little doubt that the text of Sâṅkhâyana is correct (except that some doubt will remain as to âsyena or âsye na), the more so as the passage reoccurs, nearly identically, below at VI, 1, 4. 5. As to the translation we can only go so far as to venture the opinion that the Sâṅkhâyana text does not admit the interpretation given by Gayarâma, and accepted by Professor Stenzler (who compares Âpastamba I, 11, 27; Gautama XVI, 41) in Pâraskara II, 11, 3 for sarvarûpa, which consequently should, in our opinion, be rejected also in that passage of Pâraskara. For ascertaining the true meaning of savarûpa we shall have to wait until new parallel passages have been discovered.
82:12 The rules for the Anuvâkana have been given above in chap. 7.
82:13 The Mahânâmnî verses are given in the fourth Âranyaka of the Aitareyinas. See Sacred Books of the East, I, p. xliii.
83:18 Comp. the second Sûtra of this chapter.
1. Now (follow) the rules regarding the staff.
2. Let him not leave a passage between himself and the staff.
3 3. Now should any one of these things, viz. staff, girdle, or sacrificial cord, break or rend, the same penance (takes place) therefore which (has been prescribed) at the wedding with regard to the chariot.
4. If the girdle cannot be repaired, he makes another and speaks over it (the following verses):
5. 'Thou who knowest the distinction of pure and impure, divine protectress Sarasvatî, O girdle, prolong my vow unimpaired, unbroken.
'Thou, Agni, art the pure bearer of vows. Agni, carry hither the gods to our sacrifice and our oblation.
'Bearing the vows, the infallible protector of vows, be our messenger, undecaying and mighty. Giving treasures, merciful, Agni, protect us, that we may live, Gâtavedas!
6. And he ties the sacrificial cord to the staff.
7. Here it is said also:
8 8. 'Let him sacrifice the sacrificial cord and the staff, the girdle and also the skin in water after the completion of his vow with a Varuna-verse or with the essence (of the Vedas, i.e. the syllable Om).
83:3 13, 3. 'See above, I, 15, 9 seq.
84:8 Nârâyana here quotes Rig-veda I, 24, 6, which is the first verse in the Rig-veda addressed to Varuna (i.e. to Varuna alone, not to Mitra and Varuna, &c.).
1 1. Now (follows) the Vaisvadeva (sacrifice).
2 2. The rite of the sacrifice has been explained.
3. Let him pour oblations of prepared Vaisvadeva food in the evening and in the morning into the (sacred) domestic fire.
4. 'To Agni svâhâ! To Soma svâhâ! To Indra and Agni svâhâ! To Vishnu svâhâ! To Bharadvâga Dhanvantari svâhâ! To the Visve devâs svâhâ! To Pragâpati svâhâ! To Aditi svâhâ! To Anumati svâhâ! To Agni Svishtakrit
svâhâ!'—having thus offered the oblations belonging to those deities,
5. He then shall offer Balis (i.e. portions of food) in the centre of the floor to the same deities; (then another Bali with the words,) 'Adoration to Brahman and to the Brâhmanas!' and (with the verse), 'Vâstoshpati, accept us' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 1) in the centre of the floor to Vâstoshpati.
6 6-7. He then distributes Balis, from the left to the right, through the different quarters (of the horizon, to the presiding deities) in due order (with the words),
7. 'Adoration to Indra and to those belonging to Indra! Adoration to Yama and to those belonging to Yama! Adoration to Varuna and to those belonging to Varuna! Adoration to Soma and to those belonging to Soma! Adoration to Brihaspati and to those belonging to Brihaspati!'
8 8. Then (turned) towards the disk of the sun, 'Adoration to Aditi and to the Âdityas! Adoration
5. 'He shall offer a Bali to those deities, i.e. to those ten deities to whom he has sacrificed, to Agni, &c. (see Sûtra 4), addressing them with the word, "Adoration (to such and such a deity")—because in the other cases the word "adoration" (namah) has been prescribed for the Bali.' Nârâyana.
to the Nakshatras, to seasons, to months, to half-months, to days and nights, to years!'
9. 'To Pûshan, the path-maker; to Dhâtar, to Vidhâtar, and to the Maruts'—(thus) on the thresholds.
10. To Vishnu on the grindstone.
11. 'To the tree'—(thus) in the mortar.
12. 'To the herbs'—(thus) where the herbs are kept.
13. 'To Parganya, to the waters'—(thus) near the water-pot.
14. 'Adoration to Srî'—(thus) in the bed at the head, 'to Bhadrakâlî at the foot.
15. In the privy, 'Adoration to Sarvânnabhûti!'
16. Then (he throws a Bali) into the air, in the evening with the words, 'To the night-walkers,' in the morning with the words, 'To the day-walkers,' and with the Verse,' Which gods' (Rig-veda I, 139, 11).
17. To the unknown deities to the north, and to Dhanapati (i.e. the Lord of treasures).
I8. With the sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder he pours out the remnant to the south with the verse, 'They whom the fire has burnt' (Rig-veda X, 15, 14).
19. When he has made his offerings to gods, fathers (i.e. Manes), and men, let him give food to a Srotriya (i.e. to a learned Brâhmana).
20. Or let him give alms (of food) to a student.
21 21. Let him immediately afterwards offer food to a female under his protection, to a pregnant woman, to boys, and to old people.
22 22-23. Let him throw (some food) on the ground for the dogs, for the dog-butchers, and for the birds.
23 23. Let him eat nothing without having cut off (and offered as a Bali) a portion thereof.
24. (Let him) not (eat) alone,
25. Nor before (the others).
26. With regard thereto it has been said also in the Rik,' In vain the fool gains food' (Rig-veda X, 117, 6).
84:1 14, 1. The rules regarding the Vaisvadeva sacrifice stand here, as I have already pointed out in the German edition, p. 142, in a very strange position amid the matter that concerns the student, and before the description of the ceremony that concludes studentship (the Samâvartana; III, 1). On the first word of the chapter, atha, Nârâyana observes that thereby the householder is marked as the subject of the following rules. It seems rather forced to explain the position of this chapter, as Nârâyana does, by pointing out that in some cases, for instance when the teacher is away on a journey, a student also can eventually be called upon to perform the Vaisvadeva sacrifice (comp. below, chap. 17, 3).
84:2 This Sûtra shows, according to Nârâyana, that the Vaisvadeva offering does not follow the ordinary type of sacrifice (the Pratisrute homakalpa, as it is termed above, I, 9, 19), but the form described in the Agnikâryaprakarana, above, chap. 10, 3 seq.
85:6-7 6, 7. The distribution of Balis begins in the east, which is the part of the horizon sacred to Indra; it then proceeds to the south, the west, the north, which are sacred respectively to Yama, Varuna, and Soma. Finally the Bali belonging to Brihaspati and the Bârhaspatyas is offered, according to Nârâyana, to the north-east.
85:8 The commentators (see p. 142 of the German edition) differ as to whether âdityamandala means the disk of the sun towards which this Bali should be offered, or a place or an apartment of circular form (âdityamandalarûpe mandalâgâre, as in my opinion we ought to correct the reading in Nârâyana's note).
86:21 Comp. Böhtlingk-Roth s. v. suvâsinî, and Professor Bühler's note on Gautama V, 25.
87:22-23 22, 23. Probably these Sûtras should be divided after iti.
87:23 'Pûrvam means, he should not eat before his relations (bandhubhyah pûrvam prathamatah).' Nârâyana.
1 1. Should any one of the six persons (mentioned in the Srauta-sûtra and in the Sûtras 4-9) to whom the Arghya reception is due, visit (him), let him make (ready) a cow, a goat, or what (sort of food) he thinks most like (thereto).
2 2-3. Let the Argha not be without flesh.
3. On the occasion of a sacrifice and of a wedding let (the guest) say, 'Make it (ready).'
4. The animal (offered) to the teacher is sacred to Agni;
5. If offered to an officiating priest, to Brihaspati;
6 6. If to the father-in-law, to Pragâpati;
7. If to a king, to Indra;
8 8. If to a friend, to Mitra;
9. If to a Snâtaka, to Indra and Agni;
10. Even if he performs more than one Soma sacrifice during a year, let only priests who have received (from him) the Arghya reception officiate for him, not such who have not received it.
11 11. Here it is said also:
87:1 15, 1. This Sûtra presupposes the Srauta-sûtra IV, 21, 1: 'To six persons the Argha reception is due, viz. to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to the father-in-law, to a king, to a Snâtaka, to a friend.' Here the fourth person mentioned is the svasura, while in the Grihya text the expression vaivâhya is used. It is difficult not to believe that both words are used in the same sense, and accordingly Nârâyana says vivâhyah svasurah. Comp. Professor Stenzler's note on Pâraskara I, 3, 1; Âpastamba II, 8, 7; Gautama V, 27.
Sâmânyatamam sadrisatamam mâshâdikam (mâkhâdikam the MS.) annam. Nârâyana.
87:2-3 2, 3. These Sûtras are identical with Pâraskara I, 3, 29. 30. The following Sûtra of Pâraskara stands in the Sâṅkhâyana text as p. 88 Sûtra 10. Probably Pâraskara here represents the text which both Sûtrakâras follow, more exactly, and the enumeration given by Sâṅkhâyana in Sûtras 4-9 of the different categories of Arghyas with the corresponding deities, is an addition to that original stock of rules.
Apparently the two Sûtras 2 and 3 stand in contradiction to each other, as Sûtra 2 seems to prescribe that at the Argha meal in every case flesh should be given to the guest, and Sûtra 3 specifies only two occasions on which the killing of the Argha cow cannot be dispensed with. Perhaps the meaning is this, that it is not necessary, except in the cases of a sacrifice and of a wedding, to kill a cow expressly for that purpose, but that in any case, even if the cow offered to the guest be declined by him, the host should take care that some flesh be served at that meal. So says Nârâyana in his note on Âsvalâyana-Grihya I, 24, 33, 'Pasukaranapakshe tanmâmsena bhoganam, utsarganapakshe mâmsantarena.' Similarly the Buddhists distinguish between eating flesh and eating the flesh of an animal expressly killed in order to entertain that very guest.
88:6 The literal translation of vaivâhya would be 'a person related by marriage.' But comp. the note on Sûtra 1.
88:8 Priya of course does not mean gâmâtar, as is stated in a number of commentaries. Gobhila says, priyoऽtithih.
88:11 Other persons, for instance a king, can claim the Argha reception not more than once a year. Comp. Âpastamba II, 8, 7; Gautama V, 28, 29, &c.
1. 'At the Madhuparka and at the Soma sacrifice, at the sacred rites for fathers (Manes) and gods only animals may be killed, not elsewhere: thus has Manu said.
2. 'Both his teacher and his father, and also a friend who does not stay in his house as a guest: whatever these dispose, that let him do; such is the established custom.
3 3. 'Let him not consider as a guest a person living in the same village, or one that comes in returning from a journey; (but let him consider as a guest only) one who has arrived at his house where the wife or the fires (of the host) are.
4 4. '(The fire of) the Agnihotra, bulls, and a guest that has come in at the right time, children and persons of noble families: these burn up him who neglects them.
5. 'A bull, the Agnihotra, and a student, these three prosper only if they eat; there is no prosperity for them, if they do not eat.
6. 'Day by day the domestic deities approach the man who performs the domestic rites, in order to receive their share; (that) let him pour out to them.
89:3 16, 3. Comp. Gautama V, 40, &c.
89:4 On the right time for the arrival of a guest, see Gautama, loc. cit.
1. 'Even if a man constantly gather grass and perform the Agnihotra, a Brâhmana who stays (in his
house) without receiving honour takes away all his good works.
2. 'One should give (even) if it were only a water-pot; one should sacrifice (even) if it were a piece of wood; (even) down to one hymn or to one Anuvâka the Brahmayagña is enjoined.
3. 'When on a journey let him not fast; (during that time) the wife keeps the vow. Let his son, his brother, or his wife, or his pupil offer the Bali oblation.
4. 'Those who perform this Vaisvadeva sacrifice in the evening and in the morning, they will prosper in wealth and (long) life, in fame and offspring.'
1. A student who is going to set out on a journey, speaks thus to his teacher:
2 2. 'Of inhalation and exhalation'—(this he says) in a low voice; 'Om, I will dwell'—this aloud.
3. (The teacher) in a low voice (replies), 'To inhalation and exhalation I, the wide-extended one, resort with thee. To the protecting god I give thee in charge. God Savitar; this student belongs to thee; I give him in charge to thee; protect him; do not forsake him.'
4. 'Om, hail!' the teacher aloud. 'Hail!' the teacher aloud.
Here ends the Second Adhyâya.
90:2 18, 2. Perhaps vatsyâmi (I will dwell) is a sort of euphemism for pravatsyâmi (I will go away).
1. A bath (shall be taken by the student) when he is going to return home (from his teacher).
2 2. 'A bull's hide'—this has been declared. On that hide he makes him sit down and have his hair and beard cut and the hair of the body and the nails.
