The Gautama Sutras, Chapters 15 to 28
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- The Hindu Dharmashastras, Subject Index
- A Brief Note on the Dharmashastras
- The Laws of Manu Chapter 1 to 6
- The Laws of Manu Chapters 7 to 12
- Introduction to the Apastamba
- The Apastamba - Prasna I
- The Apastamba - Prasna II
- Introduction to Gautama Sutras
- The Gautama Sutras, Chapters I to XIV
- The Gautama Sutras Chapters XV to XVIII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, introduction
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters I - VII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters V - XXII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters XIII - XXX
- Introduction to the Baudhayana DharmasShastra
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika 1-21)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaII (Kandika 1-18)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaIII, IV and V
- Essays On Dharma
- Esoteric Mystic Hinduism
- Introduction to Hinduism
- Hindu Way of Life
- Essays On Karma
- Hindu Rites and Rituals
- The Origin of The Sanskrit Language
- Symbolism in Hinduism
- Essays on The Upanishads
- Concepts of Hinduism
- Essays on Atman
- Hindu Festivals
- Spiritual Practice
- Right Living
- Yoga of Sorrow
- Mental Health
- Concepts of Buddhism
- General Essays
255:1 XV. 'The word "now" indicates that a new topic begins.'--Haradatta. The rules now following refer in the first instance to the Pârvana or monthly Srâddha, but most of them serve also as general rules for all the numerous varieties of funeral sacrifices.
255:2 Manu III, 122; Yâgñavalkya I, 217.
255:3 Âpastamba II, 7, 16, 6.
255:4 Âpastamba II, 7, 16, 6-2 2.
255:5 Some of the most famous among the places where the performance of a Srâddha is particularly efficacious and meritorious are Gayâ in Bihâr, Pushkara or Pokhar near Agmîr, the Kurukshetra near Dehli, Nâsika on the Godâvarî. Pilgrims or persons passing through such places may and must perform a Srâddha on any day of the month.
255:7 Yâgñavalkya I, 227.
255:8 See also below, Sûtra 21.
255:9 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 4. Haradatta explains vâk, 'eloquence,' by 'ability to speak Sanskrit,' rûpa, 'beauty,' by 'the proper number of limbs,' and vayahsampanna, 'of (suitable) age,' by 'not too young.'
256:11 I.e. in honour of the father a young man is to be invited, in honour of the grandfather an old man, and in honour of the great-grandfather a very old man.
256:12 Âpastamba II. 7, 17, 4, 8; Manu III, 140.
256:15 Âpastamba II, 7, 16, 23-11, 7, 17, 3; 11, 8, 18, 13.
256:16 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 21. 'A destroyer of the sacred fire (vîrahan), i.e. one who extinguishes intentionally the (domestic) fire p. 257 out of hatred against his wife, and for the like reasons.'--Haradatta. He also remarks that some read agredidhishu instead of agredidhishû, and he proposes to explain the former, on the authority of Vyâghra and of the Naighantukas, as 'a Brâhmana whose wife has been wedded before to another man.'
257:17 My MSS. make two Sûtras out of Professor Stenzler's one, and read upapatih | yasya ka sah. The sense remains the same, but the latter version of the text is, I think, the correct one.
257:18 Haradatta says that kundâsin may also mean 'he who eats out of a vessel called kunda,' as the people have in some countries the habit of preparing their food and afterwards eating out of the kunda. Haradatta explains tyaktâtman, 'one who despairs of himself,' by 'one who has made an attempt on his own life, and has tried to hang himself, and the like.' He remarks that some explain durvâla, 'a bald man,' by nirveshtitasepha. He who neglects the recitation of the sacred texts, i.e. of those texts which, like the Gâyatrî, ought to be recited.
258:19 Below, XXVIII, 2, it will be prescribed that the division of the family estate may take place during the lifetime of the father with his consent. From this Sûtra it would appear that sons could enforce a division of the ancestral estate against his will, as Yâgñavalkya also allows (see Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ I, 6, 5-11), and that this practice, though legal, was held to be contra bonos mores.
258:20 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 5-6.
258:21 According to Haradatta, this Sûtra is intended as a modification of Sûtra 8.
258:22 Manu III, 250. 23. Manu III, 188.
259:24 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 20.
259:28 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 22.
259:29-30. Manu III, 132-137, 148-149.
259:1 XVI. Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 1. The Upâkarman is the ceremony which is annually performed at the beginning of the course of study, and it is obligatory on householders also; see Âpastamba II, 2, 5, 1. Khandâmsi, 'the Vedic texts,' i.e. the Mantras and Brâhmanas. The Aṅgas may be studied out of term; see Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 3 note.
260:2 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 2-3.
260:3 This Sûtra and the following one refer to a teacher or to a householder who again goes through the Veda; see Âpastamba, II, 2, 55 15, 16.
260:5-6. Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 8.
260:7-8. Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 19. A Vâna is stated to be a kind of lute, or harp, with a hundred strings.
260:9 Âpastamba I, 31 11, 25, 31.
260:10 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 31.
260:11 Manu IV, 109.
260:12 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 15, 17; Manu IV, 109.
260:13 Manu IV, 103.
261:15 'Another (commentator says): "Pariveshana, being surrounded by a halo, means bringing food" . . . (The Sûtra means, therefore), He shall not study while his teacher eats.'--Haradatta.
261:16 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 31.
261:17 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 27; I, 3, 11, 12; Manu IV, 112: Yâgñavalkya I, 150.
261:18 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 4, 6; I, 3, 10, 2, 4; I, 3, 11, 9.
261:19 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 24; I, 3, 9, 6, 14-15.
261:20 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 25.
261:21 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 19.
261:22 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 30.
261:23 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 29; Manu IV, 29.
