PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 1, KANDIKÂ 1
1. Now, therefore, the penances (will be described).
2. The murderer of a learned Brâhmana (shall practise the
following vow) during twelve years:
3. Carrying a skull (instead of a dish) and the foot of a
bedstead (instead of a staff), dressed in the hide of an ass,
staying in the forest, making a dead man's skull his flag, he
shall cause a hut to be built in a burial-ground and reside
there; going to seven houses in order to beg food, while proclaiming
his deed, he shall support life with what (he gets there), and
shall fast if he obtains nothing;
4. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Gosava, or an Agnishtut
5. Or he may bathe (with the priests) on the completion of
a horse-sacrifice (offered by somebody else).
6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He who unintentionally
slays a Brâhmana becomes sinful according to the sacred law.
The sages declare that he may be purified (if he did it) unintentionally.
But no expiation is found for a wilful murderer.'
7. He who has raised his hand (against a Brâhmana), shall
perform a Krikkhra penance, an Atikrikkhra penance if he strikes,
a Krikkhra and a Kândrâyana if blood flows. Therefore let him
neither raise his hand nor cause blood to flow.'
8. (For killing) a Kshatriya (he shall keep the normal vow
of continence) during nine years,
9. (For killing) a Vaisya during three (years),
10. (For killing) a Sûdra during one year,
11. Likewise for killing a woman.
12. (The penance for killing) a woman who has bathed after
temporary uncleanness (is) the same (as that) for (the murder
of) a Brâhmana. 12
13. He who has defiled the bed of a Guru shall place himself
on a heated iron bed,
14. Or embrace a red hot image (of a woman),
15. Or cutting off his organ together with the testicles
and holding them in his joined hands, he shall walk towards
the south-west until he falls down (dead).
16. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying
on his shoulder a club of Sindhraka wood (and say), 'Strike
me with that.' (Then the king) shall strike him.
17. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'A thief
shall go to the king carrying a club on his shoulder (and say
to him), 'Punish me with that, O king, remembering the duty
of Kshatriyas.' 17
'Whether he be punished or be pardoned, the thief is freed
from his guilt. But if the king does not punish him, that guilt
of the thief falls on him.'
18. If he has drunk (the spirituous liquor called) Surâ,
he shall scald himself to death with hot (liquor of the) same
19. For unintentionally drinking (Surâ), he shall perform
Krikkhra penances during three months and be initiated again,
20. And (on this second initiation) the cutting (of
20 the hair and nails),
the vows, and (the observance of the) restrictive rules may
21. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'A Brâhmana,
Kshatriya, or Vaisya who has unintentionally drunk (the spirituous
liquor called) Vârunî or has swallowed urine or faeces must
be initiated a second time.'
22. 'But he who drinks water which has stood in a vessel,
used for keeping Surâ, shall live six days on milk in which
(leaves of) the Saṅkhapushpî plant have been boiled.'
23. If (a pupil) who is employed by his teacher (on some
errand) meets with his death, (the teacher) shall perform three
Krikkhra penances. 23
24. The same (penance) is prescribed for not finishing (the
education of the pupil).
25. If a student assists at the burial of anybody except
(at that of his) mother, of his father, or of his teacher, he
must begin his vow afresh.
26. If a (student) is sick, he may, at his pleasure, eat
all the fragments of his teacher's meal as medicine.
27. He may physic himself with any (medicine) which he may
28. When he is unable to move, he may worship the sun, after
he has risen, reciting this (Rik verse): A swan, dwelling in
29. When he has spent his manly strength in the day-time,
let him thrice drink water that reaches his heart, reciting
the verses which contain the word retas.
30. A student who approaches a woman (is called) an Avakîrnin,
31. Let him offer an ass (in the place of) a sacrificial
32. The sacrificial meat-cake (purodâsa shall be offered)
to Nirriti, or to the Râkshasas, or to Yama.
33. It is declared in the Veda, 'The piece to be eaten by
the sacrificer (prâsitra, shall be taken) from the organ (of
the animal); and the (other) portions shall be offered in water.'
34. 'Or he may also heap (fuel) on the fire in the night
of the new moon, perform the preparatory rites required for
the Darvîhoma, and offer two
34 oblations of clarified butter (reciting
these two sacred texts): "O Lust, I have broken my vow;
my vow have I broken, O Lust; to Lust Svâhâ;" "O Lust,
I have done evil; evil have I done, O Lust; to Lust Svâhâ."'
35. 'After he has made the offering, he shall address the
fire, closely joining his hands, turning sideways (with the
following texts): "May the Maruts grant me, may Indra,
may Brihaspati, may this fire grant me long life and strength,
may it make me long-lived! "'
36. Now the relatives shall empty (the water-pot) of a (grievous
offender) at a (solemn) meeting (and he shall confess), 'I N.
N. am (the perpetrator of) such and such (a deed).' After (the
outcast) has performed (his penance) the Brâhmanas shall ask
him who has touched water, milk, clarified butter, honey, and
salt, 'Hast thou performed (thy penance)?' The other (person)
shall answer, 'Om' (yes)! They shall admit him who has performed
(a penance) to all sacrificial rites, making no difference (between
him and others). 36
37. If he unintentionally marries a female who belongs to
his own family (gotra), he shall support her, (treating her)
like his mother. 37
38. If (such a woman) has borne a child; he shall perform
Krikkhra penances during three months and offer (two burnt oblations
reciting) the two (Mantras), 'That which is the blemish of my
soul' (and) 'Fire restored my sight.'
39. 'An elder brother whose younger brother marries first,
the younger brother who marries first, the damsel wedded (by
the latter), he who gives her away, and fifthly, he who sacrifices
for them (at the wedding), all sink to a region of torment.'
40. The unmarried elder brother and the married younger brother,
the giver (of the maiden) and the performer of the sacrifices
become pure by undergoing a Krikkhra penance of twelve days,
the female (who has been wedded to the younger brother) by (fasting
during) three days.'
