The Apastamba Sutras - Prasna I
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- The Hindu Dharmashastras, Subject Index
- A Brief Note on the Dharmashastras
- The Laws of Manu Chapter 1 to 6
- The Laws of Manu Chapters 7 to 12
- Introduction to the Apastamba
- The Apastamba - Prasna I
- The Apastamba - Prasna II
- Introduction to Gautama Sutras
- The Gautama Sutras, Chapters I to XIV
- The Gautama Sutras Chapters XV to XVIII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, introduction
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters I - VII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters V - XXII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters XIII - XXX
- Introduction to the Baudhayana DharmasShastra
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika 1-21)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaII (Kandika 1-18)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaIII, IV and V
1:1 1. Samaya, 'agreement, decision,' is threefold. It includes injunction, restriction, and prohibition.
Dharma, 'acts productive of merit, I usually translated by 'duty or law,' is more accurately explained as an act which produces the quality of the soul called apûrva, the cause of heavenly bliss and of final liberation.
1:2 Manu II, 6, 12 Yâgñ. I, 7; Gautama I, 1.
1:6 Manu II, 35.
2:7 Manu 1, 91, VIII, 410; and IX, 334; Yâgñ. I, 120.
2:9 The use of the masculine in the text excludes women. For though women may have occasion to use such texts as 'O fire, of the dwelling' &c. at the Agnihotra, still it is specially ordained that they shall be taught this and similar verses only just before the rite is to be performed.
2:10 The object of the Sûtra is to remove a doubt whether the ceremony of initiation ought to be repeated for each Veda, in case a man desires to study more than one Veda. This repetition is declared to be unnecessary, except, as the commentator adds, in the case of the Atharva-veda, for which, according to a passage of a Brâhmana, a fresh initiation is necessary. The latter rule is given in the Vaitâna-sûtra I, 1, 5.
2:13 Haradatta: 'But this (latter rule regarding the taking of p. 3 another teacher) does not hold good for those who have begun to study, solemnly, binding themselves, to their teacher. How so? As he (the pupil) shall consider a person who initiates and instructs him his Âkarya, and a pupil who has been once initiated cannot be initiated again, how can another man instruct him? For this reason it must be understood that the study begun with one teacher may not be completed with another, if the first die.' Compare also Haradatta on I, 2, 7, 26, and the rule given I, 1, 4, 26. In our times also pupils, who have bound themselves to a teacher by paying their respects to him and presenting a cocoa-nut, in order to learn from him a particular branch of science, must not study the same branch of science under any other teacher.
3:14 Manu II, 69; Yâgñ. I, 15.
3:15 Manu II, 144.
3:16 Manu II, 146-148.
3:17 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation.'--Haradatta.
3:18 Manu II, 147.
3:19 Yâgñ. I, 14; Manu II, 36; Âsvakâyana Gri. Sû. I, 19, 1, 4: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq.
4:21 Manu II, 37.
4:22-26. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.
4:27 The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the initiation shall be performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, expiation prescribed in the following Sûtras must be performed. The age of sixteen in the case of Brâhmanas is the latest term up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38; Yâgñ. I, 37.
4:28 The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed upon a student, as chastity, &c, but that he shall not perform the fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu II, 39; XI. 192, Yâgñ. I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101.
5:30 'If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day--morning, midday, and evening.'--Haradatta.
5:32 Brahman, apparently, here means 'Veda,' and those who neglect its study may be called metaphorically 'slayers of the Veda.'
5:33 Manu II, 40; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 8, 9; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.
5:35 Compare above, I, 1, 1, 28.
5:2 2. The seven Pâvamânîs are seven verses which occur Rig veda IX, 67, 21-27. Yagushpavitra = Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 1, 1. The Sâmapavitra is found Sâma-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5. Âṅgirasapavitra = Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.
6:10 The commentator observes that for those whose great-great-grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law.
7:11 Manu II, 164.
7:12 Manu III, 1, and Yâgñ. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.
7:16 The commentator declares that in Manu III, 1, the expression until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the pupil may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the Veda, after twelve years' study, never before. But compare also Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 3.
7:17 The commentator states that this rule refers only to a temporary, not to a professed student (naishthika). He also gives an entirely different explanation to the Sûtra, which, according to some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This rendering also is admissible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or 'heaven' and upavâsa, 'dwelling' or 'fasting.'
7:19 Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (patanîya), see below, I, 7, 21, 7.
7:20 Manu II, 108, and Yâgñ. I, 27.
7:21 Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.
8:23 Regarding the meaning of kshâra, 'pungent condiments,' see Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term differently.--Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123. Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 2.
8:25 Manu II, 177; Yâgñ. I, 33.
8:26 Manu II, 180.
8:27 Manu II, 178; Yâgñ. I, 33.
8:29 'Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru designates the father and the rest also.'--Haradatta.
8:30 Another version of the first portion of this Sûtra, proposed by Haradatta, is, 'Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sûtra 28 as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained for Brâhmanas, and refers Sûtra 29. to the naimittika snâna or 'bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sûtra 30 as a restriction of the latter.
8:31 Manu II, 2 19.
9:33 Manu II, 42-44; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 12; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.
9:38 Manu II, 45; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 13; 20, 1; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.
Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sûtra, but refers back to the Grihya-sûtra, II, 16-17, where the same words occur.
9:39 The word forms a Sûtra by itself, in order to show that every one must wear this cloth.
9:40 Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if applied to animals or things,' fit to be used at the sacrifice.'
9:41 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 11; Weber, Ind. Stud X, 22.
10:3 3. Manu II, 41; Yâgñ. I, 29; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 19, 10.
10:9 See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 4.
10:10 According to I, 1, 2, 39-I, 1, 3, 10, the rule of dress for students is the following:--According to Âpastamba, a student shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (langotî), and a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or without the addition of a deer-skin.