3. Having had (the cut-off hair-ends, &c.) thrown away together with rice and barley, with sesamum-seed and mustard-seed, with Apâmârga and Sadâpushpî flowers,
4 4. Having sprinkled him (with water) with the Âpohishthîyâ-hymn (Rig-veda X, 9),
5. Having adorned him,
6. Having dressed him with two garments with (the verse), 'The garments both of you' (Rig-veda I, 152, 1),
7. He then puts on him a golden ornament (with the words), 'Giving life and vigour' (Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ XXXIV, 50).
8. With (the verse), 'Mine, Agni, be vigour' (Rig-veda X, 128, 1), the veiling (of the head is done).
9. With (the verse), 'House by house the shining one' (Rig-veda I, 123, 4) (he takes) the parasol,
10. With (the verse), 'Rise up' (Rig-veda X, 18, 6), the shoes,
11. With (the verse), 'Long be thy hook' (Rig-veda VIII, 17, 10) he takes a bamboo staff.
12 12. Let him sit that day in solitude.
13. With (the verses), 'O tree! with strong limbs,' and, 'A ruler indeed' (Rig-veda VI, 47, 26; X, 152, 1) let him mount the chariot.
14. (Before returning home) let him first approach a place where they will perform Argha for him with a cow or a goat.
15. Or let him return (making his start) from cows or from a fruit-bearing tree.
16. With (the verses), 'Indra, give us best goods,' and, 'Be friendly, O earth' (Rig-veda II, 21, 6; I, 22, 15) he descends (from the chariot).
17. Let him eat that day his favourite food.
18 18. To his teacher he shall give (that) pair of garments, the turban, ear-rings and jewel, staff and shoes, and the parasol.
91:2 1, 2. Comp. above, I, 16, 1, and the note there.
91:4 Nârâyana says here, enam mânavakam abhishikya abhishekam snânam kârayitvâ. Comp. Pâraskara II, 6, 9 seq.
92:12 Pratilîna evidently means the same thing that is so often expressed in the Buddhist texts by patisallîna.
92:18 The pair of garments are those referred to in Sûtra 6; on the turban see Sûtra 8. On staff and shoes comp. Sûtras 10, 11; on the parasol, Sûtra 9.
1 1. If he wishes to have a house built, he draws with an Udumbara branch three times a line round (the building-ground) with (the words), 'Here I include the dwellings for the sake of food,' and sacrifices in (its) centre on an elevated spot,
2. (With the texts,) 'Who art thou? Whose art
thou? To whom do I sacrifice thee, desirous of (dwelling in the) village? Svâhâ!
'Thou art the gods' share on this (earth). From here have sprung the fathers who have passed away. The ruler has sacrificed, desirous of (dwelling in the) village, not omitting anything that belongs to the gods. Svâhâ!'
3. Having had the pits for the posts dug,
4. He pours water-gruel into them,
5. And with (the verse), 'This branch of the immortal one I erect, a stream of honey, promoting wealth. The child, the young one, cries to it; the cow shall low to it, the unceasingly fertile one'—he puts an Udumbara branch which has been besmeared with ghee into the pit for the right door-post.
6. 'This branch of the world I establish, a stream of honey, promoting wealth. The child, the young one, cries to it; the cow shall low to it that has a young calf'—thus to the left.
7. In the same way at the two (pits) to the south, to the west, and to the north.
8. With (the verse), 'This branch of this tree, that drops ghee, I erect in the immortal. The child, the young one, cries to it; cows shall flock to it, unceasingly fertile ones'—he erects the chief post.
9 9. 'May the young child come to it, may the calf . . . .; may they come to it with a cup of Parisrut, with pots of curds.
92:1 2, 1 seqq. On the house of the Vedic Indians, comp. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 148 seqq.
93:9 On parisrut, see Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 281. The words bhuvanas pari give no sense; Pâraskara probably gives the true reading, â vatso gagadaih saha (III, 4, 4; comp. Sûtra 8: Vasûms ka Rudrân Âdityân Îsânam gagadaih saha; gagada is explained in Gayarâma's commentary by anuga, anukara). The word gagada of course was exposed to all sorts of corruptions; p. 94 thus the text of Âsvalâyana has gâyatâm saka; the Atharva-veda (III, 12, 7) gagatâ saha; and from this gagat to the bhuvana found in our text the way is not very long.
1 1. 'Stand here, O post, firm, rich in horses and cows, . . . .; stand safely, dropping ghee; stand here, fixed in the ground, prosperous, long-lasting(?), amid the prosperity of people who satiate themselves. May the malevolent ones not reach thee!
'Hither are called the cows; hither are called goats and sheep; and the sweet essence (?) of food is called hither to our house.
'Stand fast in the Rathantara; recline on the Vâmadevya; establish thyself on the Brihat'—with (these texts) he touches the chief post.
2. When the house has been built conformably (to its proper dimensions), he touches the posts.
3. The two (posts) to the east with (the words), 'Truth and faith!'
4. Those to the south with (the words), 'Sacrifice and gift!'
5. Those to the west with (the words), 'Strength and power!'
6. Those to the north with (the words), 'The Brahman and the Kshatra!
7 7. 'Fortune the pinnacle, law the chief post!
8. 'Day and night the two door jambs!'
9. 'The year the roof!'
10. With (the verse), 'A bull, an ocean' (Rig-veda V, 47, 3)' let him bury an anointed stone under the pinnacle.
94:1 3, 1. According to Nârâyana the verse given in chap. 2, 9 forms one Mantra with those in 3, 1. The meaning of sîlamâvatî is uncertain. The word reoccurs in Rig-veda X, 75, 8. Pâraskara (III, 4, 4) has sûnritâvatî. On tilvila, comp. Rig-veda V, 62, 7. The following word is quite uncertain both as to its reading and its meaning. Comp. p. 143 seq. of the German edition. On kîlâla, comp. Zimmer, loc. cit. p. 281.
94:7 Comp. Pâraskara III, 4, 18.
1 1. At the sacrifice to Vâstoshpati—
2 2. Having established the (sacred) domestic fire outside with (the words), 'I place (here) Agni with genial mind; may he be the assembler of goods. Do no harm to us, to the old nor to the young; be a saviour to us, to men and animals!'—
3. Having put a new water-pot on fresh eastward-pointed Kusa-grass,
4. And spoken over it (the words), 'Unhurt be our men, may our riches not be squandered!'—
5 5-7. He sacrifices three oblations in the forenoon with the Stotriya text of the Rathantara with repetition and Kakubh-forming;
6. (Three oblations with the Stotriya) of the Vâmadevya at midday;
7. Of the Brihat in the afternoon;
8. The four Mahâvyâhritis, the three verses, 'Vâstoshpati!' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 1-3), (the single verses,) 'Driving away calamity,' (and) 'Vâstoshpati,
a firm post' (Rig-veda VII, 55, 1; VIII, 17, 14), and to (Agni) Svishtakrit a tenth oblation of cooked food at night.
9. Taking with himself his eldest son and his wife, carrying grain, let him enter (the house with the words),
'Indra's house is blessed, wealthy, protecting; that I enter with my wife, with offspring, with cattle, with increase of wealth, with everything that is mine.'
95:1 4, 1. The sacrifice to Vâstoshpati is celebrated when the sacrificer enters his new house.
95:2 Comp. above, I, 7, 9.
95:5-7 On the way of reciting a Pragâtha, so as to form three verses, see Indische Studien, VIII, 25; Zeitschrift der deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 476. The Stotriya of the Rathantara is Rig-veda VII, 32, 22 seq.; that of the Vâmadevya, IV, 31, 1-3; that of the Brihat, VI, 46, 1 seq.
1. 'To every able one, to every blissful one, to you I turn for the sake of safety, of peace. Free from danger may we be. May the village give me in charge to the forest. All! give me in charge to the great one,'—thus (he speaks) when leaving the village.
2. 'May the forest give me in charge to the village. Great one! give me in charge to the all'—thus (he speaks) when entering the village, not without (carrying) something (with himself, such as fuel, flowers, &c.)
3 3. I enter the blessed, joyful house, which does not bring death to men; manly (I enter) that which is rich in men. Bringing refreshment, dropping ghee (we enter the house) in which I shall joyfully rest'—this verse is constantly to be pronounced (when he enters the house).
96:3 5, 3. For anyeshv aham we should read perhaps yeshv aham. Âsvalâyana-Sraut. II, 5, 17 has teshv aham.
1. One who has not set up the (sacred Srauta) fires, when setting out on a journey, looks at his house.
2. (He murmurs the text,) 'Do ye both, Mitra and Varuna, protect this house for me; unscathed, undisturbed, may Pûshan guard it till our return;'
3. And murmurs (the verse), 'Upon the path we have entered' (Rig-veda VI, 51, 16).
1. When he then returns from his journey, he looks at his house (and says),
2 2. 'House, do not fear, do not tremble; bringing strength we come back. Bringing strength, joyful and wise, I come back to thee, to the house, rejoicing in my mind.
'That of which the traveller thinks, that in which dwells much joy, that I call the house. May it know us as we know it.
'Hither are called the cows; hither are called goats and sheep; and the sweet essence (?) of food is called hither to our house.'
3. Having approached the (sacred) domestic fire with the verse, 'This Agni is glorious to us, this is highly glorious. Worshipping him (?) may we suffer no harm; may he bring us to supremity'—
4. Let him pronounce auspicious words.
5 5. When accepting the water for washing the feet he says, 'The milk of Virâg art thou; may I obtain
the milk of Virâg; in me (may) the milk of Padyâ Virâg (dwell)!'
97:2 7, 2. On kîlâla, see chap. 3, 1.
97:5 Padyâ virâg is the Virâg metre, so far as it consists of p. 98 Pâdas; in this connection, of course, the phrase is intended besides to convey the meaning of 'the splendour which dwells in the feet.' Comp. Pâraskara I, 3, 12 and Professor Stenzler's note there. My German translation of this Sûtra of Sâṅkhâyana rests on a misunderstanding.
1 1. When one who has not set up the (sacred Srauta) fires, is going to partake of the first-fruits (of the harvest), let him sacrifice to the Âgrayana deities with (Agni) Svishtakrit as the fourth, and with the word SVÂHÂ, on his (sacred) domestic fire.
2. Having recited over (the food) which he is going to eat (the formula), 'To Pragâpati I draw thee, the proper portion, for luck to me, for glory to me, for food to me!'—
3 3. He thrice eats of it, sprinkling it with water, with (the verse), 'From the good you have led us to the better, ye gods! Through thee, the nourishment, may we obtain thee. Thus enter into us, O potion, bringing refreshment; be a saviour to us, to men and animals!'
4. With (the verse), 'This art thou, breath; the truth I speak This art thou; from all directions thou hast entered (into all beings). Thou driving away old age and sickness from my body be at home with me. Do not forsake us, Indra!'—he touches the place of the heart;
5. With (the words), 'The navel art thou; do not fear; the knot of the breathing powers art thou; do not loosen thyself,' (he touches) the navel;
6. With the verse, 'Bliss with our ears' (Rig-veda I, 89, 8), (lie touches) the limbs as stated (in that verse);
7. Worshipping the sun with the verse, 'Yonder eye' (Rig-veda VII, 66, 16).
98:1 8, 1. The Âgrayaneshti is the corresponding rite of the Srauta ritual. Comp. Indische Studien, X, 343. The deities of that sacrifice are Indra and Agni; the Visve devâs; Heaven and Earth.
98:3 In the text read for tvayâ gvasena, tvayâऽvasena.
1 1. 'May the noisy (goddesses) keep you away from slaughtering hosts. May the entire share, O cows, that belongs to this lord of cows, suffer no harm among you—(and)
'May Pûshan go after our cows' (Rig-veda VI, 54, 5)—this he shall speak over the cows when they go away (to their pasture-grounds).
2. 'May Pûshan hold' (Rig-veda VI, 54, 10), when they run about.
3. 'May they whose udder with its four holes is full of sweet and ghee, be milk-givers to us; (may they be) many in our stable, rich in ghee'—and, 'The cows have come' (Rig-veda VI, 28), when they have come back.
4. The last (verse) when he puts them in (into the stable).
5. The hymn, 'Refreshing wind' (Rig-veda X, 169), (he recites over the cows), when they are gone into the stable.
99:1 9, 1. The noisy ones are the winds; comp. the passage of Sâṅkhâyana-Srauta-sûtra, quoted p. 144 of the German edition.
1. The new moon that follows after the Phâlguna
full moon, falls under (the Nakshatra) Revatî: on that (new moon day) he shall have the marks made (on his cattle),
2 2. With (the words), 'Thou art the world, thousandfold prospering. To Indra may exertion (?) give thee. Inviolate art thou, unhurt, sap, food, protection. For as many (cows) I shall do this now, for more (than these) may I do it in the latest year.'