1. Gautama XXII, 4-6; Vishnu L, I-3, 15. The expression 'staying
in the forest' means that the sinner shall not stop in the village
or the fields during the day-time, but live in some uncultivated
tract in the neighbourhood.
Gautama XIX, 9-10. The Gosava sacrifice is an Ekâha see Kâtyâyana
Srauta Sûtra XXII, 11, 3.
Gautama XXII, 9.
Manu XI, 90.
Yâgñavalkya III, 293. Regarding the penances named, see Vasishtha
XXI, 20, XXIV, 1-2, XXIII, 45, and below, II, 1, 2, 38, IV,
Vasishtha XX, 31-33. The words 'shall keep the normal vow of
continence' have been inserted in accordance with Govinda's
explanation, which apparently is based on Gautama XXII, 14.
But it is also possible that Baudhâyana, like Vishnu (L, 15)
and others, may have intended murderers of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, &c.,
too, to perform the penance prescribed above, Sûtra 4, only
for shorter periods.
Gautama XXII, 17. Govinda is of opinion that the word ka, 'likewise,'
is intended to include 'worthless' Kshatriyas and Vaisyas.
Vasishtha XX, 34-35.
Gautama XXIII, 8-10; Vasishtha XX, 13, 14.
Vasishtha XX, 41. 'A thief,' i.e. one who has stolen gold from
Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 4-5.
Vasishtha XX, 22. Surâ, i.e. the spirituous liquor extracted
from rice, to drink which is considered a particularly heinous
crime. Vasishtha XX, 19, and loc. cit.
Vasishtha XX, 19.
Vishnu LI, 5. The vows and restrictive rules, i.e. the Sâvitrya
vow, begging, &c.
Vishnu LI, 2-4.
Vishnu LI, 23.
Vasishtha XXIII, 10.
'Finishing (the education of the pupil, samskritam), i.e. teaching
him the rules of purification, of conduct, and so forth; failing
(to do) that (is called) not finishing (the education of the
pupil). For that (omission) the same (penance), i.e. three Krikkhras
(are to be) performed.'--Govinda.
Vasishtha XXIII; 7-8. 'Assists at a burial (savakarma), i.e.
lays out a corpse, and so forth (alamkaranâdi), or carries it
out, and so forth.'--Govinda.
Vasishtha XXIII, 9, and note.
'The meaning is that he may cure himself even with such
p. 215 (substances) which are forbidden
even to his teacher, e.g. garlic, and so forth.' For a Smriti
declares,' He shall protect himself by every means.'--Govinda.
'Unable to move,' i.e. sick. This is a penance to be performed
by a sick. student when he is unable to fulfil the rules enjoining
the morning and evening prayers, and the like; and it applies
to other men also because there is no objection. Regarding the
Mantra, see Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 8, 15, 2.
The rule refers to intercourse with a wife in the day-time;
see Vishnu LIII, 4. The Retasyâs occur Taittirîya Âranyaka I,
Vasishtha XXIII, 1.
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra I, 1, 15.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, r 8. The Âranyaka has, more appropriately,
pranîya, 'having taken out,' before upasamâdhâya, 'may heap
(fuel) upon.' The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. insert the words 'amritam
p. 216 vâ âgyam amritam evâtman dhatte,'
which occur also in the Âranyaka, after the Mantra. According
to Govinda parikeshtâ, 'preparatory rites,' refers to the consecration
of the clarified butter, and so forth, The special rules regarding
the Darvîhomas are given Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra VI, 10, 17 seq.
Vasishtha XV, 12-21. Govinda thinks that nirvisesham savanîyam
kuryuh, 'they shall admit him to all sacrificial rites, making
no difference,' may also be interpreted by 'they shall perform
for him the sacraments just as for a new-born child.'
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCXL.
The Mantras are found, Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 2, 5, 4.
Vasishtha XX, 7-8. The MSS. read parivittih parivettâ yas kainâm
[nam] parivindati. But it is absolutely necessary to adopt either
the various reading given Manu III, 172, yayâ ka parividyate,
or to read yâ kainam parivindati.
The MSS. all read at the end of the verse, tristrirâtrena or
dvistrirâtrena. The correct reading appears, however, to be
strî trirâtrena; for Govinda says, yayâ saha parivettâ bhûtas
[bhûttasya C. L, bhûtassâstri C. T.] tasyâs trirâtrenopavâsena
suddhih, 'the purification of that female with whom he has become
a parivettri takes place through three days, i.e. through fasting
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 1, KANDIKÂ 2
1. Now (follow the offences) causing loss of caste (patanîya),
2. (Viz.) making voyages by sea,
3. Stealing the property of a Brâhmana or a deposit,
4. Giving false evidence regarding land,
5. Trading with merchandise of any description (whether forbidden
6. Serving Sûdras,
7. Begetting a son on a female of the Sûdra caste,
8. And becoming thereby her son.
9. (For those who have) committed one of these (offences
the following penance is prescribed);
10. 'They shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food,
bathe at the time of the three libations (morning, noon, and
evening), passing (the day) standing and (the night) sitting.
After the lapse of three years they throw off their guilt.'
11. 'A Brâhmana removes the sin which he committed by serving
the black race during one day and one night, if he bathes during
three years at every fourth meal-time.'
12. Now (follow) the minor offences, entailing loss of caste
13. (Viz.) intercourse with females who must not be approached
(agamyâ, e.g.) cohabitation with the female friend of a female
Guru, with the female friend of a male Guru, with an Apapâtra
woman, and a female outcast, following the profession of medicine,
sacrificing for many, living by (performances on) the stage,
following the profession of a teacher of dancing, singing and
acting, tending cows and buffalos, and similar (low occupations,
as well as) fornication.
14. The expiation (prescribed) for these (offences is) to
live as an outcast during two years.
