The Apastamba Sutras - Prasna II
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- The Hindu Dharmashastras, Subject Index
- A Brief Note on the Dharmashastras
- The Laws of Manu Chapter 1 to 6
- The Laws of Manu Chapters 7 to 12
- Introduction to the Apastamba
- The Apastamba - Prasna I
- The Apastamba - Prasna II
- Introduction to Gautama Sutras
- The Gautama Sutras, Chapters I to XIV
- The Gautama Sutras Chapters XV to XVIII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, introduction
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters I - VII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters V - XXII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters XIII - XXX
- Introduction to the Baudhayana DharmasShastra
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika 1-21)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaII (Kandika 1-18)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaIII, IV and V
- Essays On Dharma
- Esoteric Mystic Hinduism
- Introduction to Hinduism
- Hindu Way of Life
- Essays On Karma
- Hindu Rites and Rituals
- The Origin of The Sanskrit Language
- Symbolism in Hinduism
- Essays on The Upanishads
- Concepts of Hinduism
- Essays on Atman
- Hindu Festivals
- Spiritual Practice
- Right Living
- Yoga of Sorrow
- Mental Health
- Concepts of Buddhism
- General Essays
99:1 1. According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed, either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the family estate. He also states that the use of the dual grihamedhinoh indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites conjointly. Manu III, 67.
99:2 Haradatta thinks that this Sûtra is intended to prevent householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them perform the Prânâgnihotra at either meal. At the Prânâgnihotra the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he p. 100 eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, 'To Prâna svâhâ;' at the second, 'To Apâna svâhâ,' &c.
100:5 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 2.
100:7 Haradatta holds that the words 'on that day' do not refer to the days of the new and full moon, the Parvan-days, mentioned in Sûtra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food, of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already been given in Sûtra 6, by the term tripih, 'satisfaction'; and, secondly, that the singular 'on this day' does not agree with the plural 'on the Parvan-days.' Hence he comes to the conclusion that the words 'on that day' must refer to the wedding-day, mentioned in Sûtra 1, as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is, probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sûtra from Sûtra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sûtra 11. Mahâdeva, the commentator of the Hiranyakesidharma, adopts the view rejected by Haradatta.
100:8 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 10.
100:10 A Sthâlîpâka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot, sthâlî, is offered in the fire. A full description of this kind of sacrifice occurs, Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 10, 1 seq.
100:11 The Pârvana Sthâlîpâka has been described by Âpastamba p. 101 in the Grihya-sûtra, III, 7. Again, Haradatta returns to the question whether the words on that day (Sûtra 7) refer to the Parvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word Pârvanena, 'by the rite to be performed on Parvan-days,' by which the Sthâlîpâka on Parvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer he preceding rules to the Parvan-days. He adds that some, nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.
101:12 They, i.e. the Sishtas, those learned in the law. 'Another commentator says, the rite which will be taught (in the following Sûtra), and which is known from the usage of the learned, is constant, i.e. must be performed in every case. That it is what the "learned" declare.'--Haradatta. The latter explanation of the Sûtra is adopted by Mahâdeva.
101:13 Âsv. Gri. Sû. I, 3, 1-3.
101:15 Haradatta states that the object of the repetition of the words 'the householder and his wife' is to show that they themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator, the object of the repetition is to show that Sûtras 13 and 14 apply not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel (above, I, 1, 4, 14 seq.), should also perform the rites taught in the preceding Sûtras.
102:17 See Manu III, 46-48; Yâgñ. I, 79, 80.
102:18 Manu III, 45; Yâgñ. I, 81.
102:19 See Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 1, 5.
103:6 2. Manu XII, 55; Yâgñ. III, 206, 207. A Paulkasa is said to be the offspring of a Nishâda and a Kshatriya woman. See the Pet. Dict. s.v. A Vaina is a rope-dancer, or equilibrist.
103:7 Manu XII, 52.
104:1 3. 'The food which is used at the Vaisvadeva, i. e. the food prepared for the meals of the householder and of his wife.'--Haradatta.
104:5 This Sûtra is a Gñâpaka, as it indicates that Âpastamba also recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the Smritis for Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras. See above, I, 5, 16, 2.
104:7 Usually in bathing both Âryas and Sûdras wear no dress except the langotî.
105:11 Manu II, 54.
105:12 Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door, or on the floor of the house. See below, Sûtra 16 seq.
105:13 Others explain this Sûtra thus: 'After having used for the first time these sacred formulas (which are to be recited in offering the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife) shall sleep,' &c.
105:14 Regarding the use of ekarâtra in the sense of 'a (day and a) night,' see above. The 'last' Bali-offering is that described below, II ,2, 4, 5.
105:15 'They say that the word "afterwards" is used in order to indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other (Upakâras) must be, offered between (the last two acts).'--Haradatta.
106:16 It is a disputed point with the commentators whether every Brâhmana may offer the Vaisvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire. The six Mantras, which are given Taitt. Âr. X, 67, 1, are: 1. Agnaye svâhâ, 'to Agni svâhâ'; 2. Somâya svâhâ, 'to Soma svâhâ'; 3. Visvebhyo devebhyah svâhâ, 'to all the gods svâhâ'; 4. Dhruvâya bhûmaya svâhâ, 'to Dhruva Bhûma svâhâ'; 5. Dhruvakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Dhruvakshiti svâhâ'; 6. Akyutakshitaye svâhâ, 'to Akyutakshiti svâhâ.' Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed to Agni svishtakrit, 'to the fire which causes the proper performance of the sacrifice,' while others leave out the second Mantra and give that addressed to Agni svishtakrit the sixth place. This latter is the order given in the Calcutta edition of the Taittirîya Âranyaka.