3. Of that (cow) that calves first let him sacrifice the biestings with the two verses, 'Yearly the milk of the cow' (Rig-veda X, 87, 17. 18).
4. If she brings forth twin-calves, let him sacrifice with the Mahâvyâhritis, and give the mother of the twins (to the Brâhmanas).
100:2 10, 2. The reading of tvâ sramo dadat is doubtful. See the Various Readings in the German edition.
1 1. Now (follows) the Vrishotsarga (i.e. setting a bull at liberty).
2. On the Kârttika full moon day or on that day of the Âsvayuga (month) that falls under (the Nakshatra) Revatî—
3. He sacrifices, after having kindled amid the cows a well-inflamed fire, Âgya oblations (with the words),
4. Here is delight; take delight here. Svâhâ!
[paragraph continues] Here is still-standing; here is (your) own still-standing. Svâhâ!
'I have let the calf join its mother. May the calf, sucking its mother's breast, support increase of wealth among us. Svâhâ!'
5. With the verse, 'May Pûshan go after our cows' (Rig-veda VI, 54, 5) he sacrifices from (a mess of sacrificial food) belonging to Pûshan.
6 6. Having murmured the Rudra-(hymns),
7. (He takes) a one-coloured, two-coloured, or three-coloured (bull),
8. Or one that protects the herd,
9. Or that is protected by the herd,
10. Or it may also be red.
11. It should have all its limbs complete, and be the finest (bull) in the herd.
12. Having adorned that (bull),
13. And the four best young cows of the herd, having adorned those too,
14 14. (He says,) 'This young (bull) I give you as your husband; sporting with him, your lover, walk about. Do not desert us (?), being joined (with us) from your birth. In increase of wealth, in food may we rejoice. Svâhâ!'
15. When (the bull) is in the midst (of the cows), he recites over (them), 'Refreshing,' &c. (Rig-veda X, 169, I seq.) down to the end of the Anuvâka.
16. With the milk of all of them he shall cook milk-rice and feed Brâhmanas with it.
100:1 11, 1. A part of this chapter is nearly identical with the corresponding section of the Kâthaka-grihya; see Jolly's article, Das Dharma-sûtra des Vishnu, &c. (Sitzung der philos. philol. Classe der Bairischen Academie, 7 Juni, 1879), p. 39. Comp. also Pâraskara III, 9; Vishnu LXXXVI, and Jolly's remarks, in Deutsche Rundschau X, p. 428.
101:6 Rig-veda I, 43. 114; II, 33; VII, 46.
101:14 The translation 'do not desert us,' rests on the conjecture mâvasthâta; see the Various Readings, and the note on p. 245 of the German edition.
1 1. After the Âgrahâyanî (or the full moon day of the month Mârgasîrsha) (follow) the three Ashtakâs in the second fortnight (of the Mârgasîrsha and of the two following months).
2. At the first of these he sacrifices vegetables,
3 3. With (the verse), 'She who shone forth first is this (earth); she walks, having entered into this (earth). The wife has brought forth (children), the new-creating mother. May the three powers follow her. Svâhâ!'
4. Now (the oblation for Agni) Svishtakrit,
5 5. With (the verses), 'She in whom Yama, the son of Vivasvat, and all gods are contained, the Ashtakâ whose face is turned to all sides, she has satiated my desires.
'They call thy teeth "the pressing-stones;" thy
udder is (Soma) Pavamâna; . . . . are the months and half-months. Adoration to thee, O glad-faced one! Svâhâ!'
102:1 12, 1. On the Ashtakâ festivals, of which some texts reckon three, while others have four, comp. Weber, Naxatra (second article), pp. 337, 341 seq.; Bühler, S.B.E., II, p. 214; Ludwig, Rig-veda, vol. iv, pp. 424 seq.; Atharva-veda III, 10. The last Ashtakâ, which is celebrated in the dark fortnight of Mâgha, is called Ekâshtakâ; this Ashtakâ is called the 'wife of the year,' 'the image of the year,' 'the disposer of the days.' If the Phâlguna month is reckoned as the first of the year, this Ashtakâ precedes the year's beginning only by a few days; there are also some Vedic passages which point to the Ekâshtakâ's following shortly after the beginning of the year; see Weber, loc. cit., p. 342.
102:3 Instead of navakrit the parallel texts (except the Mantrabrâhmana II, 2, 12) have navagat, which is explained by nûtanavivâhavatî (Ludwig, loc. cit.); the 'three powers' are understood by Mâdhava (in the commentary on Taitt. Samh. IV, 3, 11) as Agni, Sûrya, and Kandra.
1 1. At the middle (Ashtakâ) and in the middle of the rainy season,
2. The four Mahâvyâhritis (and) the four (verses), They who have thirsted' (Rig-veda X, 15, 9 seq.): having quickly recited (these verses) he shall sacrifice the omentum;
3. Or (he shall do so) with the verse, 'Carry the omentum, Gâtavedas, to the Manes, where thou knowest them in the world of virtue. May streams of fat flow to them; may the wishes of the sacrificer be fulfilled. Svâhâ!'
4. (Then follow) the four Mahâvyâhritis (and) the four (verses), 'They who have thirsted' (see Sûtra 2): (thus is offered) an eightfold oblation of cooked food, together with the cut-off portions.
5 5. Or, 'Interposed are the mountains; interposed is the wide earth to me. With the sky and all the points of the horizon I interpose another one instead of the father. To N.N. svâhâ!
'Interposed to me are the seasons, and days and nights, the twilight's children. With the months and half-months I interpose another one instead of the father. To N.N. svâhâ!
'With the standing ones, with the streaming ones. with the small ones that flow about: with the waters, the supporters of all I interpose another one instead of the father. To N.N. svâhâ!
'Wherein my mother has done amiss, going astray, faithless to her husband, that sperm may my father take as his own; may another one fall off from the mother. To N.N. svâhâ!'—these four (verses) instead of the Mahâvyâhritis, if (the sacrificer) is an illegitimate child.
6. Or milk-rice (should be offered).
7 7. On the next day the Anvashtakya ceremony (i.e. ceremony following the Ashtakâ) in accordance with the rite of the Pindapitriyagña.
103:1 13, 1. On madhyâvarsha, comp. Weber, loc. cit., pp. 331, 337. Nârâyana understands not 'in the middle of the rainy season,' but 'in the middle of the year' (see his note, p. 146 of the German edition). I cannot help thinking that the word madhyâvarshe, given by the MSS. here and in Pâraskara III, 3, 13, and explained by Nârâyana, is a corrupt reading which we should correct into mâghyavarshe ('the festival celebrated during the rainy season under the Nakshatra Maghâs'), or something like that. The MSS. of Âsvalâyana-Grihya II, 5, 9 have mâghyâvarsham, mâghâvarsham, mâdhyâvarsham. Vishnu (LXXVI, 1, comp. LXXVIII, 52, and Professor Jolly's note, Sacred Books of the East, VII, p. 240) mentions 'the three Ashtakâs, the three Anvashtakâs, a Mâgha day which falls on the thirteenth of the dark half of the month Praushthapada.' Comp. Manu III, 273, varshâsu ka maghâsu ka; Yâgñavalkya I, 260.
104:5 Instead of 'N.N.' (the text has the feminine amushyai) the sacrificer inserts the name of his mother. For mâsâs, ardhamâsâs I propose to read, mâsais, ardhamâsais.
104:7 On Anvashtakya, comp. Bühler, S.B.E., XIV, p. 55; Jolly. loc. cit., p. 59.
1. On the last (Ashtakâ) he sacrifices cakes,
2. With the words, 'The Ukthya and the Atirâtra. the Sadyahkrî together with the metre—Ashtakâ!
[paragraph continues] Preparer of cakes! Adoration to thee, O glad-faced one. Svâhâ!
3 3-6. A cow or a goat is the animal (to be sacrificed), or a mess of cooked food (should be offered).
4. Or he may optionally offer food to a cow.
5 5. Or he may optionally burn down brushwood in the forest and say, 'This is my Ashtakâ.'
6. But let him not neglect to do (one of these things). But let him not neglect to do (one of these things).
Here ends the Third Adhyâya.
105:3-6 14, 3-6. This is one of the passages which the author has taken unchanged from a more ancient Sûtra; see Âsv. II, 4, 8-11; Gobhila IV, 1 (end of the chapter). The Sûtras do not refer, as their position would seem to indicate, to the third, but to the second Ashtakâ.
105:5 Comp. Weber, loc. cit., p. 342, note 1.
1 1. Let him offer (Srâddha oblations) every month to the fathers.
2 2. Having invited an uneven number of Brâhmanas, versed in the Veda, at least three, to sit down as (representing) the fathers,
3. And having strewn sesamum into an uneven number of water-pots,
4. He shall pour them out over the hands of the Brâhmanas, assigning (this gift) to them with the words, 'N.N.! This to thee!'
5 5-7. After this they should be adorned;
6. And after he has (respectfully) spoken to them, and has put food into the fire,
7. Assigning (the food) to them with the words, 'N.N.! This to thee!' he shall cause them to eat.
8. While they are eating, he shall murmur the Mahâvyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, the Madhuvâtîya-verses (Rig-veda I, 90, 6 seq.), and verses addressed to the Manes and to (Soma) Pavamâna.
9 9. When they have finished with eating, he shall offer the lumps (of flour).
10 10-11. Before (their dinner he shall offer) the lumps, according to some (teachers).
11. Behind (these he places the lumps) for their wives, putting something between (these and the preceding ones).
12. To the Brâhmanas he shall announce the remnants.
13 13. The rites of the putting (of food) into the fire (see Sûtra 6), &c. have been declared (in the Srauta-sûtra) by the Pindapitriyagña.
106:1 1, 1. Khandas 1-4 contain the rules regarding the Srâddha oblations directed to the Manes. The dinners offered in connection with these Srâddha sacrifices to Brâhmanas and also—though of this of course no notice is taken in Vedic texts—to Sramanas stood in the first line among the exhibitions of liberality of lay people towards priests and monks. Thus we find among the stock phrases that constantly reoccur in the Pâli Pitakas, the mention of Samanas and Brâhmanas 'who have eaten the food given to them out of faith' (saddhâdeyyâni bhoganâni bhuñgitvâ)—wherein the 'food given out of faith' (saddhâdeyya) either chiefly or exclusively means the Srâddha dinners, which are so called because the sacrificer gives them 'full of faith' (sraddhâsamanvita, Manu III, 275) to the Brâhmanas and through them to the Manes.
The principal form of Srâddha is that treated of in chap. 1, which is designated in other texts (see, for instance, Âsvalâyana-Grihya IV, 7, 1) as pârvana srâddha. There are, however, besides the parvan of the new moon, other times also considered as admissible for the performing of this monthly Srâddha; see Gautama XV, 2 seq.; Âpastamba II, 16, &c.; and comp. on the Srâddhas in general the passages quoted by Professor Jolly, Das Dharma-sûtra des Vishnu (Sitzung der Bair. Akademie, phil. Classe, 7 Juni, 1879), pp. 46 seq.; Max Müller, 'India, what can it teach us?' pp. 234 Seq., 374 seq.
106:2 '"As the fathers" means: he invites the youngest, middle-aged, and eldest Brâhmanas to sit down in the place of the father, the grandfather, and the great-grandfather' (Nârâyana). A similar explanation of pitrivat is mentioned by Nârâyana on Âsvalâyana-Grihya p. 107 IV, 7, 2. My German translation of this Sûtra ought to be altered accordingly.
Besides the Brâhmanas mentioned in this Sûtra, who represent the fathers, according to all the commentaries, other Brâhmanas had to be invited as representing the Visve devâs. Nârâyana gives detailed statements as to the number of the paitrika and of the daivika Brâhmanas to be invited, and though at first sight a European reader would rather be inclined to doubt whether at the Srâddha ceremony, as the author of the text intended to describe it, any Brâhmanas at all had to be present except the paitrikas, the Sûtra 2, 5 shows that the commentators are quite right in their statements regarding both categories of Brâhmanas.
107:5-7 It would be more natural to alter the division of the Sûtras, so as to bring âmantrya in the fifth, annañ ka in the seventh Sûtra. In this case we should have to translate: 5. After this, having (respectfully) spoken to them who have been adorned (by him with flowers, ornaments, &c.); 6. And having put (food) into the fire, 7. And having assigned the food to them, &c., he shall cause them to eat.—The respectful address mentioned in the fifth Sûtra consists, according to Nârâyana, in the announcement, 'Ye Brâhmanas, I will put (food) into the fire!' (comp. Âsv.-Grihya IV, 7, 18), which he subsequently does with the formulas, 'To Agni Kavyavâhana svâhâ! To Soma Pitrimat svâhâ! To Yama Aṅgirasvat Pitrimat svâhâ!' Comp. Baudhâyana II, 1 4, 8.
108:9 As to the way in which the Pindas should he offered, Nârâyana refers to the Srauta-sûtra (IV, 4).