15. Now (follow the offences) which make men impure (asukikara),
16. (Viz.) gambling, performing incantations, subsisting
by gleaning corn though one does not perform an Agnihotra, subsisting
by alms after one has finished one's studentship, living, after
that has been finished, longer than four months in the house
of one's teacher, and teaching such a (person who has finished
his studentship), gaining one's livelihood by astrology and
so forth. 16
17. But the expiation of these (offences is to perform penances)
during twelve months, during twelve fortnights, during twelve
times ten days, during twelve se’nnights, during twelve times
three days, during twelve days, during six days, during three
days, during a day and a night, during one day, in proportion
to the offence committed.
18. Now outcasts shall live together and (together) fulfil
their duties, sacrificing for each other, teaching each other,
and marrying amongst each other. If they have begot sons, they
shall say to them, 'Depart from among us; thus you will again
reach the Âryas.' 18
19. For the organs do not become impure together with the
20. (The truth of) that may be learned from this (parallel
case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son who has the full
number of limbs.
21. Hârîta declares that this is wrong.
22. For wives may be (considered) similar to the vessel which
contains the curds (for the sacrifice). If one makes impure
milk curdle in a milk-vessel and stirs it, the Sishtas do not
use the (curds thus produced) for sacred rites.
23. In like manner no intercourse can be held with that (offspring)
which is produced from impure seed.
24. If they desire it, (they may perform) a penance,
25. (Viz. in the case of males) the third part (of the penance
prescribed) for crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya); for
females the third part (of that).
26. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'If he applies
sesamum to any other purpose, but food, anointing, and charitable
gifts, he will be born again as a worm and, together with his
ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.'
27. He who sells sesamum, forsooth, sells his ancestors;
he who sells rice, forsooth, sells his life; he who gives away
his daughter, making a bargain, forsooth, sells portions of
his spiritual merit.
28. Grass and wood, in its natural state, may be sold.
29. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Animals that
have teeth in one jaw only, as well as minerals excepting salt,
and undyed thread, these, O Brâhmana, are the goods which thou
art permitted to sell.'
30. (If he has committed) any offence excepting a
30 mortal sin (pâtaka)
he may either give to a learned Brâhmana (anûkâna) a hairy cow
of brown or red-dish colour, after sprinkling her with clarified
butter and scattering black sesamum seeds over her;
31. Or (he may offer burnt oblations), reciting the Kûshmândas,
during twelve days, 31
32. '(Thus) he will be freed. from the guilt (of any crime
that is) less (heinous) than the murder of a learned Brâhmana.'
33. If one is accused of a mortal sin (pâtaka), a Krikkhra
(penance must be performed by the accused).
34. The accuser (shall perform) that (Krikkhra penance during)
a year. 34
35. 'He who during a year associates with an outcast, becomes
(likewise) an outcast; not by sacrificing for him, by teaching
him or by (forming) a matrimonial (alliance with him), but by
using the same carriage or seat.'
36. The penance for eating impure substances is to fast until
the entrails are empty. That is attained in seven (days and)
37. (Subsisting on) water, milk, clarified butter, (and)
fasting,--each for three days,--(and taking the three fluids)
hot, that is a Taptakrikkhra penance.
38. (Eating) during three days in the morning only, during
the (next) three days in the evening only, (subsisting) during
(another) three days (on) food given unasked, and fasting during
three days, (that is) a Krikkhra penance.
39. (If the period of twelve days is divided into) three
(periods of) four days, that is the Krikkhra penance of, women,
children, and aged men.
40. If (observing the rule given) above one eats (at each
meal) so much only as one can take at one (mouthful), that is
an Atikrikkhra penance.
41. (If one) subsists on water only, that is a Krikkhrâtikrikkhra,
the third (in the order of the Krikkhra penances).
42. During a Krikkhra penance (the following rules must be
followed, viz.) to bathe at morn, noon, and evening,
43. To sleep on the ground,
44. To wear one garment only, to shave the hair of the head,
of the beard, and of the body, and to clip the nails.
45. The same (rules apply) to women except (that referring
to) shaving the head.
2. Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 7-11.
Govinda explains samudrasamyânam, 'making voyages by sea,' by
'voyaging by means of ships to another continent (dvîpa).'
The MSS. from Gugarât and the Dekhan read instead of-this and
the next Sûtras, yaska sûdrâyâm abhipragâyate tadapatyam ka
bhavati, 'and he who begets (offspring) on a Sûdra female, and
thereby becomes her son.'
Govinda explains the Sûtra as a prohibition against allowing
oneself to be adopted by a Sûdra (sûdraputrabhâvah | tavâham
putro ’smîty upagîvanam).
The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. again have a different reading,
teshâm to nisveshah, 'but the atonement of these offences (is
Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 10. All the MSS. read in the last pâda 'tribhir
varshais tad apahanti pâpam.' The correct reading is that given
by Âpastamba loc. cit., 'tribhir varshair apa pâpam nudante.'
Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 11. Govinda explains the Sûtra as referring
to cohabitation with a female of the 'black race.' By the latter
term he understands a Kândâlî, adding that others believe
p. 219 a Sûdra female to be intended. It
is, however, more probable that Baudhâyana took the verse to
forbid twice-born men to serve Sûdras.
Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 9.
Gautama XXI, is. In explanation of the term agamyâ, a female
who must not be approached,' Govinda quotes Nârada XII, 73-74,
and he takes the four classes of females, who are specially
mentioned, not as examples illustrating the term agamyâ, but
as not included in and additional to the latter. Physicians
and the other professional men enumerated are usually not mentioned
among the upapâtakins, but occur in the lists of those whose
gifts must not be accepted, and of those who defile the, company
at a funeral dinner, eg. Vasishtha III, 3; XIV, 2, 3, 11. The
expression 'sacrificing for many' (grâmayâganam) appears to
be a description of the so-called 'Yagamâna Vritti, by which
the modern Bhattagîs, or priests who officiate for hire, subsist.