262:24 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 22. The above translation follows the reading of my MSS., which differ very much from Professor Stenzler's edition. According to them the commentary on the latter part of Sûtra 23 and on Sûtra 24 runs as follows: . . . pratyekam âlâlikâ anadhyâyahetavah | apartâv idam | ritâv âha ||
AHA RITAU || 24 ||
Varshartâv ete yadi bhaveyuh sandhyâyâm tadaharmâtram anâdhyâyah | prâtasket | sâyam tu râtrâv anadhyâya ityarthasiddhatvâd anuktam || . . . 'are each reasons for discontinuing the recitation until the same time next day. This (rule) refers to other times than the rainy season. He now declares (the rule) for the rainy season:
24. "During the (rainy) season for a day."
'If these (phenomena) happen in the twilight during the rainy season, the interruption of the study lasts for that day only, provided (they happen) in the morning. But if they happen in the evening, study is forbidden during the night. As this is clear from the context, it has not been declared specially.'--Haradatta. I suspect that Professor Stenzler's reading apartau is a correction, made by an ingenious Pandit, of an old varia lectio 'ahartau' for aha ritau, which is found in one of my MSS. (C) also.
262:25 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 21.
263:30 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 23.
263:33 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 11. Haradatta adds that others enjoin a stoppage of the Veda-study from the hour of the departure until the same hour on the following day, while another commentator gives the following explanation: 'All, indeed, the teacher and the rest, shall, on that day, not even recite the Veda in order to remember it.'
263:34 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 25; I, 3, 10, 22, 28-30; I, 3, 11, 6, 30; Manu IV, 118. Haradatta is in doubt whether 'a sacrifice offered in honour of men' means a Samskâra, or a sacrifice to gods, like Kumâra, who formerly were men; see Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 3.
263:36 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 28.
263:37 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 1.
264:38 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 2. Regarding the meaning of the word Ashtakâ, see above, VIII, 18 note.
264:40 Âpastamba I, 3, 10, 2.
264:41 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 27.
264:42 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 28.
264:43 Haradatta explains 'a festive day' to mean the day of the initiation and the like, but see Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 20.
264:44 Haradatta explains this Sûtra as equivalent to Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 1. He adds that another commentator reads prâdhîtasya ka as a separate Sûtra, interpreting it to mean, 'And a person who has performed the Upâkarman (shall not study after dinner),' and refers the words 'at night for four Muhûrtas' to the prohibition to read on the evening of the thirteenth day of the dark half of the month.
264:45 Manu IV, 116.
264:46 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 25.
265:47 Âpastamba, ibidem.
265:49 Âpastamba I, 3, 11, 38.
265:1 XVII. Âpastamba, I, 6, 18, 13.
265:3 Âpastamba I, 6, 18, 1; I, 6, 19, 13; Manu IV, 247-250.
265:4 Manu IV, 251. Gurus, i.e. parents and other venerable persons.
265:5 Âpastamba I, 6, 18, 14.
265:6 Manu IV, 253; Yâgñavalkya I, 166.
266:7 E.g. a man who sells pots, but does not make them.
266:8 Manu III, 104; Yâgñavalkya I, 112.
266:9 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 23, 26.
266:10 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 27, 30. Haradatta explains 'a black bird' by 'a crow,' and no doubt the crow, as the Kândâla among birds, is intended in the first instance.
266:11 Manu IV, 208; Yâgñavalkya I, 167.
266:12 Manu IV, 209; Yâgñavalkya I, 168.
266:13 'What has been given in a contemptuous manner by the host, or what is not pleasing to the eater, that is called bhâvadushta, "naturally bad."'--Haradatta. The second seems to be the right explanation, as food falling under the first is mentioned below, Sûtra 21.
266:14 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 18, 20.
266:15 Haradatta states that this rule does not refer to dishes the preparation of which requires a double cooking, but to those which ordinarily are cooked once only.
267:17 For this and the following Sûtras, see Âpastamba I, 6, 18, 16-1, 6, 19, 1; Manu IV, 205-217; Yâgñavalkya I, 161-165. An Abhisasta is a person who is wrongly or falsely accused of a heinous crime, see Âpastamba I, 91 24, 6-9. Haradatta adduces the explanation 'hermaphrodite' for anapadesya as the opinion of others. He himself thinks that it means 'a person not worthy to be described or named.' 'One who hunts without using the bow' is a poacher who snares animals. Snaring animals is a favourite occupation of the non-Aryan tribes, such as Vâghrîs, Bhils, and Kolis.
267:18 See above, XV, 15-18, where 'bald men' occupy the fourteenth place in Sûtra 18.
267:19 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 3; Manu IV, 212. That is called 'food (prepared) for no (sacred) purpose which a man cooks only for himself, not for guests and the rest, see Âpastamba II, 4, 8, 4; Manu V, 7.
267:20 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 2.
268:21 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 4.
268:22-23. Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 24
268:24 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 23.
268:25 Âpastamba, I, 5, 17, 23
268:26 Manu V, 8; Yâgñavalkya I, 170.
268:27 Âpastamba. I, 5, 17, 37.
268:28 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 33, 35. Haradatta gives as an example of 'animals covered with an excessive quantity of hair' the Yak or Bos grunniens, and of 'those that have no hair' snakes and the like.
269:29 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32, 34, 35; Yâgñavalkya I, 173.
269:30 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 29-30.
269:31 Aitareya-brâhmana VII, 14. For the explanation of vrithâ-mâmsa, 'the flesh (of animals killed) for no (sacred) purpose,' Haradatta refers back to Sûtra 19, but see also the Petersburg Dict. s. v. vrithâ.
269:32 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 26, 29; Manu V, 5, 6, 19.