108:10-11 10, 11. Pindân evidently belongs to the tenth Sûtra, not, as the Indian tradition takes it, to the eleventh. Between the Pindas of the fathers and those belonging to the mothers he puts, according to Nârâyana, for instance, Darbha grass.
108:13 Srauta-sûtra IV, 3 seq.
1 1 Now (follows) the Ekoddishta (i.e. the Srâddha ceremony directed to a single dead person),
2. With one strainer,
3 3. One (pot of) Argha-water,
4. One lump (of flour).
5 5. No inviting (takes place here), nor the putting
(of food) into the fire, nor (do) the Visve devâs (take part in this ceremony). 'Relished?'—thus are they to be asked whether they are satiated. 'May it approach (the fathers),' instead of 'imperishable.'
6. 'Be satisfied,' when sending them away.
7. Thus through one year, when one has died.
8 8. And (then) omission of the fourth one.
108:1 2, 1. Eka uddishto yasmin srâddhe tad ekoddishtam (Nâr.). This is the kind of Srâddha sacrifice which is to be performed for one twice-born during the first year after his death; see Manu III, 247; Yâgñavalkya I, 250.
108:3 This rule about the Argha water corresponds to those given with regard to the Pârvana Srâddha in the Sûtras 3 and 4 of the preceding chapter.
108:5 'Because the âvâhana (inviting) is forbidden here, it follows p. 109 that it must take place at the Pârvana Srâddha' (Nâr.). According to Râmakandra's Paddhati he shall say to the Brâhmanas, 'I will invite hither the fathers;' and when they give their consent, he invites them with Rig-veda X, 16, 12. Comp. Yâgñavalkya I, 232 seq., &c. Regarding the Visve devâs comp. the note on chap. 1, 2; as to the triptaprasna (the question whether they are satiated) comp. Manu III, 251; Yâgñ. I, 240. At the Pârvana Srâddha, after the Brâhmanas have finished their dinner and rinsed their mouths, and after the Pindas have been offered, the sacrificer says, 'May what has been given at this Srâddha to our father N.N., who belongs to the gotra N.N., be imperishable!' (comp. Yâgñ. I, 242.) This phrase is to be altered at the Ekoddishta Srâddha in the way indicated in this Sûtra.
109:8 After the Ekoddishta Srâddha has been performed for a dead person during the first year after his death, he is to be admitted, by the Sapindîkarana ceremony, among the other Manes, and receives thenceforward his Pinda together with them at the ordinary Pârvana Srâddha. As the ritual of this Srâddha requires that the number of the 'fathers' worshipped should be three, the accession of a new person makes necessary the omission of the pra-pra-pitâmaha, who has now become fourth among the fathers.
1 1. Now (follows) the Sapindîkarana (i.e. reception of a dead person into the community of Pinda-offerings with the other Manes).
2 2. When one year has elapsed, or three half-months,
3. Or on a day when something good happens,
4. He fills four water-pots with sesamum, scents, and water,
5. Three for the fathers, one for the (newly) dead person,
6. And pours the pot that belongs to the (newly) dead person out into the pots of the fathers with the two verses, 'They who commonly' (Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ XIX, 45. 46).
7. Thus also the lump (of flour).
8. This is the Sapindîkarana.
109:1 3, 1. It appears to me that this whole chapter is a later addition to the original text. The last Sûtra of the preceding chapter, treating of the omission of the fourth 'father,' which forms, as shown in the preceding note, a consequence of the Sapindîkarana, p. 110 supposes this ceremony to be known and to require no special explanation. Had the intention of the author been to treat of the Sapindîkarana, this would have been the right place for mentioning the katurthavisarga, and not, as we really read it, the end of the chapter treating of the Ekoddishta. As pointing in the same direction I will mention that the Sâmbavya-Grihya, while giving the first, second, and fourth chapter of this Adhyâya, omits the third. Finally it seems decisive to me that the fifth (Parisishta) book of the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya treats of the Sapindîkarana in a whole chapter (V, 9), which shows that the text itself, as the author of the Parisishta read it, gave no exposition of this ceremony.
110:2 Nârâyana says that tripaksha means either three pakshas, i.e. one month and a half, or one paksha deficient by three days, i.e. twelve days. We need not say that the latter explanation is inadmissible it evidently rests on a wrong conclusion drawn from a passage of another Sûtra quoted by him, in which it is stated that the Sapindîkarana should be performed samvatsarânte dvâdasâhe vâ.
1 1. Now (follows) the Âbhyudayika (i.e. the Srâddha ceremony referring to good luck).
2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day,
3 3. After the sacrifice to the mothers has been performed,
4. And an even number of (Brâhmanas) versed in the Veda have been invited to sit down;
5. In the forenoon;
6 6. The rite is performed from left to right.
7 7. The murmuring with the omission of the verses belonging to the Manes.
8. The Darbha blades are straight.
9 9. Barley is to be used instead of sesamum.
10. The lumps are mixed with curds, jujube fruits, fried grain.
11 11. On inviting (the Manes, he should say), 'The Nândîmukha (glad-faced?) Manes will I invite.'
12 12. 'May the Nândîmukha Manes be rejoiced,' instead of 'imperishable.'
13 13. 'The Nândîmukha Manes will I make speak,' when he makes (the Brâhmanas) speak.
14 14. '(Was it) well done?'—thus are they to be asked whether they are satiated.
15. The rest is the same (as in the other kinds of Srâddha rites), as far as it is not prohibited (by contrary rules).
110:1 4, 1. The Âbhyudayika Srâddha has to be performed on such p. 111 occasions as the birth of a son, the marriage of a son or a daughter, the performance of ceremonies such as the nâmakarman, kûdâkarman, &c. See Yâgñavalkya I, 249.
111:3 A Srâddha ceremony directed to the mothers here precedes that consecrated to the fathers.
111:6 Professor Stenzler's translation of Yâgñavalkya, loc. cit. (pradakshinâvritka = die Ehrfurcht beobachtend), has to be corrected according to this Sûtra.
111:7 See chap. 1, 8.
111:9 See chap. 1, 3.
111:11 Concerning the invitation' (âvâhana) see the note on chap. 2, 5.
111:12 See chap. 2, 5 and the note there.
111:13 'When he causes them to say Svadhâ.' Nârâyana. Comp. Âsv.-Grihya IV, 7, 30.
111:14 Comp. chap. 2, 5.
1 1. Now (follows) the Upâkarana (i.e. the ceremony by which the annual course of study is opened).
2 2. When the herbs appear, under the Nakshatra Hasta or Sravana,
3. Let him make oblations of the flour of fried barley and of grains, mixed with curds and ghee, with the (whole) Veda, verse by verse: thus say some (teachers).
4 4. Or with the first verses of the Sûktas and Anuvâkas.
5. With the first verses of the Adhyâyas and of the sections belonging to the (different) Rishis, according to Mândûkeya.
6. But Kaushîtaki has said:
7. 'I praise Agni the Purohita' (Rig-veda I, 1, 1), this one verse,
8. 'The Kushumbhaka (mungoose?) has said it;' 'If thou criest, O bird, announce luck to us;' 'Sung by Gamadagni;' 'In thy abode the whole world rests;'
[paragraph continues] 'Come to our sacrifice, O you that are worthy of sacrifice, with care;' 'Whosoever, be he ours, be he alien;' 'Look on, look about;' 'Come here, Agni, the Maruts’ friend;' 'The oblation, O king, cooked for thee:' each time two verses,
9 9. 'That blessing and bliss we choose'—this one verse (the first and last verse of each Mandala).
10. (Taking something) of the remnants of the sacrificed (food) they partake of that sacrificial food with this (verse), 'I praised Dadhikrâvan' (Rig-veda IV, 39, 6).
11. They sip water, sit down,
12. Murmur the Mahâvyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, and the auspicious hymns commencing from the beginning of the Veda,
13. And cause the teacher to pronounce auspicious wishes.
14. Of this (ceremony) it is also said,
15. 'Desirous (of acquiring) for the hymns inexhaustible vigour, reverence, and also soundness, the Rishis, by the power of their austerities, have discovered the Upâkarman.
16 16. 'Therefore a constant performer of the six kinds of works should, in order that his Mantras might be successful, perform the Upâkarman—so they say—if he wishes for success of his (holy) works.
17 17. 'At the time of the Upâkarman and of the Utsarga an interruption (of the Veda-study) shall take place for (three days and) three nights, likewise at the Ashtakâs for one day and one night, and so on the last night of each season.'
112:1 5, 1. As to the Upâkarana, see the statements of Professor Weber in his second article on the Nakshatras, Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie, 1861, p. 338, and of Professor Bühler in his notes on Âpastamba, S.B.E., II, pp. 110, 111.
112:2 The Nakshatra Sravana is evidently considered as particularly fit for this occasion because of its name containing an allusion to sruti, &c.
112:4 I have followed Nârâyana, but perhaps I ought to have translated, 'Sûktas or Anuvâkas,' and in the fifth Sûtra, 'Adhyâyas or the sections, &c.'
113:9 According to Kaushîtaki, the oblations are made with the first and last rikas of each Mandala. The last rik of the tenth Mandala quoted here, tak kham yor â vrinîmahe, is different from the verse with which our Samhitâ (the Sâkala Samhitâ of the Rig-veda) closes. It is well known that tak kham yor â vrinîmahe is the last verse in the Bâshkala Sâkhâ which was adopted by the Sâṅkhâyana school (comp. Indische Studien, IV, 431; Weber, Verzeichniss der Berliner Sanskrit-Handschriften, p. 314, &c.; Indische Literaturgeschichte, second edition, Nachtrag, p. 2). It was also known long since that the Bâshkala Sâkhâ of the Rig-veda contains eight hymns more than the Sâkala Sâkhâ. The Karanavyûha Bhâshya (comp. Dr. von Schroeder's Introduction to his excellent edition of the Maitrâyanî Samhitâ, vol. i, p. xxiv), known to me through the kindness of Professor Weber, tells which eight hymns these are. There it is said (folio 22 of Professor Weber's MS.) that in the Bâshkala Samhitâ there followed after VIII, 48 the first two of the Vâlakhilya hymns, after VIII, 94 the Vâlakhilya hymns 3-7, and at the end of the whole collection the so-called samgñâna hymn (see Professor Max Müller's edition, vol. vi, p. 32), which ends with the very verse quoted in our Sûtra, tak kham yor â vrinîmahe.
114:16 The six kinds of works are, performing sacrifices (yagana), officiating at the sacrifices of others (yâgana), studying the Veda (adhyayana), teaching the Veda to others (adhyâpana), giving (dâna), and accepting gifts (pratigraha). Nârâyana.
114:17 Concerning the Utsarga, see chap. 6. This Sloka occurs also Manu IV, 119 with the reading kshepanam instead of kshapanam ('kshapanam khandasâm virâma anadhyâyah,' Nârâyana). Kshapanam is correct.
1 1. On the first day of the bright fortnight of Mâgha,
2. To the north-east,
3. In a place covered with herbs,
4. Having murmured the hymns sacred to the Sun, 'Upwards that Gâtavedas' (Rig-veda I, 50), 'The bright face of the gods' (I, 115), Adoration to Mitra's (eye)' (X, 37), 'From the sky (where he dwells) may Sûrya protect us' (X, 158),
5. And having thrown clods of earth (on the ground) to the different quarters (of the horizon), from the left to the right, with the hymn, 'A ruler indeed' (Rig-veda X, 152), verse by verse,
6 6_6. And having satiated (with water) the Rishis, the metres, the deities, faith and insight, and the fathers man by man,
7. They interrupt (the study of) the hymns for six months and a half,
8. Or for five and a half.
9. But if they (wish to) recite them (nevertheless), let the recitation go on after a pause of one day and one night.
114:1 6, 1. This Khanda treats of the Utsarga, i.e. the ceremony performed at the end of the term.
115:6_6 On the tarpana, comp. chaps. 9 and 10.
1. Now the interruption (of the Veda recitation):—
2 2. In the case of prodigies until the same time (next day),
3. And in the case of other miracles;
4. In the case of lightning, thunder, and rains (the recitation shall be interrupted) till the twilight has thrice passed;
5. At a Srâddha-dinner for one day;
6 7_6. If a death (of relations) or birth has happened, for ten days;
7 7. On the fourteenth days (of the fortnights), the new moon days, and the Ashtakâ days,
8 8. And on misty days.
9. And when the teacher has died, for ten days;
10. When he has heard of it, for three days;
11 11. And (on the death) of those whose family-head he is.
