1. If a student has approached a woman, he shall slay in
the forest, in a place where four roads meet
1 a common fire, an ass for the Rakshas
2. Or he may offer an oblation of rice (karu) to Nirriti
(the goddess of hell).
3. Let him throw into the fire (four oblations consisting)
of that (sacrificial food, saying), To Lust svâhâ; to him who
follows his lust svâhâ; to Nirriti svâhâ; to the divine Rakshas
4. If, before returning home (from his teacher, a student)
voluntarily defiles himself, sleeps in the day-time, or practises
any other vow (than that of studentship), the same (penance
must be performed). 4
5. If he has committed a brutal crime, he shall give a white
bull (to a Brâhmana). 5
6. The guilt incurred by a brutal crime with a cow, has been
explained by the (rule regarding) the killing of a female of
the Sûdra caste. 6
7. A student breaks his vow by performing funeral rites,
8. Excepting those of his mother and his father.
9. If a (student) is sick, he may eat, at his pleasure, all
that is left by his teacher as medicine.
10. If (a student) who is employed by his teacher (to perform
some duty), meets with his death, (the teacher) shall perform
three Krikkhra penances.
11. If a student eats meat which has been given to him as
leavings (by his teacher), he shall perform a Krikkhra penance
of twelve days' duration, and afterwards finish his vow.
12. The same (penance must be performed) if he eats food
given at a Srâddha or by a person who is impure on account of
a recent death or birth.
13. It is declared in the Veda, than honey given without
asking does not defile (a student) of the Vâgasaneyi-sâkhâ.
14. For him who committing suicide becomes An Abhisasta,
his blood-relations (sapinda) shall not perform the funeral
15. He is called a suicide who destroys himself by means
of wood, water, clods of earth, stones, weapons, poison, or
16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The twice-born
man who out of affection performs the last rites for a suicide,
shall perform a Kândrâyana penance together with a Taptakrikkhra.'
17. We shall describe the Kândrâyana below.
18. A fast of three days (must be performed) for resolving
to die by one's own hand.
19. 'He who attempts suicide, but remains alive, shall perform
a Krikkhra penance during twelve days. (Afterwards) he shall
fast for three (days and) nights, being dressed constantly in
a garment smeared (with clarified butter), and suppressing his
breath, he shall thrice recite the Aghamarshana;'
20. Or, following the same rule, he may also frequently recite
21. Or, having kindled a fire, he may offer clarified butter
with the Kûshmândas.
22. 'And the guilt (of) all (offences) excepting mortal sins
is removed thereby.' 22
23. Now he may also sip water in the morning, thinking of
(the Mantra), 'May fire and wrath and the lords of wrath protect
me,' &c., and meditating on his sin; (then) he may mutter
the Vyâhritis that end with satya (truth), prefixing (the syllable)
Om (to each), or he may recite the Aghamarshana.
24. If he touches a human bone to which fat still adheres,
he becomes impure during three (days and) nights;
25. But (on touching a bone) to which no fat adheres, a day
and a night,
26. Likewise if he has followed a corpse (to the burial-ground).
27. If he passes between men reciting the Veda, he shall
fast during a day and a night.
28. (Those who recite the Veda) shall sprinkle each other
with water and stay away (from their houses) during three (days
and) nights. 28
29. (The same penance must be performed) for a day and night,
if a dog, a cat, or an ichneumon pass quickly (between those
who recite the Veda). 29
30. If he has swallowed the flesh of a dog, a rooster, a
village pig, a grey heron, a vulture, a Bhâsa, a pigeon, a man,
a crow or an owl, (he must) fast during seven days, (and thus)
empty his entrails (afterwards he must) eat clarified butter,
and be initiated again.
31. 'But a Brâhmana who has been bitten by a dog, becomes
pure, if he goes to a river that flows into the ocean, (bathes
there), suppresses his breath one hundred times, and eats clarified
32. 'Time, fire, purity of mind, water, looking at the sun,
and ignorance (of defilement) are the six means by which created
beings are purified.' 32
33. It is declared in the Veda that, on touching a dog, a
Kândâla, or an outcast, he becomes at once pure, if he bathes,
dressed in his clothes.