In explanation of the term nâtyâkâryatâ, 'following the profession
of teaching dancing, music, and acting,' Govinda says that 'instruction
in the works of Bharata, Visâkhila, and others' is intended.
Baudhâyana no doubt intends to forbid the instruction of professional
dancers and actors in actual works on their art, such as the
nâtya-sûtras mentioned by Pânini.
'To live as an outcast, i.e. to subsist by begging.'--Govinda.
Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 12-19; I, 10, 29, 15.
Govinda is probably right in asserting that the word ka, 'and
(so forth),' is intended to include other not-named offences.
Âpastamba I, 10, 29, 17-18.
Âpastamba I, 10, 29, 8-14.
I.e. males shall live, according to the rules given above in
Sûtras 10-11, during one year, and females during four months.
Vasishtha II, 30.
Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 2.
The permission to sell 'stones' or minerals contradicts Vasishtha
Regarding the definition of the term 'anûkâna,' see above, I,
11, 21, 13.
Regarding the efficacy of the Kûshmânda texts, see eg. Gautama
XIX, 12; XXII, 36.
Vasishtha XXIII, 37-38.
Vasishtha XXIII, 39.
Vasishtha I, 22.
Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 3-4; Vasishtha XXIII, 30. I follow here
the Gugarât and Dekhan MSS., which read amedhyaprâsane prâyaskittir
naishpurîshyam tat saptarâtrenâvâpyate. M. and the two MSS.
of the commentary give amedhyaprâsane prâyaskittam and leave
the remainder out. The commentary states that the penance intended
is the Taptakrikkhra, described in the next Sutra. The parallel
passages of Âpastamba and others leave no doubt that the northern
MSS. in this case have preserved the older form of the text.
Vasishtha XXI, 21.
Vasishtha XXI, 20. M. and the two MSS. of the commentary omit
the word 'krikkhrah' at the end of the Sûtra.
Vasishtha XXIII, 43.
Vasishtha XXIV, 2.
Vasishtha XXIV, 3. Govinda gives another explanation of the
word tritîyah, 'the third,' according to which it is to refer
to the third tryahah, or 'period of three days.'
Vasishtha XXIV, 4-5.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 2, KANDIKÂ 3
1. A Brâhmana who always carries water (in his pot), who
always wears the sacred thread, who daily recites the Veda,
who avoids the food of Sûdras, who approaches (his wife) in
the proper season, and offers sacrifices in accordance with
the rules (of the Veda, after death) never falls from Brahman's
2. The Veda (says), 'Manu divided his estate among his sons.'
3. (A father may, therefore, divide his property) equally
among all, without (making any) difference;
4. Or the eldest may receive the most excellent chattel.
5. (For) the Veda says, 'Therefore, they distinguish the
eldest by (an additional share of the) property.
6. Or the eldest may receive (in excess) one part out of
7. (And) the other (sons) shall receive equal shares.
8. While the father lives, the division of the estate takes
place (only) with the permission of the father.
9. The (additional) share of the eldest is, (according to
the order) of the four castes, a cow, a horse, a goat, and a
10. If there are sons born of wives of different castes (varna),
they should make ten portions of the ancestral property and
take four (shares), three, two, (and) one, according to the
order (of the castes).
11. But if a legitimate son of the body (aurasa) is born,
the (other) sons of equal caste shall obtain one third share
(of the estate). 11
12. If there is a son of equal caste and a son of
12 a wife of the
next lower caste, the son born of the wife of the next lower
caste may take the share of the eldest, provided he be endowed
with good qualities.
13. (A son) who possesses good qualities becomes the protector
of the rest. 13
14. One must know a son begotten by (the husband) himself
on a wedded wife of equal caste (to be) a legitimate son of
the body (aurasa). 14
Now they quote also (the following verse): 'From the several
limbs (of my body) art thou produced, from my heart art thou
born; thou art "self" called a son; mayest thou live
a hundred autumns.' 15
15. The (male child) born of a daughter, after an agreement
has been made, (one must know to be) the son of an appointed
daughter (putrikâputra); any other (male offspring of a daughter
they call) a daughter's son (dauhitra).
16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The son of
an appointed daughter should offer the first funeral cake to
his mother, the second to her father, and the third to his father's
17. He who is begotten, by another man, on the wife of a
deceased man, of a eunuch, or of one (incurably) diseased, after
permission (has been given), is called the son begotten on a
wife (kshetraga). 17
18. Such a (son begotten on a wife) has two fathers and belongs
to two families; he has a right to perform the funeral oblations,
and to inherit the property of (his) two (fathers).
19. Now they quote also (the following verse): The son of
two fathers shall give the funeral cakes (to his two fathers,
and pronounce) two names with each oblation, and three cakes
shall serve for six persons; he who acts thus will not err.'
20. He (is called) an adopted son (datta) who, being given
by his father and his mother, or by either of the two, is received
in the place of a child.
21. He (is called) a son made (kritrima) whom (a mail) himself
makes (his son), with the (adoptee's) consent (only), and who
belongs to the same caste (as the adopter).
22. He is called a son born secretly (gûdhagga) who is secretly
born in the house and whose (origin is) afterwards (only) recognised.
23. He is called a son cast off (apaviddha) who, being, cast
off by his father and his mother, or by either (of them), is
received in the place of a child.
24. If anybody approaches an unmarried girl without the permission
(of her father or guardian), the son born by such (a woman is
called) the son of an unmarried damsel (kânîna).
25. If one marries either knowingly or unknowingly a pregnant
bride, the child which is born of her is called (a son) taken
with the bride (sahodha).
26. He (is called a son) bought (krîta) who, being purchased
from his father and his mother, or from either of them, is received
in the place of a child.
27. He (is called the son) of a twice-married woman (paunarbhava)
who is born of a re-married female, (i.e.) of one who, having
left an impotent man, has taken a second husband.
