The Apastamba Sutras - Prasna II

Translated by Georg Bühler



1. After marriage the rites prescribed for a householder and his wife (must be performed). 1

2. He shall eat at the two (appointed) times, (morning and evening) 2

3. And he shall not eat to repletion.

4. And both (the householder and his wife) shall fast on (the days of) the new, and full moon,

5. To eat once (on those days in the morning) that also is called fasting. 5

6. And they may eat (at that meal) until they are quite satisfied.

7. And on (the anniversary of) that (wedding)-day they may eat that food of which they are fond. 7

8. And (on the night of that day) they shall sleep on the ground (on a raised heap of earth). 8

9. And they shall avoid connubial intercourse.

10. And on the day after (that day) a Sthâlîpâka must be offered. 10

11. The manner in which that offering must be 11 performed has been declared by (the description of the Sthâlîpâka) to be performed on the days of the new and full moon (the Pârvana).

12. And they declare (that this rite which is known) amongst the people (must be performed) every (year). 12

13. At every (burnt-offering), when he wishes to place the fire on the altar (called Sthandila), let him draw on that (altar) three lines from west to east and three lines from south to north, and sprinkle (the altar) with water, turning the palm of the hand downwards, and let him then make the fire burn brightly by adding (fuel). 13

14. He shall pour out (the remainder of) this water used for sprinkling, to the north or to the east (of the altar), and take other (water into the vessel).

15. The water-vessels in the house shall never be empty; that is the duty to be observed by the householder and his wife. 15

16. Let him not have connubial intercourse (with his wife) in the day-time.

17. But let him have connection with his wife at the proper time, according to the rules (of the law). 17

18. Let him have connubial intercourse in the interval also, if his wife (desires it, observing the restrictions imposed by the law). 18

19. (The duty of) connubial intercourse (follows from) the passage of a Brâhmana, ('Let us dwell together until a son be born.') 19

20. But during intercourse he shall be dressed in a particular dress kept for this purpose.

21. And during intercourse only they shall lie together,

22. Afterwards separate.

23. Then they both shall bathe;


1. Or they shall remove the stains with earth or water, sip water, and sprinkle the body with water.

2. Men of all castes, if they fulfil their (assigned) duties, enjoy (in heaven) the highest, imperishable bliss.

3. Afterwards when (a man who has fulfilled his duties) returns to this world, he obtains, by virtue of

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a remainder of merit, birth in a distinguished family, beauty of form, beauty of complexion, strength, aptitude for learning, wisdom, wealth, and the gift of fulfilling the laws of his (caste and order). Therefore in both worlds he dwells in happiness, (rolling) like a wheel (from the one to the other).

4. As the seed of herbs (and) trees, (sown) in good and well-cultivated soil, gives manifold returns of fruit (even so it is with men who have received the various sacraments).

5. The increase of the results of sins has been explained hereby.

6. Thus after having undergone a long punishment in the next world, a person who has stolen (the gold of a Brâhmana) or killed a (Brâhmana) is born again, in case he was a Brâhmana as a Kândâla, in case he was a Kshatriya as a Paulkasa, in case he was a Vaisya as a Vaina. 6

7. In the same manner other (sinners) who have become outcasts in consequence of their sinful actions are born again, on account of (these) sins, losing their caste, in the wombs (of various animals). 7

8. As it is sinful to touch a Kândâla, (so it is also sinful) to speak to him or to look at him. The penance for these (offences will be declared).

9. (The penance) for touching him is to bathe, submerging the whole body; for speaking to him to speak to a Brâhmana; for looking at him to look at the lights (of heaven).


1. Pure men of the first three castes shall prepare the food (of a householder which is used) at the Vaisvadeva ceremony. 1

2. The (cook) shall not speak, nor cough, nor sneeze, while his face is turned towards the food.

3. He shall purify himself by touching water if he has touched his hair, his limbs, or his garment.

4. Or Sûdras may prepare the food, under the superintendence of men of the first three castes.

5. For them is prescribed the same rule of sipping water (as for their masters). 5

6. Besides, the (Sûdra cooks) daily shall cause to be cut the hair of their heads, their beards, the hair on their bodies, and their nails.

7. And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on. 7

8. Or they may trim (their hair and nails) on the eighth day (of each half-month), or on the days of the full and. new moon.

9. He (the householder himself) shall place on the fire that food which has been prepared (by Sûdras) without supervision, and shall sprinkle it with water. Such food also they state to be fit for the gods.

10. When the food is ready, (the cook) shall place himself before his master and announce it to him (saying), 'It is ready.'

11. The answer (of the master) shall be, 'That well-prepared food is the means to obtain splendour; may it never fail!' 11

12. The burnt-oblations and Bali-offerings made with the food which the husband and his wife are to eat, bring (as their reward) prosperity, (and the enjoyment of) heaven. 12

13. Whilst learning the sacred formulas (to be recited during the performance) of those (burnt oblations and Bali-offerings, a householder) shall sleep on the ground, abstain from connubial intercourse and from eating pungent condiments and salt, during twelve days. 13

14. (When he studies the Mantras) for the last (Bali offered to the goblins), he shall fast for one (day and) night. 14

15. For each Bali-offering the ground must be prepared separately. (The performer) sweeps (the ground) with his (right) hand, sprinkles it with water, turning, the palm downwards, throws down (the offering), and afterwards sprinkles water around it. 15

16. (At the Vaisvadeva sacrifice) he shall offer the oblations with his hand, (throwing them) into the kitchen-fire or into the sacred (Grihya)-fire, and reciting (each time one of) the first six Mantras (prescribed in the Nârâyanî Upanishad). 16

17. He shall sprinkle water all around both times (before and after the oblations), as (has been declared) above. 17

18. In like manner water is sprinkled around once only after the performance of those Bali-offerings that are performed in one place. 18

19. (If a seasoning) has been prepared, (the Bali-offering should consist of rice) mixed with that seasoning.

20. With the seventh and eighth Mantras (Balis 20 must be offered to Dharma and Adharma) behind the fire, and must be placed the one to the north of the other.

21. With the ninth (Mantra a Bali offered to the waters must be placed) near the water-vessel (in which the water for domestic purposes is kept). 21

22. With the tenth and eleventh (Mantras, Balis, offered to the herbs and trees and to Rakshodevagana, must be placed) in the centre of the house, and the one to the east of the other. 22

23. With the following four (Mantras, Balis must be placed) in the north-eastern part of the house (and the one to the east of the other). 23


1. Near the bed (a Bali must be offered) with (a Mantra) addressed to Kâma (Cupid).

2. On the door-sill (a Bali must be placed) with (a Mantra) addressed to Antariksha (the air). 2

3. With (the Mantra) that follows (in the Upanishad, he offers a Bali) near the door. 3

4. With the following (ten Mantras, addressed to Earth, Air, Heaven, Sun, Moon, the Constellations, Indra, Brihaspati, Pragâpati, and Brahman, he offers ten Balis, each following one to the east of the preceding one), in (the part of the house called) the seat of Brahma. 4

5. He shall offer to the south (of the Balis offered before, a Bali) with a Mantra addressed to the Manes; his sacrificial cord shall be suspended over the right shoulder, and the (palm of his right hand shall be turned upwards and) inclined to the right. 5

6. To the north (of the Bali given to the Manes, a Bali shall be offered) to Rudra, in the same manner as to the (other) gods. 6

7. The sprinkling with water (which precedes and follows the oblation) of these two (Balis, takes place) separately, on account of the difference of the rule (for each case). 7

8. At night only he shall offer (the Bali to the Goblins), throwing it in he air and reciting the last (Mantra). 8

9. He who devoutly offers those (above-described), to the rules, (obtains) Balis and Homas), according eternal bliss in heaven and prosperity.

10. And (after the Balis have been performed, a portion of the food) must first be given as alms. 10

11. He shall give food to his guests first, 11

12. And to infants, old or sick people, female (relations, and) pregnant women. 12

13. The master (of the house) and his wife shall not refuse a man who asks for food at the time (when the Vaisvadeva offering has been performed).

14. If there is no food, earth, water, grass, and a kind word, indeed, never fall in the house of a good man. Thus (say those who know the law). 14

15. Endless worlds are the portion (of those householders and wives) who act thus.

16. To a Brâhmana who has not studied the Veda, a seat, water, and food must be given. But (the giver) shall not rise (to do him honour). 16

17. But if (such a man) is worthy of a salutation (for other reasons), he shall rise to salute him.

18. Nor (shall a Brâhmana rise to receive) a Kshatriya or Vaisya (though they may be learned). 18

19. If a Sûdra comes as a guest (to a Brâhmana), he shall give him some work to do. He may feed him, after (that has been performed). 19

20. Or the slaves (of the Brâhmana householder) shall fetch (rice) from the royal stores, and honour the Sûdra as a guest. 20

21. (A householder) must always wear his garment over (his left shoulder and under his right arm).

22. Or he may use a cord only, slung over his left shoulder and passed under his right arm, instead of the garment.

23. He shall sweep together (the crumbs) on the place where he has eaten, and take them away. He shall sprinkle water on that place, turning the palm downwards, and remove the stains (of food from the cooking-vessels with a stick), wash them with water, and take their contents to a clean place to the north (of the house, offering them) to Rudra. In this manner his house will become prosperous.

24. It is declared in the Smritis that a Brâhmana alone should be chosen as teacher (or spiritual guide). 24

25. In times of distress a Brâhmana may study under a Kshatriya or Vaisya.

26. And (during his pupilship) he must walk behind (such a teacher).

27. Afterwards the Brâhmana shall take precedence before (his Kshatriya or Vaisya teacher).


1. On the day on which, beginning the study of the whole sacred science, the Upanishads (and the rest, he performs the Upâkarma in the morning) he shall not study (at night). 1

2. And he shall not leave his teacher at once after having studied (the Veda and having returned home) 2

3. If he is in a hurry to go, he shall perform the daily recitation of the Veda in the presence of his teacher, and then go at his pleasure. In this manner good fortune will attend both of them.

4. If the (former) teacher visits him after he has returned home, he shall go out to meet him, embrace his (feet), and he shall not wash himself (after that act), showing disgust. He then shall let him pass first into the house, fetch (the materials necessary for a hospitable reception), and honour him according to the rule. 4

5. If his former teacher is) present, he himself shall use a seat, a bed, food, and garments inferior to, and lower (than those offered to the teacher.

6. Standing (with his body bent), he shall place his left hand (under the water-vessel, and bending with his other hand its mouth downwards), he shall offer to his teacher water for sipping. 6

7. And (he shall offer water for sipping in this manner) to other guests also who possess all (good qualities) together. 7

8. He shall imitate (his teacher) in rising, sitting, walking, about, and smiling. 8

9. In the presence (of his teacher) he shall not void excrements, discharge wind, speak aloud, laugh, spit, clean his teeth, blow his nose, frown, clap his hands, nor snap his fingers.

10. Nor shall he tenderly embrace or address caressing words to his wife or children.

11. He shall not contradict his teacher,

12. Nor any of his betters.

13. (He shall not) blame or revile any creature. 13

14. (He shall not revile one branch of) sacred learning by (invidiously comparing it with) another. 14

15. If he is not well versed in a (branch of) sacred learning (which he studied formerly), he shall again go to the (same) teacher and master it, observing the (same) rules as (during his first studentship).

16. The restrictions (to be kept) by the teacher from the beginning of the course of teaching to its end are, to avoid cutting the hair on the body, partaking of meat or of oblations to the Manes, and connection (with a woman). 16

17. Or (he may have conjugal intercourse) with his wife at the proper season.

18. He shall be attentive in instructing his pupils in the sacred learning, in such a manner that they master it, and in observing the restrictions (imposed upon householders during their teaching . He who acts thus, gains heavenly bliss for himself, his descendants and ancestors.

19. He who entirely avoids with mind, word, nose, eye, and ear the sensual objects (such as are) enjoyed by the touch, the organ, or the stomach, gains immortality.


1. If he has any doubts regarding the caste and conduct of a person who has come to him in order to fulfil his duty (of learning the Veda), he shall kindle a fire (with the ceremonies prescribed for kindling the sacrificial fire) and ask him about his caste and conduct. 1

2. If he declares himself to be (of) good (family and conduct, the teacher elect) shall say, 'Agni who sees, Vâyu who hears, Âditya who brings to light, vouch for his goodness; may it be well with this person! He is free from sin.' Then he shall begin to teach him.