269:34 Manu V, 12; Yâgñavalkya I, 173, Haradatta explains mândhâla by vâgvada, which seems to be the same as the bird vâgguda, (Manu XII, 64). Mândhâla is not found in our dictionaries, but it apparently is a vicarious form for mânthâla, which occurs in the Vâgasaneyi-Samhitâ and is said to be the name of a kind of mouse or rat, It seems to me that the large herbivorous bat, usually called the flying fox (in Gugarâtî vâgud or vâgul) is really meant, which, by an inaccurate observer, might be described both as a bird and as a kind of rat. See also Vasishtha XIV, 48.
269:35 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 32-33.
269:36 Âpastamba I, 5, 17, 38-39.
270:37 I.e. animals offered at Srâddhas and Srauta-sacrifices, though under other circumstances forbidden, may be eaten both by the priests and other Brâhmanas.
270:38 Haradatta takes vyâla, 'beasts of prey,' to mean sporting dogs, which no doubt are also intended.
270:1 XVIII. Manu V, 155. This Sûtra refers in the first instance to the inability of wives to offer on their own account Srauta or Grihya-sacrifices, or to perform vows and religious ceremonies prescribed in the Purânas, without the permission of their husbands. As the word strî means both wife and woman, its ulterior meaning is, that women in general are never independent; see Manu V, 148; IX, 3; Yâgñavalkya 1, 85.
270:2 Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 6; Manu IX, 102.
270:3 Manu V, 166; Yâgñavalkya I, 87.
270:4 Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 2-3; Manu IX, 59-60; Yâgñavalkya I, 68. Apati, 'she whose husband is dead,' means literally, 'she who has no husband.' But as the case of a woman whose husband has gone abroad, is discussed below, it follows that the former translation alone is admissible. It must, of course, be understood that the widow has no children.
271:5 The Gurus are here the husband's relatives, under whose protection the widow lives.
271:6 Regarding the term Sapinda, see above, XIV, 13; a Sagotra is a relative bearing the same family name (laukika gotra) removed seven to thirteen degrees, or still further. A Samânapravara is one who is descended from the same Rishi (vaidika gotra).
271:8 Colebrooke V, Digest 265. Haradatta explains atidvitîya, 'not more than two (sons),' to mean 'not more than one son' (prathamam apatyam atîtya dvitîyam na ganayed iti). But see Manu IX, 61.
271:9 Âpastamba II, 6, 13, 6-7.
271:10 Manu IX, 52.
271:11 Manu IX, 145. Such a son is called Kshetraga, see below, XXVIII, 32.
271:12 Manu IX, 144.
271:13 Yâgñavalkya II, 127. Such a son is called dvipitri or dvyâmushyâyana.
272:15 Manu IX, 76. 'When the husband has disappeared, i.e. has gone to a foreign country, his wife, though childless, shall wait for six years. After (the lapse of) that (period) she may, if she desires it, produce a child (by cohabiting with a Sapinda), after having been authorised thereto by her Gurus. If the husband is heard of, i.e. that he dwells in such and such a country, she shall go to him.'--Haradatta. Kshapana, 'waiting,' is ambiguous, and may also mean being continent or emaciating herself.
272:17 I.e. before she goes to live with a Sapinda, or tries to follow her husband, in case his residence is known.
272:20 Manu IX, 90-92; Yâgñavalkya I, 64.
272:21 Manu IX, 88.
272:22 Manu IX, 4; Yâgñavalkya I, 64. 'He who,' i.e. the father or guardian.
273:24 Manu XI, 11, 13. Haradatta explains dharmatantra, 'a rite prescribed by the sacred law,' here, as well as Sûtra 32, by 'the means,' i.e. a sacrificial animal and the like required by one who is engaged in performing a sacred duty, i.e. a Pasubandha-sacrifice and the like.
273:25 Manu XI, 12. 26-27. Manu XI, 14.
273:28 Manu XI, 16; Yâgñavalkya III, 43-
273:30 Manu XI, 7; Yâgñavalkya III, 43-44.
273:31 Manu XI, 21-22. Haradatta adds that a Brâhmana who acts thus, must, of course, not be punished.
274:32 Haradatta refers this Sûtra to the case where 'a sacrificial animal or other requisites for a sacrifice are stolen from a Brâhmana. It seems, however, more probable that it refers to the duty of the king to prevent, by all means in his power, a violation of the sacred duty to perform Srauta-sacrifices, and that it is intended to prescribe that he is to assist a man who is engaged in them and too poor to finish them.
274:1 XIX. Haradatta, thinks that the object of this Sûtra is to assert that in the following chapter the laws given above for castes and orders must be kept in mind. Thus penances like offering a Punastoma are not intended for Sûdras, who have no business with Vedic rites, but other penances are. He also states that another commentator believes that the Sûtra is meant to indicate that the following rules refer not merely to those men who belong to castes and orders, but to the Pratilomas also, who have been declared to stand outside the pale of the sacred law. Haradatta's opinion appears to be preferable.
274:2 'Ayam purushah, "man (in) this (world)," indicates the universal soul which is dwelling in the body. Yâpya, "vile," i.e. despicable (kutsita).'--Haradatta.
274:3 'They, i.e. the theologians (brahmavâdinah).'--Haradatta.
275:5 I.e. the guilt (adharma) contracted by the deed is not effaced before it has produced its result in the shape of punishment in hell and in other births, see also Manu X1, 45.
275:6 'Apara, "most excellent," means that which nothing surpasses, i.e. the settled doctrine.'--Haradatta.
275:7 The Punastoma is one of the Srauta-sacrifices belonging to the class called Ekâha. Regarding its efficacy, see also Lâtyâyana Srauta-sûtra IX, 4, 5.