28. He (is called) a self-given (son, svayamdatta) who, abandoned
by his father and his mother, gives himself (to a stranger).
29. He who is begotten by (a man of) the first twice-born
(caste) on a female of the Sûdra caste (is called) a Nishâda.
30. (He who was begotten by the same parents) through lust
(is called) a Pârasava. Thus (the various kinds of) sons (have
been enumerated). 30
31. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'They declare
the legitimate son, the son of an appointed daughter, the son
begotten on a wife, the adopted son and the son made, the son
born secretly and the son cast off, (to be entitled) to share
the inheritance.' 31
32. 'They declare the son of an unmarried damsel and the
son received with the bride, the son bought,
32 likewise the son of a twice-married
female, the son self-given and the Nishâda, to be members of
33. Aupagandhani (declares that) the first among them alone
(is entitled to inherit, and a member of his father's family).
34. 'Now, O Ganaka, I jealously watch my wives, (though I
did) not (do it) formerly; for they have declared in Yama's
court that the son belongs to the begetter. The giver of the
seed carries off the son, after death, in Yama's hall, Therefore
they carefully protect their wives, fearing the seed of strangers.'
35. 'Carefully watch (the procreation of your) offspring,
lest strange seed fall on your soil. After death the son belongs
to the begetter; through carelessness a husband makes (the procreation
of) a son useless.'
36. Let them carefully protect the shares of
36 those who are
minors, as well as the increments (thereon).
37. Granting food, clothes, (and shelter), they shall support
those who are incapable of transacting legal business,
38. (Viz.) the blind, idiots, those immersed in vice, the
incurably diseased, and so forth,
39. Those who neglect their duties and occupations;
40. But not the outcast nor his offspring.
41. Intercourse with outcasts shall not take place.
42. But he shall support an outcast mother, without speaking
43. The daughters shall obtain the ornaments of their mother,
(as many as are) presented according to the custom (of the caste),
or anything else (that may be given according to custom).
44. Women do not possess independence.
45. Now they quote also (the following verse): Their father
protects (them) in childhood, their husband protects (them)
in youth, and their sons protect (them) in old age a woman is
never fit for independence.'
46. The Veda declares, 'Therefore women are considered to
be destitute of strength and of a portion.'
47. Those (women) who strive (to do what is) agreeable to
their husbands will gain heaven.
48. But for a violation (of their duty towards the husband)
a Krikkhra penance (must be performed).
49. (For violating it) with a Sûdra (a woman) shall perform
a lunar penance (kândrâyana);
50. (For violating it) against the order of the castes with
a Vaisya and so forth, she shall perform a Krikkhra or an (Atikrikkhra)
51. For male (offenders, i.e.) Brâhmanas and so forth, a
year's chastity (is prescribed).
52. Let him burn a Sûdra (who commits adultery with an Âryan)
in a straw-fire. 52
53. Now they quote also (the following verses):
3. Vasishtha VIII, 17.
Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 1, 9, 4.
Colebrooke V, Dig. XL. Govinda points out that this rule refers
to sons equal by caste, origin, and virtue.
Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Vishnu XVIII, 37.
Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 2, 7. See also the discussion on this
text, Âpastamba II, 6, 14, 10-13.
Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Vasishtha XVII, 43.
Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Gautama XXVIII, 8.
Colebrooke V, Dig. XXII; Dâyabhâga II, 8. In C.'s Digest
p. 225 the first clause is omitted and
connected with the following Sûtra. Govinda agrees with Gîmûtavâhana.
Colebrooke V, Dig. XLIX. The rule is an explanation of the term
varam rûpam, 'the most excellent chattel,' in Sûtra 4. The meaning
probably is, as the Digest states, that among Brâhmanas it is
usual to give to the eldest a bull, among Kshatriyas a horse,
and so forth.
Vasishtha XVII, 48-50; Vishnu XVIII, 2-40 where the several
cases that can arise have been fully worked out.
I translate according to the reading of K., M., and the two
MSS. of the commentary, aurase tûtpanne savarnâs [°nas, M.,
K.] trittyâmsaharâh [°yâmsam haret, K.] The other MSS. omit
the last two words of the Sûtra. The sense of the Sûtra seems
to be, that subsidiary sons of equal caste obtain a third of
the estate when a legitimate son of the body is born to their
father; see also Kâtyâyana V, Dig. CCXVIII. Govinda gives the
following explanation: aurasah savarnaputrâs ka vakshyante |
aurasah savarnâyâm samskritâyâm svayam utpâditah [Sûtra 14]
| tasminnutpanne savarnâs tritîyâmsaharâ bhaveyuh | sarvam dhanagâtam
tredhâ vibhagya teshâm ekam shodasa sampâdya trîn dvâvekam iti
kalpayet || 'The legitimate son and the sons of equal caste
will be described (below). He is called a legitimate son who
is begotten by the husband himself on a wedded wife of equal
caste. When such a one is born, the (other) sons of equal caste
shall obtain one third share. Dividing the whole property into
three parts, and making one of them sixteen (?), he shall give
three, two, one.'--Govinda.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CLVII; Dâyabhâga IX, 15.
Colebrooke, loc. cit.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CXCVI; Vasishtha XVII, 13. The verse is found
in the Mahâbhârata and elsewhere.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXIII; Vasishtha XVII, 15-17.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXXXVII; Dâyabhâga II, 60; Vasishtha XVII,
Colebrooke Dig., loc. cit.
Vasishtha XVII, 28.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXXXIV; Gautama XXVIII, 32.
Vasishtha XVII, 24.
Vishnu XV, 24-25.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXI; Vasishtha XVII, 21-23. It must be
understood that the father must belong to the same caste as
Vasishtha XVII, 27.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXXXI; Vasishtha XVII, 30-32.
Vasishtha XVII, 18-20.
Vasishtha XVII, 33-35.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXCIII. Govinda points out that the Pârasava
is, according to Baudhâyana, the offspring of a Sûdrâ concubine,
not of a Sûdrâ wife. But see also above, I, 9, 17, 4.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CLXXX; Vasishtha XVII, 25.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CLXXIX; Vasishtha XVII, 26.