34. If (while reciting the Veda) they hear noises made by
outcasts or Kândâlas, they shall sit silent and fasting during
35. Or if they repeat that (text of the Gâyatrî) at least
one thousand times, they become pure; thus it is stated in the
36. By this rule (the penance to be performed by) those who
teach or sacrifice for vile men has been explained. It is declared
in the Veda that they become pure by also relinquishing the
fees (which they received).
37. By this same (rule the penance prescribed for) an Abhisasta,
(one accused of a heinous crime,) has been explained.
38. (If he has been accused of) killing a learned Brâhmana,
let him subsist during twelve days on water (only), and fast
during (another) twelve days.
39. If he has falsely accused a Brâhmana of a crime which
causes loss of caste, or of a minor offence which does not cause
loss of caste, he shall subsist during a month on water (only),
and constantly repeat the (Rikas called) Suddhavatîs;
40. Or he may go to bathe (with the priests) at (the conclusion
of) a horse-sacrifice.
41. By this (rule the penance for) intercourse with a female
of the Kândâla caste has been declared.
42. Now (follows the description of) another Krikkhra penance,
applicable to all (men), where (the rule given above) has been
43. On one day (let him eat) in the morning (only), on the
(following) day at night (only), on the (next) day food given
without asking, and on the (fourth) day (let him) fast; the
succeeding (three) periods of four days (must be passed) in
the same manner. Wishing to show favour to the Brâhmanas, Manu,
the chief among the pillars of the law, has thus described the
Sisukrikkhra (the hard penance of children) for infants, aged,
and sick men.
44. Now follows the rule for (the performance of) the Kândrâyana
(lunar penance). 44
45. On the first day of the dark half (of the month) let
him eat fourteen (mouthfuls), let him diminish the (number of)
mouthfuls (each day by one), and continue in this manner until
the end of the fortnight. In like manner let him eat one mouthful
on the first day of the bright half, and (daily) increasing
(the number 6f) mouthfuls, continue until the end of the fortnight.
46. Meanwhile let him sing Sâmans, or mutter the Vyâhritis.
47. A month during which he thus performs a Kândrâyana, the
Rishis have called by way of laudation, 'a means of purification'
(pavitra). It is prescribed as an expiation of all (offences)
for which no (special penance) has been mentioned.
1. Now (follows the description of) an Atikrikkhra penance.
2. Let him eat as much as he can take at one (mouthful, and
follow the rules given) above for a Krikkhra, (viz.) to eat
during three days in the morning, (during another three days)
in the evening, (during further three days) food given without
asking, and to fast during the last three days. That is an Atikrikkhra.
3. A Krikkhra penance (during the performance of which one)
subsists on water (only is called) a Krikkhrâtikrikkhra.
4. The peculiar observances (prescribed during the performance)
of Krikkhra penances (are as follows):
5. 'Having cut his nails, (the performer) shall cause his
beard and all his hair to be shaved off, excepting the eyebrows,
the eyelashes, and the lock at the top of the head; (wear) one
garment only; he shall eat blameless food; what one obtains
by going to beg once (is called) blameless food; he shall bathe
in the morning, at noon, and in the evening; he shall carry
a stick (and) a waterpot; he shall avoid to speak to women and
Sûdras; carefully keeping himself in an upright or sitting posture,
he shall stand during the day, and remain seated during the
night.' Thus speaks the divine Vasishtha.
6. Let him not instruct in these Institutes of the sacred
law anybody but his son or a pupil who stays (in his house at
least) for a year. 6
7. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (panas), (or)
ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher.
1. I will completely explain the purification of those whose
guilt has not been made public, both from great crimes and for
2. A penance prescribed in (the section on) secret (penances)
is for an Agnihotrin, an aged and a learned man, who have subdued
their senses; but other men (must perform the expiations) described
3. Those constantly engaged in suppressing their breath,
reciting purificatory texts, giving gifts, making burnt-oblations,
and muttering (sacred texts) will, undoubtedly, be freed from
(the guilt of) crimes causing loss of caste.