275:8 The Vrâtyastoma is another Ekâha-sacrifice. Regarding its efficacy, see Yâgñavalkya I, 38; Lâtyâyana Srautra-sûtra VIII 6, 29.
275:9 Satapatha-brâhmana XIII, 3, 1, 1.
275:10 The Agnishtut is an Ekâha-sacrifice. Regarding its efficacy, see Manu XI, 75.
275:11 Manu XI, 46, 228; Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 12-I, 9, 27, 11.
275:12 'Those parts of the Âranyakas which are not (Upanishads) are called Vedântas. In all the Vedas (khandas), i.e. in all Sâkhâs (pravakana), the Samhitâ-text, not the Pada-text, nor the Krama-text. Another commentator says, "One Samhitâ is to be made p. 276 with all the metres, i.e. the Gâyatrî and the rest, and to be recited according to the manner of the Prâtaranuvâka."'--Haradatta. According to the same authority, the Madhus are found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 38, the hymn of Aghamarshana Rig-veda X, 190, the Rudras Taittirîya-Samhitâ IV, 5, 1-11, and in the corresponding eleven chapters of all other Yagus-sâkhâs, the Purushasûkta Rig-veda X, 90, the Kûshmândas Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 3-5, the Pâvamânîs Rig-veda IX, while by Atharvasiras the Upanishad, known by that name, is meant. As regards the Sâmans mentioned in the Sûtra it suffices to refer to Professor Benfey's Index, Ind. Stud. III, 199, and to Dr. Burnell's Index of the Ârsheya-brâhmana.
276:13 According to Haradatta the word iti, which appears in the text at the end of the enumeration, is intended to include other similar kinds of food, as 'the five products of the cow.' Eating gold means eating small particles of gold which have been thrown into clarified butter and the like.
276:14 The word iti used in the text is, according to Haradatta, again to be taken in the sense of 'and so forth.' The translation of parishkanda, 'a temple,' not parishkandha, as Professor Stenzler p. 277 reads, is based on Haradatta's explanation. Etymologically it seems to mean 'a place for circumambulation,' and to denote the platform on which the temples usually stand, and which is used for the Pradakshina ceremony.
277:15 The word iti in the text is explained as in the preceding Sûtras.
277:18 These (acts), i.e. the recitation of the Veda and so forth, which have been enumerated above, Sûtras 11-16.
277:20 Regarding these penances, see chapters XXVI and XXVII. Haradatta again takes the word iti, which occurs in the text, to include other difficult penances.
277:1 XX. Haradatta remarks that the father is mentioned here, in order to indicate that other less venerable relatives must certainly p. 278 also be abandoned. He also states that bhrûnahan, 'he who slays a learned Brâhmana,' includes sinners who have committed other mortal sins (mahâpâtaka), see XXI, 1.
278:2 Manu XI, 183-185; Yâgñavalkya III, 295. The spiritual Gurus, i.e. the teacher who initiated him (âkârya) and those who instructed him in the Veda (upâdhyâya).
278:8 Manu XI, 185.
279:10 Manu XI, 187-188; Yâgñavalkya III, 296.
279:11 As appears from Gobhila Grihya-sûtra III, 4, 16, the noun to be understood is apâm añgalih, 'a handful of water.'
279:15 Haradatta refers the term Pâvamânîs here to Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 4, 8. The Taratsamandîs are found Rig veda IX, 58.
280:1 XXI. Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 7-9, 11; I, 9, 24, 6-9; Manu XI, 35; Yâgñavalkya III, 227. Guru, i.e. a father or spiritual teacher. The term yonisambandha, 'sisters and their female offspring,' seems to be used here in a sense different from that which it has III, 3; XIV, 20; and XIX, 20. it may possibly include also daughters-in-law.
280:2 Âpastamba II, 11, 29, 1.
280:3 Manu IX, 181; Yâgñavalkya III, 261.
281:7 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 24-25; I, 9, 25, 1-3; Manu. XI, 90-92, 104-105. The 'penances' prescribed are equal to a sentence of death.
281:8 Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 10.
281:9 Yâgñavalkya III, 298. 'On account of the word "and," by slaying a Brâhmana and similar crimes also. Another (commentator) says, "A woman who serves the slayer of a learned Brâhmana, or a man of lower caste, i.e. becomes his wife, loses her caste. On account of the word 'and' the same happens in case she kills a Brâhmana or commits a similarly heinous crime. The slayer of a Brâhmana, is mentioned in order to include (all) outcasts."'--Haradatta.
281:10 Manu XI, 56-57; Yâgñavalkya III, 228-229.
281:11 Manu XI, 60-67; Yâgñavalkya III, 234-242; Âpastamba, I, 7, 21, 12-17, 19. The persons who defile the company are enumerated above, XV, 16-18.
282:12 Âpastamba I, 2, 4, 26; I, 2, 7, 26; I, 2, 8, 27. Haradatta asserts that, as the desertion of sinners has been prescribed above, XX, 1, the expression patanîyasevâyâm must here mean 'if they associate with outcasts.' The former rule refers, however, to blood relations only, and our Sûtra may be intended to extend it to spiritual, relations.
282:15 Âpastamba I, 10, 28, 9-10. The meaning is that parents, though they have become outcasts, must be provided with the necessaries of life.
282:16 Haradatta adds that their property goes to the king.
282:17 Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 20,
282:18 Yâgñavalkya III, 285.
282:20-21. Manu X1, 207; Yâgñavalkya III, 293. According to p. 283 Haradatta the word asvargyam, 'will be banished from or lose heaven,' may either mean that a hundred years' residence in heaven will be deducted from the rewards for his meritorious deeds, or that he will reside in hell for the period specified.
283:22 Manu XI, 208; Yâgñavalkya III, 293.
283:1 XXII. The text of the Sûtra consists of the single word 'penance' in the singular, which, being the adhikâra or heading, must be taken with each of the following Sûtras down to the end of chapter XXIII.
