HyperText Markup Language

Information Technology Resources

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages with hypertext and other information to be displayed in a web browser. HTML is used to structure information — denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists and so on — and can be used to describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document. HTML's grammar structure is the HTML DTD that was created using SGML syntax.


Originally defined by Tim Berners-Lee and further developed by the IETF, HTML is now an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). Later HTML specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) defines HTML in the following manner:

"HTML is the language for describing the structure of Web pages. HTML gives authors the means to:

- Publish online documents with headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc.
Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button.

- Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc.

- Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other applications directly in their documents.

With HTML, authors describe the structure of pages using markup. The elements of the language label pieces of content such as “paragraph,” “list,” “table,” and so on."

Early versions of HTML were defined with looser syntactic rules which helped its adoption by those unfamiliar with web publishing. Web browsers commonly made assumptions about intent and proceeded with rendering of the page. Over time, the trend in the official standards has been to create an increasingly strict language syntax; however, browsers still continue to render pages that are far from valid HTML.


XHTML, which applies the stricter rules of XML to HTML to make it easier to process and maintain, is the W3C's successor to HTML. As such, many consider XHTML to be the "current version" of HTML, but it is a separate, parallel standard; the W3C continues to recommend the use of either XHTML 1.1, XHTML 1.0, or HTML 4.01 for web publishing. The Worldwide Web Consortium defines XHTM in the following manner: "XHTML is a variant of HTML that uses the syntax of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. XHTML has all the same elements (for paragraphs, etc.) as the HTML variant, but the syntax is slightly different. Because XHTML is an XML application, you can use other XML tools with it (such as XSLT, a language for transforming XML content)."


"For its first five years (1990-1995), HTML went through a number of revisions and experienced a number of extensions, primarily hosted first at CERN, and then at the IETF. With the creation of the W3C, HTML's development changed venue again. A first abortive attempt at extending HTML in 1995 known as HTML 3.0 then made way to a more pragmatic approach known as HTML 3.2, which was completed in 1997. HTML4 quickly followed later that same year." HTML5 is "the 5th major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web: the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In this version, new features are introduced to help Web application authors, new elements are introduced based on research into prevailing authoring practices, and special attention has been given to defining clear conformance criteria for user agents in an effort to improve interoperability.

Links to HTML Resources

HTML5 Specifications: This specification defines the 5th major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web: the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In this version, new features are introduced to help Web application authors, new elements are introduced based on research into prevailing authoring practices, and special attention has been given to defining clear conformance criteria for user agents in an effort to improve interoperability.

Architecture of the World Wide Web: The World Wide Web uses relatively simple technologies with sufficient scalability, efficiency and utility that they have resulted in a remarkable information space of interrelated resources, growing across languages, cultures, and media. In an effort to preserve these properties of the information space as the technologies evolve, this architecture document discusses the core design components of the Web. They are identification of resources, representation of resource state, and the protocols that support the interaction between agents and resources in the space. We relate core design components, constraints, and good practices to the principles and properties they support.

HyperGurl HTML Scripts: HTML Scripts, What is HTML? How to Make a Website, How to Make Frames, Drop Down Menu, ASCII Symbols, Hexadecimal Color Chart ,HTML Books ,HTML Tags, , Fancy Text Effects and more to make your WebPages look great.

W3C HTML Validation Service : Welcome to the W3C HTML Validation Service; a free service that checks documents like HTML and XHTML for conformance to W3C Recommendations and other standards. Why does this page render badly? Most likely this is due to a bug in your browser's support for the W3C Cascading Style Sheets Recommendation.

W3Schools Online Web Tutorials: Inside W3Schools you will find a large number of free Web building tutorials, from basic HTML and XHTML tutorials, to advanced XML, XSL and WAP tutorials.

HTML TIDY: Tidy is able to fix up a wide range of problems and to bring to your attention things that you need to work on yourself. Each item found is listed with the line number and column so that you can see where the problem lies in your markup. Tidy won't generate a cleaned up version when there are problems that it can't be sure of how to handle. These are logged as "errors" rather than "warnings".