4. Seated with Kusa grass in his hands, let him repeatedly
suppress his breath, and again and again recite purificatory
texts, the Vyâhritis, the syllable Om, and the daily portion
of the Veda 4
5. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him again and
again suppress his breath. Up to the ends of his hair and up
to the ends of his nails let him perform highest austerity.
6. Through the obstruction (of the expiration) air is generated,
through air fire is produced, then through heat water is formed;
hence he is internally purified by (these) three.
7. Neither through severe austerities, nor through the daily
recitation of the Veda, nor through offering sacrifices can
the twice-born reach that condition which they attain by the
practice of Yoga.
8. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge is obtained,
Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, the practice of Yoga is the
highest and eternal austerity; therefore let him always be absorbed
in the practice of Yoga.
9. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting the syllable)
Om, the seven Vyâhritis, and the three-footed Gâyatrî no danger
exists anywhere. 9
10. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable Om, and they
end with the syllable Om, the syllable Om is the sum of all
speech; therefore let him repeat it constantly.
11. The most excellent (portion of the) Veda, which consists
of one syllable, is declared to be the best purificatory text.
12. If the guilt of all sins did fall on one man, to repeat
the Gâyatrî ten thousand times (would be) an efficient means
13. If, suppressing his breath, he thrice recites the Gâyatrî
together with the Vyâhritis together with the syllable Om and
with the (text called) Siras, that is called one suppression
of breath. 13
1. If, untired, he performs three suppressions of his breath
according to the rule, the sins which he committed during a
day and a night are instantly destroyed.
2. Seated during the evening prayer, he removes by (three)
suppressions of his breath all guilt which
2 he incurred during the day by deeds,
thoughts, or speeches.
3. But standing during the morning prayer, he removes by
(three) suppressions of his breath all guilt which he incurred
during the night by deeds, thoughts, or speeches.
4. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied by (the
recitation of) the Vyâhritis and the syllable Om, repeated daily,
purify after a month even the slayer of a learned Brâhmana.
5. Even a drinker of spirituous liquor becomes pure, if he
mutters the (hymn seen) by Kutsa, 'Apa nah sosukad agham,' and
(the hymn seen) by Vasishtha (which begins with the word) 'Prati,'
the Mâhitra (hymn), and the Suddhavatîs.
6. Even he who has stolen gold becomes instantly free from
guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn beginning with the words)
'Asya vâmasya' and the Sivasamkalpa.
7. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin) if he
repeatedly recites the (hymn beginning) 'Havish pântam agaram'
and that (beginning) 'Na tam amhah' and mutters the hymn addressed
to Purusha. 7
8. Or plunging into water he may thrice mutter the Aghamarshana.
Manu has declared that the (effect is the) same as if he had
gone to bathe at a horse-sacrifice.
9. An offering consisting of muttered prayers is ten times
more efficacious than a sacrifice at which animals are killed;
a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred
times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) one thousand
10. The four Pâkayagñas and those sacrifices which are enjoined
by the rules of the Veda are all together not equal in value
to the sixteenth part of a sacrifice consisting of muttered
11. But, undoubtedly, a Brâhmana reaches the highest goal
by muttering prayers only; whether he perform other (rites)
or neglect them, he is called a Brâhmana who befriends all creatures
12. The sins of those who are intent on muttering prayers,
of those who offer burnt-oblations, of those who are given to
meditation, of those who reside in sacred places, and of those
who have bathed after performing the vows called Siras, do not
13. As a fire, fanned by wind, burns brighter, and (as its
flame grows) through offerings (of butter), even so a Brâhmana
who is daily engaged in muttering sacred texts shines with a
14. The destruction of those who fulfil the duty of daily
study, who constantly restrain themselves, who mutter prayers
and offer sacrifices has never been known (to happen).