3. A guest comes to the house resembling a burning fire. 3

4. He is called a Srotriya who, observing the law (of studentship), has learned one recension of the Veda (which may be current in his family). 4

5. He is called a guest (who, being a Srotriya), approaches solely for the fulfilment of his religious duties, and with no other object, a householder who lives intent on the fulfilment of his duties. 5

6. The reward for honouring (such a guest) is immunity from misfortunes, and heavenly bliss. 6

7. He shall go to meet such (a guest), honour him according to his age (by the formulas of salutation prescribed), and cause a seat to be given to him.

8. Some declare that, if possible, the seat should have many feet. 8

9. The (householder himself) shall wash the feet of that (guest); according to some, two Sûdras shall do it.

10. One of them shall be employed in pouring water (over the guest, the other in washing his feet).

11. Some declare that the water for the (guest) shall be brought in an earthen vessel. 11

12. But (a guest) who has not yet returned home from his teacher shall not be a cause for fetching water. 12

13. In case a (student comes, the host) shall repeat the Veda (together with him) for a longer time (than with other guests).

14. He shall converse kindly (with his guest), and gladden him with milk or other (drinks), with eatables, or at least with water.

15. He shall offer to his guest a room, a bed, a mattress, a pillow with a cover, and ointment, and what else (may be necessary). 15

16. (If the dinner has been finished before the arrival of the guest), he shall call his cook and give him rice or yava for (preparing a fresh meal for) the guest. 16

17. (If dinner is ready at the arrival of the guest), he himself shall portion out the food and look at it, saying (to himself), 'Is this (portion) greater, or this?'

18. He shall say, 'Take out a larger (portion for the guest).'

19. A guest who is at enmity (with his host) shall not eat his food, nor (shall he eat the food of a host) who hates him or accuses him of a crime, or of one who is suspected of a crime. 19

20. For it is declared in the Veda that he (who eats the food of such a person) eats his guilt.


1. This reception of guests is an everlasting (Srauta)-sacrifice offered by the householder to Pragâpati. 1

2. The fire in the stomach of the guest (represents) the Âhavanîya, (the sacred fire) in the house of the host represents the Gârhapatya, the fire at which the food for the guest is cooked (represents) the fire used for cooking the sacrificial viands (the Dakshinâgni). 2

3. He who eats before his guest consumes the food, the prosperity, the issue, the cattle, the merit which his family acquired by sacrifices and charitable works.

4. Food (offered to guests) which is mixed with milk procures the reward of an Agnishtoma-sacrifice. Food mixed with clarified butter procures the reward of an Ukthya, food mixed with honey the reward of an Atirâtra, food accompanied by meat the reward of a Dvâdasâha, (food and) water numerous offspring and long life. 4

5. It is declared in the Veda, 'Both welcome and indifferent guests procure heaven (for their host).'

6. When he gives food in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, (these gifts) are the Savanas (of that sacrifice offered to Pragâpati). 6

7. When he rises after his guest has risen (to depart), that act represents the Udavasânîyâ ishti (of a Vedic sacrifice). 7

8. When he addresses (the guest) kindly, that kind address (represents) the Dakshinâ. 8

9. When he follows (his departing guest, his steps represent) the steps of Vishnu. 9

10. When he returns (after having accompanied his guest), that (act represents) the Avabhritha, (the final bath performed after the completion of a sacrifice.)

11. Thus (a Brâhmana shall treat) a Brâhmana, (and a Kshatriya and a Vaisya their caste-fellows.)

12. If a guest comes to a king, he shall make (his Purohita) honour him more than himself. 12

13. If a guest comes to an Agnihotrin, he himself 13 shall go to meet him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, where didst thou stay (last night)?' (Then he offers water, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, here is water.' (Next he offers milk or the like, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may (these fluids) refresh (thee).'

14. (If the guest stays at the time of the Agnihotra, he shall make him sit down to the north of the fire and) murmur in a low voice, before offering the oblations: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy heart desires;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy will is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy wish is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy desire is.' 14

15. If a guest comes, after the fires have been placed (on the altar), but before the oblations have been offered, (the host) himself shall approach him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows give me permission; I wish to sacrifice.' Then he shall sacrifice, after having received permission. A Brâhmana declares that he commits a sin if he sacrifices without permission. 15

16. He who entertains guests for one night obtains earthly happiness, a second night gains the middle air, a third heavenly bliss, a fourth the world of unsurpassable bliss; many nights procure endless worlds. That has been declared in the Veda.

17. If an unlearned person who pretends to be [paragraph continues] (worthy of the appellation) 'guest' comes to him, he shall give him a seat, water, and food, (thinking) 'I give it to a learned Brâhmana.' Thus (the merit) of his (gift) becomes (as) great (as if a learned Brâhmana had received it).


1. On the second and following days of the guest's stay, the host shall not rise or descend (from his couch) in order to salute his (guest), if he has been saluted before (on the first day).

2. He shall eat after his guests. 2

3. He shall not consume all the flavoured liquids in the house, so as to leave nothing for guests. 3

4. He shall not cause sweetmeats to be prepared for his own sake. 4

5. (A guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda (together with the supplementary books) is worthy to receive a cow and the Madhuparka, 5

6. (And also) the teacher, an officiating priest, a Snâtaka, and a just king (though not learned in the Veda).

7. A cow and the Madhuparka (shall be offered) to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to a father-in-law, and to a king, if they come after a year has elapsed (since their former visit).

8. The Madhuparka shall consist of curds mixed with honey, or of milk mixed with honey. 8

9. On failure (of these substances) water (mixed with honey may be used).

10. The Veda has six Aṅgas (auxiliary works). 10

11. (The six auxiliary works are) the Kalpa (teaching the ritual) of the Veda, the treatises on grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, and metrics.

12. (If any one should contend that) the term Veda (on account of its etymology, implying that which teaches duty or whereby one obtains spiritual merit) applies to the complete collection of (works which contain) rules for rites to be performed on the authority of precepts, (that, consequently, the Kalpa-sûtras form part of the Veda, and that thereby) the number (fixed above) for those (Aṅgas) is proved to be wrong, 12

13. (Then we answer), All those who are learned in Mîmâmsâ are agreed that (the terms Veda, Brâhmana, and the like, which are applied to) the principal (works), do not include the Aṅgas (the Kalpa-sûtras and the rest). he remembers at any time during dinner,

14. If he remembers at any time that he has refused a guest, he shall at once leave off eating and fast on that day,


1. And on the following day (he shall search for him), feast him to his heart's content, and accompany him (on his departure). 1

2. (If the guest) possesses a carriage, (he shall accompany him) as far as that.

3. Any other (guest he must accompany), until permission to return is given.

4. If (the guest) forgets (to give leave to depart), the (host) may return on reaching the boundary of his village.

5. To all (those who come for food) at (the end of) the Vaisvadeva he shall give a portion, even to dogs and Kandâlas.

6. Some declare that he shall not give anything to unworthy people (such as Kandâlas).

7. A person who has been initiated shall not eat the leavings of women or of an uninitiated person. 7

8. All gifts are to be preceded by (pouring out) water. 8

9. (But gifts offered to priests) at sacrifices (are to be given) in the manner prescribed by the Veda.

10. The division of the food must be made in such a manner that those who receive daily portions (slaves) do not suffer by it.

11. At his pleasure, he may stint himself, his wife, or his children, but by no means a slave who does his work.

12. And he must not stint himself so much that he becomes unable to perform his duties.

13. Now they quote also (the following two verses):

'Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit living in the woods, thirty-two that of a householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a student. An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student, those three can do their work only if they eat; without eating (much), they cannot do it.' 13


1. The reasons for (which) begging (is permissible are), (the desire to collect the fee for) the teacher, (the celebration of) a wedding, (or of) a Srauta-sacrifice, the desire to keep one's father and mother, and the (impending) interruption of ceremonies performed by a worthy man. 1

2. (The person asked for alms) must examine the qualities (of the petitioner) and give according to his power.

3. But if persons ask for alms for the sake of sensual gratification, that is improper; he shall not take heed of that.

4. The lawful occupations of a Brâmana are, 4 studying, teaching, sacrificing for himself, officiating as priest for others, giving alms, receiving alms, inheriting, and gleaning corn in the fields;

5. And (he may live by taking) other things which belong to nobody. 5

6. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are the same, with the exception of teaching, officiating as priest, and receiving alms. (But) governing and fighting must be added. 6

7. (The lawful occupations) of a Vaisya are the same as those of a Kshatriya, with the exception of governing and fighting. (But in his case) agriculture, the tending of cattle, and trade must be added. 7

8. He (shall) not choose (for the performance of a Srauta-sacrifice) a priest who is unlearned in the Veda, nor one who haggles (about his fee).

9. (A priest) shall not officiate for a person unlearned in the Veda.

10. In war (Kshatriyas) shall act in such a manner as those order, who are learned in that (art of war).

11. The Âryas forbid the slaughter of those who have laid down their arms, of those who (beg for mercy) with flying hair or joined hands, and of fugitives. 11

12. The spiritual guide shall order those who, 12 (whilst) participating according to sacred law (in the rights of their caste), have gone astray through the weakness of their senses, to perform penances proportionate to (the greatness of) their sins, according to the precepts (of the Smriti).

13. If (such persons) transgress their (Âkârya's) order, he shall take them before the king.

14. The king shall (send them) to his domestic priest, who should be learned in the law and the science of governing.

15. He shall order (them to perform the proper penances if they are) Brâhmanas.

16. He shall reduce them (to reason) by forcible means, excepting corporal punishment and servitude. 16


1. In the cases of (men of) other castes, the king, after having examined their actions, may punish them even by death.

2. And the king shall not punish on suspicion.

3. But having carefully investigated (the case) by means of questions (addressed to witnesses) and even of ordeals, the king may proceed to punish. 3

4. A king who acts thus, gains both (this and the next) world.

5. The road belongs to the king except if he meets a Brâhmana. 5

6. But if he meets a Brâhmana, the road belongs to the latter. 6

7. All must make way for a (laden) vehicle, for a person who carries a burden, for a sick man, for a woman and others (such as old men and infants).

8. And (way must be made), by the other castes, for those men who are superior by caste.

9. For their own welfare all men must make way for fools, outcasts, drunkards, and madmen.

10. In successive births men of the lower castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties. 10

11. In successive births men of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they neglect their duties.

12. If he has a wife who (is willing and able) to perform (her share of) the religious duties and who bears sons, he shall not take a second. 12

13. If a wife is deficient in one of these two (qualities), he shall take another, (but) before he kindles the fires (of the Agnihotra). 13

14. For a wife who assists at the kindling of the fires, becomes connected with those religious rites of which that (fire-kindling) forms a part. 14

15. He shall not give his daughter to a man belonging to the same family (Gotra), 15

16. Nor to one related (within six degrees) on the mother's or (the father's) side. 16

17. At the wedding called Brâhma, he shall give away (his daughter) for bearing children and performing the rites that must be performed together (by a husband and his wife), after having enquired regarding (the bridegroom's) family, character, learning, and health, and after having given (to the bride) ornaments according to his power. 17

18. At the wedding called Ârsha, the bridegroom shall present to the father of the bride a bull and a cow. 18

19. At the wedding called Daiva, (the father) shall give her to an officiating priest, who is performing a Srauta-sacrifice. 19

20. If a maiden and a lover unite themselves through love, that is called the Gândharva-rite. 20

PRASNA II, Patala 5, KHANDA 12. Scroll Up

1. If the suitor pays money (for his bride) according to his ability, and marries her (afterwards), that (marriage is called) the Âsura-rite. 1

2. If the (bridegroom and his friends) take away (the bride), after having overcome (by force) her father (or relations), that is called the Râkshasa-rite. 2

3. The first three amongst these (marriage-rites are considered) praiseworthy; each preceding one better than the one following. 3

4. The quality of the offspring is according to the quality of the marriage-rite. 4

5. He shall not step on a spot which has been touched by the hand of a Brâhmana, without having sprinkled it with water.

6. He shall not pass between a fire and a Brâhmana,

7. Nor between Brâhmanas.

8. Or he may pass between them after having received permission to do so.

9. He shall not carry fire and water at the same time.

10. He shall not carry fires (burning in) separate (places) to one (spot). 10

11. If, whilst he walks, fire is being carried towards him, he shall not walk around it with his right hand turned towards it, except after it has been placed on the ground. 11

12. He shall not join his hands on his back.

13. If the sun sets whilst he sleeps, he shall sit up, fasting and silent, for that night. On the following morning he shall bathe and then raise his voice (in prayer). 13

14. If the sun rises whilst he is asleep, he shall stand during that day fasting and silent.

15. Some declare that he shall restrain his breath until he is tired.

16. And (he shall restrain his breath until he is tired) if he has had a bad dream,

17. Or if he desires to accomplish some object,

18. Or if he has transgressed some other rule. 18

19. (If he is) doubtful (whether) the result (of an action will be good or evil), he shall not do it.

