By Jayaram V
The Samkhya and
Yoga are two of the most ancient
philosophies of Hinduism which
profoundly effected the religious thinking and spiritual practices
of many ancient traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
The Bhagavadgita has many verses
and an entire chapter devoted to the teachings of Samkhya and Yoga
suggesting to their popularity and importance in ancient times.
The philosophies of Samkhya and Yoga were part of the non-vedic
traditions of ancient India which existed along with
Saivism and Vaishnavism and
probably shared many concepts with them, long before they became
part of the philosophical schools of vedic religion. Traces of this
integration and their gradual acceptance are discernible in such
early works as the Svetasvatara Upanishad,
which describes Lord Siva
as the Absolute and the Highest Brahman,
Katha Upanishad where we find some principles of
Prasna Upanishad which speaks of
different state of consciousness. Their integration into Vedism
helped the latter develop logical and philosophical depth to counter
the challenges posed by many emerging ascetic traditions that were
unsparing in their criticism of vedic sacrifices, social inequalities
and magical ritualism promoted by
it. Both Jainism and
Buddhism also responded
positively and negatively to Samkhya because of its wide appeal,
which resulted in the synthesis of some new ideas and practices
that contributed to their subsequent appeal and popularity.
Significance of Samkhya and Yoga
Samkhya and yoga philosophies contributed greatly to the development
of religious thought and philosophy in ancient India. Many concepts
of modern Hinduism can be traced directly to these two traditions.
While Samkhya introduced such concepts as
mahat, prakriti, bondage,
incarnation of souls,
ahamkara, chitta, Yoga contributed the concepts of dhyana (meditation),
dharana (concentration), asanas (postures), pranayama (breath control)
and pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses). The concepts of prakriti,
senses, tattvas, attachment, buddhi, purusha are peculiarly Indian
and found nowhere else but in every religion that originated in
the Indian subcontinent. Largely ignored by the western scholars
till recently because
and Patanjali were neither Greek or nor Roman, the contribution
of these two philosophical systems to the development of religious
thought and spiritual development in the ancient world is unprecedented.
One significant aspect of Samkhya and Yoga is they are complimentary.
Yoga accepts the basic tenets of Samkhya with a few exceptions as
the basis of the techniques and practices it recommends to liberate
the individual beings (jivas) from the bonds of Prakriti. Samkhya
deals with the arrangement of the cosmos and how its various constituent
parts or elements manifested. Yoga deals with the possibility of
their underlying integration and how they could be realigned in
the interest of the conscious elements that are situated in it.
The Samkhyavadin presents you with a vision of how you became involved
with the material processes of nature while the yogachari provides
you with a solution by which you can free yourself from your involvement
with nature and connect yourself with your original state of pure
consciousness. The concepts and techniques of yoga are the effective
solutions to the problems of suffering, bondage and ignorance highlighted
by the philosophy of Samkhya. Samkhya speaks of the evolution and
yoga of involution. Samkhya speaks of soul's entanglement and enslavement
and yoga of its freedom and purity. The two schools thus complement
and complete each other. In many ways Yoga is applied Samkhya. Alan
Danielou sums up their relationship in the following manner:
The two methods are strictly coordinated and interdependent.
They are the instruments of higher knowledge by whcih man is
distinguished from other living beings. Yoga is the exploration
of ourselves, this special body, this abode, in which our consciousness
resides. Yoga seeks to analyze the structures of our interior
universe, to study and develop the powers latent in it, and
eventually to beyond the barriers of the senses, the limitations
of relative time and space that imprison us. The Samkhya enables
us to transpose the elements of yoga to the universal plane
and to establish correspondence between the macrocosm and the
microcosm, between the universal Man (Purusha) and individual
Antecedents of Samkhya Philosophy
The Samkhya school of thought is based on the teachings of sage
Kapila which were preserved in the form of 22 aphorisms by his disciple
Asuri in the Tattva Samasa. The actual period of Kapila is unknown.
According to some he was the son of Brahma while some believe him
to be an incarnation of Vishnu.
Samkhya and Yoga as very ancient systems, while some historians
tend to place him in the century preceding that of the Buddha.
aphorisms of Kapila formed the basis for the work of Panchashika,
who composed nearly 60000 verses explaining the concepts of Samkhya
which is mentioned in the Chinese Buddhist canon (Tripitaka). Panchashika's
disciple was Uluka. He was the teacher of Isvara Krishna who summarized
the philosophy of Samkhya in 70 aphorisms in his Samkhya Karika,
which is probably the only authoritative ancient text on the subject.