12. On receiving (gifts) as at the Srâddha.
13. On (the death of) a fellow-student;
14. When he has followed (the funeral of) a dead person,
15. And when he has laid down the lumps of flour to the fathers.
16. At night;
17. During twilight;
18. On the full and change of the moon;
19. After sunset;
20. In the neighbourhood of a Sûdra;
21 21. When the sound of a Sâman is heard;
22. On a burial ground;
23 23. In a wilderness which belongs to the village;
24. In a village where a corpse is;
25. On seeing forbidden sights;
26. On hearing what is forbidden;
27. On smelling a foul smell;
28. If a high wind blows;
29 29. If a cloud emits (heavy) rain;
30. On a carriage road;
31. And while the sound of a lute is heard;
32. While being on a chariot;
33. (In the neighbourhood) of a dog as (in that) of a Sûdra;
34. Having climbed up a tree;
35. Having descended into a pit;
36. (Immersed) in water;
37. While anybody cries;
38. While suffering bodily pain;
39. While he is naked;
40. Whilst impure with the remnants of food
41. On a bridge;
42. On the occasion of the shaving of the hair and the beard until the bath;
43. While being rubbed;
44. While bathing;
45 45. When having sexual intercourse;
46. While being anointed;
47. (In the neighbourhood) of a man who has to touch corpses (a corpse-bearer, &c.), of a woman that has recently been confined, or that has her courses, as (in the neighbourhood) of a Sûdra;
48. With veiled hands;
49. In an army;
50. In presence of a Brâhmana who has not had his meal, and of cows (that have eaten nothing);
51. When (these impediments) have passed, let them (continue to) recite (the Veda).
52. Should any of these cases arise against his will, let him (continue to) recite after having held his breath and looked at the sun.
53 53. (The same rules hold good,) except (those regarding) lightning, thunder, and rain, for (the study of) the Kalpa. During the five months and a half (they have to behave) as while it rains.
54. Thereof it is also said,
55 55. 'Food, water, roots and fruits, and whatsoever else Srâddha-food there may be: even when he has (only) accepted thereof, the study should be interrupted; the Brâhmana's hand is his mouth; so it is taught.'
115:2 7, 2. The translation of âkâlam given in my German edition (Während der betreffenden Zeit) is wrong: comp. the commentary there quoted at p. 150; Gautama XVI, 22; Professor Stenzler's note on Pâraskara II, II, 2.
115:7_6 Agham sapindasodakayor maranam. Nârâyana.
116:8 The translation of nabhya is quite conjectural. Nârâyana gives a different meaning to this word; comp. p. 150 of the German edition.
116:11 Âkâryaputrâdayah. Nârâyana.
116:21 The reason why the recitation of the Rig-veda is forbidden when the sound of a Sâman is heard, becomes manifest, for instance, from Âpastamba I, to, 7, where the discontinuance of the Veda-study is prescribed when the barking of dogs, the braying of asses, the cry of a wolf, &c., the sound of musical instruments, of weeping, and of a Sâman is heard. Loud sounds like these would disturb the recitation of Rik or Yagus texts. A very curious opinion has been recently brought forward by Professor Aufrecht (see his edition of the Rig-veda, second edition, vol. ii, p. xxxviii) that the incompatibility of the recitation of Rik hymns and of Sâmans 'beruht auf der Kenntniss von der Willkür and der zum Theil unwürdigen Weise, in welcher der alte Text des Rig-veda in diesem Gesangbuche (i.e. the Sâmavedârkika) behandelt ist.'
117:23 Grâmâranye grâmam (read, grâma?) evâranyam vanam tatra nâdhîyîta. Nârâyana.
117:29 Except during the rainy season. Nârâyana.
117:45 Nârâyana also understands maithuna, and I think that the German translation ought to be corrected accordingly.
118:53 I think that this Sûtra contains two different rules which have to be separated, viz. 1. vidyutstanayitnuvarshavargam kalpe; 2. varshavad ardhashashtheshu. The first of these rules would extend the cases of anadhyâya mentioned in this chapter to the study of the Kalpa-sûtra, except the cases of lightning, rain, &c. The second would refer to the five months and a half following on the Utsarga ceremony (comp. chap. 6, 8), and would imply that during this time the same texts are to be studied or not, according as their study is allowed or forbidden during rainfall: i.e. the study of the Samhitâ is to be discontinued, while that of the Kalpa is allowed to go on. Râmakandra and Nârâyana differ from this interpretation; see p. 151 of the German edition.
118:55 Comp. Manu IV, 117; Vasishtha XIII, 16.
1 1. And to (students) who have been duly initiated he shall set forth (the Veda);
2. The teacher sitting to the east or to the north, the other one to the south, with his face turned to the north.
3. Or two (students shall be so seated).
4. But more (than two) as there is room (for them).
5. He should not sit on a high seat in presence of a Guru,
6. Nor on the same seat (with him),
7. Nor with outstretched feet,
8. Nor stretching his arms under his knees,
9. Nor leaning his body (against a support), to. Nor forming with his feet a lap,
11 11. Nor holding his feet like an axe.
12 12. After (the student) has said, Recite, sir!' the teacher shall cause him to pronounce the syllable OM.
13. 'OM,' replies the other.
14. Thereafter let him recite uninterruptedly.
15. When he has recited, he embraces (his teacher's feet),
16. Says, 'We have finished, sir!' and (goes away) according to his business.
17. (He shall say,) 'Leave! Pause meanwhile!' according to some (teachers).
18. Let no one step between (a teacher and students) who study.
19 19. Let no one change his place during the recitation.
20. Should any fault be committed, let him fast three days, or one day and one night, repeat the Sâvitrî as long as he can, and give something to the Brâhmanas; then after an interruption of one day and one night the study should go on.
119:1 8, 1. Nyâyena sishyadharmena upetâh prâptâs tebhyah sishyebhyo vartayed adhyayanam âkâryah pravartayet. Nârâyana.
119:11 Karanam kuthârikârûpam kritvâ na pathed ity arthah. Nârâyana.
119:12 The words adhîhi bho (recite, sir!) are pronounced by the student; this follows from the passages quoted in the note on 1I, 5, 10. Nârâyana states that those words are pronounced by the teacher (âkâryo guruh sishyam adhyâpanârtham adhîhi bho 3 iti sabdam uktvâ . . .).
120:19 The translation of âtmânam vipariharet is conjectural; comp. also Nârâyana's note, p. 151 of the German edition.
1 1. Having bathed,
2. And having submerged himself at the time prescribed for the bath, he satiates the deities:
3 3. 'Agni may satiate himself; Vâyu may satiate himself; Sûrya may satiate himself; Vishnu may satiate himself; Pragâpati may satiate himself; Virûpâksha may satiate himself; Sahasrâksha may satiate himself; Soma, Brahman, the Vedas, the gods, the Rishis, and all the metres, the word Om, the word VASHAT, the Mahâvyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, the sacrifices, heaven and earth, the Nakshatras, the air, days and nights, the numbers, the twilights, the oceans, the rivers, the mountains, fields, herbs, trees, Gandharvas and Apsaras, the serpents, the birds, the Siddhas, the Sâdhyas, the Vipras, the Yakshas, the Rakshas, the beings that have these (Rakshas, &c.) at their end, may satiate themselves.
'I satiate the Sruti; I satiate the Smriti; I satiate the firmness; I satiate the delight; I satiate
the success; I satiate the thought; I satiate belief and insight, and the memory, cows and Brâhmanas, movable and immovable things. All beings may satiate themselves!'—so far with the sacrificial cord suspended over the left shoulder.
120:1 9, 1. It is not expressly stated in our text for what occasion the tarpana (i.e. satiating of deities, Rishis, &c. with water-offerings), which is treated of in chap. 9-10, shall be prescribed. The comparison of Baudhâyana II, 9 might perhaps lead us to believe that the ceremony in question is to be performed whenever the sacrificer takes a bath. But the two texts which are most closely connected with ours, the Sâmbavya and Âsvalâyana Grihyas, seem to point clearly to another conclusion. The Sâmbavya-sûtra transposes the rules about the tarpana to the place which would correspond to Sûtra II, 7, 28 of our text. The passage of the Sâmbavya-sûtra runs thus: mûle kundam kritvâ yathoktam adbhih parishiñkaty athemâs (so the MS.) tarpayati Agnih Pragâpatir Virûpâkshah, &c. It ends: pitarah pitâmahâh prapitâmahâh Pailah Kaholah Kaushîtakah (sic) Kaholâya Kaushîtakaye svadhâstv iti pratipurushah (sic) pitrîms tarpayitvâ. The last words are taken from the Sûtra IV, 6, 6 of our text. Thus there can be no doubt that Sâmbavya intended to prescribe the tarpana for the conclusion of the p. 121 vedâdhyayana. The same can be said of Âsvalâyana, who also by the position which he assigns to the tarpana sections (III, 4) brings it into a similar connection with the vedâdhyayana (see Nârâyana's commentary on Âsv., loc. cit.). We may also refer to the treatise about the study of the Âranyaka, which is appended to the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya as its sixth book; there the tarpana is mentioned quite in the same connection (VI, 6, 10 seq.). I believe, therefore, that in our text, chapters 9 and 10 have found their place here as a sort of supplementary addition to chap. 6, 6, just as in the first book the list of Nakshatras seems likewise appended to the Sûtra I, 25, 5.
According to Nârâyana, snâtah in the first Sûtra would refer to the bath which forms part of the Samâvartana ceremony (see III, 1, 1), so that it would be the Grihastha, who has taken the Samâvartana bath, to whom the following rules refer.
121:3 Comp. the similar lists of Âsvalâyana, Grihya III, 4; Sâmbavya, quoted in my German edition of Sâṅkhâyana, p.153; and Baudhâyana II, 9 (S.B.E., vol. xiv, pp. 252 seq.). The last seems to be the most modern.
It should be observed that the section of the list contained in this Sûtra, as well as that given below, chap. 10, 3, is divided into p. 122 two parts, in the first of which the name of the being to be worshipped is given in the nominative case, with the verb tripyatu, while in the second it stands in the accusative, with the verb tarpayâmi. The first part of this section contains the names of gods and of divine beings, such as the rivers, the mountains, &c.; in the second part are found abstract qualities or notions, such as mati, dhriti, sruti. Similarly in chapter 10, 3 the Vedic poets, a few ancient teachers, and wise women, such as Gârg or Sulabhâ, form the first part of the list, and then follow, in the accusative case, the names of such doctors as Sàükhâyana, Âsvalâyana, Sâkalya. In Âsvalâyana's Sûtra of the first of our two sections only the first part reoccurs, the second is omitted, while the second section is found there in its entirety, with the same difference of names given in the nominative and accusative cases. The conjectures, however, which I had once based on this difference (see my German edition, pp. 152, 153) as to the distinction of a more ancient part of the list, and of later supplements, are perhaps too hazardous.
1. Now with the sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder,
2. Looking in the direction that belongs to the Manes (i.e. the south):
3. 'The (Rishis) of the hundred (Rikas), the (Rishis) of the middle (Mandalas), Gritsamada, Visvâmitra, Gamadagni, Vâmadeva, Atri, Bharadvâga, Vasishtha, the Pragâthas, the (Rishis) of the Pavamâna hymns, the (Rishis) of the short hymns and of the long hymns, Sumantu, Gaimini, Vaisampâyana, Paila, the Sûtras, the Bhâshyas, Gârgya, Babhru, Bâbhravya, Mandu, Mândavya, Gârgî Vâkaknavî,
[paragraph continues] Vadavâ Prâtitheyî, Sulabhâ Maitreyî (may satiate themselves).
'(I satiate) Kahola Kaushîtaki, Mahâkaushîtaki, Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana, Âsvalâyana, Aitareya, Mahaitareya, Bhâradvâga, Gâtûkarnya, Paiṅgya, Mahâpaṅgya, Bâshkala, Gârgya, Sâkalya, Mândûkeya, Mahâdamatra, Audavâhi, Mahaudavâhi, Sauyâmi, Saunaki, Sâkapûni, Gautami; and whatsoever other teachers there are, may they all satiate themselves.
4. 'The fathers man by man.
5. 'The ancestry of the father may satiate itself.
6. 'The ancestry of the mother may satiate itself.'
1 1. Let him not look at a naked woman, except during sexual intercourse,
2. Nor (look) at the sun while it rises or sets,
3. At an enemy,
4. At an evil-doer,
5. At a person that has to touch dead bodies.
6. Let him not talk with a woman who has recently been confined or who has her courses,
7 7. Nor with those (mentioned before).
8. Let him not eat food from which its strength is taken away.
9. Let him not do his work with implements wasted by use.
10 10. Let him not eat together (with his wife),
11 11. Nor remnants (of food).
12. Remnants of (food belonging to the) Manes, gods, guests, and servants he may eat.
13. Gleaning ears of corn, receiving alms unasked for, or for which he has asked the good, performing sacrifices for others, are the means of livelihood;
14. (Of these) each preceding one is the more respectable.
15 15. Or if (his livelihood) cannot be gained (in one of the ways mentioned), let him follow the occupation of a Vaisya.
16. (He shall be) careful about his duties towards Manes and gods.
17. In due time (he shall) have intercourse with his wife.
18. He shall not lie down (to sleep) in the day-time,
19 19. Nor during the first or the last watch of the night.