283:2 Manu XI, 74.
283:3 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 11.
283:4 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 11-20. Haradatta says, 'the foot of a bedstead' (khatvâṅga) is known in the case of the Pâsupatas, and indicates thereby that he interprets the term to mean 'a club shaped like the foot of a bedstead,' which the Pâsupatas wear.
283:5 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 13.
284:6 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 10.
284:7 Manu XI, 80; Yâgñavalkya III, 244-245.
284:8 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 21.
284:9 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 22.
284:10 Haradatta names the Pañkarâtra sacrifice as an instance of a Srauta yagña, of which an Agnishtut forms part. He adds that another commentator explain s the Sûtra to mean, 'or at any other sacrifice, provided that an Agnishtut sacrifice be its final ceremony.' Regarding the Agnishtut sacrifice, see also above, XIX, 10.
284:11 Yâgñavalkya III, 252.
284:12 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 9; Manu XI, 88; Yâgñavalkya III, 251.
284:13 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 8; Manu, Yâgñavalkya, loc. cit.
285:15 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 2, 4.
285:16 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 3, 4.
285:17 Âpastamba I, 9, 24, 5; Yâgñavalkya III, 269. Haradatta says that this rule refers to the expiation of the murder of a virtuous Brâhmanî.
285:18 Âpastamba, I, 9, 26, 5; Manu XI, 109-116; Yâgñavalkya III, 263. Haradatta thinks that the Sûtra refers to the cow of a virtuous Srotriya or of a poor Brâhmana who has many children.
285:19 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 13. Haradatta explains dahara to mean a small mouse, but gives the meaning assigned to it in the translation as the opinion of others. He states that all the animals named must have been intentionally injured and together.
285:20 Manu XI, 142; Yâgñavalkya III, 275.
285:21 Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 2.
286:22 Haradatta quotes a verse showing that 'something' means eight handfuls (mushti) of grain.
286:23 Manu XI, 134; Yâgñavalkya III, 273.
286:24 Manu XI, 135.
286:25 Manu XI, 34; Yâgñavalkya III, 273. Possibly danda, a bar, denotes here a particular measure, as a danda is said to be equal to four hastas or ninety-six aṅgulis.
286:26 Manu XI, 139.
286:29-30. Âpastamba II, 110, 27, 11.
286:33 Haradatta says that by the employment of Vedic texts, teaching or sacrificing is meant, but that others refer the Sûtra p. 287 to the performance of these acts in the company of, not for unworthy people.
287:35 Manu XI, 189; Yâgñavalkya III, 297.
287:36 Manu XI, 174. Regarding the Kûshmândas, see XIX, 12.
287:1 XXIII. Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 3. Haradatta, remarks that other twice-born men also must perform the same penance in case they drink liquor forbidden to them, see above, II, 20 note. He also states that the offence must have been committed intentionally and repeatedly in order to justify so severe an expiation. Regarding the effect of the purification after death, see above, XX, 16.
287:2-3. Manu XI, 151; Yâgñavalkya III, 255; see also Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 10.
288:4-5. Manu XI, 157.
288:6 Manu XI, 150.
288:7 Manu XI, 200; Yâgñavalkya III, 277.
288:8-10. Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 1-2. Haradatta asserts that Guru denotes here the father alone.
288:12 Manu XI, 171-172; Yâgñavalkya III, 232-233.
288:13 'The penance also consists in the performance of the rites obligatory on an unchaste student (see Sûtras 17-19), and that for the violation of a Guru's bed need not be performed.'--Haradatta.
288:14 Manu VIII, 371.
289:15 Manu VIII, 372; Yâgñavalkya III, 286; Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 9. My best MSS. read ghâtayet, 'shall cause to be killed,' instead of Professor Stenzler's khâdayet, 'shall cause to be devoured.' C. has khâdayet, but its commentary, as well as that given in the other MSS., shows that ghâtayet is the correct reading. The text of the commentary runs as follows: Anantaroktavishaye gatah pumân râgñâ ghâtayitvyo [khâdayitavyo C.] vadhaprakâraskânantaram eva vasishthavakane darsitah. The passages of Vasishtha XXI, 1-3, which Haradatta has quoted in explanation of Sûtra 14, prescribe that the adulterer is to be burnt. Another objection to the reading khâdayet is that the word would be superfluous. If Gautama had intended to prescribe the same punishment for the adulterer as for the woman, he would simply have said pumâmsam.
289:16 Above, i.e. XII, 2, where the mutilation of the offender has been prescribed. See also Âpastamba II, 10, 26, 20.
289:17-19. Âpastamba I, 9, 2 6, 8-9.
289:20 Manu II, 181, 187; Yâgñavalkya III, 278, 281. The Retasyâs are found Taittirîya Âranyaka I, 30.
290:21 Âpastamba II, 5,12, 22; Manu II, 220.
290:22 Manu V, 86. 'An impure person, i.e. a Kândâla and the like. This rule refers to a student (who sees such a person) while he recites the Veda.'--Haradatta.
290:23-24. Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 3-4. My copies omit amedhyaprâsane vâ, or has swallowed impure substances, and the words are not required, as another penance has been prescribed for the case above, Sûtra 3. But see also Sâmavidhâna I, 5, 13.
290:26 Manu XI, 161. The Sûtras referred to are XVII, 9-26.
290:27 Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 3. My copies read trirâtraparamam instead of trirâtram paramam. This reading, which seems preferable, p. 291 is also confirmed by the commentary, where the words are explained, trirâtraparatayâ parena trirâtram.