In the subsequent times several commentaries were written on the
work of Isvara Krishna by both Buddhist and Vedic scholars such
as Vasubandhu and Gaudapada. The famous Tamil literary work Manimekhalai
also contain information on the Samkhya from the Dravidian perspective.
Antecedents of Yoga Philosophy
The system of Yoga came to us mostly through ancient
and probably a few ancient ascetic traditions that existed in the
Indian subcontinent prior to the preeminence of Vedic religion.
Almost every religious tradition in India contains some elements
of yoga as the means to achieve liberation through physical and
mental discipline. Yoga is India's gift to the world just as Buddhism
and Hinduism are.
According to the Puranas the knowledge of yoga came to us through
Siva, the eternal yogi ever absorbed in deep meditation. The association
of Yoga with Samkhya is not accidental. Samkhya itself was an offshoot
of ancient Saivism and Tantricism. Some rudimentary form of yoga
existed even during the Indus valley period as is evident from the
seals of a seated yogi found during the excavations. In the Rigveda
we have a hymn on Keshins or the long haired ones who controlled
prana or life energy. Yoga as a technical term appears in the Katha,
Maitrayani Upanishads. The yoga of these texts may be different
from the ones mentioned in the
The Maitri Upanishad speaks of
six fold yoga and suggest
to the existence of yoga as a body of knowledge at the time of its
The Bhagavadgita is actually a book on yoga and approaches the
subject independently from the perspective of Vedanta. Yoga as a
means of physical and mental control and concentration was known
to Mahavira, the founder of Jainism. The Buddha and his followers
practiced it and its knowledge was codified in the early Buddhist
sutras. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali which is considered to be oldest
text on yoga is assigned by some historians to 2nd Century BC and
by some to 5th or 6th Century AD. In all probability, the Patanjali
of Yogasutras was a compiler rather than the founder of this ancient
system of knowledge which was practiced in ancient India under various
guises by different traditions from prehistoric times.
Concepts of Samkhya
A comprehensive treatment 3
of Samkhya philosophy is outside the scope of
this article. So we will focus on a few important concepts that
are relevant to our discussion.
Means of Knowledge: The means of knowledge (pramanas)
are three: perception (pratyaksha), inference (anumana) and testimony
(sabda). By perception knowledge is gained through direct experience.
By Inference knowledge is obtained indirectly through other knowledge
because of some valid association. By testimony knowledge is gained
through an authoritative source such as a scripture or a long established
Cause and Effect: The effect is always hidden in the cause.
The two are inseparable. Existence can never come out of non-existence.
The cause and effect are actually dissimilar states of the same
reality. A thing exists in a latent form before it actually materializes.
A thing is never really destroyed completely. It appears (udbhava)
or disappears (anudbhava) because of a change in its state. Samkhya
also accepts the theory of evolution
(avirbhava) and involution (tirobhava) of beings and objects that
are manifested by Prakriti. The causes are of two types, efficient
cause and material cause. Efficient cause is external to the effect
and material cause is internal. The effect is usually manifested
by a concomitant activity (sahakar-shakti) through phases by the
removal of such barriers as place (desa) and time (kala). An effect
may arise in three ways from its latent state. The first is by a
change in the inherent nature of the thing (dharmaparinama). Second
by a change in its quality (lakshana-parinama) and third by a simple
lapse of time (avastha-parinama). This is known as the doctrine
of latent effect or existent effect (satkaryavada).
Prakriti: Prakriti or the primal nature is the independent,
non-intelligent, and primal cause of all material manifestation.
While everything else has a cause Prakriti has no cause. It is eternal
and without an end. It manifests itself because of the disturbance
in the equilibrium of its gunas and produces several principles
or tattvas which join together to become objects and beings. Prakriti
is a blind force and, according to one branch of Samkhya, neither
controlled nor guided by any external agent other than itself. Its
processes are more or less automatic or on auto-pilot without any
external triggering mechanism such as God. The manifestation of
the world and its objects or the blue print of the entire manifest
reality is either implicit or hidden or latent in Prakriti and it
unfolds gradually through space and time like an idea taking shape
on a canvas.