20. (He shall follow) the same principle (if he is in doubt whether he ought) to study or not.

21. He shall not talk of a doubtful matter as if it were clear. 21

22. In the case of a person who slept at sunset, of 22 one who slept at sunrise, of one who has black nails, or black teeth, of one who married a younger sister before the elder one was married, of one who married an elder sister whose younger sister had been married already, (of a younger brother who has kindled the sacred Grihya-fire before his elder brother,) of one whose younger brother has kindled the sacred fire first, (of a younger brother who offers a Soma-sacrifice before his elder brother,) of an elder brother whose younger brother offered a Soma-sacrifice first, of an elder brother who marries or receives his portion of the inheritance after his younger brother, and of a younger brother who takes a wife or receives his portion of the inheritance before his elder brother,--penances ordained for crimes causing impurity, a heavier one for each succeeding case, must be performed.

23. Some declare, that after having performed that penance, he shall remove its cause. 23


1. Sons begotten by a man who approaches in the proper season a woman of equal caste, who has 1 not belonged to another man, and who has been married legally, have a right to (follow) the occupations (of their castes),

2. And to (inherit the) estate,

3. If they do not sin against either (of their parents). 3

4. If a man approaches a woman who had been married before, or was not legally married to him, or, belongs to a different caste, they both commit a sin.

5. Through their (sin) their son also becomes sinful.

6. A Brâhmana (says), 'The son belongs to the begetter.' 6

7. Now they quote also (the following Gâthâ from the Veda): '(Having considered myself) formerly a father, I shall not now allow (any longer) my wives (to be approached by other men), since they have declared that a son belongs to the begetter in the world of Yama. The giver of the seed carries off the son after death in Yama's world; therefore they guard 7 their wives, fearing the seed of strangers. Carefully watch over (the procreation of) your children, lest stranger seed be sown on your soil. In the next world the son belongs to the begetter, an (imprudent) husband makes the (begetting of) children vain (for himself).'

8. Transgression of the law and violence are found amongst the ancient (sages).

9. They committed no sin on account of the greatness of their lustre.

10. A man of later times who seeing their (deeds) follows them, falls.

11. The gift (or acceptance of a child) and the right to sell (or buy) a child are not recognised. 11

12. It is declared in the Veda that at the time of marriage a gift, for (the fulfilment of) his wishes, should be made (by the bridegroom) to the father 12 of the bride, in order to fulfil the law. 'Therefore he should give a hundred (cows) besides a chariot; that (gift) he should make bootless (by returning it to the giver).' In reference to those (marriage-rites), the word 'sale' (which occurs in some Smritis is only used as) a metaphorical expression; for the union (of the husband and wife) is effected through the law.

13. After having gladdened the eldest son by some (choice portion of his) wealth,


1. He should, during his lifetime, divide his wealth equally amongst his sons, excepting the eunuch, the mad man, and the outcast. 1

2. On failure of sons the nearest Sapinda (takes the inheritance). 2

3. On failure of them the spiritual teacher (inherits); on failure of the spiritual teacher a pupil shall take (the deceased's wealth), and use it for religious works for the (deceased's) benefit, or (he himself may enjoy it);

4. Or the daughter (may take the inheritance). 4

5. On failure of all (relations) let the king take the inheritance. 5

6. Some declare, that the eldest son alone inherits. 6

7. In some countries gold, (or) black cattle, (or) black produce of the earth is the share of the eldest. 7

8. The chariot and the furniture in the house are the father's (share). 8

9. According to some, the share of the wife consists of her ornaments, and the wealth (which she may have received) from her relations. 9

10. That (preference of the eldest son) is forbidden by the Sâstras. 10

11. For it is declared in the Veda, without (marking) a difference (in the treatment of the sons): Manu divided his wealth amongst his sons. 11

12. Now the Veda declares also in conformity with (the rule in favour of the eldest son) alone: They distinguish the eldest by (a larger share of) the heritage. 12

13. (But to this plea in favour of the eldest I answer): Now those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law declare a statement of facts not to be a rule, as for instance (the following): 'Therefore amongst cattle, goats and sheep walk together;' (or the following), 'Therefore the face of a learned Brâhmana (a Snâtaka) is, as it were, resplendent;' (or), 'A Brâhmana who has studied the Vedas (a Srotriya) and a he-goat evince the strongest sexual desires.' 13

14. Therefore all (sons) who are virtuous inherit.

15. But him who expends money unrighteously, he shall disinherit, though he be the eldest son. 15

16. No division takes place between husband and wife. 16

17. For, from the time of marriage, they are united in religious ceremonies,

18. Likewise also as regards the rewards for works by which spiritual merit is acquired,

19. And with respect to the acquisition of property.

20. For they declare that it is not a theft if a wife spends money on occasions (of necessity) during her husband's absence. 20


1. By this (discussion) the law of custom, which is observed in (particular) countries or families, has been disposed of. 1

2. On account of the blood relations of his mother and (on account of those) of his father within six degrees, or, as far as the relationship is traceable, he shall bathe if they die, excepting children that have not completed their first year. 2

3. On account of the death of the latter the parents alone bathe,

4. And those who bury them. 4

5. If a wife or one of the chief Gurus (a father or Âkârya) die, besides, fasting (is ordained from the time at which they die) up to the same time (on the following day). 5

6. (In that case) they shall also show the (following) signs of mourning:

7. Dishevelling their hair and covering themselves with dust (they go outside the village), and, clothed with one garment, their faces turned to the south, stepping into the river they throw up water for the dead once, and then, ascending (the bank), they sit down. 7

8. This (they repeat) thrice.

9. They pour out water consecrated in such a manner that the dead will know it (to be given to them). Then they return to the village without looking back, and perform those rites for the dead which (pious) women declare to be necessary.

10. Some declare, that these same (observances) shall also be kept in the case (of the death) of other (Sapindas).

11. At all religious ceremonies, he shall feed Brâhmanas who are pure and who have (studied and remember) the Veda. 11

12. He shall distribute his gifts at the proper places, at the proper times, at the occasion of purificatory rites, and to proper recipients. 12

13. That food must not be eaten of which (no portion) is offered in the fire, and of which no portion is first given (to guests).

14. No food mixed with pungent condiments or salt can be offered as a burnt-offering. 14

15. Nor (can food) mixed with bad food (be used for a burnt-oblation). 15

16. If (he is obliged to offer) a burnt-offering of food unfit for that purpose, he shall take hot ashes from the northern part of his fire and offer the food in that. That oblation is no oblation in the fire.

17. A female shall not offer any burnt-oblation, 17

18. Nor a child, that has not been initiated. 18

19. Infants do not become impure before they receive the sacrament called Annaprâsana (the first feeding).

20. Some (declare, that they cannot become impure) until they have completed their first year,

21. Or, as long as they cannot distinguish the points of the horizon.

22. The best (opinion is, that they cannot be defiled) until the initiation has been performed.

23. For at that (time a child) according to the rules of the Veda obtains the right (to perform the various religious ceremonies).

24. That ceremony is the limit (from which the capacity to fulfil the law begins).

25. And the Smriti (agrees with this opinion). 25


1. Formerly men and gods lived together in this world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices went to heaven, but men were left behind. Those men who perform sacrifices in the same manner as the gods did, dwell (after death) with the gods and Brahman in heaven. Now (seeing men left behind), Manu revealed this ceremony, which is designated by the word Srâddha (a funeral-oblation). 1

2. And (thus this rite has been revealed) for the salvation of mankind. 2

3. At that (rite) the Manes (of one's father, grandfather, and great-grand father) are the deities (to whom the sacrifice is offered). But the Brâhmanas, (who are fed,) represent the Âhavanîya-fire. 3

4. That rite must be performed in each month. 4

5. The afternoon of (a day of) the latter half is preferable (for it). 5

6. The last days of the latter half (of the month) likewise are (preferable to the first days).

7. (A funeral-oblation) offered on any day of the latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it procures different rewards for the sacrificer according to the time observed. 7

8. If it be performed on the first day of the half-month, the issue (of the sacrificer) will chiefly consist of females.

9. (Performed on the second day it procures) children who are free from thievish propensities.

10. (If it is performed) on the third day children will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows for studying (portions of the Veda).

11. (The sacrificer who performs it) on the fourth day becomes rich in small domestic animals.

12. (If he performs it) on the fifth day, sons (will be born to him). He will have numerous and distinguished offspring, and he will not die childless. 12

13. (If he performs it) on the sixth day, he will become a great traveller and gambler.

14. (The reward of a funeral-oblation performed) on the seventh day is success in agriculture.

15. (If he performs it) on the eighth day (its reward is) prosperity

16. (If he performs it) on the ninth day (its reward consists in) one-hoofed animals.

17. (If he performs it) on the tenth day (its reward is) success in trade.

18. (If he performs it) on the eleventh day (its reward is) black iron, tin, and lead.

19. (If he performs a funeral-oblation) on the twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.

20. (If he performs it) on the thirteenth day, he will have many sons (and) many friends, (and) his offspring will be beautiful. But his (sons) will die young. 20

21. (If he performs it) on the fourteenth day (its reward is) success in battle. 21

22. (If he performs it) on the fifteenth day (its reward is) prosperity.

23. The substances (to be offered) at these (sacrifices) are sesamum, mâsha, rice, yava, water, roots, and fruits. 23

24. But, if food mixed with fat (is offered), the satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and (lasts) a longer time,

25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given to worthy (persons).

26. Beef satisfies (the Manes) for a year, 26

27. Buffalo's (meat) for a longer (time) than that.

28. By this (permission of the use of buffalo's meat) it has been declared that the meat of (other) tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.


1. (If) rhinoceros' meat (is given to Brâhmanas seated) on (seats covered with) the skin of a rhinoceros, (the Manes are satisfied) for a very long time. 1

2. (The same effect is obtained) by (offering the) flesh (of the fish called) Satabali, 2

3. And by (offering the) meat of the (crane called) Vârdhrânasa.

4. Pure, with composed mind and full of ardour, he shall feed Brâhmanas who know the Vedas, and who are not connected with him by marriage, blood relationship, by the relationship of sacrificial priest and sacrificer, or by the relationship of (teacher and) pupil. 4

5. If strangers are deficient in the (requisite) good qualities, even a full brother who possesses them, may be fed (at a Srâddha).

6. (The admissibility of) pupils (and the rest) has been declared hereby.

7. Now they quote also (in regard to this matter the following verse):

8. The food eaten (at a sacrifice) by persons related to the giver is, indeed, a gift offered to the goblins. It reaches neither the Manes nor the 8 gods. Losing its power (to procure heaven), it errs about in this world as a cow that has lost its calf runs into a strange stable.

9. The meaning (of the verse) is, that gifts which are eaten (and offered) mutually by relations, (and thus go) from one house to the other, perish in this world.

10. If the good qualities (of several persons who might be invited) are equal, old men and (amongst these) poor ones, who wish to come, have the preference.

11. On the day before (the ceremony) the (first) invitation (must be issued). 11

12. On the following day the second invitation takes place. 12

13. (On the same day also takes place) the third invitation (which consists in the call to dinner). 13

14. Some declare, that every act at a funeral sacrifice must be repeated three times.

15. As (the acts are performed) the first time, so they must be repeated) the second and the third times.

16. When all (the three oblations) have been 16 offered, he shall take a portion of the food of all (three), and shall eat a small mouthful of the remainder in the manner described (in the Grihya-sûtra).

17. But the custom of the Northerners is to pour into the hands of the Brâhmanas, when they are seated on their seats, (water which has been taken from the water-vessel.) 17

18. (At the time of the burnt-offering which is offered at the beginning of the dinner) he addresses the Brâhmanas with this Mantra: 'Let it be taken out, and let it be offered in the fire.' 18

19. (They shall give their permission with this Mantra): 'Let it be taken out at thy pleasure, let it be offered in the fire at thy pleasure.' Having received this permission, he shall take out (some of the prepared food) and offer it.