106:17 'Above, i.e. Grihya-sûtra, I, 2, 3, 8.'--Haradatta. The Mantras recited are: 1. at the first sprinkling, Adite ’numanyasva, 'Aditi permit'; Anumate ’numanyasva, 'Anumati permit'; Sarasvaty anumanyasva, 'Sarasvatî permit'; Deva Savitah prasuva, 'Divine Savitri permit'; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anvamamsthâh and prâsâvîh, 'thou hast permitted,' being substituted for anumanyasva and prasuva.
106:18 This Sûtra is a restriction of Sûtra 15.
106:20 The first six offerings constitute the Devayagña or Vaisvadeva, which is offered in the fire. Now follow the Bali-offerings, which are merely placed on the ground. 'Behind the fire' means to the east of the fire'; for the sacrificer must face the east.
107:21 The Mantra is, Adbbyah svâhâ, 'to the Waters svâhâ.'
107:22 The Mantras are, Osbadhivanaspatibbyah svâhâ, 'to the herbs and trees svâhâ'; Raksbodevaganebhyah svâhâ, 'to the Râkshasas and the servants of the gods svâhâ.'
107:23 These four Balis are sacred to the Grihâs, to the Avasânas, to the Avasânapatis, and to all creatures.
107:2 4. 'Others explain dehalî', "the door-sill," to mean "the door-case."'--Haradatta.
107:3 'Others explain apidhâna, "the panels of the door;" to mean "the bolt of the door."'--Haradatta. The offering is made to Nâma, 'the name, or essence of things.'
108:4 Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahmasadana, 'the seat of Brahman.' According to some, it is an architectural term, designating the centre of the house; according to others, it denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt-oblations, the Brahman or superintending priest is seated, i.e. a spot to the south of the sacred fire.
108:5 Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and forefinger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called 'the tîrtha sacred to the Manes.' See Manu II, 39.
108:6 'That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between the thumb and forefinger.'--Haradatta
108:7 In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the sacrificer turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water, beginning in the south and ending in the east. In sprinkling around an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be followed.
109:8 At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, 'To those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of prosperity. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, svâhâ. Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to the Bhûtas that roam about during the day,' and in the evening 'to the night-walkers.' Compare for the whole section Manu III, 90-92; Yâgñ. I, 102-104.
109:10 Manu III, 94 seq.
109:11 Manu III, 115; Yâgñ. I, 105.
109:12 Manu III, 114; Yâgñ. I, 105.
109:14 Manu III, 101 Yâgñ. I, 107. As read in the text, the first line of the verse has one syllable in excess. This irregularity would disappear if trinâ, the Vedic form of the nom. ace. plural, were read for trinâni, and it seems to me not improbable that trinâni is a correction made by a Pandit who valued grammatical correctness higher than correctness of metre.
110:16 Manu III, 99.
110:18 Manu III, 110-112; Yâgñ. I, 107.
110:19 Manu loc. cit.
110:20 'Hence it is known that the king ought to keep stores of rice and the like in every village, in order to show hospitality to Sûdra guests.'--Haradatta.
111:24 Manu II, 241, 242. From here down to II, 3, 6, 2, Âpastamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place, because the reception of a former teacher is to be described II, 3, 5, 4-11, and that of a 'learned guest' II, 3, 6, 3 seq.
111:1 5. This rule refers to the Upâkarma, to be performed yearly by householders. In our days, too, the custom is observed, and the whole Brahminical community change on this occasion their Genvîs or sacrificial cords in the month of Srâvana. The adherents of the various Sâkhâs of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upanishads are named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance. See also Satapatha-brâhmana X, 3, 5, 12.
111:2 Others consider that this Sûtra refers to the annual Upâkarma of the householder. In that case the translation would be, 'And after having performed the Upâkarma,' &c. Probably Âpastamba means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and to students who have returned home.
112:4 'Though he may suspect that the teacher had been defiled by the touch of a Kândâla or the like, still he shall not show disgust nor wash himself.'--Haradatta. Regarding the rule of receiving guests, see below, II, 4, 8, 6 seq.
112:6 According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word âkâryam, 'the teacher,' in this Sûtra, indicates that the rule holds good not only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former pupil, but on every occasion when he receives water for sipping.
112:7 'He is called samudeta, "possessed of all (good qualities) together," who is endowed with (good) birth, disposition, behaviour, (great) learning, and a (venerable) age.'--Haradatta.
112:8 The word syât is to be understood from Sûtra 5.
113:13 Haradatta states that 'speaking evil' is forbidden here once more in order that it should be particularly avoided.
113:14 'For example, he shall not say, "The Rig-veda is sweet to the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear," or "the Taittirîya-veda is a Sâkhâ consisting of leavings," or "the Brâhmana proclaimed by Yâgñavalkya is of modern origin."'--Haradatta. The second sentence refers to the story that Yâgñavalkya vomited the Black Yagur-veda, and his fellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it up. Regarding the third sentence, see Vârttika on Pânini IV, 3, 105, and Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 363.