Gunas: Manifestation of the world and beings begins when
the equilibrium among the three gunas
or qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas) is disturbed. The three gunas
are imperceptible. They can be discerned only indirectly through
the effects they produce. They are also inseparable and can exist
only in association with one another. They are inherent in every
product of Prakriti which Prakriti brings out by means of manifestation
(prakasa), activity (pravritti) and restraint (niyamana). Sattva
is predominant in manifestation (prakasa), rajas in activity (pravritti)
and tamas in restraint (niyamana). Sattva produces the effects of
goodness, happiness, perfection, beauty, harmony, light etc. Rajas
produces the effect of intense activity,
egoism, pain, selfishness etc. Tamas produces the effect of
apathy, laziness, slowness in action or movement, ignorance, lethargy
etc. In their purest forms sattva brings out the purity of thought
and intention, rajas the purity of action and continuation and tamas
the intensity of obstruction or resistance. In the early part of
evolution sattva dominates and in the latter part tamas, while rajas
provides the balance and the force of activity for both.
Tattvas: The classical Samkhya school recognizes 24 principles
or tattvas which Prakriti brings into play during the process of
its transformation or evolution, starting with Prakriti itself in
its manifest form and mahat or buddhi. The other 22 principles are
ahamkara, manas, five organs or knowledge (gnanendriyas), five organs
of action (karmendriyas), five subtle senses (tanmatras) and the
five great elemetns (mahabhutas). Of these Prakriti is cause alone.
Among the rest some are both cause and effect and some effect alone.
Purusa: The classical Samkhya or at least one dominant
branch of Samkhya was atheistic. It does not recognize one absolute
Purusha but a multitude of purushas or individual souls who are
beings of pure consciousness, eternal, uncreated, unchanging and
indestructible. In their purest form they are independent of Prakriti.
In its purest state a purusha is not subject to birth and death
or bondage and liberation. It is neither the body, nor the mind,
nor the senses but exists beyond them as pure consciousness, untouched
by any blemish, without qualities and attributes. Unlike prakriti
which is non-intelligent and objective, purusha is intelligent,
subjective and self aware, witness consciousness. It is the knower
where as Prakriti is the known. It is the state of beingness, in
contrast to the becomingness of Prakriti. But when it gets involved
with Prakriti, it is enveloped by its qualities (gunas) and elements
(tattvas) which cloud its true consciousness and subject it to ignorance
Jiva and Suffering: A purusha who is bound to Prakriti
is called a jiva or being, whose state is a state of bondage in
contrast to the state of freedom of the purusha. A jiva is bound
by its own physical body and the laws of karma. It experiences three
kinds of suffering. They are suffering arising from internal causes
(adhyatmika), suffering arising from physical or material causes
(adhibhuatika) and suffering arising from fortuitous circumstances
Liberation: The way out of this is through right
knowledge. When the individual being realizes that its suffering
is due to its involvement with Prakriti, it tries to disassociate
itself from Prakriti and become liberated. Liberation means shedding
the false self and the elements of Prakriti and becoming the true
self. Once liberated, a purusha is never caught up with Prakriti
again. It continues its eternal existence independent of Prakriti
and its mechanism. The state of purusha actually never undergoes
any change whether it was involved with Prakriti or not. The suffering
is not of the soul but of the false self or ego. The soul continues
to remain in its purest and eternal state of bliss consciousness
even in the middle of the causative world (samsara) except that
it is not self aware or not aware of its bliss consciousness. Neither
the mind, nor the senses nor the organs of action can touch it because
it is beyond all these. The suffering is therefore not of the soul
but of the false self or the ego. In a real sense, liberation actually
means disappearance of the limitations of self awareness. A soul
may regain its liberation even when it is embodied and may continue
to exist for a while in its embodied state even after liberation
due to its previous karma. But once an enlightened soul leaves the
body it is liberated for ever from the dominance of Prakriti.
Concepts of Yoga in the Yoga Sutras
The Yogasutras of Patanjali is divided into four parts. The first
part (samadhipada) deals with attaining samadhi or self-absorption.
The second part (sadhanapada) deals with the means of attaining
it, The third part (vibhutipada) deals with the supernatural powers
or siddhis that come with the practice of yoga and the fourth part
(kaivalyapada) deals with the state of liberation. It is not possible
to discuss the subject of yoga in its entirety in this article.