20. They blame it, if dogs and Apapâtras are allowed to see the performance of a funeral-sacrifice.

21. The following persons defile the company if they are invited to a funeral-sacrifice, viz. a leper, a bald man, the violator of another man's bed, the son of a Brâhmana who follows the profession of a Kshatriya, and the son of (a Brâhmana who by marrying first a Sûdra wife had himself become) a Sûdra, born from a Brâhmana woman. 21

22. The following persons sanctify the company if they eat at a funeral-sacrifice, viz. one who has studied the three verses of the Veda containing the word 'Madhu,' each three times; one who has studied the part of the Veda containing the word 'Suparna' three times; a Trinâkiketa; one who has studied the Mantras required for the four sacrifices (called Asvamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and Pitrimedha); one who keeps five fires; one who knows the Sâman called Gyeshtha; one who fulfils the duty of daily study; the son of one who has studied and is able to teach the whole Veda with its Aṅgas, and a Srotriya. 22

23. He shall not perform (any part of) a funeral sacrifice at night. 23

24. After having begun (a funeral-sacrifice), he shall not eat until he has finished it. 24

25. (He shall not perform a funeral-sacrifice at 25 night), except if an eclipse of the moon takes place.


1. He shall avoid butter, butter-milk, oil-cake, honey, meat. 1

2. And black grain (Such as kulittha), food given by Sûdras, or by other persons, whose food is not considered fit to be eaten.

3. And food unfit for oblations, speaking an untruth, anger, and (acts or words) by which he might excite anger. He who desires a (good) memory, fame, wisdom, heavenly bliss, and prosperity, shall avoid these twelve (things and acts);

4. Wearing a dress that reaches from the navel to the knees, bathing morning, noon, and evening, living on food that has not been cooked at a fire, never seeking the shade, standing (during the day), and sitting (during the night), he shall keep this vow for one year. They declare, that (its merit) is equal to that of a studentship continued for forty-eight years.

5. (Now follows) the daily funeral-oblation. 5

6. Outside the village pure (men shall) prepare (the food for that rite) in a pure place. 6

7. New vessels are, used for that, 7

8. In which the food is prepared, and out of which it is eaten.

9. And those (vessels) he shall present to the (Brâhmanas) who have been fed.

10. And he shall feed (Brâhmanas) possessed of all (good qualities).

11. And he shall hot give the residue (of that funeral-dinner) to one who is inferior to them in good qualities.

12. Thus (he shall act every day) during a year.

13. The last of these (funeral-oblations) he shall perform, offering a red goat. 13

14. And let him cause an altar to be built, concealed (by a covering and outside the village).

15. Let him feed the Brâhmanas on the northern half of that.

16. They declare, that (then) he sees both the Brâhmanas who eat and the Manes sitting on the altar.

17. After that he may offer (a funeral-sacrifice once a month) or stop altogether.

18. For (by appearing on the altar) the Manes signify that they are satisfied by the funeral offering.

19. Under the constellation Tishya he who desires prosperity,


1. Shall cause to be prepared powder of white mustard-seeds, cause his hands, feet, ears, and mouth to be rubbed with that, and shall eat (the remainder). If the wind does not blow too violently, he shall eat sitting, silent and his face turned towards the south, on a seat (facing the) same (direction)the first alternative is the skin of a he-goat. 1

2. But they declare, that the life of the mother of that person who eats at this ceremony, his face turned in that direction, will be shortened. 2

3. A vessel of brass, the centre of which is gilt, is best (for this occasion).

4. And nobody else shall eat out of that vessel. 4

5. He shall make a lump of as much (food) as he can swallow (at once). 5

6. (And he shall) not scatter anything (on the ground).

7. He shall not let go the vessel (with his left hand);

8. Or he may let it go. 8

9. He shall swallow the whole mouthful at once, introducing it, together with the thumb, (into the mouth.)

10. He shall make no noise with his mouth (whilst eating).

11. And he shall not shake his right hand (whilst eating).

12. After he (has eaten and) sipped water, he shall raise his hands, until the water has run off (and they have become dry).

13. After that he shall touch fire.

14. And (during this ceremony) he shall not eat in the day-time anything but roots and fruit.

15. And let him avoid Sthâlîpâka-offerings, and food offered to the Manes or to the Gods.

16. He shall eat wearing his upper garment over his left shoulder and under his right arm. 16

17. At the (monthly) Srâddha which must necessarily be performed, he must use (food) mixed with fat.

18. The first (and preferable) alternative (is to employ) clarified butter and meat.

19. On failure (of these), oil of sesamum, vegetables, and (similar materials may be used).

20. And under the asterism Maghâ he shall feed the Brâhmanas more (than at other times) with (food mixed with) clarified butter, according to the rule of the Srâddha.


1. At every monthly Srâddha he shall use, in whatever manner he may be able, one drona of sesamum. 1

2. And he shall feed Brâhmanas endowed with all (good qualities), and they shall not give the fragments (of the food) to a person who does not possess the same good qualities (as the Brâhmanas).

3. He who desires prosperity shall fast in the half of the year when the sun goes to the north, under the constellation Tishya, in the first half of the month, for (a day and) a night at least, prepare a Sthâlîpâka-offering, offer burnt-oblations to Kubera (the god of riches), feed a Brâhmana with that (food prepared for the Sthâlîpâka) mixed with clarified butter, and make him wish prosperity with (a Mantra) implying prosperity. 3

4. This (rite he shall repeat) daily until the next Tishya(-day).

5. On the second (Tishya-day and during the second month he shall feed) two (Brâhmanas).

6. On the third (Tishya-day and during the third month he shall feed) three (Brâhmanas).

7. In this manner (the Tishya-rite is to be performed) for a year, with a (monthly) increase (of the number of Brâhmanas fed).}

8. (Thus) he obtains great prosperity.

9. But the fasting takes place on the first (Tishya-day) only.

10. He shall avoid to eat those things which have lost their strength (as butter-milk, curds, and whey).

11. He shall avoid to tread on ashes or husks of grain. 11

12. To wash one foot with the other, or to place one foot on the other,

13. And to swing his feet,

14. And to place one leg crosswise over the knee (of the other),

15. And to make his nails

16. Or to make (his finger-joints) crack without a (good) reason, 16

17. And all other (acts) which they blame.

18. And let him acquire money in all ways that are lawful.

19. And let him spend money on worthy (persons or objects). 19

20. And let him not give anything to an unworthy (person), of whom he does not stand in fear.

21. And let him conciliate men (by gifts or kindness).

22. And he may enjoy the pleasures which are not forbidden by the holy law.

23. (Acting) thus he conquers both worlds.


1. There are four orders, viz. the order of householders, the order of students, the order of ascetics, and the order of hermits in the woods. 1

2. If he lives in all these four according to the rules (of the law), without allowing himself to be disturbed (by anything), he will obtain salvation. 2

3. The duty to live in the teacher's house after the initiation is common to all of them. 3

4. Not to abandon sacred learning (is a duty common) to all.

5. Having learnt the rites (that are to be performed in each order), he may perform what he wishes.

6. Worshipping until death (and living) according to the rule of a (temporary) student, a (professed) student may leave his body in the house of his teacher.

7. Now (follow the rules) regarding the ascetic (Samnyâsin).

8. Only after (having fulfilled) the duties of that (order of students) he shall go forth (as an ascetic), remaining chaste. 8

9. For him (the Samnyâsin) they prescribe the following rules).

10. He shall live without a fire, without a house, Without pleasures, without protection. Remaining silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much food only in the village as will sustain his life, he shall wander about neither caring for this world nor for heaven. 10

11. It is ordained that he shall wear clothes thrown away (by others as useless).

12. Some declare that he shall go naked. 12

13. Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he shall seek the Âtman. 13

14. (Some say that) he obtains salvation if he knows (the Âtman).

15. (But) that (opinion) is opposed to the Sâstras. 15

16. (For) if salvation were obtained by the knowledge of the Âtman alone, then he ought not to feel any pain even in this (world).

17. Thereby that which follows has been declared. 17

18. Now (follow the rules regarding) the hermit living in the woods.

19. Only after (completing) that (studentship) he shall go forth, remaining chaste.

20. For him they give (the following rules):

21. he shall keep one fire only, have no house, enjoy no pleasures, have no protector, observe silence, uttering speech on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda only. 21


1. A dress of materials procured in the woods (skins or bark) is ordained for him. 1

2. Then he shall wander about, sustaining his life by roots, fruits, leaves, and grass. 2

3. In the end (he shall live on) what has become detached spontaneously.

4. Next he shall live on water, (then) on air, then on ether. 4

5. Each following one of these modes of subsistence is distinguished by a (greater) reward.

6. Now some (teachers) enjoin for the hermit the successive performance (of the acts prescribed for the several orders). 6

7. After having finished the. study of the Veda, having taken a wife and kindled the sacred fires, he shall begin the rites, which end with the Soma-sacrifices, (performing) as many as are prescribed in the revealed texts.

8. (Afterwards) he shall build a dwelling, and dwell outside the village with his wife, his children, and his fires, 8

9. Or (he may live) alone.

10. He shall support himself by gleaning corn. 10

11. And after that he shall not any longer take presents.

12. And he shall sacrifice (only) after having bathed (in the following manner):

13. He shall enter the water slowly, and bathe without beating it (with his hand), his face turned towards the sun.

14. This rule of bathing is valid for all (castes and orders).

15. Some enjoin (that he shall prepare) two sets of utensils for cooking and eating, (and) of choppers, hatchets, sickles, and mallets. 15

16. He shall take one of each pair (of instruments), give the others (to his wife), and (then) go into the forest.

17. After that time (he shall perform) the burnt-oblations, (sustain) his life, (feed) his guests, and (prepare) his clothes with materials produced in the forest. 17

18. Rice must be used for those sacrifices for which cakes mixed with meat (are employed by the householder).

19. And all (the Mantras), as well as the daily portion of the Veda, (must be recited) inaudibly.

20. He shall not make the inhabitants of the forest hear (his recitation). 20

21. (He shall have) a house for his fire (only).

22. He himself (shall live) in the open air.

23. His couch and seat, must not be covered (with mats).

24. If he obtains fresh grain, he shall throw away the old (store). 24


1. If he desires (to perform) very great austerities, he (shall not make a hoard of grain, but) collect food every day only, morning and evening, in his vessel. 1

2. Afterwards he shall wander about, sustaining his life with roots, fruits, leaves, and grass (which he 2

collects). Finally (he shall content himself with) what has become detached spontaneously. Then he shall live on water, then on air, (and finally) upon ether. Each succeeding mode of subsistence procures greater rewards.

3. Now they quote (the following) two verses from a Purâna: 3

4. Those eighty thousand sages who desired offspring passed to the south by Aryaman's road and obtained burial-grounds. 4

5. Those eighty thousand sages who desired no offspring passed by Aryaman's road to the north and obtained immortality.

6. Thus are praised those who keep the vow of chastity.

7. Now they accomplish also their wishes merely by conceiving them,

8. For instance, (the desire to procure) rain, to bestow children, second-sight, to move quick as thought, and other (desires) of this description.

9. Therefore on account of (passages) of the revealed texts, and on account of the visible results, some declare these orders (of men keeping the vow of chastity to be) the most excellent.

10. But (to this we answer): It is the firm opinion of those who are well versed in the threefold sacred learning, that the Vedas are the highest authority.

[paragraph continues] They consider that the (rites) which are ordered there to be performed with rice, yava, animals, clarified butter, milk, potsherds, (in conjunction) with a wife, (and accompanied) by loud or muttered (Mantras), must be performed, and that (hence) a rule of conduct which is opposed to these (rites) is of no authority.

11. But by the term burial-ground (in the text above given) it is intended to ordain the last rites for those who have performed many sacrifices, (and not to mean that dead householders become demons and haunt burial-grounds.) 11

12. The revealed texts declare that after (the burial follows) a reward without end, which is designated by the term 'heavenly bliss.'


1. Now the Veda declares also one's offspring to be immortality (in this verse): 'In thy offspring thou art born again, that, mortal, is thy immortality.'

2. Now it can also be perceived by the senses that the (father) has been reproduced separately (in the son); for the likeness (of a father and of a son) is even visible, only (their) bodies are different.

3. 'These (sons) who live, fulfilling the rites taught (in the Veda), increase the fame and heavenly bliss of their departed ancestors.'

4. 'In this manner each succeeding (generation increases the fame and heavenly bliss) of the preceding ones.'

5. 'They (the ancestors) live in heaven until the (next) general destruction of created things.'

6. At the new creation (of, the world) they become the seed. That has been declared in the Bhavishyatpurâna. 6

7. Now Pragâpati also says,

8. 'Those dwell with us who fulfil the following (duties): the study of the three Vedas, the studentship, the procreation of children, faith, religious austerities, sacrifices, and the giving of gifts. He who praises other (duties), becomes dust and perishes.' 8

9. Those among these (sons) who commit sin, perish alone, just as the leaf of a tree (which has been attacked by worms falls without injuring its branch or tree). They do not hurt their ancestors.