10:11 Manu II, 178.
10:12-13. Manu III, 179; Yâgñ. I, 33.
11:15 'Anything for his own pleasure,' i.e. keeping conversations with friends, making his toilet, &c.
11:19 The explanations of the last two terms, sânta (Sûtra 18) and dânta (Sûtra 19), are different from those given usually. Sama is usually explained as 'the exclusive direction of the mind towards God,' and dama as 'the restraining of the senses.'
11:23 Manu II, 178.
11:25 Regarding the explanation of the term Abhisasta, see below, I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: 'Apapâtras are called those born from a high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes. . . . Since Âpastamba says, In the evening and in the morning, food obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, nor food obtained in the morning for the evening meal."' Manu II, 182, 183, 185; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 4. See also Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 6.
12:27 To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student; see also below, I, 1, 4, 1 seq.; Manu II, 56; Yâgñ. I, 33.
12:28 The formula to be used by a Brâhmana is, 'Lady, give alms;' that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used by a Vaisya, 'Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49; Yâgñ. I, 30; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 8.
12:31 The words with which be announces the alms are, Idam ittham âhritam, 'this much have I received.' Manu II, 51; Yâgñ. I, 2, 7; Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 22, 10.
12:32 The answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhuṅkshva, 'friend, eat thou.'
13:34 Regarding the term Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6. 4.
13:35 'The meaning of this Sûtra is, that the rule given, Sûtra 42 (below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold good also for a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the permission to eat).'--Haradatta.
13:36 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by somebody else. Some say that the Sûtra refers to both vessels (the alms-pot and his own dish).'
13:40 An Ârya is a person belonging to one of the first three castes (see below). The Ârya must be a boy who is not initiated, because children are kâmabhakshâh, i.e. allowed to eat what they like, even leavings.
13:42 This rule holds good if no Srotriyas are near. If Srotriyas are to be found, Sûtra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is considered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the place of the teacher or of the Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247, p. 14 248, and the passages collected from the Brâhmanas, by Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 39.
14:44 Manu II, 231.
14:6 4. See above, I, 1, 2, 23.
15:7 See above, I, 1, 2, 24 seq.:--According to Haradatta, teachers were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden substances to their pupils, and Âpastamba gives this rule in order to show his dissent from the practice.
15:8 'Ânumânika' means "proper to be inferred from." For the existence of a text of the revelation or tradition (Smriti) is inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (however) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of the maxim "an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed (by ocular proof)." (Âpastamba), by speaking thus, ("For revealed texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt &c. is based on the existing text of a Brâhmana.' --Haradatta.
15:9 'Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings, still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from which a permissive text may be inferred, that it (the existing text), which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts which contradict each other, such as "he takes" and "he does not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted (to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea), he (Âpastamba) says (Sûtra 9), "True, that would be right if no motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat forbidden food which is given by the teacher). But a reason for this course of action exists."'--Haradatta.
16:10 'What is that (reason)? [Sûtra 10] For to eat pungent condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, 11, "That in case a custom has pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to the case in which a Brahmakârin does not receive them as leavings from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such leavings).'--Haradatta.
16:12 Another explanation of this Sûtra is given by Haradatta: 'If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the food contains salt &c.), he shall not do it.'
16:13 Manu II, 182.
16:14 The reason for placing the fuel on the ground is, according to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it should tumble down and injure the teacher's children. Others however, are of opinion that the wood which the pupil fetches daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this interpretation is, that in the Grihya-sûtra, II, 24, the daily offering of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123; Manu II, 186.
16:16 Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground around the altar,' &c., 'after having raked the scattered brands into a heap.'--Haradatta.
17:18 Âp. Gri. Sû. II, 22.
17:20 During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the altar in various ways.
17:23 Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here--collecting sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and flowers for sacrifices. Acts tending to the acquisition of wealth are--gathering fuel for cooking, &c. Manu II, 182; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.
17:24 Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, 'O law, I have protected him; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha-brâhmana, 1, 2, 4.
18:26 Compare above, I, 1, 1, 13.
18:29 The Sûtra refers to a naishthika brahmakârin or professed student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters any other order; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244; Yâgñ. I, 49, 50.
18:1 5. Manu II, 164.
18:2 The meaning of the phrase, 'Study drives out the Veda, which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing the rules prescribed for the student,' is, 'The Veda recited at the Brahmayagña (daily study), and other religious rites, produces no effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Haradatta p. 19 gives also the following three explanations of this Sûtra, adopted by other commentators:--
a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c.
b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and the Brahman leave him, &c.
c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the Brahman goes out, &c.
19:4 'Amongst the avaras means "amongst the men of modern times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No Rishis are born means "there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Mantras, Vedic texts."'--Haradatta.
19:5 'How is it then that men in our days, though they transgress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of studentship) in a former Yuga. Therefore Âpastamba says, Sûtra 6 "But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life)."'--Haradatta.
19:6 An example of this (follows, Sûtra 6): 'Like Svetaketu. For Svetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read in the Khândogya Upanishad (Prapâthaka VI, 1).'--Haradatta.
19:7 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms and the like,'--Haradatta.
20:9 'Acts to please the teacher are--washing his feet and the like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are--obedience to the prohibition to cross a river swimming, to eat pungent condiments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.'--Haradatta.
20:10 'Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.'--Haradatta.
20:11 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sûtras 7, 8.'--Haradatta.
20:12 Manu II, 122 and 124.
20:14 This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sûtras 12, 13) is to be performed daily. In the next Sûtra follows that by which the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained.--Haradatta. Manu II, 121; Yâgñ. I, 26.
21:16 'A Vaisya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level with his middle, i.e. the stomach; others say, on a level with his thigh; the Sûdra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his feet.'--Haradatta.
21:17 See also Manu II, 225.