113:16 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.
114:1 6. The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with the following Mantra: Bhagavan maitrena kakshushâ pasya sivena manasânugrihâna prasîda mâm adhyâpaya, 'venerable Sir, look on me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind and teach me.' The teacher elect then asks: Kimgotro ’si saumya, kimâkârah, 'friend, of what family art thou? what is thy rule of conduct?'
114:3 The object of this Sûtra is to show the absolute necessity of feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with the flames of his anger.
115:4 The object of this Sûtra is to complete the definition of the term 'guest' to be given in the following Sûtra. In my translation I have followed Haradatta's gloss. The literal sense of Âpastamba's words is,. 'He who, observing the law, has studied one recension of each (of the four) Vedas, becomes a Srotriya.' Haradatta says this definition would be contrary to the current acceptation of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for Âpastamba's times.
115:5 Manu III, 102, 103; Yâgñ. I, 111.
115:6 Yâgñ. I, 109; Manu III, 101.
115:8 Haradatta states that this is also Âpastamba's opinion.
115:11 According to Haradatta, Âpastamba is of opinion that it should be brought in a pot made of metal.
116:12 I.e. it is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to a student.
116:15 'Ointment, (i.e.) oil or clarified butter for anointing the feet.'--Haradatta. Manu III, 107.
116:16 Manu III, 108.
116:19 Manu IV, 213; Yâgñ. I, 162.
117:1 7. 'Prâgâpatya may mean either "created by Pragâpati" or sacred to Pragâpati."'--Haradatta.
117:2 in the first Sûtra the reception of guests had been compared to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analog is traced further in detail in this Sûtra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic sacrifice is the vitâna, or the use of three sacred fires. Hence Âpastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospitality to guests.
117:4 Regarding the Agnishtoma and the other sacrifices mentioned, see Aitareya-brâhmana III, 8; IV, 1; IV, 4.
118:6 The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this Sûtra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at a times of the day, and to further describe the similarity of a guest-offering to a Vedic sacrifice.
118:7 Regarding the Udavasânîyâ ishti, see Aitareya-brâhmana VIII, 5. It is the 'concluding ishti.'
118:8 Dakshinâ is the reward given to priests who officiate at a sacrifice.
118:9 'The steps of Vishnu' are three steps which the sacrificer has to make between the Vedi and the Âhavanîya-fire. See Pet. Diet. s. v.
118:12 'A guest,' i.e. such a one as described above, II, 3, 6, 4 and 5.
118:13 An Agnihotrin is a Brâhmana who offers certain daily burnt offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause renders tarpayantu, the reading of the Atharva-veda.
119:14 According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced; according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.
119:15 Haradatta states that the Brâhmana mentioned in the text is the Âharvana-brâhmana. See Atharva-veda. XV, 11-12.
120:2 8. Manu III, 117; Yâgñ. I, 105.
120:3 Flavoured liquids, i.e. milk, whey, &c.
120:4 Manu III, 106.
120:5 Manu III, 119 and 120; Yâgñ. I, 110;: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. A guest is also called goghna, 'cow-killer,' because formerly a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest. The rite is described by Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 31-33.
121:8 Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 24, 5 and 6.
121:10 This Sûtra explains the term vedâdhyâya, '(a guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda,' which occurs above, Sûtra 5--Haradatta. See Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 111.
121:12 This Sûtra and the following one are directed against those who consider the Kalpa-sûtras to be a part of the Veda, the revealed texts. See also Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 95 seq.
122:1 9. Yâgñ. I, 113.
122:7 After a long discussion on the object of this Sûtra, Haradatta comes to the conclusion that it is given 'against the improper custom to dine out of the same vessel with one's wife and uninitiated children, which prevails in some countries.'
122:8 'Consequently a gift of food also.' The custom is to pour water, usually with the spoon called Darvî (Pallî), into the extended palm of the recipient's right hand.
123:13 Manu VI, 28; Yâgñ. III, 55.
123:1 10. Manu IV, 251; XI, 1 seq.; Yâgñ. I, 2 16. By the term arhat, I a worthy person,' a Brâhmana is here designated who has studied the Veda and performs an Agnihotra.
123:4 Manu I, 88; X, 15; Yâgñ. I, 118.
124:5 I.e. wild roots and fruits.
124:6 Manu I, 89; X, 77, 79; Yâgñ. I, 118, 119.
124:7 Manu I, 90; X, 78, 79; Yâgñ. loc. cit.
124:11 Manu VII, 91 seq.; Yâgñ. 1, 325.
124:12 Haradatta explains the words Sâstrair adhigatânâm, 'who whilst participating, according to the sacred law, (in the rights of their caste,)' by 'who have been sanctified according to the law by the sacraments, such as the Garbhâdhâna, and are entitled (to the rights and occupations of their caste).'
125:16 Probably this Sûtra is meant to give a general rule, and to exempt Brâhmanas in every case from corporal punishment and servitude. Manu VIII, 379-380.
125:3 11. See also below, II, 11, 29, 6.
125:5 Manu II, 139; Yâgñ. I, 117. According to Haradatta this Sûtra is given, though the precedence among the various castes has been already settled, in order to show that common Kshatriyas must make way for an anointed king.
126:6 Manu II, 138; Yâgñ. I, 117.
126:10 Manu X, 64, 65; Yâgñ. 1, 96.