Aupagandhani is one of the ancient teachers of the White Yagur-veda,
mentioned in the lists incorporated in the Satapatha-brâhmana
XIV, 5, 5, 21; 7, 3, 26. The legends of the White Yagur-veda
frequently mention king Ganaka of Videha, and assert that that
philosopher king had frequent and intimate intercourse with
Yâgñavalkya and other teachers of the Veda which Âditya revealed.
It seems to me, therefore, highly probable that Govinda is right
in taking the vocative ganaka in Sûtra 34 as a proper name,
and in asserting that the verse belongs to a conversation between
Aupagandhani and Ganaka. This explanation, which possibly may
be based on an ancient tradition of Baudhâyana's school, is
certainly preferable to Haradatta's statement on Âpastamba II,
6, 13, 7, that these verses express the sentiments of a husband
who had neglected to watch his wives, and later learned that
he would not derive any spiritual benefit from their offspring.
In the text of Sûtra 34 I read with the Dekhan MSS. and Âpastamba,
loc. cit., îrshyâmi, instead of ishyâmi, which M. and the commentary
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCLII; Vasishtha XVI, 8, 9. 'The
p. 230 increments, i.e. the proper interest.
Thus the money of minors shall bear interest,'--Govinda.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCXXVIII; Dâyabhâga V, 12; Vyavahâramayûkha
IV, 11, so; Vasishtha XVII, 52-54.
Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit. 'The expression "and
so forth" includes hunchbacks and other (disabled) persons.'--Govinda.
Vyasanin, 'immersed in vice,' may also mean 'afflicted by calamities,'
and is perhaps intended to be taken both ways.
Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit. Akarminas, 'those who neglect
their duties and occupations,' I.e. those who though able (to
fulfil their duties are) indolent.--Govinda.
Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit.; Burnell, Dâyabhâga 49. 42,
Gautama XXI, 15, and note.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CXXX; Vasishtha XVII, 46. 'Sâmpradâyikam
(literally "customary") qualifies (the word) ornaments;
sâmpradâyikam (means) what is obtained according to custom;
what is given to their mother by the maternal grandfather and
grandmother, that (is called) sâmpradâyikam. "Or anything
else," (viz.) presented according to custom, (e.g.) a bedstead
and the p. 231 like, a couch, and an outer
garment, and the like. So much and nothing else shall the daughters
Vasishtha V, s. All the MSS. of the text read na strîsvâtantryam
vidyate, while the text given by the two copies of the commentary
has na strî svâtantryam vindate. Govinda asserts that the Sûtra
is intended to forbid the independent action of women with respect
to things inherited. The correct view probably is that with
this Sûtra the topic of the duties and rights of women begins,
and that the rule contains a general maxim.
Vasishtha V, 2.
Colebrooke V, Dig. CXXXI. The text is in great confusion. The
Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., except K., read, na dâyam nirindriyâ
hyadâyâs ka striyo matâ iti srutih; K. has, tasmât[n]nirindriyâ
hy. st. m. i. sru. || tasmât striyo nirindriyâ adâyâdîr api
pâpât; while M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary have, tasmânnirindriyâ
adâyâs ka striyo matâ iti srutih [sûtih, M.] The Telugu copy
is mutilated, and reads nâdayantiriti srutih. Though the reading
of the Dekhan MSS. is supported by Mitramisra Vîramitrodaya,
fol. 209, p. I, 1. 3, it is certainly not the original one,
for there is no verb by which the accusative 'dâyam' is governed.
Mitramisra's attempt to make it depend on 'arhati' in the verse
quoted in Sûtra 45 is futile, because, according to the usage
of the Sûtrakâras, a Sûtra may be completed by a verb taken
frost another original aphorism of the author, but cannot be
connecter with a portion of a quotation taken from some other
work. This same principle, of course, applies not only to Sûtras,
but to the writings of all other authors, whether Indian or
European. The reading of K., M., and of the I. O. copy of the
commentary is not open to the objection just mentioned, and
therefore preferable. But it seems to me highly probable that,
nevertheless, it is not p. 232 quite genuine;
for the word 'tasmât,' with which it begins, is not required,
because its sense is already expressed by the following hi,'
and because the Sûtra apparently contains half an Anushtubh
Sloka, which the insertion of tasmât destroys. It is also easy
to see how it came to be inserted. Every Yagurvedî who read
the passage would be reminded of the analogous passage of the
Taittirîya Samhitâ VI, 5, 8, 2, 'tasmât striyo nirindriyâ adâyâdîr
api pâpât pumsah upastitaram,' which in K. has actually been
inserted after our Sûtra. In the Vedic Mantra 'tasmât' is required,
and is certainly the genuine reading. Hence it seems to have
been transferred into Baudhâyana's text, possibly by the mistake
of some scribe who, according to the habit of his kind, took
a marginal reference to the beginning of the Vedic passage for
a correction of the text. In my opinion it must be thrown out.
The sense of the half verse remains exactly the same. It corresponds
to Manu IX, 18. According to Govindasvâmin and others its object
is to show that women are incapable of inheriting, and the word
dâya, 'portion,' must be taken in the sense of 'a share of the
inheritance.' For a full discussion of this point, I refer to
the Introductory Note on Book I, Chapter II, Sect. 14 of West
and Miller's Digest of H. L. C., third edition.
Vishnu XXV, 15, 17; Vasishtha XXI, 14.
Vasishtha XXI, 6-13.
Govinda points out that this rule refers to adultery with women
of equal caste, and thinks that the word 'chastity' indicates
that Krikkhra penances are to be performed; Vasishtha XXI, 16,
17; Vishnu LIII, 2. But see Gautama XXII, 29.