21:18 Manu II, 71.
21:22 Manu II, 72
21:23 Manu II, 191.
22:26 Yâgñ. I, 27; Manu II, 191.
22:1 6. Manu II, 209.
22:2 Manu II, 194.
22:4 'But, in Âpastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.'--Haradatta.
22:5 Manu II, 195.
22:6 Manu II, 196.
23:15 Manu II, 203.
23:18 At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt. Âr. II, 1, 3.
23:20 Manu II, 197.
24:23 See Sûtra 15 and Manu quoted there.
24:29 The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see above), and these are inferior to the teacher. Manu II, 205.
24:31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of respect to any of his own inferior Gurus, even if the person is the Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.'--Haradatta.
25:34 'But Âpastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to address by name a (maternal uncle or other) Guru (who visits his teacher).'--Haradatta.
25:36 According to I, 1, 3, 40 seq., a student shall give what he is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in the presence of his teacher, he shall not give the food away without rising for the purpose.
25:3 7. Manu IV, 5 3: Yâgñ. I, 13 5.
25:4 Gopatha-brâhmana I, 2, 2.
26:5 Manu II, 178.
26:10 Manu II, 179.
26:11 Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in Sûtra I, 1, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed text.'--Haradatta.
26:12 The term vamsya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,' consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual family, and call it a vidyâvamsa, vidyâparamparâ. Manu II, 205.
26:13 'Another (commentator) says, "He, the pupil, must embrace their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw his teacher do it)." Because the word "but" is used in the Sûtra, he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of his studies).'--Haradatta.
27:14 'More than one teacher,' i.e. several, who have taught him the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda only.
This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time, just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the subject which he began with him.
27:18 'Religious, ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher; the father, on failure of the father; the mother, on failure of all (the pupil) himself.'--Haradatta.
27:19 Manu II, 245 and 246; Yâgñ. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud, X, 125.
27:20 'The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaisya, and of a Sûdra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates dreadful deeds.'--Haradatta.
28:24 Manu II, 119.
28:26 See above, I, 1, 1, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta states that the permission to. leave the teacher is to be restricted to those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation.
28:27 Manu II, 208-212.
28:28 'The use of the present "adhyâpayati," shows that this rule holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such a man.'--Haradatta.
28:29 'Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, according to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, one-fourth from his fellow students, one-fourth he is taught by time.'-- Haradatta.
28:30 Manu II, 2, 207-209.
29:1 8. Haradatta does not connect this Sûtra with the preceding one. He explains it by itself: '(We will now declare) how a student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to behave.'
29:6 'If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, "Oh, what a beautiful dish!" in such a manner, that his desire to obtain it becomes apparent.'--Haradatta.
29:7 This opinion is contrary to Âpastamba's view given in Sûtras 2 and 3 above.
30:10 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs), he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches the ground on all sides.'--Haradatta.
30:11 Manu II, 119.
30:12 This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204.
30:13 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command. He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.'--Haradatta.
30:15 Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, I, 2, 6, 29.
31:17 This and the following Sûtras refer to a person who has finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sûtra 8, apply to the time of studentship also.
31:24 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 126.
32:26 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind improperly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a pupil."'--Haradatta.
32:29 But see also Manu. VIII, 299, where corporal punishment is permitted.
32:1 9. The Upâkarma is the ceremony which is performed every year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. 'Because Âpastamba uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to study later in the night.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 95; Yâgñ. I, 142, 143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X. 130 and 134.
33:2 The term lasts therefore for five months; (i.e. latter half of, Srâvana, Bhârapada, Âsvina, Kârttika, Mârgasîrsha, and the first half of Pausha.) The Rohinî-day of Pausha is meant.
33:3 'According to this latter opinion the Upâkarma should be performed on the full moon of Bhâdrapada, as has been taught in another work (Manu IV, 95); the (time of the) Utsargana, (the solemn closing of the term) should be advanced; and after the Utsargana has been performed, one may study the Veda during the light nights of each month until the full moon of Srâvana, in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already; and in the dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedâṅgas, i.e. grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of Srâvana the Upâkarma should be performed once more, and that part of the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.'--Haradatta.
33:4 Nigarnâh, 'high-roads,' are squares and the like.--Haradatta.
33:6 The Samyâ is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 116; Yâgñ. I, 148.
33:8 'Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyi.' This must be understood from. Sûtra 6.
34:9 Yâgñ. I, 148.
34:13 The last part of the Sûtra may also be interpreted: 'Thus she will be blessed with children.'--Haradatta.
34:14 Manu IV, 108; Yâgñ. I, 148.
34:18 Haradatta explains Bâhya, 'outcasts,' by 'robbers, such as Ugras and Nishâdas.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts as live in the forest or outside the village in the Vâdî, like the Dhers, Mahârs, Mângs of the present day. Most of these tribes however, are or were given to thieving. See Kullûka on Manu X, 2 9, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.
35:19 Yâgñ. I, 150.
35:20 Manu IV, 106; Yâgñ. I, 145. This rule refers to the rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons) he orders below a longer (cessation).'--Haradatta.
35:27 Manu IV, 120; Yâgñ. I, 151.
35:28 '"For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 113; Yâgñ. I, 146.
36:1 10. The three full-moon days are Phâlgunî (February-March), Âshâdhî (June-July), Kârttikî (October-November).
36:2 The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irregularity occurs below, I, 3, 11, 3 1. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony. which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. 'In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions mentioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 119; Yâgñ. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are fathers-in-law, uncles, &c.
36:3 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts. 'Haradatta. Yâgñ. I, 144.
36:6 The word anubhâvinah, interpreted by Haradatta as 'persons who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways by others; firstly, as 'the mourners,' and secondly, as 'Samânodakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the Sûtra ought to be-translated thus: 'On the death of gentiles beyond the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.'