126:12 Manu IX, 95; Yâgñ. I, 76.
126:13 Manu IX, 80, 81; Yâgñ. I, 73.
126:14 A wife who assists at the kindling of the fires for any sacrificial rite, becomes connected with that rite like any priest, and in that rite no other woman can take her place. Hence in the case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during the performer's lifetime, or at least as long as be is a householder, the performer cannot take another principal wife after be once has begun his sacrifice. If the wife of an Agnihotrin dies, he must marry again, and also kindle his fires afresh. Manu V, 167, 168; Yâgñ. I 80.
127:15 The term Gotra corresponds to the Latin Gens. It may be of two kinds, Vaidika for Brâhmanas and Laukika, 'worldly', for men of other castes. In the first case it denotes 'persons descended from the same Rishi;' in the second, 'persons distinguished by the same family name, or known to be descended from the same ancestor.' In our days Brâhmanas also have Laukika Gotras, which form subdivisions of the very large Vedic Gotras. Regarding the Vaidika Gotras, see Max Müller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-390, and particularly p. 387. Manu III, 5; Yâgñ. I, 33; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 75 seq.
127:16 The term yonisambandha, 'related (within six degrees),' corresponds to the more common Sapinda of Manu, Yâgñavalkya, and others; see the definitions given below, II, 6, 15, 2. In Âpastamba's terminology Sapinda has probably a more restricted sense. It seems very doubtful whether Haradatta's explanation of ka, translated by 'or,' is correct, and whether his interpolation of 'the father's' ought to be admitted. Probably Sûtra 15 refers to the father's side, and Sûtra 16 to the mother's side.
127:17 Manu III, 27; Yâgñ. I, 58.
127:18 Manu III, 29; Yâgñ. I, 59.
127:19 Manu III, 28; Yâgñ. I, 59.
128:20 Manu III, 32; Yâgñ. I, 61.
128:1 12. Manu III, 31; Yâgñ. I, 61. It must be understood that, at this rite, a regular sale of the bride must take place. If a suitor merely gives presents to the bride, that is not an Âsura-marriage.
128:2 Manu III, 33; Yâgñ. I, 61. Haradatta points out that the other law-books enumerate two additional marriage-rites, the Prâgâpatya or Kâya and the Paisâka. But Vasishtha I, 29-35, like Âpastamba, gives six rites only.
128:3 Manu III, 24, 25; Yâgñ. I, 58-60.
128:4 I.e. from praiseworthy marriages virtuous children are born, and from blamable marriages bad ones. Manu III, 42.
129:10 Another commentator says, 'He shall not throw (brands taken from) one fire into another fire.'--Haradatta.
129:11 The Sûtra implies that under other circumstances he must show this respect to a fire.
129:13 Manu II, 220.
129:18 Manu XI, 200.
129:21 See above, I, 11, 32, 22.
129:22 These sinners are, enumerated in nearly the same order, p. 130 Taittirîya-brâhmana III, 2, 8, 11 and 12, and Âp. Srauta-sûtra IX, 12, 11. See also Manu XI, 44-49. Regarding the crimes causing impurity, see above, I, 7, 21, 12-19.
130:23 'Its cause, i.e. the black nails, &c. According to another Smriti, one shall not put away a wife or extinguish a fire, for the taking or kindling of which the penance had to be performed.'--Haradatta. But see Vasishtha XX, 7 seq.
130:1 13. 'Sâstravihitâ (translated by "who has been married to him legally") means either "married according to the rites prescribed in the Sâstras," or "possessed of the qualities (which have been described) by (the rule of) the Sâstras, He shall not give his daughter to a man of the same Gotra," and in similar (passages).'Haradatta. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text cxcix.
131:3 Another (commentator) says, 'Neither of the parents shall pass them over at (the distribution of) the heritage. Both (parents) must leave their property to them.'--Haradatta. The text of the Sûtra admits of either explanation.
131:6 See also Manu IX, 32 seq., where the same difference of opinion occurs.
131:7 According to Haradatta this Gâthâ gives the sentiments of a husband who neglected to watch his wives, and who had heard from those learned in the law that the sons or his unfaithful wives would in the next world belong to their natural fathers, and that be would not derive any spiritual benefit from their oblations. He adds that this verse does not refer to or prevent the appointment of a eunuch's wife or of a childless widow to a relation. He also quotes a passage from the Srauta-sûtra 1, 9, 7, in which the dvipitâ, 'the son of two fathers,' is mentioned. But Haradatta's view cannot be reconciled with the statements made below, II, 10, 27, 2-7, p. 132 where the Niyoga, is plainly forbidden. Baudhâyana, who (II, 2, 3, 34) quotes the same Gâthâ, reads in the first line the vocative 'ganaka' instead of the nominative 'ganakah,' and in the fifth line 'pare bîgâni' instead of 'parabîgâni.' The commentator Govindasvâmin adds that the verses are addressed by the Rishi Aupagaṅghani to king Ganaka of Videha. The translation of the first line must therefore run thus: 'O Ganaka, now I am jealous of my wives, (though I was) not so formerly,' &c. Baudhâyana's readings are probably the older ones, and Govindasvâmin's explanation the right one. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text ccli.