20. Let him not sit on the bare ground.
21. He shall constantly perform the prescribed duties regarding the use of water.
22. (And constantly) have his sacrificial cord suspended over his left shoulder.
23. Let him not abandon his teacher,
24. Except on (his teacher's) command,
25. Or with (his) permission.
123:1 11, 1 seq. Rules of conduct for a Snâtaka, i.e. a man who has completed his studentship.
123:7 Etaih pûrvoktaih anâptâdibhir na samvadet. Nârâyana.
123:10 Nârâyana states that 'with his wife' is to be supplied to this Sûtra, which indeed is rendered probable through the comparison of Gautama IX, 32; Manu IV, 43, &c.
124:11 Here also Nârâyana understands bhâryâyâ bhuktasesham.
124:15 Comp. Professor Bühler's note on Gautama X, 5, S.B.E., vol. ii, p. 225.
124:19 Râtreh pûrvaprahare râtreh paskimaprahare ka. Nârâyana.
1. Every day he shall respectfully salute his teacher,
2. And his Gurus,
3. A Srotriya when meeting him,
4. When he returns from a journey, (also) one who is not a Srotriya.
5 5. In the words, 'I am N.N., sir!' pronouncing his own name, crossing his hands (so as to seize with his right hand the right foot, and with his left hand the left of the other person).
6 6. (The person who has been thus saluted, in reply addressing him with his name,) 'N.N.!' and seizing his hands, pronounces a wish to him.
7. Let him not go to a sacrifice without being chosen (thereto).
8. And let him beware of (doing) wrong.
9. Let him not go to assemblies of people.
10 10. If he has come upon (such assemblies), let him not point out (anything evil) against (anybody).
11. He shall not be a reviler, nor slanderous, nor a wanderer from house to house, nor a prattler.
12. He shall not walk alone,
13. Nor naked,
14. Nor with veiled hands.
15. Gods’-houses (he shall walk round) keeping the right side turned to them.
16 16. Let him not run.
17. Let him not spit.
18. Let him not scratch himself.
19. Let him not look on urine and excrements.
20. Let him sit with veiled head,
21. Not on the bare (ground),
22. If he has only one garment, suspending his sacrificial cord on his ear,
23. Not turning his face to the sun,
24. Nor his rump,
25. In the day-time with his face to the north, at night to the south.
26. He shall not (eject) phlegm into water, nor in the neighbourhood (of water).
27. He shall not climb up a tree.
28. He shall not look down into a well.
29. He shall not go to an execution-place,
30. And in no case to a cemetery.
31. Let him bathe day by day with his clothes on.
32. When he has bathed, let him put on another garment before he is dry.
125:5 12, 5. Nârâyana: 'As to how that respectful salutation (abhivâdana) should he performed, he says . . . with his own right hand he touches the right foot of the Âkârya or other person (whom he salutes), and with his left hand the left foot (comp. Manu II, 72) (and says), "I am N.N. (amukasarman) of the Gotra N.N., sir! I offer my respectful salutation!"'
125:6 'The Âkârya or other person seizes the hands of the saluting person,' &c. Nârâyana.
125:10 See Nârâyana's commentary, p. 154 of the German edition.
126:16 According to Nârâyana we should have to supply, 'while it is raining,' which is countenanced by a number of parallel texts, for instance, Âsv.-Grihya III, 9, 6.
1. Under (the Nakshatra) Rohinî he shall have the ploughing done.
2. Before it is done, he shall offer at the eastern boundary of his field a Bali to Heaven and Earth.
3. With a verse sacred to Heaven and Earth and with the words, 'Adoration to Heaven and Earth!' (he performs his) worship (to Heaven and Earth).
4. When the plough is being put into motion first, let a Brâhmana touch the plough reciting this (verse), 'For luck may us the plough-shares' (Rig-veda IV, 57, 8).
5. 'Through the lord of the field'—with (this hymn) (Rig-veda IV, 57), verse by verse, to the different directions (of the sky), from left to right, worship is done.
1. When going to cross water, he performs the Svastyayana (ceremony for lucky progress).
2. He sacrifices thrice with his joined hands full of water into the waters, with the words, 'Adoration to the Sea, the child of the reed! Adoration to Varuna, the lord of righteousness! Adoration to all rivers!'—
3. Murmuring, 'May Visvakarman, the father of them all, relish the food offered.'
4. Against the stream for flowing (waters); up into the air for standing ones.
5. Should he while crossing apprehend any danger, let him murmur the hymn of Vasishtha, 'The eldest of which is the sea' (Rig-veda VII, 49); this (will serve to him as) a boat.
1. The Sravana (oblation) he offers on the full moon day that falls under (the Nakshatra) Sravishthâs, of the flour of fried barley, or of cooked food,
2. With (the words), 'To Vishnu svâhâ! To (the Nakshatra) Sravana svâhâ! To the full moon of Srâvana svâhâ! To the rainy season svâhâ!'
3. Having established the (sacred) domestic fire outside, and having mixed together fried grain and the flour of fried barley with butter, he sacrifices—
4. With (the words), 'To the Lord of the celestial Serpents svâhâ! To the celestial Serpents svâhâ!'
5. Having placed to the north of the fire a new water-pot on eastward-pointed, fresh Kusa grass,
6. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents wash himself! May the celestial Serpents wash themselves!'—he pours water into it.
7 7. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents comb himself! May the celestial Serpents comb themselves!'—he makes movements with a comb.
8. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents paint himself! May the celestial Serpents paint themselves!'—he pours out portions of paint.
9. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents tie (this) to (himself)! May the celestial Serpents tie (this) to themselves!'—he offers flowers.
10. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents clothe himself! May the celestial Serpents clothe themselves!'—he offers a thread.
11. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial Serpents anoint (his eyelashes)! May the celestial Serpents anoint (their eyelashes)!'—he spirts out (small portions of collyrium) with a young Kusa shoot.
12. With (the words), 'May the Lori of the celestial Serpents look (at himself)! May the celestial Serpents look (at themselves)!'—he makes them look in a mirror.
13. With (the words), 'Lord of the celestial Serpents, this is thy Bali! Celestial Serpents, this is your Bali!'—he makes a Bali-offering.
14. In the same way for the aërial (Serpents).
15. For those dwelling in the directions (of the horizon).
16. For the terrestrial ones.
17 17-18. (He repeats these Mantras) thrice each time, the first (part) with higher voice each time,
18. The second (part) with lower voice each time.
19 19. In this way he shall offer day by day with the spoon, in small portions, a Bali of the flour of fried barley with water, down to the Pratyavarohana (or the ceremony of the 'redescent'), at night, keeping silence.
20 20. And (his wife) shall put (it) down silently.
21. The close of the ceremony is the same as the beginning.
22 22. With (the verse), 'The good protectress' (Rig-veda X, 63, 10), let him ascend the (high) couch.
128:7 15, 7. For this signification of phana, comp. Kullavagga V, 2, 3.
129:17-18 17, 18. The text has ukkaistarâm—ukkaistarâm, and nîkaistarâm—nîkaistarâm. Nârâyana(comp. the text of his scholion, p. 155 of the German edition) understands this in a different way; he says that in the water-pot mentioned in the fifth Sûtra two different sthânas are to be distinguished, a higher part of it and a lower (uttarâdharatayâ). Now when the sacrificer, for instance, as prescribed in Sûtra 6, invites the Lord of the celestial Serpents, and the celestial Serpents to wash themselves, the pouring out of water would have to be performed first thrice for the Lord of the celestial Serpents in the higher place, then thrice for the celestial Serpents in the lower place.
129:19 On the Pratyavarohana see chap. 17.
129:20 Nârâyana: vâgyamayuktâ yagamânapatnî evam balidravyâdikam upasâdayet.
129:22 'From the Srâvanî till the Âgrahâyanî (see chap. 1 7, 1) one shall not sleep on the ground out of fear of the snakes.' Nârâyana.
1. On the full moon day of Âsvayuga a milk-rice oblation to Indra.
2. Having sacrificed Âgya with (the words), 'To the two Asvins svâhâ! To the two Asvayug svâhâ! To the full moon of Âsvayuga svâhâ! To the autumn svâhâ! To Pasupati svâhâ! To the tawny one svâhâ!'—
3 3. He shall sacrifice a mixture of curds and butter with this hymn, 'The cows came hither' (Rig-veda VI, 28), verse by verse.
4. That night they let the calves join their mothers.
5. Then feeding of the Brâhmanas.
130:3 16, 3. Ghritamisram dadhi prishâtakam. Nârâyana. Comp. the Grihya-samgraha II, 59.
1 1. On the Âgrahâyanî full moon day he shall redescend,
2. (Or) under (the Nakshatra) Rohinî, or under the Proshthapadâs.
3. In the morning, having taken a handfull of Samî leaves, Madhûka flowers, reeds, Apâmârga plants, and of Sirîsha, Udumbara, Kusa shoots, and jujube fruits, and an earth-clod (taken) out of a furrow,
4. Having put (all that) into a water-pot,
5 5. And, after he has quickly repeated the Mahâvyâhritis and the Sâvitrî, having repeatedly immersed (it) therein with this hymn, 'May he burn away from us pain' (Rig-veda I, 97), he shall drive away the evil from the persons standing under his protection, from left to right, and pour out (the water) to the north.
6. A Madhuparka is the fee for the sacrifice.
130:1 17, 1. The Pratyavarohana (i.e. redescent) here described is the ceremony performed at the end of the time during which sleeping on high bedsteads is prescribed (chap. 15, 22). Beginning from the Srâvanî full moon till the Pratyavarohana, the offerings to the Serpents mentioned above have to be repeated every day (chap. 15, 19); the Pratyavarohana is the concluding ceremony of these rites devoted to the Serpents.
131:5 Saranyebhyo grihebhyah (read, grihyebhyah) sarvebhyah sakâsât, &c. Nârâyana.
1 1. 'May summer, winter and spring, autumn and rainy season be well-ordered to us. May we be under the safe protection of these seasons, and may they last (to us) through a hundred years. Svâhâ!
Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the forefoot and with the hind-foot, these seven daughters of Varuna and all that belong to the king's tribe. Svâhâ!
'To the white one, the son of Vidârva svâhâ! To Vidârva svâhâ! To Takshaka Vaisâleya svâhâ! To Visâla svâhâ!'—with (these words) he sacrifices (oblations) of Âgya.
2. 'May a good winter, a good spring, a good summer be bestowed (on us). May the rains be to us happy rains; may the autumns be blessed to us.'
3. With (the verse), 'Blessing on us, Mitra' (Rig-veda I, 90, 9), he sweeps (the floor) with a Palâsa branch,
4. Sprinkles (it with water) with (the verse), 'From the sea the wave' (Rig-veda IV, 58, 1),
5. And spreads out a layer (of straw) with (the verse), 'Be soft, O earth' (Rig-veda I, 22, 15).
6. They then lie down on their sides, the eldest one to the right hand—
7. With (the words), 'In the Brahman I establish myself, in the Kshatra,' on (their) right (sides);
8. With (the words), 'Among the horses I establish myself, among the cows,' on (their) left (sides);
9. With (the words), 'Among the cattle I establish myself, in prosperity,' on (their) right (sides);
10. With (the words), 'Among offspring I establish myself, in food,' on (their) left (sides).
11. With (the verse), 'Arise, the living' (Rig-veda I, 113, 16), they arise.
12. During that night they lie on that layer.
13. Afterwards where they like.
131:1 18, 1. This chapter continues the description of the Pratyavarohana begun in the preceding chapter.
Râgabândhavaih, as our text has, should be corrected into râgabândhavîh; comp. Âsv. II, 3, 3.
1. On the full moon day of Kaitra,
2 2-5. (Taking) jujube leaves, and making of meal (images) of couples of animals as it happens.
3. A figure with prominent navel to Indra and Agni.
4. Balls to Rudra.
5. According to custom the Nakshatras and (their?) images (?). According to custom the Nakshatras and (their?) images (?).
Here ends the Fourth Adhyâya.
132:2-5 19, 2-5. Several points in the translation of these Sûtras are uncertain. See the extracts from the commentary of Nârâyana, pp. 156 seq. of the German edition.
1 1. Now when he intends to set out on a journey, he makes (his sacred) fire enter into himself, (or) into the two kindling sticks, or into (an ordinary) log of wood,
2 2. Once with (the text), 'Come, enter into my Prânas,' twice silently.
3. Or with (the verse), 'This is thy womb' (Rig-veda III, 29, to) he warms the two kindling sticks,
4. Or an (ordinary log of) wood.
5 5. And before sunset the kindling (by attrition),
6. And at the time of the Vaisvadeva sacrifice.
7 7. Having carried a common fire to a place that has been smeared (with cowdung), which is elevated, and
which has been sprinkled (with water), he makes (the sacred fire) redescend (from its receptacle, with the formula), 'Redescend!'