37:7 Regarding the Dikshâ initiation,' see Aitareya-brâhmana I, 1, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 309 seq.
37:8 Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off, except in the case mentioned in the following Sûtra.
37:9 Sattras, 'sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer than twelve days.
37:10 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared above, Sûtra 4.'--Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sûtra is to be connected with Sûtra 4.
37:11 'Because the word "death "is used here, death only is the reason (for stopping, the reading), in the case of Gurus and the rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sûtra 2 and the following ones).' --Haradatta.
38:15-16. Manu II, 73.
38:17 Manu II, 73.
38:18 Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of the persons engaged in study. Manu IV, 122.
38:19 The ekasrika, 'solitary jackal,' is now called Bâlu or Pheough, and is considered to be the constant companion of a tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, considered to be an evil omen. Yâgñ. I, 148; Manu IV, 108, 115 and 123.
38:21 Manu IV, 121.
39:22 Manu IV, 121.
39:24 Manu IV, 107; Yâgñ. I, 150.
39:25 Manu IV, 121.
39:26 'Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study.'--Haradatta.
39:27 Manu IV, 121; Yâgñ. I, 149.
39:28 Manu IV, 112; Yâgñ. I, 146.
39:29 If that food has not been digested by the end of that time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been digested.'--Haradatta.
39:30 'Because in this Sûtra the expression "food not given at a Srâddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sûtra refers to "food eaten at a Srâddha."'--Haradatta. This explanation is not at all improbable.
40:1 11. The Black Yagur-veda, to which Âpastamba belongs, is divided throughout into books called Kândas.
40:3 Haradatta names as such gods, Nandîsvara and Kubera. Other commentators, however, explain Manushyaprakriti by Manushyamukha, 'possessing human faces.' A similar rule occurs Gautama XVI, 34, Where a Manushyayagña is mentioned as a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his Commentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers the term to the sacraments like the Sîmantonnayana, and then adds, that some explain it to mean 'a sacrifice to gods who formerly were men.'
40:4 This Sûtra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28.
40:6 Haradatta's commentary on this Sûtra is very meagre, and he leaves the word anuvâkyam unexplained. I am not ccrtain that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the statements of the Grihya-sutras regarding the order of studying. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132.
41:7 Yâgñ. I, 145. This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka or 'such a one which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned! Above (I, 3, 9, 1) the yearly -performance of the Upâkarma and Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic term has been prescribed. In this Sûtra the performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the Pârâyana or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must. be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute rule to this effect has been given. Such Gñâpakas are of frequent occurrence in all Sûtras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties of their interpretation.
41:8 Yâgñ. I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122.
41:11 Others explain the Sûtra thus: 'If he meets fellow-students, after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with them on that day.'
42:15 Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 113.
42:16 Yâgñ. I, 51; Manu IV, 120.
42:20 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba uses the word Anuvâka in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be studied. Others think, that by Anuvâka, the Samhitâ and the Brâhmana are meant, and that the study of the Aṅgas is permitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring festival, which, according to the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of Kaitra, about the beginning of April.
42:21 'Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a penance, not the Brahmayagña, must be performed'--Haradatta.
42:23 See Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 11, 1 and 11; Âsv. Gri. Sû. III, 2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brâhmanas mostly recite at the daily Brahmayagña, 'Veda-offering,' one particular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. A few learned Brâhmana friends, however, have assured me, that they still recite the whole of their Sâkhâ every year according to this rule of Âpastamba.
43:25 Yâgñ. I, 149; Manu IV, 106, 120, 127; Taitt. Âr. II, 15, 1.
43:26 Manu IV, 109, 116.
43:27 Manu IV, 103 and 104.
43:30 Yâgñ. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118.
43:31 Manu IV, 104, and see above.
44:32 One muhûrta = 48 minutes.
44:36 Other commentators interpret the Sûtra in a different sense. They take it to mean: 'And (luring the night (from the twelfth to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study at all, be it in or out of term).'
44:37 'What has been studied before, must not be studied (again) at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.'-- Haradatta.
44:38 Haradatta thinks that by 'Parishad,' Manu's and other Dharma-sâstras are meant. This explanation is, however, not exact. Parishad, 'assemblage,' means, in the language of the Sâstras, either a Pañk, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg Dict. s. v.) The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sûtra. By 'Parishadah' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 40. Prâtividyam yân smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each of the Vedas.'
45:1 12. 'It procures as much reward as penance.'--Haradatta. Manu II, 166; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs frequently in the Brâhmanas, e.g. Taitt. Âr. II, 14, 3.
45:2 Regarding the proper position at the 'Veda-offering,' or daily recitation, see above, I, 3, 11, 2 3, and Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 3. Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this Sûtra occur Taitt. Âr II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ought to be observed that the Taitt. Âr. in both places has the word 'vragan,' which is also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2.
45:3 See Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very similar to that quoted by Âpastamba occurs. Vashat and the other exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri-priest, serve as signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.
46:5 'Some suppose that the words Bhûh Bhuvah and Suvah &c. (are to be used only) if one studies the Brâhmana portion of the Veda, not every where.'-- Haradatta.
46:6 Haradatta explains Âryas by visishtâh, 'excellent ones,' i.e. persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.
46:8 See above, I, 1, 4, 9 and 10. and notes.
47:10 How then is their existence known? 'They are inferred from usage.' '"Usage" means the teaching of the law-books and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other (authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Brâhmanas. For how could otherwise (Rishis like Manu) teach in their works or practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found? And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed texts (i.e. saw them).'-- Haradatta.
47:11 Compare above, I, 1, 4, 8-10.
47:13 The consequence of the introduction of these rules into a Smriti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Smârta penance and not by a Srauta one.