Vasishtha XXI, 1, 5.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 2, KANDIKÂ 4
1. 'Anybody but a Brâhmana shall suffer corporal punishment
for adultery.' 1
2. 'The wives (of men) of all castes must be guarded more
carefully than wealth.'
3. 'But corporal punishment (shall) not (be inflicted) for
(adultery with) the wives of minstrels and with those who appear
on the stage. For (the husbands) carry them (to other men),
or, lying concealed (at home), permit them to hold culpable
4. 'Women (possess) an unrivalled means of purification;
they never become (entirely) foul. For month by month their
temporary uncleanness removes their sins.'
5. 'Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva their melodious
voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs); therefore women are free
from stains.' 5
6. 'Let him abandon a barren (wife) in the tenth year, one
who bears daughters (only) in the twelfth, one whose children
(all) die in the fifteenth, but her who is quarrelsome without
7. A widow shall avoid during a year (the use of) honey,
meat, spirituous liquor, and salt, and sleep on the ground.
8. Maudgalya (declares that she shall do so) during six months.
9. After (the expiration of) that (time) she may, with the
permission of her Gurus, bear a son to her brother-in-law, in
case she has no son.
10. Now they quote also (the following verse): One whose
appointment can have no result, (viz.) a barren woman, one who
has borne sons, one who is past child-bearing, one whose children
are (all) dead, and one who is unwilling must not be appointed.'
11. The sister of a maternal uncle and of the father, a sister,
a sister's daughter, a daughter-in-law, a maternal uncle's wife,
and the wife of a 11
friend are females who must never be approached (agamyâ).
12. For intercourse with females who must not be approached
(agamyâ), a Krikkhra and an Atikrikkhra (and) a Kândrâyana are
the penances prescribed for all.
13. Thereby (the rule regarding) intercourse with a female
of the Kandâla caste has been declared.
14. Now they quote also (the following verses): A Brâhmana
who unintentionally approaches a female of the Kandâla caste,
eats (food given by a Kandâla) or receives (presents from him),
becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he becomes
equal (to a Kandâla).
15. 'He who approaches his father's, his teacher's, or a
king's wife, is guilty of the crime of violating a Guru's bed;
the penance ordained for him has been declared above.'
16. (A Brâhmana) who is unable (to subsist) by teaching,
sacrificing for others, or the acceptance of gifts, shall maintain
himself by following the duties of Kshatriyas, because that
is the next following (caste).
17. Gautama (declares that one shall) not (act thus). For
the duties of Kshatriyas are too cruel for a Brâhmana.
18. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Out of regard
for the sacred law a Brâhmana and a Vaisya may take up arms
for (the protection of) cows or Brâhmanas, or when a confusion
of the castes (threatens to take place).
19. (Or) the livelihood of a Vaisya should be adopted, because
that is the one following (next):
20. (If he lives by agriculture) he shall plough before breakfast,
21. With two bulls whose noses have not been pierced, not
striking them with the goad, (but) frequently coaxing them.
22. The (sacred domestic) fire (shall be kindled) at the
wedding; the religious ceremonies up to the Agnyâdheya (shall
be) performed in that.
23. Now, beginning with the Agnyâdheya, follow these (rites
in an) uninterrupted (series), as, for instance, the Agnyâdheya,
the Agnihotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the Âgraya.a
at the winter and summer solstices, the animal sacrifice, the
Kâturmâsyas at the beginning of each season, the Shaddhotri
in spring, the Agnishtoma. Thus the attainment of bliss (is
24. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Neither he
who is accustomed to sleep in the day-time, nor he who eats
the food of anybody, nor he who falls from a height to which
he has climbed, can reach heaven as he desires.'
25. Let him avoid meanness, hard-heartedness, and crookedness.
26. Now they quote also with reference to this (subject the
following) verse in the dialogue between the daughters of Usanas
and Vrishaparvan: 'Thou, forsooth, art the daughter of one who
praises (others), who begs and accepts (gifts); but I am the
child of one who is praised, who gives gifts and does not accept
4. Âpastamba II, 10, 26, 20; 10, 27, 11. Govinda thinks that
non-Brâhmanical offenders should be burned, in accordance with
Vasishtha XXI, 2-3. But mutilation may also be intended. Samgrahana,
'adultery,' probably includes all those acts mentioned Manu
Manu VIII, 359.
Manu VIII, 362. I read conjecturally, 'samsargayanti tâ hyetâ
niguptâs kâlayantyapi,' basing my emendations on Manu's text.
The MSS. and Govinda have, samsargayanti tâ hyetân niguptâms
kâlayanty api, which gives no good sense. Govinda explains kâranadârâh,
'the wives of minstrels,' by devadâsyah, 'temple-slaves.'
Vasishtha XXVIII, 4.
Vasishtha XXVIII, 6.
Manu IX, 81.
Vasishtha XVII, 55. The word madya, 'spirituous liquor,' occurs
in M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary. The MSS. from the
Dekhan and Gugarât, including K., read maggana or maddâna, the
compound letter being very indistinct.
Vasishtha XVII, 56, where the term 'Gurus' is fully explained.
Vasishtha XVII, 57-59. M. and the two copies of the commentary
read pisâkotpannaputrâ ka instead of vasâ kotpannaputrâ ka,
'a barren woman and one who has borne sons.' I follow the Dekhan
and Gugarât MSS., which undoubtedly give the genuine reading.
Perhaps the term avasâm, Vasishtha XVII, 57, should be corrected
These two Sûtras are additions to II, 1, 2, 13. See also Nârada
XII, 73-74; Vasishtha XXI, 16.
Vasishtha XXIII, 41; Vishnu LIII, 5-6.
Manu XI, 176.
Govinda thinks that the penance intended is that mentioned in
Sûtra 12. Probably a severer one is meant. The verse is interesting,
as it clearly is a quotation from some metrical work on law,
not merely of traditional detached slokas.