132:11 Haradatta thinks that, as most other Smritis enumerate the adopted son, and 'the son bought' in their lists of substitutes for lawful sons of the body, Âpastamba's rule can refer only to the gift or sale of an eldest son, or to the gift or sale of a child effected by a woman. Though it is possible that he may be right in his interpretation, it remains a remarkable fact that Âpastamba does not mention the 'twelve kinds of sons,' which are known to other Smritis.
132:12 This Sûtra seems to be directed against Vasishtha I, 36.
133:1 14. The last Sûtra of Khanda 13 and the first of Khanda 14 are quoted by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlii, and Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Colebrooke translates gîvan, 'during his lifetime,' by 'who makes a partition during his lifetime.' I think that this is not quite correct, and that Âpastamba intends to exhort householders to make a division during their lifetime, as later they ought to become ascetics or hermits. Haradatta introduces into his commentary on this Sûtra the whole chapter on the division of a father's estate amongst his sons, supplementing Âpastamba's short rule by the texts of other lawyers. No doubt, Âpastamba means to lay down, in these and the following Sûtras, only the leading principles of the law of inheritance, and he intends that the remaining particulars should be supplied from the law of custom or other Smritis.
133:2 Haradatta gives in his commentary a full summary of the rules on the succession of remoter relations. One point only deserves special mention. He declares that it is the opinion of Âpastamba, that widows cannot inherit. In this he is probably right, as Âpastamba does not mention them, and the use of the p. 134 masculine singular 'sapindah' in the text precludes the possibility of including them under that collective term. It seems to me certain, that Âpastamba, like Baudhâyana, considered women, especially widows, unfit to inherit.
134:4 'Some say "on failure of sons," others that the rule refers to the preceding Sûtra (i.e. that the daughter inherits on failure of pupils only).'--Haradatta. The latter seems to be the correct interpretation.
134:5 'Because the word "all" is used, (the king shall take the estate) only on failure of Bandhus and Sagotras, i.e. gentiles within twelve degrees.'--Haradatta.
134:6 'The other sons shall live under his protection.'--Haradatta. Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6.
134:7 '"Black produce of the earth," i.e. black grain, or according to others black iron.'--Haradatta. Compare for this and the following Sûtras Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6, and Digest, Book V, Text xlviii.
134:8 The translation given above agrees with what I now recognise to be Haradatta's explanation, and with Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Both the P. U. and Mr. U. MSS. of the Uggvalâ read rathah pituramso grihe yatparibhândam upakaranam pîthâdi tadapi, 'the chariot (is) the father's share; the furniture which (is) in the house, that also.' To this reading Mahâdeva's Uggvalâ on the Hiranyakesi Sûtra points likewise, which gives pîtur antah. The N. U. MS. of the Uggvalâ, according to which p. 135 I made the translation given in the Appendix to West and Bühler's Digest (1st edition), leaves out the word amsah, and therefore makes it necessary to combine this Sûtra, with the preceding one, and to translate, 'The father's chariot and the furniture in the house (are) also (the share of the eldest).' This latter translation agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlviii, where this and the preceding Sûtra have been joined; but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the interpretation of this Sûtra occurs in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, and Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., where the words 'the furniture in the house' are joined with Sûtra 9, and the furniture is declared to be the wife's share. Considering that Sûtra 9 is again quoted in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccclxxii, and is not joined with the latter part of Sûtra 8, it is not too much to say that Gagannâtha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren usually do.
135:9 The Mitâksharâ, loc. cit., apparently takes the words 'according to some' as referring only, to property received from relations. I follow Haradatta. The former interpretation is, however, admissible, if the Sûtra is split into two.
135:10 The Sâstras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.
135:11 Taittirîyâ Samhitâ III, 1, 9, 4.
135:12 'Athâpi (now also) means "and certainly." They distinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth: this has been declared in the Veda in conformity with (the rule regarding) one (heir, Sûtra 6). He denies (Sûtra 13) that a passage also, which p. 136 agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is found in the Veda.'--Haradatta. See Taittirîyâ Samhitâ II, 5, 2, 7.
136:13 Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law are the Mimâmsakas. The translation of the second Vedic passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by 'to be resplendent,' usually means 'to give a sound.' Haradatta thinks that Âpastamba means to show that the passage 'Manu divided his wealth among his sons' is likewise merely a statement of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably erroneous, as Sûtras 10 and 11 distinctly state, that the practice to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the abovementioned passage of the Veda.
136:15 Compare for this Sûtra and the following one Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccxv. The translation of pratipâdayati, 'expends,' by 'gains,' which is also proposed by Gagannâtha, is against Âpastamba's usage, see II, 5, 11, 17, and below, II, 8, 20, 19.
136:16 According to Haradatta, this Sûtra gives the reason why, in Sûtra 1, no share has been set apart for the wife. Compare Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, for this Sûtra and the following two.
137:20 See below, II, 11, 29, 3.
137:1 15. Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed to the teaching of the Vedas and Smritis.
137:2 Manu. V, 60; Yâgñ. I, 53; Manu V, 60; Manu V, 58; Yâgñ. III, 3.
137:4 Manu V, 69 and 70.
137:5 Manu V, 80.
138:7-9. Yâgñ. III, 5, 7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing the water is, 'I give this water to you N. N. of the family of N. N.' The water ought to be mixed with sesamum. According to Haradatta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the word' women' denotes in this Sûtra 'the Smritis.' But I fear these learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay attention to the last Sûtra of this work.
138:11 Manu III, 128.
138:12 Manu III, 98.