47:14 The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called 'great sacrifices,' by way of laudation only, the particular laws binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be transferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the p. 48 term 'great sacrifices,' see also Taitt. Âr. II, 11, 10, 1 seq., and Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 59 6, 1.
48:1 13. Taitt. Âr. II, 10, 2 and 3, and Satapatha-br. loc. cit. 2. Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devayagña, mentioned in the Sûtra, to be different from the Vaisvadeva, but that he holds it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this Vaisvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.
48:2 'Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.'--Haradatta.
48:5 Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and adds that a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be forbidden.
48:6 Compare also Taitt. Âr. I, 2, 4, and Manu II, 74.
49:9 The example given in the Sûtra is that of the Punyâhavâkana, which precedes every Grihya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer requests a number of invited Brâhmanas to wish him success. The complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karmanah punyâham bhavanto bruvantviti, 'Om, wish that the day may be auspicious for the performance of the ceremony.' The Brâhmanas: Om punyâham karmana itî, 'Om, may the day be auspicious for the ceremony.' In the same manner the Brâhmanas afterwards wish 'welfare,' svasti, 'prosperity,' vriddhi, to the sacrificer.
49:10 Manu II, 112.
49:11 The meaning of Hârita is, that the vow of obedience is required for the Trihsrâvana and Tr.ihsahavakana, which Âpastamba exempted in the preceding Sûtra. It follows from this rule that the Aṅgas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied under a vow of obedience.
50:13 This rule is a Supplement to I, 2, 7, 29.
50:14 '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning, or character.'-- Haradatta.
50:16 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after instruction has been completed; according to others, to the time of studentship.'--Haradatta. But see Manu II, 151 seq.
51:1 14. The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter.
51:3 Manu II, 109-115.
51:5 Manu II, 218.
51:6 Manu II, 228, 215.
51:7 The word Gurus, 'venerable persons,' includes besides the teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sûtra, an elder brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35.
51:8 'That is to say, whether he himself or "the venerable persons" undertook the journey.'--Haradatta.
51:9 Manu II, 133.
51:10 See above, I, 4, 13, 2.
52:11 Manu II, 130.
52:12 The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must depend on their learning and virtue,
52:13 Manu II, 134.
52:16 This Sûtra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not 'Gurus.'
52:17 Manu II, 120.
52:18 'Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5, 15, 7 seq.
53:23 He shall say, 'I salute,' not 'I, N. N., salute.' Manu II, 123.
53:24 Âpastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Manu II, 216.
53:25 This verse, which is found with slight variations in most Smritis contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135.
53:26 Of course. in case the person addressed is a Brahman. Manu II, 127. Kullûka quotes under this verse the above and the following Sûtras. But his quotation has only a faint resemblance to our text.
53:28 That is to say in these terms I hope you have not lost any cattle or other property!'--Haradatta.
54:31 He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and do it in these terms: 'Mother, or sister, what can I do for you? Don't be afraid!' &c.--Haradatta.
54:1 15. Taitt. Âr. II, 1, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58.
54:2 Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Yâgñ. I, 192; Manu V, 128.
54:3 The ceremony of 'sipping water' may be performed in two ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a river, pond, &c., or he may get the water poured into his hand by another person. But, according to Âpastamba, he must not take a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, as some Smritis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Âpastamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, 1, 4, 21. This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to touch the right wrist with the left hand while drinking.
55:4 'Some think, that this Sûtra is intended to forbid also the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, according to this Sûtra, it is allowed to use for "sipping" drops of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes [because the Sûtra emphatically excludes "rain-drops only].'--Haradatta.
55:6 Manu II, 61. 'Because the term "heated by fire" is used, there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In the same manner the use of, "hot" water only is usually forbidden in the Smritis.'-- Haradatta.
55:7 'Because the phrase "with empty hands" is used, he commits no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some declare, that the term "touching water" (rendered by "washing means "sipping water."'--Haradatta.
55:11 The translation given above is based on the interpretation of Haradatta, who considers that Âpastamba holds 'crossing a river' to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right interpretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, 'But he shall sip water after having come out (of the river or tank).'
55:12 '"On the fire used for Vedic or Smârta sacrifices or for household purposes.". . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.'--Haradatta.
56:14 Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite certain that my translation is correct.
56:15 Manu V, 118.
56:17 This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt by the comparison of a verse of Manu.
56:18 Manu IV, 142; Yâgñ. I, 155.
56:20 Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other explanations of this Sûtra. Some say, that the Srauta fire may be kindled by blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Vâgasaneyaka, but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fall upon it.
56:21 Manu IV, 54.
57:22 The last condition mentioned in the Sûtra indicates, that the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purification by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with water from wells.
57:23 Manu V, 138.
57:1 16. Haradatta takes âkam here to mean 'to drink water,' and thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. Others refer the prohibition to 'sipping water for the sake of purification,' and translate, 'He shall not sip water standing or in a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.
57:2 Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Yâgñ. I, 20 and 27; Weber. Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied from other Smritis. The rule quoted by him is as follows: 'The performer should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Mâsha-bean. p. 58 The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vaisya the palate. A Sûdra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.'
58:7 The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the small finger.
58:9 Manu V, 138.
58:11 Haradatta observes that this Sûtra shows, that every other foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the food 'leavings' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141.
58:12 Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.
59:14 Manu V, 145.
59:18 The term "ten days" is used in order to indicate the time of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is shorter.)'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 217.
59:19 A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, she exclusively occupies the Sûtikâgriha, or lying-in chamber. Manu IV, 217.
59:20 Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of 'one hundred bows' a lamp and water-vessel, and to eat (beyond that distance).
60:21 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or earth, and praising it.'--Haradatta.
60:22 Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if in bringing it, the Sûdra has touched it.--Haradatta.
60:23 Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified butter, and may be eaten.'--Haradatta.