8 8-9. If the fire goes out, he sacrifices the two Sarvaprâyaskitta oblations (oblations for general expiation) and (other oblations) with (the formulas), 'Protect us, Agni, that we may prosper. Svâhâ! Protect us that we may obtain all wealth. Svâhâ! The sacrifice protect, O resplendent one! Svâhâ! Protect everything, O hundredfold wise one. Svâhâ!'
9. In the case of a breach of his vow let him fast and sacrifice (an oblation) of Âgya with (the verse), 'Thou, Agni, art the lord of the vow' (Rig-veda VIII, 11, 1).
133:1 1, 1. The ceremony of Samârohana, by which the duties towards the sacred fire are suspended, by causing the fire to 'enter' into the sacrificer's body, or into the two Aranis, or into another piece of wood, is already mentioned in several passages of the Brâhmana texts; comp. the quotations given by Professor Weber, Indische Studien, IX, 3r 1. Comp. besides Âsvalâyana-Srauta-sûtra III 10; Sâṅkhâyana-Sraut. II, 17. The Samârohana into the sacrificer's own body is done by warming the hands at the sacred fire; see Âsv., loc. cit., Sûtra 6. In the Sâṅkhâyana-Srauta-sûtra the corresponding rule, which regards there of course the Âhitâgni, runs thus, 'If he performs the Samârohana, he warms his hands at the Gârhapatya fire, and then touches his Prânas with the words, "Come, enter into my Prânas."' On the two other cases, see the Sûtras 3 and 4. Sûtras 2, 3, 5 are taken word for word from the Srauta-sûtra.
133:2 This Sûtra refers only to the case where he causes the fire to enter into himself.
133:5 Comp. the commentary on Âsv.-Sraut., loc. cit. 8. He makes the fire redescend from his body or from the Aranis by performing the Manthana (kindling the fire by attrition of the Aranis).
133:7 The Mantra alluded to here is given in the Srauta-sûtra. It p. 134 runs thus, 'Redescend, O Gâtavedas; carry again offerings to the gods, knowing us. Long life, offspring, wealth bestow on us; uninjured shine in our dwelling!'
134:8-9 These Sûtras stand in no connection with the Samârohana treated of before.
On the two Sarvaprâyaskitta oblations see above, I, 9, 12 and the note there.
The vow spoken of in Sûtra 9 Nârâyana refers to the restrictions regarding the food which the sacrificer and his wife are to eat on the Upavasatha days, connected with the festivals of the full and new moon.
1 1. Now about (the consecration of) ponds, wells, and tanks.
2. In the bright fortnight, or on an auspicious Tithi,
3. Having cooked barley-grains with milk,
4. He shall sacrifice with the two (verses), 'Thou
hast us, Agni' (Rig-veda IV, 1, 4. 5), (and with the verses), 'We propitiate thy wrath' (I, 24, 14), 'This my prayer, Varuna' (I, 25, 19), 'Loosen the highest, Varuna' (I, 24, 15), 'This prayer of the man who exercises himself' (VIII, 42, 3),
5 5. (And with the words), 'The domestic one, he who goes away from the house, the refreshing one, he who goes into the kennel, he who dwells in the kennel, he who comes out of it, the greedy one, the destroyer of enemies'—to the different directions (of the horizon), beginning with that belonging to Varuna (i.e. the west), from left to right.
6. in the centre he makes oblations with milk with (the verses), 'Having eyes all around' (Rig-veda X, 81, 3), 'This has Vishnu' (Rig-veda I, 22, 17),
7. Plunging (into the water) with (the verse), 'Whatever here' (Rig-veda VII, 89, 5).
8. A cow and a pair of clothes is the fee for the sacrifice.
9. Then feeding of the Brâhmanas.
134:1 2, 1 seq. Comp. Âsvalâyana-Parisishta IV, 9.
135:5 These are names of Agni dwelling in the waters; see Pâraskara II, 6, 10; Mantrabrâhmana I, 7, 1. Several of the names are here misspelled; thus Grihya, Apagrihya should be, no doubt, Gohya, Upagohya, which is the reading given in Pâraskara, loc. cit.
1 1. Now at (the consecration of) a garden: having established the (sacred) fire (in that garden),
2. (And) having prepared a mess of cooked food,
3. He shall sacrifice with (the formulas), 'To
[paragraph continues] Vishnu svâhâ! To Indra and Agni svâhâ! To Visvakarman svâhâ!' (and with the verses), 'Whom the men' (Rig-veda III, 8, 6 seq.), verse by verse.
4. He recites over (the garden), 'O tree with thy hundred branches' (Rig-veda III, 8, 11).
5. The fee for the sacrifice is gold.
135:1 3, 1 seqq. Comp. Âsvalâyana-Parisishta IV, so. Nârâyana uses for the ceremony here described the expressions Ârâmapratishthâ, Ârâmotsarga.
1. Now if a half-monthly sacrifice has not been performed, one or the other of them, then a mess of rice (is to be offered as an expiation),
2. With (the words), 'To Agni Vaisvânara svâhâ! To Agni Tantumat svâhâ!'
3. In the case of an intermission of the (morning or evening) oblations—
4. (He shall make expiatory oblations), in the evening with (the formula), 'Enlightener of the darkness, adoration! Svâhâ!'
5. In the morning with (the formula), 'Enlightener of the morning, adoration! Svâhâ!'
6 6. After he has sacrificed as many oblations as there had been sacrifices (left out), the sacrifice (itself goes on) as (stated) above.
136:6 4, 6. Nârâyana: 'After he has thus taken and sacrificed as many Sruvas full of Âgya as there were sacrifices omitted through his guilt, the morning and evening sacrifices have to be performed as (stated) above (I, 3, 10) with oblations of rice or barley.'
1. If a dove or an owl sits down (on his house),
2. Let him sacrifice with (the hymn), 'O gods, the dove' (Rig-veda X, 165), verse by verse.
3. If he has seen a bad dream or an occurrence boding misfortune,
4. Or when the cawing of a crow is heard in (the dead of) night,
5. And in the case of other prodigies,
6. Let him cook rice-grains with milk,
7. With the milk of a cow that has a calf of the same colour (with her own),
8. But in no case of a black (cow),
9. And let him sacrifice with the night-hymn (Rig-veda X, 127), verse by verse.
10. Having eaten the remnants of those oblations with the Mahâvyâhritis,
11. And having recited over his ears (the verse), 'Blessing with our ears' (Rig-veda I, 89, 8),
12. And over himself (the verse), 'May a hundred autumns be before us, ye gods' (ibid. 9),
13. He shall give something to the Brâhmanas.
1. When a disease has befallen him,
2. Let him offer boiled rice-grains with Gavedhukâ-grass with (the hymn), 'These (prayers) to Rudra, the strong one, with braided hair' (Rig-veda I, 114), verse by verse.
1 1. If (his wife) gives birth to a child, without the Sîmantonnayana having been performed,
2 2. (Or if) the Gâtakarman has not been performed (for the child),
3 7_3. He places, when ten days have elapsed since (the delivery), the little child in the mother's lap,
4. And after he has sacrificed with the Mahâvyâhritis, the sacrifice (that had been omitted, is performed) as (stated) above.
137:1 7, 1. On the Sîmantonnayana, see I, 22.
137:2 The Gâtakarman has been described I, 24.
138:7_3 On the ten days, comp. I, 25, 1 and the note there.
1. If a post puts forth shoots,
2. Let him prepare a mess of cooked food and offer the boiled rice with the two (verses), 'In that way bringing forth deeds' (Srauta-sûtra III, 17, 1), 'Of tawny shape, weighty, a giver of vigour' (Rig-veda II, 3, 9). A
3 8_3. Should the pot for the Pranîtâ water, the Âgya- pot, any other earthen (vessel) be damaged and leak,
4 4. He sacrifices the two Sarvaprâyaskitta oblations and recites the three verses, 'He who without' (Rig-veda VIII, I, 12 seq.), over the broken (vessel).
5 5. Should the two (Kusa blades which are used as) strainers be spoiled before the completion of the sacrifice,
6 6. Let him sacrifice the Sarvaprâyaskitta and make new ones with (the verse), 'In the water, Agni' (Rig-veda VIII, 43, 9).
138:8_3 8, 3. On the Pranîtâ water, see above, I, 8, 8. 25.
138:4 Comp. I, 9, 12 and the note there.
138:5 See I, 8, 14 seqq.
138:6 See Sûtra 4.
1 1. Now (follows) the Sapindîkarana.
2 2. Let him fill four water-pots (for the Manes) from the father upwards,
3. And prepare in the same way lumps (of flour),
4. And let him distribute the first lump on the (other) three with (the verses), They who commonly, concordantly (dwell) in Yama's realm, the fathers: for them be space, freedom, adoration, sacrifice established among the gods.
'They who commonly, harmoniously (dwell), the living among the living, mine: may their prosperity fall to my lot in this world through a hundred years'—
And with the two (verses), 'Equal the design' (Rig-veda X, 191, 3. 4).
5 5. In the same way the vessels with Argha water.
6. In the same way for the mother, for a brother, and for a wife that has died before (her husband), adding (the lump belonging to that person) to those (other) lumps.
138:1 9, 1 seqq. Comp. above, IV, 3 and the notes there.
139:2 On these four vessels, see IV, 3, 4 seq.
139:5 These are the vessels mentioned in the second Sûtra.
1. If the bees make honey in his house,
2. Let him fast and sacrifice a hundred and eight pieces of Udumbara wood, which are besmeared with curds, honey, and ghee, with the two (verses), 'No (harm) to us in our offspring' (Rig-veda I, 114, 8. 9).
3 3. And let him murmur the hymn, 'For welfare may Indra and Agni' (Rig-veda VII, 35); and (the same hymn should be used) at all (ceremonies), such
as that of the sacrifice after assent has been declared (see above, I, 7, 1).
4 4. After he has sacrificed seventeen one span long pieces of Palâsa wood, he then seizes the Sruva.
5. Fifteen at the full and new moon sacrifices.
6 6. At the Ashtakâ ceremony in the middle of the rainy season there may optionally be three (pieces of wood); the sacrifice as at the Pitriyagña.
139:3 10, 3. This is a supplementary rule belonging to the exposition of the general type of sacrifice. On the 'Pratisruta' sacrifice, see I, 7, seqq.; I, 9, 19.
140:4 See I, 9, 1. 3.
140:6 Comp. III, 13, 1 with the note.
1. If an anthill arises in his house, the house should be abandoned.
2 2. Then, after having fasted three nights (and days), he should perform the great expiation.
Here ends the Fifth Adhyâya.
140:2 11, 2. Nârâyana understands the 'great expiation' as a rite directed to Ganesa and to the planets (comp. Yâgñavalkya I, 276 seq., 292, &c.); that this ceremony was known already to the author of this Sûtra seems very doubtful. Another 'mahâsânti' is frequently mentioned in the Kausika-sûtra (quoted in Böhtlingk-Roth's Dictionary); comp. my German edition of Sâṅkhâyana, p. 159.
1 1. Now, after having paid reverence to Brahman, to the Brahmarishi, to (those who descend from) Brahman's womb, to Indra, Pragâpati, Vasishtha, Vâmadeva, Kahola Kaushîtaki, Mahâkaushîtaki, Suyagña Sâṅkhâyana, Âsvalâyana, Aitareya, Mahaitareya, Kâtyâyana, Sâtyâyana, Sâkalya, Babhru, Bâbhravya, Mandu, Mândavya, and to all the teachers of the past, we will henceforth explain the rules for the Âranyaka as forming the subject of Svâdhyâya (private recitation of a text).
2 2. The teacher abstains through one day and one night from sexual intercourse and from eating flesh.
3 3-5. Raw flesh, a Kandâla, a woman that has lately been confined, or that has her courses, seeing blood or persons whose hands have been cut off: (these persons and things he shall know form) impediments for the study.
4. And of the corpse-like (animals?).
5. Those which enter (their dens?) with the mouth first (?).
6 6. When he has vomited, or when his beard has been shaved,
7 7. When he has eaten flesh or partaken of a Srâddha or birth dinner,
8. During the days that immediately follow on (days of) study in the village,
9. Three nights (and days), if (he has been) put out of order,
10. (Or has been violently) seized by others,
11. And during the second half of the days that precede (?) the Parvan days,
12. And if fire-flames, lightning, thunder, (heavy) rains, and great clouds appear,
13. And if a storm (blows) that carries away pebbles, as long as that lasts.
2, 1. During four months after the full moon of Âshâdha let him not study.
2 2. Especially the Sakvarî verses (are concerned by what has been declared). Such are the rules.
For the names in the opening invocation, comp. above, 1V, 10; on the Vratas and the study of the different Âranyaka sections chiefly treated of in this book, see above, II, 11. 12, and the Introduction, p. 8.
141:2 Comp. II, 11, 6.
141:3-5 Comp. II, 12, 10, and the note of Nârâyana, p. 160 of the German edition.