Presented below are a few concepts that are relevant to the subject
matter of our discussion.
God or Isvara: The Yoga philosophy accepts most of the
basic tenets of Samkhya with a few differences here and there. It
differs from Samkhya mainly in respect of its acceptance of God
or Isvara as instrumental in the liberation of the self. It is also
specific about the means to liberation, which essentially consists
of individual effort and grace of God. Patanjali clearly states
that Isvara is the original guru of all gurus and the results of
yoga can be attained through devotion to God.
Chitta or the Mind Stuff: The yoga philosophy identifies
chitta or the thinking principle with the mahat or buddhi of Samkhya.
Chitta is the the seat of soul's entanglement with Prakriti and
also its source of liberation. Chitta is not just the mind but a
combination of other principles of Prakriti identified in the Samkhya
as mahat or buddhi (intelligence), ahamkara (the ego principle),
manas (the mind) and the five organs of action (smell, touch, taste,
sight and hearing). It is subject to the three gunas or qualities.
In its purest state, chitta is all pervading and causative akasa
(space) and called karana-chitta. It becomes conscious by the reflection
of Purusha in it, in which state it is known as karya-chitta or
dynamic chitta. It is the karya-chitta that accompanies the soul
to the next birth. The karya-chitta has the tendency to expand or
contract depending upon in which body the soul (purusha) resides.
At the time of death, karana-chitta leaves the body along with the
purusha (soul) to which it is always connected and manifests itself
as karya-chitta in a new body, setting in motion new movements depending
upon its previous tendencies (pravrittis). The purpose of yoga is
to bring the karya-chitta back to its original mode (karana-chitta)
bysuppressing the rajas and tamas and disassociating the purusha
from the chitta altogether.
Afflictions and Modifications: In its interaction with
the sense objects and through the reflection of the self, chitta
becomes active and subject to five afflictions and five modifications.
The five afflictions are ignorance (avidya), asmita (false identification
of the self with the body and the mind), attachment (raga), aversion
(dvesha) and fear of death (abhinivesa). The five types of modifications
are (chitta-vrittis), pramana (valid knowledge), viparyaya (false
knowledge), vikalpa (imagination), nidra (sleep) and smriti (memory).
Suppression of these afflictions and modifications completely from
the karyachitta (active mind) is the key to the liberation of soul
and therefore the central theme of Yoga.
AshtangaYoga: The self can detach itself from the active
mind and and the physical body when the qualities of rajas and tamas
are suppressed and sattva or purity alone remains. This is achieved
by means of detachment (vairagya) and the persistent practice (abhyasa),
over a long period of time, of the eightfold yoga (ashtanga-yoga)
consisting of yama (abstentions), niyama (rules), asnana (posture),
pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawl of the senses),
dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (self-absorption).
Samadhi is the state in which all mental modifications cease to
Liberation: In order to be completely free, the chitta
should become free from all impurities and modifications caused
by the gunas and achieve equanimity.This is possible only through
the practice of yoga. The purpose of yoga is not gaining supernatural
powers or siddhis, but liberation (kaivalya). It is achieved by
overcoming avidya or ignorance through discriminative knowledge
(vivekakhyati), the practice of yoga, the guidance of a guru and
the grace of God. The siddhis are final obstacle put in the way
by Prakriti to keep the soul involved with its material self and
therefore not to be taken lightly by an aspirant. There is a price
to be paid in using them for selfish or egoistic purpose.
The Samkhya Yoga of the Bhagavadgita
The philosophies of Samkhya and Yoga were popular as early as
1500 BC in ancient India, where as the Bhagavadgita, whose exact
date of composition is not clearly known, became popular during
the Gupta period (300 - 500 AD) as a consequence of the revival
of Brahmanical religion. Technically speaking the Samkhyayoga of
the Bhagavadgita is a subtle integration of some important aspects
of both Samkhya and the Yoga from a positive and theistic perspective.
The concepts of Samkhyayoga presented in the Bhagavadgita are common
to many schools and sects of Hinduism and therefore cannot be said
with certainty that they were derived directly from these two schools.
However, the use of the terms "samkhya" and "yoga"
and the inclusion of a whole chapter (Chapter 2) with the same title
suggest to the importance given by its author to these two ancient
philosophies and their popularity at the time of its composition.