291:28 According to Haradatta the texts addressed to Varuna are yatkim kedam, Taitt. Samh. III, 4, 11, 6; imam me varuna, tattvâ yâmi, Taitt. Samh. II, i, 11, 6; and ava te helo, Taitt. Samh. I, 5, 11, 3. The hymns seen by Manu are Rig-veda VIII, 27-31.
291:29 Manu VII, 112.
291:32 Âpastamba I, 10, 28, 10-11. Regarding the Krikkhra penance, see below, chapter XXVI.
291:34 Manu XI, 174; Yâgñavalkya III, 288.
291:1 XXIV. Manu XI, 248; Yâgñavalkya III, 301.
292:2 Manu XI, 254. 'He who has accepted or desires to accept, i.e. because no other course is possible, (a present) offered by a man that is blamable on account of the caste of the giver or on account of his deeds, or (a present) that in itself is blamable, e.g. the skin of a black-buck and the like . . . in water, i.e. according to some, standing in water that reaches to his navel according to others, entirely immersed in water.'--Haradatta.
292:3 Manu loc. cit. 'Forbidden food has been described above, XVII, 8, 9. If, being unable to act otherwise, he desires to eat that, he shall throw earth, i.e. a piece of earth, (into it) and then eat it.'--Haradatta.
292:4 Haradatta adds that he shall bathe, dressed in his garments.
292:5 Haradatta adds that another commentator reads ekestrîshu, i.e. eke astrîshu, and explains the Sûtra to mean, 'Some (declare the above rule to refer also) to a bestial crime.'
292:6 Yâgñavalkya III, 303. According to Haradatta the complete Mantras are as follows: Lomânyâtmano mukhe mrityorâsye guhomi svâhâ, nakhânyâ. m. m. â. guhomi svâhâ, &c. This secret penance is apparently a milder form of that prescribed Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 12.
293:9 The Mahâvyâhritis are, bhûh, bhuvah, svah. Regarding the Kûshmândas, see above, XIX, 12.
293:10 Manu XI, 260-261; Yâgñavalkya III, 302. The vow intended is that prescribed above, Sûtras 6, 8.
293:11 Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 14-I, 9, 27, 1. Haradatta remarks that the performer of the penance shall live on milk and stop his breath, repeatedly stopping his breath.
294:1 XXV. For this and the following five Sûtras, see Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 18, 1 seq.
294:2 'All the remaining parts, i.e. his sight and the other organs of sense, go to Agni. Thus a student who has broken the vow of chastity becomes short-lived, weak, destitute of eminence in sacred learning, and destitute of sight, and so forth. Therefore a penance must be performed.'--Haradatta. It must, of course, be understood that the penance prescribed here, is a 'secret penance.'
294:3 'He, i.e. the unchaste student, shall kindle the fire in the night of the new moon, i.e. at midnight, in the manner declared in the Grihya-sûtra.'--Haradatta.
294:4 Haradatta says that while sprinkling water the performer shall recite the texts 'Aditi, thou hast permitted,' see Âpastamba II, 2, 3, 17 note. The Yagñavâstu oblation, which follows after the Svishtakrit offering, is described Gobhila Grihya-sûtra I, 8, 26-29.
295:7 Âpastamba I, 9, 26, 7. The verses addressed to the Waters are, Rv. X, 9, 1-3 = Taitt. Samh. IV, 1, 5, 1, and Taitt. Samh. V, 6, 1. Regarding those addressed to Varuna, see above, XXIII, 28. As an instance of 'other purificatory texts' Haradatta quotes Taittirîya-brâhmana I, 4, 81, 1.
295:8 Regarding the five Vyâhritis, see above, I, 51.
295:10 Haradatta gives the following four Mantras: Devakritasyainasovayaganam asi svâhâ, 'thou art the expiation for sin committed p. 296 by the gods,' svâhâ pitrikritasyainaso . . . svâhâ, manushyakritasyainaso . . . svâhâ, asmatkritasyainaso . . . svâhâ. But see Vâgasaneyi-Samhitâ VIII, 13, where eight Mantras are given, and below, XXVII, 7.
296:1 XXVI. Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 1; Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 7. Haradatta states that atah, 'therefore,' means 'because the Krikkhras cannot be performed if they have not been described,' while Sâyana, on the Sâmavidhâna, asserts that it means 'because unpurified persons who are unable to offer sacrifices cannot gain heavenly bliss without performing austerities such as Krikkhras.' It is a remarkable fact that Haradatta does not seem to have been aware that the twenty-sixth chapter of Gautama is taken bodily from the Sâmavidhâna.
296:2 Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 2. 'Food fit for offerings, i.e. such as is not mixed with salt or pungent condiments.'
296:3-5. Sâmavidhâna, I, 2, 3.
296:6 Sâmavidhâna I, 2-4.
297:7-11. Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 5. Âryans, i.e. Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas. Regarding the Sâmans and Mantras, see notes to Burnell's edition of the Sâmavidhâna, and above, XXV, 7. Haradatta remarks that in the Taitt. Samh. (V, 6, 1) the Mantras beginning ' The golden-coloured' are ten in number, and adds that 'if in some other Sâkhâ eight are found, those must be taken.'
297:12 Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 5, where, however, only four Mantras are given instead of our thirteen. The epithets given to the deity in the Sâmavidhâna can all be referred to the Sun, provided he is identified with the universal soul, while in the above Sûtra, Rudra and Indra have been introduced. It cannot be doubtful that the Sâmavidhâna gives an older and more authentic form of the prayer. My translation of the epithets, which are found in the Sâmavidhâna also, follows Sâyana's gloss. Haradatta does not explain them. About Sobhya in the twelfth Mantra, which possibly might mean, 'he who dwells in a mirage, i.e. the Samsâra,' I feel doubtful. My MSS. read somya, and the Sâmavidhâna has saumya in the second Mantra. But I am unwilling to alter the word, as Professor Stenzler's reading may have been derived from a South-Indian MS., where bhya and mya do not resemble each other so, much as in the Devanâgarî characters.