60:24 Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhâyana, which enumerates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles, nail-parings, excrements of rats.' The rule must be understood as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with the food.
60:26 Manu IV, 207: Yâgñ. I, 167, 168. This Sûtra must be read with Sûtra 23 above.
60:30 Manu IV, 208; Yâgñ. I, 167. Apapâtras are persons whom one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. Kandâlas, Patitas, a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after confinement. See also above, I, 1, 3, 25.
61:32 Haradatta thinks, that as the Sûtra has the feminine gender, dâsî, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But others forbid also this.
61:1 17. 'Some say, that this Sûtra indicates that the touch of a Sûdra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others hold that a Sûdra's touch defiles always, and that the Sûtra is intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinnertime.'--Haradatta.
61:2 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, nor possess learning and virtue.'--Haradatta.
61:3 According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is called 'a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed in our days also. Manu IV, 2 12.
61:4 Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 167.
62:5 'As the text has avaghrâta, "smelt at," it does not matter if they smell the food from a distance.'--Haradatta.
62:11 'It must be understood from other Smritis, that brass is to be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and gold with water.'--Haradatta. Manu V, I 14.
62:12 Manu V, 115.
62:16 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water as will not spoil them.'--Haradatta.
63:18 Manu IV, 211; V, 9; Yâgñ. I, 167.
63:19 Manu V, 10, 24 and 25.
63:20 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba returns once more to the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes prepared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.
63:22 Manu V, 8; Yâgñ. I, 170.
63:23 Manu V, 8, 9; Yâgñ. I 170. 'Sandhinî, translated by "females that give milk while big with young," means, according to others, "female animals that give milk once a day."--Haradatta.
63:24 Manu V, 8.
63:26 Manu V, 5; Yâgñ. I, 176.
64:27 Haradatta observes that Âpastamba, finding the list of forbidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the Sishtas. The force of this Sûtra is exactly the same as that of I, 3, 11, 38.
64:28 Yâgñ. I, 171.
64:29 The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as 'forbidden animals,' Satapatha-br. I, 2, 1, 8; Aitareya-br. II, 1, 8; see also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, 11, 18; Yâgñ. I, 172, 176.
64:32 Yâgñ. I, 176.
64:33 Manu V, 12. Yâgñ. I, 172.
64:34 Manu V, 11; Yâgñ. I, 172.
64:35 Yâgñ. I, 172.
64:36 Manu V, 12; Yâgñ. I, 172. Other commentators take the whole Sûtra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to Sûtra 34. In that case the translation runs thus: ('Carnivorous birds are forbidden) except the Kruñka, Krauñka, Vârdhrânasa, p. 65 and Lakshmana.'--Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, because both the Kruñka, now called Kulam or Kûñk, and the Krauñka, the red-crested crane, now called Sâras (Cyrus), feed on grain. Kruñkakrauñka is a Vedic dual and stands for kruñkakrauñkâ or kruñkakrauñkau.
65:37 Manu V, 18; Yâgñ. I, 77. Pûtikhasha is, according to Haradatta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himâlayas.
65:39 Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must be understood in this sense.
65:1 18. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born man. or the offspring of a Vaisya and of a Sûdra-woman. Other persons of a similar character must be understood to be included by the term.'--Haradatta.
66:4 Also this rule seems to belong to Hârita, on account of its close connection with the preceding two.
66:8 Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Sûtras, a passage of the Khândogya Upanishad, I, 10, 1, and one from the .Rig-veda, IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other commentators explain this and the preceding three Sûtras differently. According to them the translation would run thus: 'If he himself does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps preferable.
66:9 Manu IV, 219, and 223.
67:11 If a Brâhmana who has been ordered to perform a penance, performs a Vaisvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been performed.'--Haradatta.
67:12 'The use of the part. perf. pass. "performed" indicates that he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.'--Haradatta.
67:14 Yâgñ. 1, 166.
67:15 Manu IV, 223
67:16 Manu IV, 209.
67:17 Manu IV, 209; Yâgñ. I, 168.
67:18 Manu IV, 2 10, 215; Yâgñ. I, 162-164.
67:19 Yâgñ. I, 164.
68:21 Manu IV, 212; Yâgñ. I, 162.
68:22 Manu IV, 210; Yâgñ. I, 161.
68:23 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a Soma-sacrifice.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-brâhmana III, 19.
68:25 Aitareya-brâhmana II, 1, 9.
68:27 Manu I V, 211; Yâgñ. I, 161.
68:28 The village or town messengers are always men of the lowest castes, such as the Mahârs of Mahârâshthra.
68:29 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic rite.'--Haradatta.
69:31 Haradatta gives the Sâkyas or Bauddhas as an instance. But it is doubtful, whether Âpastamba meant to refer to them, though it seems probable that heretics are intended.
69:32 Yâgñ. I, 160.
69:33 'Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines with anybody.'--Haradatta.
69:1 19. Manu IV, 207; Yâgñ. I, 161, 162. Another commentator explains anika, translated above 'he who learns the Veda from his son,' by 'a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavishtah with this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering him from fulfilling his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor to pay, which is also called Âkarita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.
69:2 'The object of this Sûtra is to introduce the great variety of opinions quoted below.'--Haradatta.
70:4 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,' but particularly 'practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering burnt-oblations.'--Haradatta.
70:10 Another commentator explains this Sûtra thus: 'He need not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not wish to do so.'--Haradatta.
70:13 See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses occur.
71:14 Manu IV, 211, 212.
71:15 Regarding the liberation of the thief, see Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the critical notes to the text.
72:7 20. The Sûtra is intended to show how the law should be ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of Yâgñ. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural âryâh shows that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See also Manu XII, 108 seq.
72:8 Manu I, 6.