The Samkhya Yoga of the Bhagavadgita is theistic without the technicalities
of the Yoga and the atheism of Samkhya. There is also a speculation
as to whether the Samkhya philosophy was atheistic at all. In all
probability there were two schools of interpretation with in Samkhya
as in case of Buddhism, one atheistic and one theistic, and the
latter seems to have been used as a model by the scholars of Vedanta
to base their own arguments. Some concepts of the Bhagavadgita that
bear some resemblance to those of the theistic Samkhya and Yoga
are discussed below
Atman or soul is indestructible, immortal, unborn, undiminishing,
unthinkable, unchangeable and unmanifest. It assumes physical bodies
as it undergoes death and rebirth. The body is known as kshetra
(field) and the indwelling spirit as kshetragna (knower of the field).
The soul in the body is the witness, the guide, the sustainer, the
experiencer and the great lord. Seated in the Prakriti, the soul
experiences the gunas of Prakriti, develops attachment with them
and passes through many lives. Upon death the souls go to different
heavens or God depending upon the time of their departure and past
karma. Liberated souls go to the highest abode of God. They are
forever freed. But those which go the heavens return after exhausting
their karma and continue their mortal existence. The approach of
the Bhagavadgita does not seem to be monism (Advaita) but qualified
God is the Supreme Purusha. He is the lord of all beings.
He is the actual doer. He is the inner witness, the indwelling soul
(adhidaiva) of all beings. He is both manifest (vyakta) and unmanifest
(avyakta). He manifests himself through his atma maya. Prakriti
is under His control and dependent upon Him. He is not only the
efficient cause of the worlds and its beings through his dynamic
Prakriti, but also their controller and regulator. He keeps a watch
on His creation and incarnates if necessary to set things right.
In other words the Bhagavadgita holds creation as an intelligently
guided divine process rather than an automated and unintelligent
process as suggested by the Samkhya school. At the beginning of
creation He brings out all the beings and withdraws them into Himself
at the end of creation to be brought out again at the beginning
of next cycle of creation.
The Prakriti of the Bhagavadgita is an inseparable and
dependent aspect of God fully under His control. It is the material
cause (13.20), without beginning, which brings forth the entire
creation (both moving and unmoving) under the guidance of God (9.10).
The Prakriti of God is two fold, lower and higher. The lower prakriti
has eight divisions, earth (prithvi), water (apa), fire (agni),
air (vayu), ether (kham), mind (manas), intelligence (buddhi) and
ego (ahamkara). The higher prakriti consists of the cosmic soul
by which the whole universe is sustained. All beings evolve from
this two fold Prakriti by the will of God to whom they will return
ultimately. He is also the creator of maya and the triple gunas.
Several types of yoga are discussed in the Bhagavadgita
such as samkhya yoga, buddhi yoga, karma yoga, gnana yoga, karmasanyasa
yoga and bhakti yoga without going into the technicalities of the
ashtanga or eightfold yoga. Buddhi yoga is equanimity of mind. Samkhya
yoga is stabilizing the mind in God through restraining the senses.
Karma yoga is performing actions with detachment, without seeking
the fruit of one's actions. Bhaktiyoga is single minded devotion
to God. Gnanayoga is for men of contemplation. By itself gnana yoga
is useless but when practiced in conjunction with the karma yoga
and bhakti yoga very effective. There is no difference between karma
yoga and samkhya yoga and for that matter the supreme state of liberation
can be achieved through any one of these yogas.
The techniques of yoga described in the scripture are
meant for the purification of the mind and the body and for increasing
the quality of sattva. The suggested methods are withdrawal of the
senses, discipline of the mind, the body and one's diet and behavior,
living in solitude, practicing meditation and concentration of the
mind on God and observation of celibacy. Moderation in eating, sleeping
and recreation is also suggested (6.16 & 17). The Yogi who practices
these and achieves equanimity of the mind is considered superior
to the ascetic, to the men of knowledge and the men of motivated
Liberation is possible only when one is able to suppress
the two gunas of rajas and tamas, become established in purity or
sattva (nitya sattvastha), overcome the pairs of opposites, remain
unconcerned about one's own welfare and keep the mind fully under
control. Liberation is also achieved through the grace and intervention
of God, which can be secured by following the path of bhakti or
devotion. Karma does not bind men when actions are performed with
detachment and even mindedness without seeking their fruit. Desireless
and unmotivated actions lead to liberation. Stability of the mind
through mental discipline is also the key to liberation. It can
be achieved through meditation, by devoting one's mind, heart and
soul to God, by stabilizing one's mind in Him and by completely
withdrawing one's senses from the sense objects. Renunciation by
itself is not effective, but karmayoga practiced as an offering
to God with equanimity of mind and a sense of renunciation towards
the fruit of action is the best means to achieve peace in the shape
of God realization. Liberation is also attained when one remembers
God at the time of death (8.5)
Buddhism vs. Samkhya and Yoga
Some close similarities between Hinayana Buddhism and Samkhya
philosophy gave rise to the speculation that Samkhya philosophy
was derived from Buddhism or vice versa. However this is not true.