Free-HTML-Scripts.com: This site is a compilation of tutorial & lesson pages relating to, HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language. These HTML/Internet tutorial and lesson pages are for learners and experienced Web Designers alike. The overnight! success of the Internet has surprised many, including Bill Gates. Microsoft was late on the scene with their Internet Explorer and perhaps, like 'em or not, we might be disappointed because of it.

HTML Writers Guild: The HWG was founded in 1994 as the world's leading educational organization for Web developers, with over 150,000 members in more than 160 countries world-wide. In 2001 the Guild joined with the International Webmasters Association to form IWA-HWG, the premier association for the growth and development of the Web profession.

Scripts in HTML documents: HTML's support for scripts is independent of the scripting language. A client-side script is a program that may accompany an HTML document or be embedded directly in it. The program executes on the client's machine when the document loads, or at some other time such as when a link is activated. HTML's support for scripts is independent of the scripting language.

Dynamic Drive, the premier place on the net to obtain free, original DHTML scripts and components to enhance your web site. All scripts on this site take advantage of the latest in JavaScript and DHTML technology, with emphasis on practicality and backwards compatibility, to bring true power and interactivity to your site.

Big Nose Bird.com: There are over 300 pages of tutorials, reference materials, and other free resources located on this site. The links list major content areas. Make your site more fun and useful with these scripts.

All My FAQs - Many HTML questions are asked and then answered.

Chami.com HTML Tips - An interesting assortment of tips, tricks and mini tutorials related to HTML, JavaScript and other related topics.

Extreme HTML Optimization - Shows how to reduce your HTML file size in order to maximize page display speed.

The HiTMilL - HTML - Features tutorials on the history and definition of HTML, adding images to webpages and file transfer protocol. Includes a resource list for tutorials and tag references. Also has a seemless background gallery.

The HTML Guru - A collection of tips, tricks, and quick fixes, presented in a questions and answer format. Includes links to other resources.

HTML Help Central - Includes a guide to HTML, free JavaScripts, website promotion tips, color code chart, and a message board.

HTML: WebDeveloper.com - Questions and answers on basic webpage setup and coding questions. Includes a short resource list.

HTML Articles - Update news on the development of an HTML standard. Useful articles and tips and tricks.

Navigator and Explorer Comparison: HTML Tags - Comparison between how Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer interpret different HTML tags. Cross browser solutions to these differences are discussed.

NetworkStatic - Web design, marketing, networking and communication service.

Using HTML Threading in Email - Abstracts on HTML threading in email.

WDVL - HTML Standards Compliance - Why Bother? - Covers the issues surrounding standards and validation. Why and how pages should be brought into compliance with the HTML standards.

WWW Help Page - Contains resource links to directories, tutorials, and color charts. Includes a short FAQs page

HTML Scripts

Miva Corporation - Official home of Miva Script, a server-side HTML embedded scripting language for Windows and Unix servers. Free Miva Mia engine for developers.

CybrMall Ecommerce Website Hosting - CybrMall provides Miva hosting packages. Dedicated servers for both Corporate and Web hosting provider needs.

Driftwood Network Services - Miva Script development, Miva Merchant programming and hosting. Authorized Miva Partner. Official host of The OpenUI and the Miva Masochists Guild.

Miva Corporation - User Groups - The Miva Users Groups are a great place to learn more about the world of Miva. These are quite active, with many gurus lurking about, ready and willing to help.

Miva Gallery - Directory of sites using the language.

Mr Moon - Free scripts, an archive of Miva users list, and MivaTest, a script that evaluates and ranks servers running Empresa.

Observations.Org: Sample Apps Page - Sample applets for public use.

truXoft.Com: Mivo - Resources for developers and discussions about Miva-related security problems.

Wump Services - Miva Development - Offers Miva and Miva Merchant products, website development, and free webmaster tools.

Suggestions for Further Reading

Attribution: Some information for this article has been adapted from wikipedia under GNLU licence.

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