10. (For) the (ancestor) has no connection with the acts committed (by his descendant) in this world, nor with their results in the next.

11. (The truth of) that may be known by the following (reason):

12. This creation (is the work) of Pragâpati and of the sages.

13. The bodies of those (sages) who stay there (in heaven) on account of their merits appear visibly most excellent and brilliant (as, for instance, the constellation of the seven Rishis). 13

14. But even though some (ascetic), whilst still 14 in the body, may gain heaven through a portion of (the merit acquired by his former) works or through austerities, and though he may. accomplish (his objects) by his mere wish, still this is no reason to place one order before the other.


1. The general and special duties of all castes have been explained. But we will now declare those of a king in particular.

2. He shall cause to be built a town and a palace, the gates of both of which (must look) towards the south.

3. The palace (shall stand) in the heart of the town. 3

4. In front of that (there shall be) a hall. That is called the hall of invitation.

5. (At a little distance) from the town to the south, (he shall cause to be built) an assembly-house with doors on the south and on the north sides, so that one can see what passes inside and outside.

6. In all (these three places) fires shall burn constantly. 6

7. And oblations must be offered in these fires daily, just as at the daily sacrifice of a householder. 7

8. In the hall he shall put up his guests, at least those who are learned in the Vedas. 8

9. Rooms, a couch, food and drink should be given to them according to their good qualities.

10. Let him not live better than his Gurus or ministers. 10

11. And in his realm no (Brâhmana) should suffer hunger, sickness, cold, or heat, be it through want, or intentionally. 11

12. In the midst of the assembly-house, (the superintendent of the house) shall raise a play-table and sprinkle it with water, turning his hand downwards, and place on it dice in even numbers, made of Vibhîtaka (wood), as many as are wanted.

13. Men of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, may be allowed to play there. 13

14. Assaults of arms, dancing, singing, music, and the like (performances) shall be held only (in the houses) of the king's servants. 14

15. That king only takes care of the welfare of his subjects in whose dominions, be it in villages or forests, there is no danger from thieves. 15


1. A (king) who, without detriment to his servants, gives land and money to Brâhmanas according to their deserts gains endless worlds. 1

2. They say (that) a king, who is slain in attempting to recover the property of Brâhmanas, (performs) a sacrifice where his body takes the place of the sacrificial post, and at which an unlimited fee is given. 2

3. Hereby have been declared (the rewards of) other heroes, who fall fighting for a (worthy) cause. 3

4. He shall appoint men of the first three castes, who are pure and truthful, over villages and towns for the protection of the people. 4

5. Their servants shall possess the same qualities.

6. They must protect a town from thieves in every direction to the distance of one yogana. 6

7. (They must protect the country to the distance of) one krosa from each village. 7

8. They must be made to repay what is stolen within these (boundaries). 8

9. The (king) shall make them collect the lawful taxes (sulka). 9

10. A learned Brâhmana is free from taxes, 10

11. And the women of all castes, 11

12. And male children before the marks (of puberty appear),

13. And those who live (with a teacher) in order to study,

14. And those who perform austerities, being intent on fulfilling the sacred law, 14

15. And a Sûdra who lives by washing the feet,

16. Also blind, dumb, deaf, and diseased persons (as long as their infirmities last),

17. And those to whom the acquisition of property is forbidden (as Sannyâsins).

18. A young man who, decked with ornaments, enters unintentionally (a place where) a married woman or a (marriageable) damsel (sits), must be reprimanded. 18

19. But he does it intentionally with a bad purpose, he must be fined. 19

20. If he has actually committed adultery, his organ shall be cut off together with the testicles.

21. But (if he has had intercourse) with a (marriageable) girl, his property shall be confiscated and he shall be banished.

22. Afterwards the king must support (such women and damsels),

23. And protect them from defilement.

24. If they agree to undergo the (prescribed) penance, he shall make them over to their (lawful) guardians. 24


1. If (adulteresses) have performed (the prescribed penance), they are to be treated as before (their fault). For the connection (of husband and wife) takes place through the law.

2. (A husband) shall not make over his (wife), who occupies the position of a 'gentilis,' to others (than to his 'gentiles'), in order to cause children to be begot for himself. 2

3. For they declare, that a bride is given to the family (of her husband, and not to the husband alone).

4. That is (at present) forbidden on account of the weakness of (men's) senses. 4

5. The hand (of a gentilis is considered in law to be) that of a stranger, and so is (that of any other person except the husband).

6. If the (marriage vow) is transgressed, both (husband and wife) certainly go to hell.

7. The reward (in the next world) resulting from obeying the restrictions of the law is preferable to offspring obtained in this manner (by means of Niyoga).

8. A man of one of the first three castes (who commits adultery) with a woman of the Sûdra caste shall be banished.

9. A Sûdra (who commits adultery) with a woman of one of the first three castes shall suffer capital punishment. 9

10. And he shall emaciate a woman who has committed adultery with a (Sûdra, by making her undergo penances and fasts, in case she had no child).

11. They declare, that (a Brâhmana) who has 11 once committed adultery with a married woman of equal class, she perform one-fourth of the penance prescribed for an outcast.

12. In like manner for every repetition (of the crime), one-fourth of the penance (must be added).

13. (If the offence be committed) for the fourth time, the whole (penance of twelve years must be performed).

14. The tongue of a Sûdra who speaks evil of a virtuous person, belonging to one of the first three castes, shall be cut out.

15. A Sûdra who assumes a position equal (to that of a member of one of the first three castes), in conversation, on the road, on a couch, in sitting (and on similar occasions), shall be flogged. 15

16. In case (a Sûdra) commits homicide or theft, appropriates land (or commits similar heinous crimes), his property shall be confiscated and he himself shall suffer capital punishment.

17. But if these (offences be committed) by a Brâhmana, he shall be made blind (by tying a cloth over his eyes). 17

18. He shall keep in secret confinement him who violates the rules (of his caste or order), or any other sinner, until (he promises) amendment.

19. If he does not amend, he shall be banished.

20. A spiritual teacher, an officiating priest, a 20 [paragraph continues] Snâtaka, and a prince shall be able to protect (a criminal from punishment by their intercession), except in case of a capital offence.


1. If a person who has taken (a lease of) land (for cultivation) does not exert himself, and hence (the land) bears no crop, he shall, if he is rich, be made to pay (to the owner of the land the value of the crop) that ought to have grown. 1

2. A servant in tillage who abandons his work shall be flogged. 2

3. The same (punishment shall be awarded) to a herdsman (who leaves his work);

4. And the flock (entrusted) to him shall be taken away (and be given to some other herdsman).

5. If cattle, leaving their stable, eat (the crops of other persons, then the owner of the crops, or the king's servants), may make them lean (by impounding them); (but) he shall not exceed (in such punishment). 5

6. If (a herdsman) who has taken cattle under his care, allows them to perish, or loses (them by theft, through his negligence), he shall replace them (or pay their value) to the owners. 6a

7. If (the king's forester) sees cattle that have been sent into the forest through negligence (without a herdsman), he shall lead them back to the village and make them over to the owners.

8. If the same negligence (occur) again, he shall once impound them (and afterwards give them back).

9. (If the same fault be committed again) after that (second time), he shall not take care (of them).

10. He who has taken unintentionally the property of another shall be reprimanded, in case (the property be) fuel, water, roots, flowers, fruits, perfumes, fodder, or vegetables.

11. (If he takes the above-mentioned kinds of property) intentionally, his garment shall be taken away.

12. He who takes intentionally food when he is in danger of his life shall not be punished.

13. If the king does not punish a punishable offence, the guilt falls upon him. 13


1. He who instigates to, he who assists in, and he who commits (an act, these three) share its rewards in heaven and its punishments in hell.

2. He amongst these who contributes most to the accomplishment (of the act obtains) a greater share of the result.

3. Both the wife and the husband have power over (their) common property. 3

4. By their permission, others also may act for their good (in this and the next world, even by spending money). 4

5. Men of learning and pure descent, who are aged, clever in reasoning, and careful in fulfilling the duties (of their caste and order, shall be the judges) in lawsuits. 5

6. In doubtful cases (they shall give their decision) after having ascertained (the truth) by inference, ordeals, and the like (means). 6b

7. A person who is possessed of good qualities (may be called as a witness, and) shall answer the questions put to him according to the truth on an auspicious day, in the morning, before a kindled fire, standing near (a jar full of) water, in the presence of the king, and with the consent of all (of both parties and of the assessors), after having been exhorted (by the judge) to be fair to both sides. 7

8. If (he is found out speaking) an untruth, the king shall punish him. 8

9. Besides, in that case, after death, hell (will be his punishment). 9

10. If he speaks the truth, (his reward will be) heaven and the approbation of all created beings. 10

11. The knowledge which Sûdras and women possess is the completion (of all study). 11

12. They declare, that (this knowledge) is a supplement of the Atharva-Veda.

13. It is difficult to learn the sacred law from (the letter of) the Vedas (only); but by following the indications it is easily accomplished.

14. The indications for these (doubtful cases are), 'He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which is unanimously recognised in all countries by men of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to avarice, nor hypocrites. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.' 14

15. Some declare, that the remaining duties (which have not been taught here) must be learnt from women and men of all castes.

Suggestions for Further Reading


99:1 1. According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed, either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the family estate. He also states that the use of the dual grihamedhinoh indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites conjointly. Manu III, 67.

99:2 Haradatta thinks that this Sûtra is intended to prevent householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them perform the Prânâgnihotra at either meal. At the Prânâgnihotra the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he p. 100 eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, 'To Prâna svâhâ;' at the second, 'To Apâna svâhâ,' &c.

100:5 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 2.

100:7 Haradatta holds that the words 'on that day' do not refer to the days of the new and full moon, the Parvan-days, mentioned in Sûtra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food, of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already been given in Sûtra 6, by the term tripih, 'satisfaction'; and, secondly, that the singular 'on this day' does not agree with the plural 'on the Parvan-days.' Hence he comes to the conclusion that the words 'on that day' must refer to the wedding-day, mentioned in Sûtra 1, as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is, probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sûtra from Sûtra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sûtra 11. Mahâdeva, the commentator of the Hiranyakesidharma, adopts the view rejected by Haradatta.

100:8 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 10.

100:10 A Sthâlîpâka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot, sthâlî, is offered in the fire. A full description of this kind of sacrifice occurs, Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 1 seq.

100:11 The Pârvana Sthâlîpâka has been described by Âpastamba p. 101 in the Grihya-sûtra, III, 7. Again, Haradatta returns to the question whether the words on that day (Sûtra 7) refer to the Parvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word Pârvanena, 'by the rite to be performed on Parvan-days,' by which the Sthâlîpâka on Parvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer he preceding rules to the Parvan-days. He adds that some, nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.

101:12 They, i.e. the Sishtas, those learned in the law. 'Another commentator says, the rite which will be taught (in the following Sûtra), and which is known from the usage of the learned, is constant, i.e. must be performed in every case. That it is what the "learned" declare.'--Haradatta. The latter explanation of the Sûtra is adopted by Mahâdeva.

101:13 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 1-3.

101:15 Haradatta states that the object of the repetition of the words 'the householder and his wife' is to show that they themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator, the object of the repetition is to show that Sûtras 13 and 14 apply not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel (above, I, 1, 4, 14 seq.), should also perform the rites taught in the preceding Sûtras.

102:17 See Manu III, 46-48; Yâgñ. I, 79, 80.

102:18 Manu III, 45; Yâgñ. I, 81.

102:19 See Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 1, 5.


103:6 2. Manu XII, 55; Yâgñ. III, 206, 207. A Paulkasa is said to be the offspring of a Nishâda and a Kshatriya woman. See the Pet. Dict. s.v. A Vaina is a rope-dancer, or equilibrist.

103:7 Manu XII, 52.


104:1 3. 'The food which is used at the Vaisvadeva, i. e. the food prepared for the meals of the householder and of his wife.'--Haradatta.

104:5 This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka, as it indicates that Âpastamba also recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the Smritis for Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras. See above, I, 5, 16, 2.

104:7 Usually in bathing both Âryas and Sûdras wear no dress except the langotî.

105:11 Manu II, 54.

105:12 Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door, or on the floor of the house. See below, Sûtra 16 seq.