Samkhya philosophy is clearly of much greater antiquity than Buddhism
and Kapila, the author of Kapilasutras was a predecessor to the
Buddha. The references to the Samkhya in some early Buddhist texts
such as Brahmajalasutra suggest to their mutual intolerance and
rivalry rather than respect and reconciliation. With its emphasis
on suffering, denunciation of extreme ascetic practices and vedic
sacrifices, karma, non-existence of an absolute God, plurality of
immortal souls, the world as a constantly becoming and changing
phenomena and manifestation of worlds and beings by Prakriti, the
Samkhya philosophy posed a greater challenge and threat to Buddhism
in its early days as it held similar opinions in addition to such
ambiguous concepts as nirvana (liberation) to anatma (no soul) that
was difficult to understand without a paradigmatic shift in one's
approach and understanding.
Regarding the connection between Buddhism and Yoga, S.Radhakrishnan
points out that the Buddha practiced yoga and that Buddhism introduced
many contemplative practices that were common to both Buddhism and
Yoga. He writes thus:
"According to Lalitavistara, numberless forms of
ascetic austerities were in vogue in Buddha's time. Some of
the teachers of the Buddha like Alara were adepts in Yoga. The
Buddhist suttas are familiar with the Yoga methods of concentration.
The four states of dhyana of Buddhism correspond roughtly to
the four stages of conscious concentratin in the classical yoga.
According to Buddhism, the possession of the five qualities
of faith, energy, thought, concentration and wisdom, enables
one to attain the end of Yoga; and the Yoga accepts the view.
The Yogachara school of Buddhism openly combines Buddhist doctrine
with the Yoga details. The later Buddhist works assume a developed
In ancient India there were many ascetic traditions which like
Buddhism aimed to develop mastery over the mind and the body through
various practices. The Yogasutras of Patanjali was an attempt to
systematize the knowledge that was derived from many such tradition
not one in particular. Following are some similarities between Yoga
and Buddhism which does not mean that Buddhism had derived some
practices from Yoga or vice versa. The fact is we do not know for
sure what the relationship was between the two. Buddha and some
of his earlier teachers undoubtedly practiced some form of contemplative
Yoga techniques before his enlightenment.
1. Both Buddhism and Yoga aim to end human suffering and bondage
but prescribe different techniques and approaches to achieve the
same. Yoga aims to end suffering by suppressing the modifications
of the mind through the eightfold yoga while Buddhism by the cessation
of desires through the eightfold path, of which right mindfulness
and right concentration aim to control the mind and purify it through
techniques similar to Yoga.
2. Yoga prescribes five kinds of yamas (restraints) which include
non-injury, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and not owing possessions.
The Buddha suggested five moral rules for right living which include
non-injury to animals, not to take what does not belong to one (not
stealing), not to speak falsely (truthfulness), not to drink intoxicating
drinks and not to be unchaste (celibacy).
3. The Yoga prescribes asana (posture), pranayama (brething exercises)
and pratyahara (withdrawl of the senses), dharana (concentration)
and dhyana (meditation) for the cessation of mental modification.
Buddhism prescribes right concentration and right mindfulness to
bring the mind under control and develop equanimity of the mind
(samatha bhavana). The anapana sati of buddhism is similar in intent
and practice with the pranayama of Yoga.
Suggested Further Reading
1. While the Gods Play
by Alan Danielou, Inner Traditions International Rochester, Vermont,
US edition 1987.
2. Indian Philosophy,
Volume II, by S.Radhakrishnan
3. For more comprehensive treatment of the
subject please check the links provided in this articles to Samkhya