298:13-17. Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 5.
299:18 Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 6.
299:19 Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 7; Manu XI, 214; Yâgñavalkya III, 320.
299:20 Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 8; Yâgñavalkya III, 321.
299:21-23. Sâmavidhâna I, 2, 9.
300:2 XXVII. The rules meant particularly are those given XXVI, 6-11.
300:3 'He calls penance vrata.'--Haradatta.
300:5 The four religious acts, the first of which is the offering of libations, are to be performed with the help of the three sacred texts, the first of which begins "Increase." As the number (of the acts and of the verses) does not agree, the fire-oblations and the libations of water must be performed severally, each with one text, and the consecration (of the offerings) and the worship (of the moon must be performed with all of them) together.'--Haradatta.
300:6 'He shall offer--as nothing is specified--clarified butter, with the first four rikas of the Anuvâka 'Yad devâ devahedanam.' Counting the three mentioned above (Sûtra 5), altogether seven oblations of clarified butter must be made.'--Haradatta.
300:7 'On completion of the oblations of clarified butter, he p. 301 shall offer pieces of sacred fuel, reciting the eight sacred texts, which begin "Devakritasya," and have been mentioned above (XXV, 10). The word "completion" (anta) is merely a confirmation of something established, because (the place of the offering) is already fixed by the place of the rule. But others explain the word "ante" to mean "at the end of the Kândrâyana." The word "and" does not agree with their (opinion).'--Haradatta.
301:8 Haradatta observes that on the days when the performer eats less than fifteen mouthfuls, the later mentioned texts must be left out, and that, while eating, the performer must employ the Prânâhuti Mantras (Âpastamba II, 1, 1, 2 note). He concludes by giving the following prayoga for the performance of the ceremony: He places all the food in his dish, and consecrates it by the texts "Increase," &c. Next he divides it into mouthfuls, and consecrates each successively with the word Om and the rest, and eats them, reciting the texts for the Prânâhutis.'
301:9 Haradatta states that either of the two words may be used in consecrating all the mouthfuls, but that others think, both should be used.
301:10 Yâgñavalkya III, 324.
301:11 The term 'sacrificial viands' denotes here, according to Haradatta, the food eaten by the performer, which, like that eaten by the performer of a Krikkhra, must be havishya, 'fit for an offering,' p. 302 see above, XXVI, 2. Haradatta adds that, as a Grihastha must not beg, the food obtained by begging must have been collected by his pupils, and that liquid food must be used for the expiation of the more serious offences.
302:12 Manu XI, 2,7-218; Yâgñavalkya III, 324-325.
302:14 I.e. the performer may begin with the fast on the day of the new moon.
302:18 Manu XI, 221; Yâgñavalkya III, 327.
302:1 XXVIII. Colebrooke, Yâgñavalkya II, 4; Mitâksharâ I, 2, 7; p. 303 V, Digest 20; Mayûkha IV, 4, 3. Haradatta remarks that, according to Gautama, the sons alone shall divide the estate, and that the mother is not to receive a share, as other teachers, e.g. Yâgñavalkya II, 123, prescribe. Âpastamba II, 6, 13, 2 Manu IX, 104; Yâgñavalkya II, 117.
303:2 Colebrooke and Mayûkha loc. cit. Or the sons may divide the estate even during the lifetime of the father; when be desires it, i.e. by his permission. The time for such a (division is) when the mother is past child-bearing.'--Haradatta. The correctness of this interpretation of our Sûtra is corroborated by the exclusion of sons who have divided the family estate against the father's will (XV, 19) from the Srâddha dinner. Âpastamba II, 6, 14, 1.
303:3 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga III, 1, 15; Manu IX, 105.
303:4 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga III, 1, 14; V, Digest 47. After division each brother has to perform the Vaisvadeva and the other domestic ceremonies separately, while in a united family they are performed by the eldest brother. Thus a division of the family estate causes an increase of spiritual merit; see also Manu XI, III.
303:5 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga II, 37; V, Digest 47; Manu IX, 112.
303:6 Colebrooke II. cit. 'And that (additional share is given), if of the one-eyed and the rest there are several, i.e. if the others also get (some).'
304:7 Colebrooke II. cit. 'Avih (a sheep), i.e. an animal having a fleece. The singular number (is used to denote) the species, (and the explanation is), "As many sheep as there are." For (the possession of) one would follow already from the phrase, "And one of each kind of animals." Another (commentator says), "Though the father may possess one sheep only, still it belongs to the youngest, and the phrase 'one of each kind of animals' refers to the case when there are many." . . . This (additional share is that) belonging to the youngest. (If there are more than three sons) the others obtain the share of the middle most.'--Haradatta.
304:8 Colebrooke II. cit.
304:9 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga II, 3 7; V, Digest 51. My best copy P. leaves out this Sûtra and the next. The others read dvyamsî vâ pûrvagah (not pûrvagasya, as Professor Stenzler reads), and explain the former word as follows, 'dvâvamsau dvyamsam tadasyâstîti dvyamsî.' Manu II, 117.
304:10 Colebrooke II. cit.
304:11 Colebrooke V, Digest 68.
304:12 Colebrooke loc. cit. The meaning, appears to be that no brother is to select more than ten head of cattle.
304:13 Colebrooke V, Digest 69. But, as has been declared above (Sûtra 11), one of each kind only. In the case of the v. 1. dvipadânâm, the word pada (step) is used in the sense of the word pâda (foot).'--Haradatta.
304:14 Colebrooke V, Digest 58; Manu IX, 123.
305:15 Colebrooke loc. cit.; Manu IX, 124.
305:16 Colebrooke loc. cit.