105:13 Others explain this Sûtra thus: 'After having used for the first time these sacred formulas (which are to be recited in offering the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife) shall sleep,' &c.

105:14 Regarding the use of ekarâtra in the sense of 'a (day and a) night,' see above. The 'last' Bali-offering is that described below, II ,2, 4, 5.

105:15 'They say that the word "afterwards" is used in order to indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other (Upakâras) must be, offered between (the last two acts).'--Haradatta.

106:16 It is a disputed point with the commentators whether every Brâhmana may offer the Vaisvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire. The six Mantras, which are given Taitt. Âr. X, 67, 1, are: 1. Agnaye svâhâ, 'to Agni svâhâ'; 2. Somâya svâhâ, 'to Soma svâhâ'; 3. Visvebhyo devebhyah svâhâ, 'to all the gods svâhâ'; 4. Dhruvâya bhûmaya svâhâ, 'to Dhruva Bhûma svâhâ'; 5. Dhruvakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Dhruvakshiti svâhâ'; 6. Akyutakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Akyutakshiti svâhâ.' Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed to Agni svishtakrit, 'to the fire which causes the proper performance of the sacrifice,' while others leave out the second Mantra and give that addressed to Agni svishtakrit the sixth place. This latter is the order given in the Calcutta edition of the Taittirîya Âranyaka.

106:17 'Above, i.e. Grihya-sûtra, I, 2, 3, 8.'--Haradatta. The Mantras recited are: 1. at the first sprinkling, Adite ’numanyasva, 'Aditi permit'; Anumate ’numanyasva, 'Anumati permit'; Sarasvaty anumanyasva, 'Sarasvatî permit'; Deva Savitah prasuva, 'Divine Savitri permit'; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anvamamsthâh and prâsâvîh, 'thou hast permitted,' being substituted for anumanyasva and prasuva.

106:18 This Sûtra is a restriction of Sûtra 15.

106:20 The first six offerings constitute the Devayagña or Vaisvadeva, which is offered in the fire. Now follow the Bali-offerings, which are merely placed on the ground. 'Behind the fire' means to the east of the fire'; for the sacrificer must face the east.

107:21 The Mantra is, Adbbyah svâhâ, 'to the Waters svâhâ.'

107:22 The Mantras are, Osbadhivanaspatibbyah svâhâ, 'to the herbs and trees svâhâ'; Raksbodevaganebhyah svâhâ, 'to the Râkshasas and the servants of the gods svâhâ.'

107:23 These four Balis are sacred to the Grihâs, to the Avasânas, to the Avasânapatis, and to all creatures.


107:2 4. 'Others explain dehalî', "the door-sill," to mean "the door-case."'--Haradatta.

107:3 'Others explain apidhâna, "the panels of the door;" to mean "the bolt of the door."'--Haradatta. The offering is made to Nâma, 'the name, or essence of things.'

108:4 Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahmasadana, 'the seat of Brahman.' According to some, it is an architectural term, designating the centre of the house; according to others, it denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt-oblations, the Brahman or superintending priest is seated, i.e. a spot to the south of the sacred fire.

108:5 Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and forefinger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called 'the tîrtha sacred to the Manes.' See Manu II, 39.

108:6 'That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between the thumb and forefinger.'--Haradatta

108:7 In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the sacrificer turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water, beginning in the south and ending in the east. In sprinkling around an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be followed.

109:8 At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, 'To those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of prosperity. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, svâhâ. Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to the Bhûtas that roam about during the day,' and in the evening 'to the night-walkers.' Compare for the whole section Manu III, 90-92; Yâgñ. I, 102-104.

109:10 Manu III, 94 seq.

109:11 Manu III, 115; Yâgñ. I, 105.

109:12 Manu III, 114; Yâgñ. I, 105.

109:14 Manu III, 101 Yâgñ. I, 107. As read in the text, the first line of the verse has one syllable in excess. This irregularity would disappear if trinâ, the Vedic form of the nom. ace. plural, were read for trinâni, and it seems to me not improbable that trinâni is a correction made by a Pandit who valued grammatical correctness higher than correctness of metre.

110:16 Manu III, 99.

110:18 Manu III, 110-112; Yâgñ. I, 107.

110:19 Manu loc. cit.

110:20 'Hence it is known that the king ought to keep stores of rice and the like in every village, in order to show hospitality to Sûdra guests.'--Haradatta.

111:24 Manu II, 241, 242. From here down to II, 3, 6, 2, Âpastamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place, because the reception of a former teacher is to be described II, 3, 5, 4-11, and that of a 'learned guest' II, 3, 6, 3 seq.


111:1 5. This rule refers to the Upâkarma, to be performed yearly by householders. In our days, too, the custom is observed, and the whole Brahminical community change on this occasion their Genvîs or sacrificial cords in the month of Srâvana. The adherents of the various Sâkhâs of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upanishads are named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance. See also Satapatha-brâhmana X, 3, 5, 12.

111:2 Others consider that this Sûtra refers to the annual Upâkarma of the householder. In that case the translation would be, 'And after having performed the Upâkarma,' &c. Probably Âpastamba means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and to students who have returned home.

112:4 'Though he may suspect that the teacher had been defiled by the touch of a Kândâla or the like, still he shall not show disgust nor wash himself.'--Haradatta. Regarding the rule of receiving guests, see below, II, 4, 8, 6 seq.

112:6 According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word âkâryam, 'the teacher,' in this Sûtra, indicates that the rule holds good not only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former pupil, but on every occasion when he receives water for sipping.

112:7 'He is called samudeta, "possessed of all (good qualities) together," who is endowed with (good) birth, disposition, behaviour, (great) learning, and a (venerable) age.'--Haradatta.

112:8 The word syât is to be understood from Sûtra 5.

113:13 Haradatta states that 'speaking evil' is forbidden here once more in order that it should be particularly avoided.

113:14 'For example, he shall not say, "The Rig-veda is sweet to the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear," or "the Taittirîya-veda is a Sâkhâ consisting of leavings," or "the Brâhmana proclaimed by Yâgñavalkya is of modern origin."'--Haradatta. The second sentence refers to the story that Yâgñavalkya vomited the Black Yagur-veda, and his fellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it up. Regarding the third sentence, see Vârttika on Pânini IV, 3, 105, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 363.

113:16 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.


114:1 6. The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with the following Mantra: Bhagavan maitrena kakshushâ pasya sivena manasânugrihâna prasîda mâm adhyâpaya, 'venerable Sir, look on me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind and teach me.' The teacher elect then asks: Kimgotro ’si saumya, kimâkârah, 'friend, of what family art thou? what is thy rule of conduct?'

114:3 The object of this Sûtra is to show the absolute necessity of feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with the flames of his anger.

115:4 The object of this Sûtra is to complete the definition of the term 'guest' to be given in the following Sûtra. In my translation I have followed Haradatta's gloss. The literal sense of Âpastamba's words is,. 'He who, observing the law, has studied one recension of each (of the four) Vedas, becomes a Srotriya.' Haradatta says this definition would be contrary to the current acceptation of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for Âpastamba's times.

115:5 Manu III, 102, 103; Yâgñ. I, 111.

115:6 Yâgñ. I, 109; Manu III, 101.

115:8 Haradatta states that this is also Âpastamba's opinion.

115:11 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba is of opinion that it should be brought in a pot made of metal.

116:12 I.e. it is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to a student.

116:15 'Ointment, (i.e.) oil or clarified butter for anointing the feet.'--Haradatta. Manu III, 107.

116:16 Manu III, 108.

116:19 Manu IV, 213; Yâgñ. I, 162.


117:1 7. 'Prâgâpatya may mean either "created by Pragâpati" or sacred to Pragâpati."'--Haradatta.

117:2 in the first Sûtra the reception of guests had been compared to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analog is traced further in detail in this Sûtra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic sacrifice is the vitâna, or the use of three sacred fires. Hence Âpastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospitality to guests.

117:4 Regarding the Agnishtoma and the other sacrifices mentioned, see Aitareya-brâhmana III, 8; IV, 1; IV, 4.

118:6 The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this Sûtra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at a times of the day, and to further describe the similarity of a guest-offering to a Vedic sacrifice.

118:7 Regarding the Udavasânîyâ ishti, see Aitareya-brâhmana VIII, 5. It is the 'concluding ishti.'

118:8 Dakshinâ is the reward given to priests who officiate at a sacrifice.

118:9 'The steps of Vishnu' are three steps which the sacrificer has to make between the Vedi and the Âhavanîya-fire. See Pet. Diet. s. v.

118:12 'A guest,' i.e. such a one as described above, II, 3, 6, 4 and 5.

118:13 An Agnihotrin is a Brâhmana who offers certain daily burnt offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause renders tarpayantu, the reading of the Atharva-veda.

119:14 According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced; according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.

119:15 Haradatta states that the Brâhmana mentioned in the text is the Âharvana-brâhmana. See Atharva-veda. XV, 11-12.


120:2 8. Manu III, 117; Yâgñ. I, 105.

120:3 Flavoured liquids, i.e. milk, whey, &c.

120:4 Manu III, 106.

120:5 Manu III, 119 and 120; Yâgñ. I, 110;: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. A guest is also called goghna, 'cow-killer,' because formerly a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest. The rite is described by Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 31-33.

121:8 Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 5 and 6.

121:10 This Sûtra explains the term vedâdhyâya, '(a guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda,' which occurs above, Sûtra 5--Haradatta. See Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 111.

121:12 This Sûtra and the following one are directed against those who consider the Kalpa-sûtras to be a part of the Veda, the revealed texts. See also Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 95 seq.


122:1 9. Yâgñ. I, 113.

122:7 After a long discussion on the object of this Sûtra, Haradatta comes to the conclusion that it is given 'against the improper custom to dine out of the same vessel with one's wife and uninitiated children, which prevails in some countries.'

122:8 'Consequently a gift of food also.' The custom is to pour water, usually with the spoon called Darvî (Pallî), into the extended palm of the recipient's right hand.

123:13 Manu VI, 28; Yâgñ. III, 55.


123:1 10. Manu IV, 251; XI, 1 seq.; Yâgñ. I, 2 16. By the term arhat, I a worthy person,' a Brâhmana is here designated who has studied the Veda and performs an Agnihotra.

123:4 Manu I, 88; X, 15; Yâgñ. I, 118.

124:5 I.e. wild roots and fruits.

124:6 Manu I, 89; X, 77, 79; Yâgñ. I, 118, 119.

124:7 Manu I, 90; X, 78, 79; Yâgñ. loc. cit.

124:11 Manu VII, 91 seq.; Yâgñ. 1, 325.

124:12 Haradatta explains the words Sâstrair adhigatânâm, 'who whilst participating, according to the sacred law, (in the rights of their caste,)' by 'who have been sanctified according to the law by the sacraments, such as the Garbhâdhâna, and are entitled (to the rights and occupations of their caste).'

125:16 Probably this Sûtra is meant to give a general rule, and to exempt Brâhmanas in every case from corporal punishment and servitude. Manu VIII, 379-380.


125:3 11. See also below, II, 11, 29, 6.

125:5 Manu II, 139; Yâgñ. I, 117. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is given, though the precedence among the various castes has been already settled, in order to show that common Kshatriyas must make way for an anointed king.

126:6 Manu II, 138; Yâgñ. I, 117.

126:10 Manu X, 64, 65; Yâgñ. 1, 96.

126:12 Manu IX, 95; Yâgñ. I, 76.

126:13 Manu IX, 80, 81; Yâgñ. I, 73.

126:14 A wife who assists at the kindling of the fires for any sacrificial rite, becomes connected with that rite like any priest, and in that rite no other woman can take her place. Hence in the case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during the performer's lifetime, or at least as long as be is a householder, the performer cannot take another principal wife after be once has begun his sacrifice. If the wife of an Agnihotrin dies, he must marry again, and also kindle his fires afresh. Manu V, 167, 168; Yâgñ. I 80.

127:15 The term Gotra corresponds to the Latin Gens. It may be of two kinds, Vaidika for Brâhmanas and Laukika, 'worldly', for men of other castes. In the first case it denotes 'persons descended from the same Rishi;' in the second, 'persons distinguished by the same family name, or known to be descended from the same ancestor.' In our days Brâhmanas also have Laukika Gotras, which form subdivisions of the very large Vedic Gotras. Regarding the Vaidika Gotras, see Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-390, and particularly p. 387. Manu III, 5; Yâgñ. I, 33; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 75 seq.