142:2 2, 2. It seems to me that this Sûtra should be divided into two (after sakvaryah), so that the words iti niyamâh would correspond to iti bhâshikam, chap. 2, 13.
3 3. Let them go to a clean spot in the north-eastern direction, that receives its light from the east.
4. The drawing of water (should be done) before sunrise,
5 5. And the entering into the circle with this verse, 'She who smells of salve' (Rig-veda X, 146, 6).
6 6. The circle should have its entrance to the east or to the north; it should be (praised as) excellent among the people, not too spacious, not too narrow.
7 7. The final expiation (should extend) to the Vâmadevya.
8. And the invitation to resume the recitation (is done in the following way)
9. After they have sipped water that stands outside the circle,
10. Let them resume the recitation, having performed the expiation.
11. If the vessel used in the expiation is damaged, sprinkling (with water forms) the expiatory act (to be performed for it).
12. (That) sprinkling, however, (one should perform) holding gold or a bunch of Darbha grass in his hand.
13. So far what pertains to the general rules.
142:6 Comp. IV, 7, 42. See also Ait. Âranyaka V, 3, 9.
142:7 Comp. IV, 7, 5.
142:3 Comp. II, 12, 11. Perhaps the Petersburg Dictionary is right in proposing for prâggyotisham the translation, vor Anbruch des Lichtes. Nârâyana says, prâk purastât gyotir yasmin tam . . . pradesam.
143:5 The Mandala is a circular space marked by a line of water.
143:6 I am doubtful whether we should read vâ ganâgrîyam and translate as I have done in accordance with the note of Nârâyana, or if the reading should be vâऽganâgrîyam, 'not in the presence of people,' so that ganâgriya would mean ganânâm agre.
143:7 On the expiation (sânti) comp. chap. 3, 12.
1. Now after they have entered the circle—
2 2-3. The teacher sits down with his face to the east, the others, according to their rank, (sit down) towards the south, with their faces to the north.
3. If that is impossible, with their faces to all directions.
4. Let them expect the rising of the sun,
5. And when they behold it in its splendour,
6 6. Let them with (the words), 'Recite, sir!' seize with their hands, holding the right hand uppermost, the feet of the teacher, which have been washed, with the right (hand) the right (foot), with the left the left,
7 7. And having then put (the hands) into the vessel used for the expiation, into water in which pieces of Dûrvâ stalks are, let them begin their study, when their hands have ceased to drip.
8. This is the rite. But when they are tired, let one of them bring it about that the vessel used for the expiation be not empty.
9. And all (should do so) at the beginning and the end of (each) Adhyâya.
10 10. (All) that is done continuously, without interruption.
11. Now the expiation.
12 12. The syllable OM, the Mahâvyâhritis, the Sâvitrî, the Rathantara, the Brihat, the Vâmadevya; Brihat and Rathantara with repetition and Kakubh-forming.
13 13. These (holy words and verses) are (thus) made to attain (the number of) ten.
14 14. 'Of decades consists the Virâg'—thus says the Brâhmana.
143:2-3 3, 2, 3. Comp. IV, 8, 2-4.
144:6 Comp. above, II, 5, 10, &c.
144:7 The translation of apinvamânaih pânibhih is conjectural. Nârâyana's explanation of apinvamâna by asamsrishta is inadmissible.
144:10 Nârâyana explains this Sûtra in the following way. if it is impossible, for any reason, to recite the whole text, only the beginning and the concluding words of each Adhyâya (see Sûtra 9) are to be repeated; and these should be recited without interruption so as to form one continual text.
144:12 Comp. above, III, 4, 5.
145:13 The Gâyatrî is one verse; the Rathantara and the Brihat are Pragâthas which are changed in the usual way into Trikas; the Vâmadevya is one Trika: thus the number of ten is obtained.
145:14 Kaush. Brâhmana 17, 3; 19, 5.
1 1. 'Unerring mind, vigorous eye (is) the sun, the noblest of the stars. Inauguration, do no harm to me!'—with (these words) they look at Savitri (I.e. the sun).
2. One (verse), 'You both the gladdening one' (Rig-veda X, 131, 4), and the three (verses), 'Blessing to us on the paths' (Rig-veda X, 63, 15-17) (are to be repeated before the recitation) of the Mahâvrata (chapter).
3. But (at that) of the Sakvarî (verses) before (the formula mentioned in the first Sara):
4 4. The three Trikas, 'To him, the thirsty one' (Rig-veda VI, 42, 1-3), 'The wealthiest (Soma), O wealthy one' (VI, 44, 1-3), 'Him who does no harm to you' (VI, 44, 4-6), (the verse), 'To him, to him the sap of the herb' (VI, 42, 4), (and the verse), "Verily thou art a hero' (VIII, 81, 28)—thus for the Sakvarî (verses) before and afterwards.
5. Now for the Upanishad (texts)—
6. The same (recitation) as for the Mahâvrata.
7 7. For the Samhitâs, however, before (the text given in the first Sûtra the formula has to be recited), 'I shall speak right, I shall speak truth (&c.)'—this is the difference (in the case of the Samhitâs).
8 8. Now for the Mantha the two verses (have to be recited) before (the formula given in the first Sûtra), 'This we entreat of Savitar,' 'That glorious (splendour) of Savitar' (Rig-veda V, 82, 1; III, 62, 10).
9. With (the formula), 'Unerring mind' (see Sûtra 1), then follow the expiatory formulas that belong to the (different) sections.
10. (All) this on one day.
145:1 4, 1. The formula 'Adabdham manah,' &c. has to be recited before each of the single Âranyaka texts (the Sakvarî verses, the Mahâvrata, &c.); to this formula are added, before or after it, as the case may be, other texts specified in the Sûtras 2-8. Of these there can be no doubt about the meaning of Sûtras 7, 8, treating of the introductory formulas of the Samhitâ section (Kaush. Âr. VII-VIII) and of the Mantha section (ibid. IX): before the text adabdham, &c. are to be added, in the first case the formula ritam vadishyâmi, &c., in the second case two Rikas addressed to Savitri. These formulas and verses have been received into the Âranyaka text and are found there in the order here stated, at the beginning of books VII and IX. The meaning of the words samhitânâm tu pûrvam (Sûtra 7) having thus been established, I can see no reason why we should not interpret the words sakvarînâm to pûrvam (Sûtra 3) quite in the same way. Thus the introductory benediction for the recital of the Sakvarî verses would consist, firstly of the verses stated in Sûtra 4, then of the formula adabdham, &c.; those verses would have to be repeated again after the Sakvarî verses (end of Sûtra 4). The recitation of the Mahâvrata (Sûtras 1, 2) and of the Upanishads (Sûtra 5) is preceded by adabdham, &c., and then by the four verses stated in Sûtra 2. The interpretation which Nârâyana gives of this Sûtra is not quite the same as that which I have here proposed; see p. 163 of the German edition.
146:4 According to the reading of some MSS. we should have to translate, or (the verse), 'Verily,' &c.
146:7 On the Samhitâs (Kaush. Âr. VII, VIII) see Max Müller, Rig-veda Prâtisâkhya, pp. 4 seq.; Ait. Âranyaka III (pp. 305 seqq., ed. Bibl. Ind.; Sacred Books of the East, I, pp. 247 seq.).
146:8 Regarding the description of the Mantha sacrifice (Kaush. Âr. IX) which has to be performed by one who wishes to attain greatness, comp. Satap. Brâhmana XIV, 9, 2; Khând. Up. V, 2, 4; Sacred Books of the East, I, p. 75.
Khanda 4, 11 11-12. Now if the time for rising has come, they drive away (all) evil,
12. Perform the standing expiation,
13. And look at the sun with (the words), 'From here I take out the brightness (?).'
Khanda 5, 1 1. 'That (I place) within myself'—with (these words they turn their thoughts to the universal) Self that is placed (within themselves?)three times repeated (?).
2. With (the formula), 'May happiness rejoice in me and glory; may happiness rejoice with me and glory;—
3. 'Together with Indra, with the hosts, with power, with glory, with strength I will rise'—he rises up.
4. 'May happiness rise to me; may glory rise to me'—when he has risen.
5. 'Hereby I shake off the hater, the rival, the evil one, and the bringer of misfortune'—with (this formula) having shaken the end of the garment,—
6. The hymn, 'Away those to the east' (Rig-veda X, 131), the two (verses), 'And may Indra have mercy upon us' (II, 41, 11. 12), the one (verse), 'Of what we are in fear, O Indra' (VIII, 50, 13)—(when these texts have been murmured), they look with (the verse), 'A ruler indeed, great art thou' (X, 152, 1) to the east; with (the verse), 'The giver of bliss' (X, 152, 2) to the south, turned to the right; with (the verse), 'Away the Rakshas' (X, 152, 3) to the west; with (the verse), 'Destroy, O Indra, our' (X, 152, 4) to the north, turned to the left; with (the verse), 'Away, O Indra' (X, 152, 5) to the sky, turned to the right.
147:11-12 11, 12. Nârâyana has the following note: 'The evil which is attached to their body, such as dirt, they drive away, i.e. they remove it by means of their reciting (of the sacred texts), and then they perform the standing expiation which has been declared above, which begins with the syllable Om and with the Mahâvyâhritis' (see chap. 3, 12).
147:1 5, 1. Nârâyana says that dadhe is supplied to this Mantra from the preceding Sûtra, and so indeed the Mantra is given in the Aitareya recension. The translation of abhinihitam trir hitam is merely tentative; see Nârâyana's note, p. 165, of the German edition. Perhaps abhinihitam should be taken in its grammatical value, and the Sûtra should be translated, "That (I place) into myself (âtmani)"—with these words (they look) at themselves, pronouncing (the word âtmani) with Abhinidhâna, three times repeated (?).' On abhinidhâna, comp. Professor Max Müller's edition of the Rig-veda Prâtisâkhya, pp. cxvii seqq.
1. Having worshipped the Sun with (the verses), 'Savitri from the west,' 'This eye' (Rig-veda X, 36, 14; VII, 66, 16),
2 2. They turn away, come back, sit down.
3. With (the words), 'As the water is appeased'—they draw water out of the vessel used for the expiation,
4. Pour it out on the ground,
5 5. Spread (some) of that (water over the ground) with (the words), 'As the earth (is appeased),'—
6 6. He (then) smears it on his right shoulder with (the words), 'Thus may peace dwell in me.'
7. In the same way a second time.
8. In the same way a third time.
9. 'Piece by piece thou art produced; piece by piece thou risest up; bring welfare to us, O house!'—with (this text they) take pieces of Dûrvâ stalks (out of the vessel of water), put them on their heads,
10 10. (And make water-offerings with the formulas), 'May Agni satiate himself; may Vâyu satiate himself; may Sûrya satiate himself; may Vishnu satiate himself; may Pragâpati satiate himself; may Virûpâksha satiate himself; may Sahasrâksha satiate himself; may all beings satiate themselves.'
11 11. (Then) Sumantu, Gaimini, Vaisampâyana, Paila, and the other teachers (receive their offerings).
12 12. (Then) every one (worships in the same way) his fathers.
13. With (the text), 'To the sea you' (Sraut. IV, 11, 11) they pour out the water,
14. Murmur the Vâmadevya,
15. And separate according to their pleasure.
16. (The final benedictory formula runs thus), 'Through the power of wisdom, of Sruti and Smriti, as handed down by tradition, through (that power) which has its measure in (the Vedic texts) that have been gone through(?), and which is possessed of
undisputed firmness, may peace be with us in welfare. Adoration be to gods, Rishis, Manes, and men! May they whom we have adored, make happy life, beauty, health, peace, incolumity, imperishableness, vigour, splendour, glory, power, holy lustre, renown, age, offspring, cattle, adoration, increase. From wrongly spoken, wrongly used (prayer), from everything that is deficient or excessive, for the good of gods and Rishis, may the Brahman and Truth protect me; may the Brahman and Truth protect me!'
148:2 6, 2. Nârâyana explains vyâvartamânâh by parâvartamânadharmayuktâh.
149:6 Nârâyana says that all the students are to do so.
149:10 Comp. above, IV, 9. On the way in which this Tarpana is to be performed, Nârâyana refers to the Sûtra II, 7, 5.
149:11 Comp. above, IV, 10.
149:12 Comp. above, IV, 10, 4-6.
End of the Sixth Adhyâya.
End of the Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya.
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Asvalayana Grihya Sutra
- Khadira Grihya Sutra
- Paraskara Grihya Sutra
- Manusmriti the laws of Manu
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- Essays On Dharma
- Esoteric Mystic Hinduism
- Introduction to Hinduism
- Hindu Way of Life
- Essays On Karma
- Hindu Rites and Rituals
- The Origin of The Sanskrit Language
- Symbolism in Hinduism
- Essays on The Upanishads
- Concepts of Hinduism
- Essays on Atman
- Hindu Festivals
- Spiritual Practice
- Right Living
- Yoga of Sorrow
- Mental Health
- Concepts of Buddhism
- General Essays
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