139:14 'That (substance) is called kshâra, "of pungent or alkaline taste," the eating of which makes the saliva flow.'--Haradatta.
139:15 Avarânna, 'bad food,' is explained by 'kulittha and the like.' Kulittha, a kind of vetch, is considered low food, and eaten by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sûtra, therefore, is, 'If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or Dâl with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation at the Vaisvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule, given in the following Sûtra.
139:17 Manu V, 155; XI, 36.
139:18 Manu II, 171.
140:25 Haradatta quotes Gautama II, 1-3, on this point, and is apparently of opinion that Âpastamba alludes to the same passage. But he is probably wrong, as all Smritis are agreed on the point mentioned by Âpastamba.
140:1 16. 'Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly Srâddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.'--Haradatta.
140:2 The reading 'nihsreyasâ ka' apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take 'nihsreyasâ as a Vedic instrumental, for nihsreyasena, which may designate the 'reason'. If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.
140:3 'The comparison of the Brâhmanas with the Âhavanîya indicates that to feed Brâhmanas is the chief act at a Srâddha.'--Haradatta.
140:4 Manu III, 122, 123; Yâgñ. I, 217.
141:5 Manu III, 255, 278.
141:7 Manu III, 277; Yâgñ. I, 264, 265.
141:12 The translation follows the corrected reading given in the Addenda to the Critical Notes.
142:20 Others read the last part of the Sûtra, ayuvamârmas-tu bhavanti, 'they will not die young'--Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sûtra are joined and Darsanîyâpatyoyuvamârinah is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.
142:21 Manu III, 276, and Yâgñ. I, 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a Srâddha, and the latter adds that Srâddhas for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why Âpastamba declares its reward to be 'success in battle.' The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kshatriyas, not Brâhmanas, should offer their Srâddhas.
142:23 Manu III, 267; Yâgñ. I, 257.
142:26 Manu III, 271.
143:1 17. Manu III, 272; Yâgñ. I, 259.
143:2 Manu V, 16, where Rohita is explained by Satabali.
143:4 Manu III, 128-138, and 149, 188; Yâgñ. I, 225.
143:8 See Manu III, 141, where this Trishtubh has been turned into an Anushtubh.
144:11 Manu III, 187; Yâgñ. I, 225. According to Haradatta the formula of invitation is, Svah srâddham bhavitâ, tatrâhavanîyârthe bhavadbhih prasâde kartavya iti, 'to-morrow a Srâddha will take place. Do me the favour to take at that the place of the Âhavanîya-fire.'
144:12 The formula is, Adya srâddham, 'to-day the Srâddha takes place.'
144:13 The call to dinner is, Siddham âgamyatim, 'the food is ready; come.'
144:16 Âpastamba Grihya-sûtra VIII, 2 1, 9. 'He shall eat it pronouncing the Mantra, "Prâne nivishtosmritam guhomi."' Taitt. Âr. X, 34, 1.
145:17 The North of India begins to the north of the river Sarâvati. The rule alluded to is given by Yâgñ. I. 226, 229, Manu III, 2 10.
145:18 Yâgñ. I, 235. 20. Manu III. 239.
145:21 Manu III, 152-166, and particularly 153 and 154 Yâgñ. I. 222-224. Haradatta's explanation of the word 'Sûdra' by 'a Brâhmana who has become a Sûdra' is probably not because the son of a real Sûdra and of a Brâhmana female is a Kandâla, and has been disposed of by the preceding Sûtra.
146:22 Compare Manu III, 185, 186; Yâgñ. I, 219-221. The three verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu vâtâ ritâyate, &c., which occur both in the Taitt. Samh. and in the Taitt. Âr. The explanation of Trisuparna is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it may mean either a person who knows the three verses Katushkapardâ yuvatih supesâ, &c., Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 2, 1, 27, &c., or one who knows the three Anuvâkas from the Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 48-50, beginning, Brahmametu mâm, &c. The word 'Trinâkiketa' has three explanations:--a. A person who knows the Nâkiketa-fire according to the Taittirîyaka, Kathavallî, and the Satapatha, i.e. has studied the portions on the Nâkiketa-fire in these three books. b. A person who has thrice kindled the Nâkiketa-fire. c. A person who has studied the Anuvâka, called Viragas. Katurmedha may also mean 'one who has performed the four sacrifices' enumerated above.
146:23 Manu III, 280.
146:24 'The Srâddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to the Brahmans.'--Haradatta.
146:25 'The Northerners do not generally receive this Sûtra, and therefore former commentators have not explained it.'--Haradatta.
147:1 18. Sûtras 1-4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special objects mentioned in Sûtras 3 and 4 for one year only Haradatta (on Sûtra 4) says that another commentator thinks that Sûtras 1-3 prescribe one vow, and Sûtra 4 another, and that the latter applies both to householders and students. A passage front Baudhâyana is quoted in support of this latter view.
147:5 Manu III, 82 seq.
147:6 The term 'pure (men)' is used in order to indicate that they must be so particularly, because, by II, 2, 3, 11, purity has already been prescribed for cooks.
148:7 For the unusual meaning of dravya, 'vessel,' compare the term sîtâdravyâni, 'implements of husbandry,'--Manu IX, 293, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.
148:13 The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a Srâddha, Yâgñ. I, 259, and Manu III, 272.