72:11 This Sûtra, which specifies only one part of a Vaisya's occupations as permissible for Brâhmanas in distress, implies, according to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6; X, 82; Yâgñ. III, 35.
72:12 Manu X, 86-89; Yâgñ. III, 36-39.
73:13 The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the authority of Manu X, 90; Yâgñ. III, 39.
73:15 From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.'--Haradatta. Manu X, 94.
73:2 21. 'Since it is known that Muñga and Balbaga are kinds of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned (in Sûtra 1) that objects made of them (may be also sold).'--Haradatta.
73:4 Yâgñ. III, 35.
74:5 Manu XI, 180.
74:6 Regarding the definition of the word Apapâtra, see above, I, 5, 16, 29.
74:8 The crimes by which a person becomes Abhisasta are enumerated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term will be given.
74:9 Regarding the 'male Gurus' see above. By 'female Gurus' their wives are meant.
74:10 I.e. he need not perform so heavy a penance.
75:20 'That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners, given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.'--Haradatta.
75:1 22. The knowledge of the Vedânta and the means which prepare men for the knowledge of the Âtman, the 'Self, the universal soul,' are placed in this Patala at the head of the penances, because they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means are absence of anger &c., which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6.
75:2 Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on the Âtman, which corresponds nearly to Saṅkara's Introduction to and Commentary on the first Sûtra of Bâdarâyana.
75:3 According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken from an Upanishad.
76:4 The spotless one &c. is the Paramâtman. The spots are merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Âtman, 'the soul.' To become immortal means 'to obtain final liberation.'
76:5 It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words 'idam idi ha idi ha' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus, 'idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same, and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise unknown Vedic forms.
76:6 The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My translation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything better.
76:7 The Sutra contains a further description of the Paramâtman.
77:8 Haradatta explains the word vishtap, 'heaven,' by 'pain-freed greatness,' apparently misled by a bad etymology. The heaven of the Âtman is, of course, liberation, that state where the individual soul becomes merged in the Brahman or Paramâtman, which is pure essence, intelligence and joy.
77:2 23. This Sûtra again contains a description of the Paramâtman. The translation strictly follows the commentary, though the explanation, given in the latter, is open to objections.
78:1 24. Manu XI, 128; Yâgñ. III, 266. Others explain the phrase vairayâtanârtham, 'for the expiation of his sin,' thus: 'He, who is p. 79 slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer (and thinks), "O that I might slay him in another life," for the removal of this enmity!'--Haradatta. I am strongly inclined to agree with the other commentator, and to translate vairayâtanârtham, 'in order to remove the enmity.' I recognise in this fine a remnant of the law permitting compositions for murder which was in force in ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the explanation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable interpretation for prâyaskittirthah, Sûtra 4. Haradatta, seduced by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vairayâtanârtham. I propose to translate our Sûtra thus: 'He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to the relations of the murdered man) in order to remove the enmity.' According to Baudhâyana I, 10. 19. 1 (compare Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges., vol. 41, pp. 672-76; Festgruss an Roth, pp. 44-52), the cows are to be given to the king.
79:2 Manu XI, 130. Yâgñ. III, 267.
79:3 Manu XI, 131. Yâgñ. III, 267.
79:6 Manu XI, 87. Abhisasta means literally 'accused, accursed,' and corresponds in Âpastamba's terminology to the mahâpâtakin of Manu and Yâgñavalkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it occasionally, e.g. II, 185.
80:9 'Others interpret âtreyî, "during her courses," by "belonging to the race of Atri."'--Haradatta.
80:11 Others say that he may carry the skull of any corpse. This Sûtra is to be construed with Sûtra 14, Sûtras 12 and 13 being inserted parenthetically.--Haradatta. Manu XI, 72-78; Yâgñ. III, 243.
81:20 'I.e. after having performed the penance, he shall take grass and offer it to a cow. If the cow approaches and confidingly eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance properly not otherwise.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 195 and 196.
81:21 Manu XI, 81.--Thus Haradatta, better, 'when-thrice he has fought with them,' see the Pet. Dict. s. v. râdh.
81:22 Manu XI, 83; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 67.
81:23 'Or the Sûtra may have reference to unrighteous gain acquired by false testimony and the like.'--Haradatta.
81:24 'Guru means "the father and the rest."--Haradatta.
81:25 'His sin is removed after death. Hence the meaning is that his sons or other (relations) may perform the funeral ceremonies and the like. But others think that the first part of the Sûtra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratvâpattih (can be p. 82 purified) is "connection by being received as a son or other relation."--Haradatta.
82:1 25. Haradatta's explanation of a 'Guru's wife' by 'mother' rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smritis, where a different 'penance' is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with other near relations. Manu XI, 105; Yâgñ. III, 259.
82:2 Manu XI, 104; Yâgñ. III, 259.
82:3 Manu XI, 91, 92; Yâgñ. III, 253.
82:4 I.e. who has stolen the gold of a Brâhmana. Manu VIII, 314, 316; XI, 99-101; Yâgñ. III, 257.
82:5 Manu VIII, 317.
82:6 Manu XI, 102.
82:8 According to Haradatta this Sûtra refers to all kinds of sins and it must be understood that the Krikkhra penances must be heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also below, I, 9, 27, 7 and 8.
83:9 Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Purâna.
83:11 Manu XI, 74; Yâgñ. III, 248.
83:12 The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel passage of Vasishtha XX, 25-26, show that this terrible penance is not altogether a mere theory of Âpastamba. Yâgñ. III, 247.
83:13 'According to some, the penance must be performed if all these animals together have been slain; according to others, if only one of them has been killed.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 132, 136 Yâgñ. III, 270-272.
84:1 26. 'A reason' for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, anger, or the desire to obtain meat.
84:2 Manu XI, 141; Yâgñ. III, 269. That 'animals without bones,' i.e. insects or mollusks, are intended in the Sûtra is an inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gautama, Manu, and Yâgñavalkya.