15. Let him who is desirous of purification repeat, though
he be charged with all sins, the divine (Gâyatrî), at the most
one thousand times, or one hundred times as a medium (penance),
or at least ten times (for trivial faults).
16. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have
befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and Sûdra
by their wealth, the highest among twice-born men by muttered
prayers and burnt-oblations.
17. As horses (are useless) without a chariot, as chariots
(are useless) without horses, even so austerity (is useless)
to him who is destitute of sacred learning, and sacred learning
to him who practises no austerities.
18. As food mixed with honey, or honey mixed with food, even
so are austerities and learning, joined together, a powerful
19. No guilt taints a Brâhmana who possesses learning, practises
austerities, and daily mutters sacred texts, though he may constantly
commit sinful acts.
1. If a hundred improper acts, and even more, have been committed,
and the (knowledge of the)
1 Veda is retained, the fire of the Veda
destroys all (the guilt) of that man just as a (common) fire
2. As a fire that burns strongly consumes even green trees,
even so the fire of the Veda destroys one's guilt caused by
3. A Brâhmana who remembers the Rig-veda is not tainted by
any guilt, though he has destroyed these (three) worlds and
has eaten the food of all, (even of the most sinful) men.
4. If (a Brâhmana) relies on the power of the Veda, he cannot
find pleasure in sinful acts. Guilt (incurred) through ignorance
and negligence is destroyed, not (that of) other (intentional
5. If a hermit subsisting on roots and fruit practises austerities
in a forest, and (a householder) recites a single Rik, the merit
of the acts of the one and of the other is equal.
6. Let him strengthen the Veda by (studying) the Itihâsas
and Purânas. For the Veda fears a man of little learning, (thinking)
'He will destroy me.'
7. The daily recitation of the Veda and the performance,
according to one's ability, of the series of Mahâyagñas quickly
destroy guilt, even that of mortal sins.
8. Let him daily perform, without tiring, his particular
rites which the Veda enjoins. For if he does that according
to his ability, he will reach the most blessed state.
9. Through sacrificing for wicked people, through teaching
them, through intermarrying with them, and through receiving
gifts from them, (learned) Brâhmanas do not contract guilt,
for (a learned Brâhmana) resembles a fire and the sun.
10. I will now declare the purification prescribed for (eating)
food, regarding which doubts have arisen, whether it may be
called fit to be eaten or not. Listen to my words!
11. Let a Brâhmana drink during three days the astringent
decoction of the Brahmasuvarkalâ plant, unmixed with salt or
pungent condiments, and (a decoction of) the Saṅkhapushpî
plant, together with milk.
12. Let him drink water, after boiling in it Palâsa and Bilva
leaves, Kusa grass, and (leaves of) lotuses and Udumbara trees;
after three days and no more he becomes pure.
13. (Subsisting) during one day on each (of the following
substances), cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, butter,
and water in which Kusa grass has been boiled, and fasting on
the seventh day purify even (him who fears that he has partaken
of the food of) a Svapâka.
14. He who lives during five days on cow's urine, cowdung,
milk, sour milk, and clarified butter, is purified by means
of (that) Pañkagavya, (the five products of the cow.)
15. He who, in accordance with the rule, uses barley (for
his food), becomes pure even by ocular proof. (For) if he is
pure, those (barley grains) will be white, if he is impure they
will be discoloured. 15
16. (If he makes) three morning meals of food
16 fit for a sacrifice
and three evening meals in like manner, and if food given without
asking (is his subsistence) in the same manner, (he will thus
perform) three fasts.
17. Now if he is in haste to make (himself pure), (let him)
subsist on air during a day, and pass the night standing in
water; (that penance) is equal to a Prâgâpatya (Krikkhra).
18. But if at sunrise he mutters the Gâyatrî eight thousand
times, he will be freed from all mortal sins, provided he be
not the slayer of a Brâhmana.
19. He, forsooth, who has stolen (the gold of a Brâhmana),
has drunk spirituous liquor, has slain a learned Brâhmana, or
has violated his Guru's bed, will become free from all (these)
mortal sins if he studies the Institutes of the sacred law.