305:17 Colebrooke V, Digest 59. 'After having divided the estate into as many portions as there are wives who possess sons, and having united as many shares as there are sons (of each mother), let the eldest in each class (of uterine brothers) receive the additional share of one-twentieth and so forth.'--Haradatta.
305:18-19. Colebrooke V, Digest 225; Manu IX, 130-140.
305:20 Manu III, 11; Yâgñavalkya I, 53.
305:21 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga XI, 6, 25; Mitâksharâ II, 1, 18; V, Digest 440. My copies as well as Gîmûtavâhana and Vigñânesvara read in the text strî vâ, 'or the wife,' instead of stri ka, p. 306 'and the wife.' Still the latter seems to be the reading recognised by Haradatta, as he says, 'But the wife is joined together (samukkîyate) with all the Sagotras and the rest. When the Sagotras and the rest inherit, then the wife shall inherit one share with them,' &c. Âpastamba II, 6, 14, 2; Manu IX, 187; Yâgñavalkya II, 135-136.
306:22 Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ II, 1, 8, where this Sûtra has, however, been combined with the preceding. See also above, XVIII, 4-8; Manu IX, 145-146, 190.
306:23 Colebrooke V, Digest 341; Manu IX, 144.
306:24 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga IV, 2, 13; Mitâksharâ I, 3, 11; II, 2, 4; V, Digest 490; Mayûkha IV, 8,12. See also Manu IX, 192; Yâgñavalkya II, 145.
306:25 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga IV, 3, 27; V, Digest 511; Mayûkha IV, 10, 32. 'The fee, i.e. the money which at an Âsura, or an Ârsha wedding, the father has taken for giving the sister away. That goes after his (the father's) death to the uterine brothers of that sister; and that (happens) after the mother's death. But if the mother is alive (it goes) to her.'--Haradatta.
306:26 Colebrooke V, Digest 511.
306:27 Colebrooke V, Digest 424. 'The word "eldest" is used p. 307 to give an example. (The property) goes to the brothers, not to the widow, nor to the parents. That is the opinion of the venerable teacher.'--Haradatta. Yâgñavalkya II. 34.
307:28 Mayûkha IV, 9, 15; Manu IX, 212, Yâgñavalkya. II, 138.
307:29 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga VII, 3; Manu IX. 216.
307:30 Colebrooke, Dâyabhâga VI, 1, 17; V, Digest 355; Mayûkha IV. 7, 10; Mayûkha, 206; Yâgñavalkya II, 119.
307:31 Colebrooke V, Digest 137; Manu IX. 208.
307:32-33. Colebrooke V, Digest 184 Mayûkha IX, 166-178; Yâgñavalkya II, 128-132. My best copy P. inserts another Sûtra between this and the following one, ete tu gotrabhâgah, 'but these (latter six) belong to the family (only, and do not inherit).'
307:34 Colebrooke V, Digest 184. The residue of the estate p. 308 goes to the Sapindas. If it is here stated that the son of an appointed daughter receives, even on failure of a legitimate son, a fourth part of the estate only, that refers to the son of an appointed daughter of lower caste, i.e. to a son who is born, when somebody makes the daughter of a wife of lower caste his appointed daughter, and does that by intent only.'--Haradatta.
308:35 Colebrooke V, Digest 158; Manu IX, 149-153; Yâgñavalkya II, 12 5. If the son of a Brâhmana by a Kshatriya wife is endowed with good qualities and the eldest, then he shares equally with a younger son by a Brâhmanî. For the one possesses seniority by age and the other by caste.'--Haradatta.
308:36 Colebrooke loc. cit. 'What is exclusive of the additional share of the eldest, which has been declared above, Sûtra 5, (that) other (part) he shall obtain. The verb must be understood from the context. Regarding a son by a Kshatriya wife who is the eldest, but destitute of good qualities, the Mânava Dharma-sâstra declares (IX, 152-153), "Or (if no deduction be made)," &c.'--Haradatta. The sense in which the Sûtra has been taken above, agrees with the explanation of the Ratnâkara adduced in the Digest loc. cit., though the reading of the text followed there seems to be different.
308:37-38. Colebrooke V, Digest 159. In the Digest V, 160, an additional Sûtra regarding the partition between the sons of a p. 309 Vaisya by Vaisya and Sûdra wives is quoted, which, however, is not recognised by Haradatta.
309:39 Colebrooke V, Digest 169; Mayûkha IV, 4. 30. '(The word) of a Brâhmana must be understood (from Sûtra 35).'--Haradatta.
309:40 Colebrooke V. Digest 316; Âpastamba II, 6, 14, 15.
309:41 Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ II, 7, 3; Mayûkha IV, 8, 25. 'The expression "of a childless (Brâhmana)" includes by implication (the absence) of Sapindas and other (heirs).'--Haradatta. Srotriyas, i.e. Brâhmanas learned in the Vedas. See also Manu IX, 188.
309:42 Âpastamba II, 6. 14, 5.
309:43 Colebrooke V, Digest 335; Manu IX, 201-202; Yâgñavalkya II, 140.
309:44 Colebrooke loc. cit.: Manu IX. 203; Yâgñavalkya II. 141.
309:45 Colebrooke V, Digest 171, 335.
310:46 Manu IX, 219. For a fuller explanation of the terms, yoga and kshema, (property destined for) pious men and sacrifices, see Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ I, 4, 23.
310:47 Colebrooke, Mitâksharâ I, 4, 22; V, Digest 367; Mayûkha IV, 7, 19.
310:49-51. Âpastamba II, 11, 29, 13-14; Manu XII, 108-113. Three men belonging to the (three) orders enumerated first, i.e. a student, a householder, and an ascetic, see above, III, 2.
Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) . The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.
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