84:3 'A person who ought not to be abused, i. e. a father, a teacher, and the like.'--Haradatta.
84:5 The same penances, i. e. those prescribed I, 9, 24-I, 9, 26, 4. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is intended to teach that women shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the preceding Sûtras apply to women by an atidesa, and that, according to a Smârta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, that women are to perform one-half only of the penances prescribed for men.
85:7 The Anuvâka intended is Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12.
85:8 Taitt. Âr. II, 18, and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Manu XI, 199 seq.; and Yâgñ. III, 280. Regarding the Pâkayagña-rites, see Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 1, 2, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 203.
85:12 Regarding the Patanîya-crimes which cause loss of caste, see above, I, 7, 21, 7 seq.
86:13 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102. According to the greatness of the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and the prayers be repeated.
86:1 27. 'The oblations of sacred fuel (samidh) are not to be accompanied by the exclamation Svâhâ'--Haradatta.
86:2 Ishtis are the simplest forms of the Srauta-sacrifices, i.e. of those for which three fires are necessary.
86:3 For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 153-154.
87:7 The same penance is described, under the name Prâgâpatya krikkhra, the Krikkhra invented by Pragâpati, Manu XI, 212, and Yâgñ. III, 320.
87:9 Manu XI, 259.
87:11 The expression krishna varna, 'the black race,' is truly Vedic. In the Rig-veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, and sometimes the demons. Others explain the Sûtra thus: p. 88 A Brâhmana removes the sin, which he committed by cohabiting for one night with a female of the Sûdra caste, &c.--Haradatta. The latter explanation has been adopted by Kullûka on Manu XI. 179.
88:3 28. The same rule Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, Manu VIII, 339, But see also VIII, 331.
88:7 Haradatta remarks, that this Sûtra implicitly forbids to accept the heritage of an outcast.
89:11 A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 19 4.
89:15 '(This penance, which had been prescribed above, I, 9, 25, 1), is enjoined (once more), in order to show that it is not optional (as might be expected according to Sûtra 14).'--Haradatta.
90:5 29. Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a warrior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller turns out to be a Brâhmana, and the warrior did not know his caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he had rescued knowingly the property of a Brâhmana.
91:9 It is impossible to agree with Haradatta's explanation of the words to be addressed by Abhisastas to their children. No Vedic license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of the third. I propose the following: 'Go out from among us; for thus (leaving the guilt) to us, you will be received (as) Âryas.' it is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several very old corruptions, compare Baudhâyana II, 1, 2, 18.
91:11 'In like manner a man who has lost his rights, (can) beget a son, who possesses the rights (of his caste). For the wife is also a cause (of the birth of the son), and she is guiltless.'--Haradatta.
91:13 The statements now following are those with which Âpastamba agrees. Those contained in Sûtras 8-11 are merely the pûrvapaksha.
92:1 30. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Samâvartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Snâtaka, 'one who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.
93:10 The rule to wear white garments is given Yâgñ. I, 131; Manu IV, 35. 33.
93:13 Manu IV, 34.
93:15 Manu IV, 49.
94:18 Manu IV, 45, 46; Yâgñ. I, 137.
94:19 Manu IV, 56.
94:20 Manu IV, 48, 52; Yâgñ. I, 134.
94:22 The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu IV, 53; Yâgñ. I, 137.
94:2 31. Manu IV, 151; Yâgñ. I, 16.
95:5 Manu IV, 163.
95:8 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8, 23, 5), "speaking evil" has been forbidden, in connection with the means of salvation. And below (Sûtra 25) the (author) will declare that the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and the rest an extra penance must be performed.'--Haradatta.
95:12 Manu IV, 139.
95:13 Manu IV, 38.
95:14 'Or according to others, " He shall not pass between pillars supporting an arch."'--Haradatta.
96:16 Manu IV, 59.
96:17 Others explain (the Sûtra thus): He shall not announce it to others, if he sees (the souls of) good men falling from heaven on account of the expenditure of their merit, (i.e.) he shall not call attention to shooting-stars.'--Haradatta.
96:18 Manu IV, 37. 19. Manu IV, 153.
96:21 Manu IV, 73; Yâgñ. I, 140.
96:22 Manu IV, 80. 'This prohibition (given in the first part of the Sûtra) refers to Sûdras who are not dependents; to dependents the following (exception applies).'--Haradatta.
97:23 See above, I, 6, 23, 4 and 5, and Manu IV, 163.
97:1 32. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.
97:2 Manu IV, 40.
97:5 Manu IV, 72.
98:15 I.e. if the following day is a forbidden day, e.g. an Ashtamî. See also Manu IV, 99.
98:18 Manu IV, 60 and 61.
98:24 Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the verse alludes, in the following manner: 'A certain Rishi had two pupils, called Dharmaprahrâda and Kumâlana. Once they brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw them negligently into their teacher's house, without looking. One of the bundles struck the teacher's little son so that he died. Then the teacher asked his two pupils, "Which of you two has killed him?" Both answered, "Not I, not I." Hereupon the teacher, being unable to (come to a decision in order to) send away, the sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him, "Which of the two has killed the boy?" Then Death, finding himself involved in a difficult law-question, began to weep, and p. 99 giving his decision, said, "Oh Dharmaprahrâda, not to Kumâlana (the dative has the sense of the genitive), this sin is none of Kumâlana's!" Instead of declaring, "Dharmaprahrâda, thou hast done this,' he said, "The other did not do it." Still from the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the answer was, "The other has done it." "This was the decision which he gave crying."'--The reading of the text rendered in the translation is, dharmaprahrâda na kumâlanâya.
99:26 Manu IV, 77.
99:28 Manu IV, 70 and 71.
Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) . The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.
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