20. For unlawful acts, for unlawful sacrifices, and for great
sins (let him perform) a Krikkhra and a Kândrâyana, which destroy
21. Let him add daily one mouthful (to his food) during the
bright (half of the month), let him diminish it (daily by one
mouthful) during the dark (half), and let him fast on the new-moon
day; that is the rule for the Kândrâyana (or lunar penance).
1. A woman is not defiled by a lover, nor a Brâhmana by Vedic
rites, nor water by urine and ordure, nor fire by consuming
(impure substances). 1
2-3. A wife, (though) tainted by sin, whether she be quarrelsome,
or have left the house, or have suffered criminal force, or
have fallen into the hands of thieves, must not be abandoned;
to forsake her is not prescribed (by the sacred law). Let him
wait for the time of her courses; by her temporary uncleanness
she becomes pure. 2
4. Women (possess) an unequalled means of purification; they
never become (entirely) foul. For month by month their temporary
uncleanness removes their sins.
5. Women belong first to three gods, Soma (the moon), the
Gandharva, and Fire, and come afterwards into the possession
of men; according to the law they cannot be contaminated.
6. Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva their melodious
voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs); therefore women are free
from stains. 6
7. Those versed in the sacred law state that there are three
acts (only) which make women outcasts, (viz.) the murder of
the husband, slaying a learned Brâhmana, and the destruction
of the fruit of their womb.
8. A calf is pure when the milk flows, a bird when it causes
fruit to fall, women during dalliance, and a dog when he catches
a deer. 8
9. Pure is the mouth of a goat and of a horse, pure is the
back of a cow, pure are the feet of a Brâhmana, but women are
pure in all (limbs) 9
10. I will now declare the purificatory texts (which are
found) in each Veda; by muttering them or reciting them at a
burnt-oblation (men) are doubtlessly cleansed (from sin).
11. (They are) the Aghamarshana, the Devakrita, the Suddhavatîs,
the Taratsamas, the Kûshmândas, the Pâvamânîs, and the Durgâsâvitri;
12. The Atîshaṅgas, the Padastobhas, and the Sâmans
(called) Vyâhriti, the Bhârunda Sâmans, the Gâyatra (Sâman),
and the Raivata; 12
13. The Purushavrata and the Bhâsa, and likewise the Devavrata
(Sâmans), the Abliṅga, the Bârhaspatya, the hymn addressed
to Vâk, likewise the Rikas (called) Madhu;
14. The Satarudriya, the Atharvasiras, the Trisuparna, the
Mahâvrata, the Gosûkta, and the Asvasûkta, and the two Sâmans
15. The three (Sâmans called) Âgyadohas, the Rathantara,
the Agnervrata, the Vâmadevya, and the Brihat, being muttered,
purify (all) living beings. (He who sings them) may obtain the
recollection of former existences, if he desires it.
16. Gold is the firstborn of Fire, through Vishnu exists
the earth, and the cows are children of them Sun; he who bestows
as gifts gold, a cow, and land will obtain rewards without end
17. A cow, a horse, gold, (and) land, bestowed on an unlearned
Brâhmana who neglects his sacred duties, prevent the giver (from
attaining heaven). 17
18-19. (If he presents), on the full moon of the month of
Vaisâkha, (to) seven or five Brâhmanas, black or white sesamum
grains (mixed) with honey, (saying), 'May the king of justice
(Yama) rejoice!' or (expressing) some other (wish) which he
may have in his mind, the guilt which he has incurred during
his (whole) life will instantly vanish.
20. But hear (now) the reward of the merit acquired by that
man who gives the skin of a black antelope, to which the hoofs
are (still) attached and the navel of which is adorned with
gold, covering it with sesamum grains.
21. 'Without doubt he has bestowed (through that gift) the
four-faced earth, together with its caves filled with gold,
and together with its mountains, groves, and forests.'
22. He who, placing on the skin of a black antelope, sesamum,
gold, honey, and butter, gives it to a Brâhmana, overcomes all
1. Through liberality (man) obtains all his desires,
2. (Even) longevity, (and he is born again as) a student
of the Veda, possessed of beauty.