149:1 19. The ceremony which is here described, may also be performed daily. If the reading prâsya is adopted, the translation must run thus: 'and he shall scatter (the remainder of the powder). If the wind,' &c.
149:2 'Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not perform this ceremony.'--Haradatta.
149:4 If the masculine bhoktavyah is used instead of bhoktavyam, the participle must be construed with kamasah.
149:5 The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text ought to be taken with the participle samnayan, is grasîta, Sûtra 9.
149:8 'Why is this second alternative mentioned, as (the first Sûtra) suffices? True. But according to the maxim that "restrictions are made on account of the continuance of an action once begun," the meaning of this second Sûtra is that he shall p. 150 continue to the end to handle the vessel (in that manner in which) he has handled it when eating for the first time.'--Haradatta.
150:16 Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to II, 2, 4, 22, the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.
151:1 20. A drona equals 128 seers or seras. The latter is variously reckoned at 1-3 lbs.
151:3 The reason why the constellation Tishya has been chosen for this rite seems to be that Tishya has another name, Pushya, i.e. 'prosperous'. This sacrifice is to begin on the Tishya-day of the month called Taisha or Pausha (December-January), and to continue for one year.
152:11 Manu IV, 7 8.
152:16 'Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheumatism.'--Haradatta.
152:19 Manu XI, 6, and passim.
153:1 21. 'Though four (orders) are enumerated, he uses the word "four," lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed, as has been taught in other Smritis.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 87.
153:2 Manu VI, 88.
153:3 Manu II, 247-249, and above.
153:8 The meaning of the Sûtra is, that the studentship is a necessary preliminary for the Samnyâsin. If a man considers sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may become a Samnyâsin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last p. 154 order, when his passions are entirely extinct. See also Manu VI, 36; Yâgñ. III, 56-57.
154:10 Manu VI, 33, 42-45; Yâgñ. III, 58 seq.
154:12 'Another (commentator) says, "Some declare that he is free from all injunctions and prohibitions, i.e. he need neither perform nor avoid any (particular actions),"'--Haradatta.
154:13 'He shall seek, i.e. worship, the Âtman or Self, which has been described in the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8).'--Haradatta.
154:15 Haradatta apparently takes the word Sâstras to mean 'Dharmasâstras.'
154:17 'That which follows' are the Yogas, which must be employed in order to cause the annihilation of pain, after the knowledge of the Âtman or Self has been obtained.
155:21 'But which is that one fire? Certainly not the Grihya-fire, because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended is, "He shall offer a Samidh morn and evening in the common fire, just as formerly, (during his studentship)." Another commentator says, "Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire according to the rule of the Srâmanaka Sûtra. The Srâmanaka Sûtra is the Vaikhânasa Sûtra. Having kindled a fire in the manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning and every evening."'--Haradatta. See also Manu VI, 4; Yâgñ. III, 45.
155:1 22. Manu VI, 6.
155:2 Manu VI, 5, 21; Yâgñ. III, 46.
155:4 'Then he shall live on ether, i.e. eat nothing at all.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 31; Yâgñ. III, 55.
156:6 'The word atha, "now," introduces a different opinion. Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods (may be begun) after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just for that hermit a successive performance of the acts.
156:8 Manu VI, 3 seq.; Yâgñ. III, 45.
156:10 Haradatta thinks that this rule refers both to the hermit who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others refer it to the latter only.
156:15 According to Haradatta, the word kâga appears to designate a 'mallet;' in the passage from the Râmâyana quoted in the Petersburg Dict. the commentator explains it by petaka, 'basket.'
157:17 Yâgñ. III, 46.
157:20 This Sûtra explains the word upâmsu, 'inaudibly.'
157:24 Manu VI, 15; Yâgñ. III, 47.
157:1 23. The following rules apply to a solitary hermit.
157:2 These Sûtras are repeated in order to show that, according to, the opinion of those who allow hermits to live with their families, the end should be the same.
158:3 'The "orders" have been described. Now, giving conflicting opinions, he discusses which of them is the most important.'--Haradatta.
158:4 This verse and the next are intended to disparage the order of householders. Haradatta explains 'burial-grounds' by 'new births which lead to new deaths;' but see below, Sûtra 10. See also Yâgñ. III, 186-187.
159:11 The Sûtra is intended to remove the blame thrown on the order of householders by the verse quoted. Haradatta seems to have forgotten his former explanation of Smasânâni.
160:6 24. 'They become the seed,' i.e. 'The Pragâpatis.'
160:8 'Other (duties), i.e. the order of ascetics and the like.'--Haradatta.
160:13 As the Rishis have not lost heaven through the sins of their sons, the dogma according to which ancestors lose heaven through the sins of their sons, must be false.
160:14 Âpastamba's own opinion is apparently against pure asceticism.
161:3 25. 'In the heart of the town, i.e. in that town which is surrounded by all the walls.'--Haradatta. Compare Manu VII, 76.
161:6 According to Haradatta, the fires are to be common, not consecrated ones.
161:7 Manu VII, 78; Yâgñ. I, 313.
161:8 Manu VII, 82 seq.
162:10 'The Gurus are the father and other (venerable relations).'--Haradatta.
162:11 Manu VII, 134. 'Or intentionally; with reference to that the following example may be given. If anybody is to be made to pay his debts or taxes, then he is to be exposed to cold or heat, or to be made to fast (until he pays). The king shall punish (every one) who acts thus.'--Haradatta.