127:16 The term yonisambandha, 'related (within six degrees),' corresponds to the more common Sapinda of Manu, Yâgñavalkya, and others; see the definitions given below, II, 6, 15, 2. In Âpastamba's terminology Sapinda has probably a more restricted sense. It seems very doubtful whether Haradatta's explanation of ka, translated by 'or,' is correct, and whether his interpolation of 'the father's' ought to be admitted. Probably Sûtra 15 refers to the father's side, and Sûtra 16 to the mother's side.

127:17 Manu III, 27; Yâgñ. I, 58.

127:18 Manu III, 29; Yâgñ. I, 59.

127:19 Manu III, 28; Yâgñ. I, 59.

128:20 Manu III, 32; Yâgñ. I, 61.


128:1 12. Manu III, 31; Yâgñ. I, 61. It must be understood that, at this rite, a regular sale of the bride must take place. If a suitor merely gives presents to the bride, that is not an Âsura-marriage.

128:2 Manu III, 33; Yâgñ. I, 61. Haradatta points out that the other law-books enumerate two additional marriage-rites, the Prâgâpatya or Kâya and the Paisâka. But Vasishtha I, 29-35, like Âpastamba, gives six rites only.

128:3 Manu III, 24, 25; Yâgñ. I, 58-60.

128:4 I.e. from praiseworthy marriages virtuous children are born, and from blamable marriages bad ones. Manu III, 42.

129:10 Another commentator says, 'He shall not throw (brands taken from) one fire into another fire.'--Haradatta.

129:11 The Sûtra implies that under other circumstances he must show this respect to a fire.

129:13 Manu II, 220.

129:18 Manu XI, 200.

129:21 See above, I, 11, 32, 22.

129:22 These sinners are, enumerated in nearly the same order, p. 130 Taittirîya-brâhmana III, 2, 8, 11 and 12, and Âp. Srauta-sûtra IX, 12, 11. See also Manu XI, 44-49. Regarding the crimes causing impurity, see above, I, 7, 21, 12-19.

130:23 'Its cause, i.e. the black nails, &c. According to another Smriti, one shall not put away a wife or extinguish a fire, for the taking or kindling of which the penance had to be performed.'--Haradatta. But see Vasishtha XX, 7 seq.


130:1 13. 'Sâstravihitâ (translated by "who has been married to him legally") means either "married according to the rites prescribed in the Sâstras," or "possessed of the qualities (which have been described) by (the rule of) the Sâstras, He shall not give his daughter to a man of the same Gotra," and in similar (passages).'Haradatta. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text cxcix.

131:3 Another (commentator) says, 'Neither of the parents shall pass them over at (the distribution of) the heritage. Both (parents) must leave their property to them.'--Haradatta. The text of the Sûtra admits of either explanation.

131:6 See also Manu IX, 32 seq., where the same difference of opinion occurs.

131:7 According to Haradatta this Gâthâ gives the sentiments of a husband who neglected to watch his wives, and who had heard from those learned in the law that the sons or his unfaithful wives would in the next world belong to their natural fathers, and that be would not derive any spiritual benefit from their oblations. He adds that this verse does not refer to or prevent the appointment of a eunuch's wife or of a childless widow to a relation. He also quotes a passage from the Srauta-sûtra 1, 9, 7, in which the dvipitâ, 'the son of two fathers,' is mentioned. But Haradatta's view cannot be reconciled with the statements made below, II, 10, 27, 2-7, p. 132 where the Niyoga, is plainly forbidden. Baudhâyana, who (II, 2, 3, 34) quotes the same Gâthâ, reads in the first line the vocative 'ganaka' instead of the nominative 'ganakah,' and in the fifth line 'pare bîgâni' instead of 'parabîgâni.' The commentator Govindasvâmin adds that the verses are addressed by the Rishi Aupagaṅghani to king Ganaka of Videha. The translation of the first line must therefore run thus: 'O Ganaka, now I am jealous of my wives, (though I was) not so formerly,' &c. Baudhâyana's readings are probably the older ones, and Govindasvâmin's explanation the right one. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text ccli.

132:11 Haradatta thinks that, as most other Smritis enumerate the adopted son, and 'the son bought' in their lists of substitutes for lawful sons of the body, Âpastamba's rule can refer only to the gift or sale of an eldest son, or to the gift or sale of a child effected by a woman. Though it is possible that he may be right in his interpretation, it remains a remarkable fact that Âpastamba does not mention the 'twelve kinds of sons,' which are known to other Smritis.

132:12 This Sûtra seems to be directed against Vasishtha I, 36.


133:1 14. The last Sûtra of Khanda 13 and the first of Khanda 14 are quoted by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlii, and Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Colebrooke translates gîvan, 'during his lifetime,' by 'who makes a partition during his lifetime.' I think that this is not quite correct, and that Âpastamba intends to exhort householders to make a division during their lifetime, as later they ought to become ascetics or hermits. Haradatta introduces into his commentary on this Sûtra the whole chapter on the division of a father's estate amongst his sons, supplementing Âpastamba's short rule by the texts of other lawyers. No doubt, Âpastamba means to lay down, in these and the following Sûtras, only the leading principles of the law of inheritance, and he intends that the remaining particulars should be supplied from the law of custom or other Smritis.

133:2 Haradatta gives in his commentary a full summary of the rules on the succession of remoter relations. One point only deserves special mention. He declares that it is the opinion of Âpastamba, that widows cannot inherit. In this he is probably right, as Âpastamba does not mention them, and the use of the p. 134 masculine singular 'sapindah' in the text precludes the possibility of including them under that collective term. It seems to me certain, that Âpastamba, like Baudhâyana, considered women, especially widows, unfit to inherit.

134:4 'Some say "on failure of sons," others that the rule refers to the preceding Sûtra (i.e. that the daughter inherits on failure of pupils only).'--Haradatta. The latter seems to be the correct interpretation.

134:5 'Because the word "all" is used, (the king shall take the estate) only on failure of Bandhus and Sagotras, i.e. gentiles within twelve degrees.'--Haradatta.

134:6 'The other sons shall live under his protection.'--Haradatta. Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6.

134:7 '"Black produce of the earth," i.e. black grain, or according to others black iron.'--Haradatta. Compare for this and the following Sûtras Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6, and Digest, Book V, Text xlviii.

134:8 The translation given above agrees with what I now recognise to be Haradatta's explanation, and with Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Both the P. U. and Mr. U. MSS. of the Uggvalâ read rathah pituramso grihe yatparibhândam upakaranam pîthâdi tadapi, 'the chariot (is) the father's share; the furniture which (is) in the house, that also.' To this reading Mahâdeva's Uggvalâ on the Hiranyakesi Sûtra points likewise, which gives pîtur antah. The N. U. MS. of the Uggvalâ, according to which p. 135 I made the translation given in the Appendix to West and Bühler's Digest (1st edition), leaves out the word amsah, and therefore makes it necessary to combine this Sûtra, with the preceding one, and to translate, 'The father's chariot and the furniture in the house (are) also (the share of the eldest).' This latter translation agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlviii, where this and the preceding Sûtra have been joined; but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the interpretation of this Sûtra occurs in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, and Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., where the words 'the furniture in the house' are joined with Sûtra 9, and the furniture is declared to be the wife's share. Considering that Sûtra 9 is again quoted in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccclxxii, and is not joined with the latter part of Sûtra 8, it is not too much to say that Gagannâtha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren usually do.

135:9 The Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., apparently takes the words 'according to some' as referring only, to property received from relations. I follow Haradatta. The former interpretation is, however, admissible, if the Sûtra is split into two.

135:10 The Sâstras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.

135:11 Taittirîyâ Samhitâ III, 1, 9, 4.

135:12 'Athâpi (now also) means "and certainly." They distinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth: this has been declared in the Veda in conformity with (the rule regarding) one (heir, Sûtra 6). He denies (Sûtra 13) that a passage also, which p. 136 agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is found in the Veda.'--Haradatta. See Taittirîyâ Samhitâ II, 5, 2, 7.

136:13 Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law are the Mimâmsakas. The translation of the second Vedic passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by 'to be resplendent,' usually means 'to give a sound.' Haradatta thinks that Âpastamba means to show that the passage 'Manu divided his wealth among his sons' is likewise merely a statement of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably erroneous, as Sûtras 10 and 11 distinctly state, that the practice to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the abovementioned passage of the Veda.

136:15 Compare for this Sûtra and the following one Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccxv. The translation of pratipâdayati, 'expends,' by 'gains,' which is also proposed by Gagannâtha, is against Âpastamba's usage, see II, 5, 11, 17, and below, II, 8, 20, 19.

136:16 According to Haradatta, this Sûtra gives the reason why, in Sûtra 1, no share has been set apart for the wife. Compare Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, for this Sûtra and the following two.

137:20 See below, II, 11, 29, 3.


137:1 15. Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed to the teaching of the Vedas and Smritis.

137:2 Manu. V, 60; Yâgñ. I, 53; Manu V, 60; Manu V, 58; Yâgñ. III, 3.

137:4 Manu V, 69 and 70.

137:5 Manu V, 80.

138:7-9. Yâgñ. III, 5, 7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing the water is, 'I give this water to you N. N. of the family of N. N.' The water ought to be mixed with sesamum. According to Haradatta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the word' women' denotes in this Sûtra 'the Smritis.' But I fear these learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay attention to the last Sûtra of this work.

138:11 Manu III, 128.

138:12 Manu III, 98.

139:14 'That (substance) is called kshâra, "of pungent or alkaline taste," the eating of which makes the saliva flow.'--Haradatta.

139:15 Avarânna, 'bad food,' is explained by 'kulittha and the like.' Kulittha, a kind of vetch, is considered low food, and eaten by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sûtra, therefore, is, 'If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or Dâl with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation at the Vaisvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule, given in the following Sûtra.

139:17 Manu V, 155; XI, 36.

139:18 Manu II, 171.

140:25 Haradatta quotes Gautama II, 1-3, on this point, and is apparently of opinion that Âpastamba alludes to the same passage. But he is probably wrong, as all Smritis are agreed on the point mentioned by Âpastamba.


140:1 16. 'Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly Srâddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.'--Haradatta.

140:2 The reading 'nihsreyasâ ka' apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take 'nihsreyasâ as a Vedic instrumental, for nihsreyasena, which may designate the 'reason'. If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.

140:3 'The comparison of the Brâhmanas with the Âhavanîya indicates that to feed Brâhmanas is the chief act at a Srâddha.'--Haradatta.

140:4 Manu III, 122, 123; Yâgñ. I, 217.

141:5 Manu III, 255, 278.

141:7 Manu III, 277; Yâgñ. I, 264, 265.

141:12 The translation follows the corrected reading given in the Addenda to the Critical Notes.

142:20 Others read the last part of the Sûtra, ayuvamârmas-tu bhavanti, 'they will not die young'--Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sûtra are joined and Darsanîyâpatyoyuvamârinah is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.

142:21 Manu III, 276, and Yâgñ. I, 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a Srâddha, and the latter adds that Srâddhas for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why Âpastamba declares its reward to be 'success in battle.' The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kshatriyas, not Brâhmanas, should offer their Srâddhas.

142:23 Manu III, 267; Yâgñ. I, 257.

142:26 Manu III, 271.


143:1 17. Manu III, 272; Yâgñ. I, 259.

143:2 Manu V, 16, where Rohita is explained by Satabali.

143:4 Manu III, 128-138, and 149, 188; Yâgñ. I, 225.

143:8 See Manu III, 141, where this Trishtubh has been turned into an Anushtubh.

144:11 Manu III, 187; Yâgñ. I, 225. According to Haradatta the formula of invitation is, Svah srâddham bhavitâ, tatrâhavanîyârthe bhavadbhih prasâde kartavya iti, 'to-morrow a Srâddha will take place. Do me the favour to take at that the place of the Âhavanîya-fire.'

144:12 The formula is, Adya srâddham, 'to-day the Srâddha takes place.'

144:13 The call to dinner is, Siddham âgamyatim, 'the food is ready; come.'

144:16 Âpastamba Grihya-sûtra VIII, 2 1, 9. 'He shall eat it pronouncing the Mantra, "Prâne nivishtosmritam guhomi."' Taitt. Âr. X, 34, 1.

145:17 The North of India begins to the north of the river Sarâvati. The rule alluded to is given by Yâgñ. I. 226, 229, Manu III, 2 10.

145:18 Yâgñ. I, 235. 20. Manu III. 239.

145:21 Manu III, 152-166, and particularly 153 and 154 Yâgñ. I. 222-224. Haradatta's explanation of the word 'Sûdra' by 'a Brâhmana who has become a Sûdra' is probably not because the son of a real Sûdra and of a Brâhmana female is a Kandâla, and has been disposed of by the preceding Sûtra.