3. He who abstains from injuring (sentient beings) obtains
4. By entering a fire the world of Brahman (is gained).
5. By (a vow of) silence (he obtains) happiness.
6. By staying (constantly) in water he becomes a lord of
7. He who expends his hoard (in gifts) becomes free from
8. A giver of water (becomes) rich by (the fulfilment of)
all his desires.
9. A giver of food (will have) beautiful eyes and a good
10. He who gives a promise to protect (somebody) from all
dangers (becomes) wise.
11. (To bestow gifts) for the use of cows (is equal to) bathing
at all sacred places.
12. By giving a couch and a seat (the giver becomes) master
of a harem. 12
13. By giving an umbrella (the giver) obtains a house.
14. He who gives a house obtains a town.
15. He who gives a pair of shoes obtains a vehicle.
16. Now they quote also (the following verses): Whatever
sin a man distressed for livelihood commits, (from that) he
is purified by giving land, (be it) even "a bull's hide."'
17. 'He who gives to a Brâhmana a vessel filled with water
for sipping, will obtain after death complete freedom from thirst
and be born again as a drinker of Soma.'
18. 'If a gift of one thousand oxen fit to draw a carriage
(has been bestowed) according to the rule on a perfectly worthy
man, that is equal to giving a maiden.'
19. 'They declare that cows, land, and learning are the three
most excellent gifts. For to give learning is (to bestow) the
greatest of all gifts, and it surpasses those (other gifts).'
20. 'A learned man who, free from envy, follows this rule
of conduct which procures endless rewards, and which through
final liberation frees him from transmigration;'
21. 'Or who, full of faith, pure, and subduing his senses,
remembers or even hears it, will, freed from all sin, be exalted
in the highest heaven.'
1. Practise righteousness, not unrighteousness; speak truth,
not untruth; look far, not near; look towards the Highest, not
towards that which is not the Highest.
2. A Brâhmana is a fire.
3. For the Veda (says), 'Agni, forsooth, is a Brâhmana.'
4. And how is that?
5. And it is also declared in the Kâthaka, 'On that (occasion)
the body of the Brâhmana who represents the sacrificial seat
is the altar, the vow to perform the rite is the sacrifice,
the soul is the animal to be slain, the intellect the rope (with
which the animal is bound), the mouth of (the Brâhmana) who
represents the seat is the Âhavanîya fire, in his navel (is
the Dakshinâ fire), the fire in his abdomen is the Gârhapatya
fire, the Prâna is the Adhvaryu priest, the Apâna, the Hotri
priest, the Vyâna the Brahman, the Samâna the Udgâtri priest,
the organs of sensation the sacrificial vessels. He who knowing
this offers a sacrifice to the organs through the organs.' .
. . 5
6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'An offering
placed in the mouth-fire of a Brâhmana which is rich in Veda-fuel,
protects and saves the giver and (the eater) himself from sin.'
7. 'But the offering made through the mouth of a Brâhmana,
which is neither spilt nor causes pain (to sentient creatures),
nor assails him (who makes it), is far more excellent than an
8. After performing a mental sacrifice at which meditation
(takes the place of the sacred) fire, truthfulness (the place
of) the sacred fuel, patience (the place of) the oblation, modesty
(the place of) the sacrificial spoon, abstention from injuring
living beings (the place of the) sacrificial cake, contentment
(the place of) the sacrificial post, (and a promise of) safety
given to all beings which is hard to keep (the place of) the
reward given to the priests, a wise man goes to his (eternal)
9. The hair of an aging man shows signs of age, (and) the
teeth of an aging man show signs of age, (but) the desire to
live and the desire for wealth do not decay even in an aging
10. Happiness (is the portion) of that man who relinquishes
(all) desire, which fools give up with difficulty, which does
not diminish with age, and which is a life-long disease.
11. Adoration to Vasishtha Satayâtu, the son of Mitra and
Varuna and Urvasî!