162:13 Having played there, they shall give a fixed sum to the gambling-house keeper and go away. The latter shall, every day or every month or every year, give that gain to the king. And the king shall punish those who play elsewhere or quarrel in the assembly-house.'--Haradatta.
162:14 'At festivals and the like occasions (these performances) take place also elsewhere, that is the custom.'--Haradatta.
162:15 Manu VII, I 43, and passim; Yâgñ. 1, 335.
163:1 26. Manu VII, 83, 84, 88; Yâgñ. I, 314.
163:2 According to Haradatta the king's body represents the post (yûpa), his soul the sacrificial animal, the recovered property the reward for the priests or fee.
163:3 Manu VII, 89; Yâgñ. I, 323, 324.
163:4 Manu VII, 115-124; Yâgñ. I, 321.
163:6 Yâgñ. II, 271-272. A yogana is a distance of 4 krosa, kos.
163:7 A krosa, kos, or gâu, literally 'the lowing of a cow,' is variously reckoned at 1½-4 miles.
163:8 Yâgñ. I, 272. This law is, with certain modifications, still in force. See Bombay Regulations, XII, 27 par.
164:9 According to Haradatta, who quotes Gautama in his commentary, the sulka is the 1/20th part of a merchant's gains. On account of the Sûtras immediately following, it is, however, more probable that the term is here used as a synonym of 'kara,' and includes all taxes. 'Lawful' taxes are, of course, those sanctioned by custom and approved of by the Smritis.
164:10 Manu VII, 133.
164:11 Haradatta thinks that the rule applies to women of the Anuloma, the pure castes, only.
164:14 'Why does be say "intent on fulfilling the holy law?" Those shall not be free from taxes who perform austerities in order to make their magic charms efficacious.'--Haradatta.
164:18 The ornaments would indicate that he was bent on mischief. Compare above, I, 11, 32, 6.
165:19 'The punishment must be proportionate to his property and the greatness of his offence. The term "with a bad purpose" is added, because he who has been sent by his teacher (to such a place) should not be punished.'--Haradatta. Manu VIII, 354; Yâgñ. II, 284.
165:24 'I.e. a married woman to her husband or father-in-law an unmarried damsel to her father or to her brother.'--Haradatta.
165:2 27. This Sûtra refers to the begetting of a Kshetraga son, and gives the usual rule, that only the Sagotras in the order of the grade of relationship, a brother-in-law, a Sapinda, &c., shall be employed for this purpose.
166:4 'For now-a-days the senses of men are and therefore the peculiar (law formerly) in force regarding gentiles is no longer, lest husbands should be set aside under the pretended sanction of the Sâstras.'--Haradatta.
166:9 Manu VIII, 374; Yâgñ. II, 286. According to Haradatta, this refers to a Sûdra servant who seduces a woman committed to his charge. In other cases the punishment prescribed, II, 10, 26,10, is to take effect. The same opinion is expressed by Gautama.
166:11 This refers to the wife of a Srotriya, as Haradatta states according to Gautama. The penance is three years' chastity.
167:15 In conversation, i.e. addressing Âryas familiarly, with tvam, thou,' &c.
167:17 Haradatta states expressly that the eyes of a Brâhmana must not be put out by any sharp instrument. He should be kept blindfold all his life.
167:20 The intercession is to take effect in this manner: that mutilation is commuted to a fine, a fine to a flogging, a flogging to a reprimand.'--Haradatta.
168:1 28. This Sûtra shows that the system of leasing land against a certain share of the crops, which now prevails generally in Native States, and is not uncommon in private contracts on British territory, was in force in Âpastamba's times.
168:2 See Colebrooke, Digest, Book III, Text lxviii, for this Sûtra and the following two. Another commentator, quoted by Haradatta, connects this Sûtra with the preceding, and refers it to a poor lessee of land, who cannot pay the value of the crop which was lost through his negligence. A third explanation refers the Sûtra to a cultivator who neglects to till his land. Gagannâtha's authorities, the Kintâmani and Ratnâkara, agree with Haradatta's first explanation.
168:5 Manu VIII, 240; Yâgñ. II, 159-161.
169:6a Manu VIII, 232; Yâgñ. II, 164.
169:13 Manu VIII, 18, 308; Yâgñ. I, 336.
169:3 29. 'Though this is so, still the wife cannot spend (money) without the permission of her husband, but the husband can do (so without the consent of his wife). That may be known by Sûtra II, 6, 14, 11, "They do not declare it to be a theft if the wife spends money for a good reason during the absence of her husband."'--Haradatta.
169:4 'Others, i.e. the sons and the rest.'--Haradatta.
169:5 Yâgñ. II, 2.
169:6b 'And the like, i.e. by cross-examination, &c.'--Haradatta.
169:7 Manu VIII, 87 seq.; Yâgñ. II, 68-75.
169:8 Manu VIII, 119 seq.
170:9 Manu VIII, 89 seq.
170:10 Manu VIII, 81 seq.
170:11 Manu II, 223. The meaning of the Sûtra is, that men ought not to study solely or at first such Sâstras as women or Sûdras also learn, but that at first they must study the Veda. See Manu II, 168. The knowledge which women and Sûdras possess is dancing, music, and other branches of the Arthasâstra.
170:14 See above, I, 7, 20, 8 and 9.
Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) . The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.
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