146:22 Compare Manu III, 185, 186; Yâgñ. I, 219-221. The three verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu vâtâ ritâyate, &c., which occur both in the Taitt. Samh. and in the Taitt. Âr. The explanation of Trisuparna is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it may mean either a person who knows the three verses Katushkapardâ yuvatih supesâ, &c., Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 2, 1, 27, &c., or one who knows the three Anuvâkas from the Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 48-50, beginning, Brahmametu mâm, &c. The word 'Trinâkiketa' has three explanations:--a. A person who knows the Nâkiketa-fire according to the Taittirîyaka, Kathavallî, and the Satapatha, i.e. has studied the portions on the Nâkiketa-fire in these three books. b. A person who has thrice kindled the Nâkiketa-fire. c. A person who has studied the Anuvâka, called Viragas. Katurmedha may also mean 'one who has performed the four sacrifices' enumerated above.

146:23 Manu III, 280.

146:24 'The Srâddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to the Brahmans.'--Haradatta.

146:25 'The Northerners do not generally receive this Sûtra, and therefore former commentators have not explained it.'--Haradatta.


147:1 18. Sûtras 1-4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special objects mentioned in Sûtras 3 and 4 for one year only Haradatta (on Sûtra 4) says that another commentator thinks that Sûtras 1-3 prescribe one vow, and Sûtra 4 another, and that the latter applies both to householders and students. A passage front Baudhâyana is quoted in support of this latter view.

147:5 Manu III, 82 seq.

147:6 The term 'pure (men)' is used in order to indicate that they must be so particularly, because, by II, 2, 3, 11, purity has already been prescribed for cooks.

148:7 For the unusual meaning of dravya, 'vessel,' compare the term sîtâdravyâni, 'implements of husbandry,'--Manu IX, 293, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.

148:13 The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a Srâddha, Yâgñ. I, 259, and Manu III, 272.


149:1 19. The ceremony which is here described, may also be performed daily. If the reading prâsya is adopted, the translation must run thus: 'and he shall scatter (the remainder of the powder). If the wind,' &c.

149:2 'Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not perform this ceremony.'--Haradatta.

149:4 If the masculine bhoktavyah is used instead of bhoktavyam, the participle must be construed with kamasah.

149:5 The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text ought to be taken with the participle samnayan, is grasîta, Sûtra 9.

149:8 'Why is this second alternative mentioned, as (the first Sûtra) suffices? True. But according to the maxim that "restrictions are made on account of the continuance of an action once begun," the meaning of this second Sûtra is that he shall p. 150 continue to the end to handle the vessel (in that manner in which) he has handled it when eating for the first time.'--Haradatta.

150:16 Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to II, 2, 4, 22, the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.


151:1 20. A drona equals 128 seers or seras. The latter is variously reckoned at 1-3 lbs.

151:3 The reason why the constellation Tishya has been chosen for this rite seems to be that Tishya has another name, Pushya, i.e. 'prosperous'. This sacrifice is to begin on the Tishya-day of the month called Taisha or Pausha (December-January), and to continue for one year.

152:11 Manu IV, 7 8.

152:16 'Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheumatism.'--Haradatta.

152:19 Manu XI, 6, and passim.


153:1 21. 'Though four (orders) are enumerated, he uses the word "four," lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed, as has been taught in other Smritis.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 87.

153:2 Manu VI, 88.

153:3 Manu II, 247-249, and above.

153:8 The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the studentship is a necessary preliminary for the Samnyâsin. If a man considers sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may become a Samnyâsin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last p. 154 order, when his passions are entirely extinct. See also Manu VI, 36; Yâgñ. III, 56-57.

154:10 Manu VI, 33, 42-45; Yâgñ. III, 58 seq.

154:12 'Another (commentator) says, "Some declare that he is free from all injunctions and prohibitions, i.e. he need neither perform nor avoid any (particular actions),"'--Haradatta.

154:13 'He shall seek, i.e. worship, the Âtman or Self, which has been described in the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8).'--Haradatta.

154:15 Haradatta apparently takes the word Sâstras to mean 'Dharmasâstras.'

154:17 'That which follows' are the Yogas, which must be employed in order to cause the annihilation of pain, after the knowledge of the Âtman or Self has been obtained.

155:21 'But which is that one fire? Certainly not the Grihya-fire, because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended is, "He shall offer a Samidh morn and evening in the common fire, just as formerly, (during his studentship)." Another commentator says, "Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire according to the rule of the Srâmanaka Sûtra. The Srâmanaka Sûtra is the Vaikhânasa Sûtra. Having kindled a fire in the manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning and every evening."'--Haradatta. See also Manu VI, 4; Yâgñ. III, 45.


155:1 22. Manu VI, 6.

155:2 Manu VI, 5, 21; Yâgñ. III, 46.

155:4 'Then he shall live on ether, i.e. eat nothing at all.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 31; Yâgñ. III, 55.

156:6 'The word atha, "now," introduces a different opinion. Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods (may be begun) after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just for that hermit a successive performance of the acts.

156:8 Manu VI, 3 seq.; Yâgñ. III, 45.

156:10 Haradatta thinks that this rule refers both to the hermit who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others refer it to the latter only.

156:15 According to Haradatta, the word kâga appears to designate a 'mallet;' in the passage from the Râmâyana quoted in the Petersburg Dict. the commentator explains it by petaka, 'basket.'

157:17 Yâgñ. III, 46.

157:20 This Sûtra explains the word upâmsu, 'inaudibly.'

157:24 Manu VI, 15; Yâgñ. III, 47.


157:1 23. The following rules apply to a solitary hermit.

157:2 These Sûtras are repeated in order to show that, according to, the opinion of those who allow hermits to live with their families, the end should be the same.

158:3 'The "orders" have been described. Now, giving conflicting opinions, he discusses which of them is the most important.'--Haradatta.

158:4 This verse and the next are intended to disparage the order of householders. Haradatta explains 'burial-grounds' by 'new births which lead to new deaths;' but see below, Sûtra 10. See also Yâgñ. III, 186-187.

159:11 The Sûtra is intended to remove the blame thrown on the order of householders by the verse quoted. Haradatta seems to have forgotten his former explanation of Smasânâni.


160:6 24. 'They become the seed,' i.e. 'The Pragâpatis.'

160:8 'Other (duties), i.e. the order of ascetics and the like.'--Haradatta.

160:13 As the Rishis have not lost heaven through the sins of their sons, the dogma according to which ancestors lose heaven through the sins of their sons, must be false.

160:14 Âpastamba's own opinion is apparently against pure asceticism.


161:3 25. 'In the heart of the town, i.e. in that town which is surrounded by all the walls.'--Haradatta. Compare Manu VII, 76.

161:6 According to Haradatta, the fires are to be common, not consecrated ones.

161:7 Manu VII, 78; Yâgñ. I, 313.

161:8 Manu VII, 82 seq.

162:10 'The Gurus are the father and other (venerable relations).'--Haradatta.

162:11 Manu VII, 134. 'Or intentionally; with reference to that the following example may be given. If anybody is to be made to pay his debts or taxes, then he is to be exposed to cold or heat, or to be made to fast (until he pays). The king shall punish (every one) who acts thus.'--Haradatta.

162:13 Having played there, they shall give a fixed sum to the gambling-house keeper and go away. The latter shall, every day or every month or every year, give that gain to the king. And the king shall punish those who play elsewhere or quarrel in the assembly-house.'--Haradatta.

162:14 'At festivals and the like occasions (these performances) take place also elsewhere, that is the custom.'--Haradatta.

162:15 Manu VII, I 43, and passim; Yâgñ. 1, 335.


163:1 26. Manu VII, 83, 84, 88; Yâgñ. I, 314.

163:2 According to Haradatta the king's body represents the post (yûpa), his soul the sacrificial animal, the recovered property the reward for the priests or fee.

163:3 Manu VII, 89; Yâgñ. I, 323, 324.

163:4 Manu VII, 115-124; Yâgñ. I, 321.

163:6 Yâgñ. II, 271-272. A yogana is a distance of 4 krosa, kos.

163:7 A krosa, kos, or gâu, literally 'the lowing of a cow,' is variously reckoned at 1½-4 miles.

163:8 Yâgñ. I, 272. This law is, with certain modifications, still in force. See Bombay Regulations, XII, 27 par.

164:9 According to Haradatta, who quotes Gautama in his commentary, the sulka is the 1/20th part of a merchant's gains. On account of the Sûtras immediately following, it is, however, more probable that the term is here used as a synonym of 'kara,' and includes all taxes. 'Lawful' taxes are, of course, those sanctioned by custom and approved of by the Smritis.

164:10 Manu VII, 133.

164:11 Haradatta thinks that the rule applies to women of the Anuloma, the pure castes, only.

164:14 'Why does be say "intent on fulfilling the holy law?" Those shall not be free from taxes who perform austerities in order to make their magic charms efficacious.'--Haradatta.

164:18 The ornaments would indicate that he was bent on mischief. Compare above, I, 11, 32, 6.

165:19 'The punishment must be proportionate to his property and the greatness of his offence. The term "with a bad purpose" is added, because he who has been sent by his teacher (to such a place) should not be punished.'--Haradatta. Manu VIII, 354; Yâgñ. II, 284.

165:24 'I.e. a married woman to her husband or father-in-law an unmarried damsel to her father or to her brother.'--Haradatta.


165:2 27. This Sûtra refers to the begetting of a Kshetraga son, and gives the usual rule, that only the Sagotras in the order of the grade of relationship, a brother-in-law, a Sapinda, &c., shall be employed for this purpose.

166:4 'For now-a-days the senses of men are and therefore the peculiar (law formerly) in force regarding gentiles is no longer, lest husbands should be set aside under the pretended sanction of the Sâstras.'--Haradatta.

166:9 Manu VIII, 374; Yâgñ. II, 286. According to Haradatta, this refers to a Sûdra servant who seduces a woman committed to his charge. In other cases the punishment prescribed, II, 10, 26,10, is to take effect. The same opinion is expressed by Gautama.

166:11 This refers to the wife of a Srotriya, as Haradatta states according to Gautama. The penance is three years' chastity.

167:15 In conversation, i.e. addressing Âryas familiarly, with tvam, thou,' &c.

167:17 Haradatta states expressly that the eyes of a Brâhmana must not be put out by any sharp instrument. He should be kept blindfold all his life.

167:20 The intercession is to take effect in this manner: that mutilation is commuted to a fine, a fine to a flogging, a flogging to a reprimand.'--Haradatta.


168:1 28. This Sûtra shows that the system of leasing land against a certain share of the crops, which now prevails generally in Native States, and is not uncommon in private contracts on British territory, was in force in Âpastamba's times.

168:2 See Colebrooke, Digest, Book III, Text lxviii, for this Sûtra and the following two. Another commentator, quoted by Haradatta, connects this Sûtra with the preceding, and refers it to a poor lessee of land, who cannot pay the value of the crop which was lost through his negligence. A third explanation refers the Sûtra to a cultivator who neglects to till his land. Gagannâtha's authorities, the Kintâmani and Ratnâkara, agree with Haradatta's first explanation.

168:5 Manu VIII, 240; Yâgñ. II, 159-161.

169:6a Manu VIII, 232; Yâgñ. II, 164.

169:13 Manu VIII, 18, 308; Yâgñ. I, 336.


169:3 29. 'Though this is so, still the wife cannot spend (money) without the permission of her husband, but the husband can do (so without the consent of his wife). That may be known by Sûtra II, 6, 14, 11, "They do not declare it to be a theft if the wife spends money for a good reason during the absence of her husband."'--Haradatta.

169:4 'Others, i.e. the sons and the rest.'--Haradatta.

169:5 Yâgñ. II, 2.

169:6b 'And the like, i.e. by cross-examination, &c.'--Haradatta.

169:7 Manu VIII, 87 seq.; Yâgñ. II, 68-75.

169:8 Manu VIII, 119 seq.

170:9 Manu VIII, 89 seq.

170:10 Manu VIII, 81 seq.

170:11 Manu II, 223. The meaning of the Sûtra is, that men ought not to study solely or at first such Sâstras as women or Sûdras also learn, but that at first they must study the Veda. See Manu II, 168. The knowledge which women and Sûdras possess is dancing, music, and other branches of the Arthasâstra.

170:14 See above, I, 7, 20, 8 and 9.

Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) [1879]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from by Jayaram V for While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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