Vasishtha II, 22. The Sûtra 'adhyâpanayâganapratigrahair asaktah
kshatradharmena gîvet pratyanantaratvât' occurs in the two copies
of the commentary only. The I. O. copy of the commentary has,
however, before it the following words: [dharmya] svâdhyâyapravakane
evety adhikânâm [kâram] darsayati pratigrihîtâ tâdrik pratigrahîtâram
gridhnuvanti [târa ridhnu°] ritvigyagamânâ yâginau
p. 236[°gane] tadasaktau kshatradharmau.
M. reads, dharmanasvâdhyâyapravakana [ne] ityadhikâran darsayati
pratigrahîtâdrik pratigrahîtâra ridhnuvanti ritvigyagamâna yâganau
tadasaktau svâdhyâyadhyâ [°yâdhya] panayagñayâganapratigrahair
asaktama [tah] kshatradharmmena gîvet. The Dekhan and Gugarât
MSS. read, dhârmye svâdhyâyapravakane ityadhikâram darsayati
| pratigrahe dâtâ pratigrahîtâ[ra] ridhnuvanti | ritvigyagamânâ
yâgane | tadasaktau kshatradharmena gîvayet, or have corruptions
of this passage. I cannot come to any other conclusion than
that the passage which precedes the words translated by me are
a very ancient interpolation, caused by the embodiment of a
portion of an old Bhâshya with the text, and that all our MSS.,
however much they may differ, go back to one codex archetypus.
Gautama Introduction, p. lii.
Gautama VII, 25.
Vasishtha II, 24.
Vasishtha II, 32.
Vasishtha VIII, 3. The religious ceremonies to be performed
with the sacred domestic fire, which, according to Baudhâyana,
p. 237 should be kindled at the wedding,
not on the division of the paternal estate (Gautama V, q), are
the so-called Grihya ceremonies (Gautama V, 8-9).
Vasishtha XI, 46. The sacrifices enumerated in this Sûtra require
three fires, and belong to the srauta or vaitânika yagñas. The
Shaddhotri mentioned here seems to be the animal sacrifice mentioned
in the commentary on Kâtyâyana Srauta-sûtra VI, 1, 36.
An ârûdhapatita, 'he who falls from a height to which he has
climbed,' is, according to Govinda, an ascetic who slides back
into civil life.
Vasishtha VI, 40; X, 30. Govinda explains sâthyam, 'hard-heartedness,'
by saktau satyâm api paropakârâkaranam, 'not doing a kindness
to others though one is able to do so.'
The dialogue mentioned is that between Sarmishthâ and
p. 238 Devayânî, which occurs Mahâbhârata
I, 78. The verse quoted is the tenth of that Adhyâya, and agrees
with ours, except that sutâham is read for athâham in the beginning
of the second half verse.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 3, KANDIKÂ 5
1. Bathing is suitable for (the practice of) austerity.
2. The libation to the manes (is offered) after the gods
have been satisfied (with water),
3. They pour out water which gives strength, from one Tîrtha
after the other. 3
4. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'With flowing,
unconfined water twice-born men of the three castes shall satisfy
the gods, Rishis, and manes, when they have risen in the morning.'
5. 'They shall not offer (libations of water) con-fined (in
tanks and wells), (If they do it), he who made the embankment;
will obtain a share (of the merit of their devotion).'
6. 'Therefore let him avoid embankments (around tanks) and
wells made by others.'
7. Nov they quote also (the following verse): 'Or, in times
of distress--not as a rule--he may bathe in (water) confined
(in tanks), after taking out three lumps (of earth); from a
well (let him take three) lumps of clay and three jars of water.'
8. If he has accepted presents from one who is able to give
presents to many, or from one whose presents ought not to be
accepted, or if he has sacrificed for one for whom he ought
not to have sacrificed, or if he has eaten food (given by a
person) whose food must not be eaten, he shall mutter the Taratsamandîya.
9. Now they quote also (the following verse): Those who improperly
associate with (an outcast) teacher, those who improperly associate
with (outcast) pupils, and those who improperly associate (with
outcasts) by (accepting their) food or by (reciting) Mantras
(for them), enter into deep darkness.'
10. Now (follow) the duties of a Snâtaka.
11. After offering at the morning and at the evening (meals)
with (a portion of) the food which he may have, the Vaisvadeva
and the Bali-offerings, he shall honour, according to his ability,
Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras (who may come to
his house as) guests.
12. If he cannot (afford to give food) to many, let him give
(something) to one who possesses good qualities,
13. Or to him who has come first.
14, If a Sûdra (has come as) a guest, he shall order him
(to do some) work, (and feed him afterwards);
15. Or (if he cannot spare much), he may give a first portion
(agrya) to a Srotriya.
16. It is prescribed that the division (of the food) shall
be made without detriment to (the interests of) those who daily
receive a portion. 16
17. But he shall never eat without having given away (some
small portion of the food).
18. Now they quote also two verses which have been proclaimed
by (the goddess of) food: 'Him who, without giving me to the
gods, the manes, his servants, his guests and friends, consumes
what has been prepared and (thus), in his exceeding folly, swallows
poison, I consume, and I am his death. But for him who, offering
the Agnihotra, performing the Vaisvadeva, and honouring guests,
eats, full of contentment, purity, and faith, what remains after
feeding those whom he must support, I become ambrosia, and he
(really) enjoys me.'
19. Presents of money must be given, according to one's ability,
to good Brâhmanas, Srotriyas, and Vedapâragas, when they beg
outside the Vedi, for the sake of Gurus, in order to defray
(the expenses of) their marriages, or of medicine, or when they
are distressed for a livelihood, or desirous to offer a sacrifice,
or engaged in studying, or on a journey, or have performed a
Visvagit sacrifice. 19
20. Cooked food (must be given) to other (beggars).
21. Let him eat (seated) in a pure, enclosed place, after
having well washed his hands and feet and after having sipped
water, respectfully receiving the food which is brought to him,
keeping himself free from lust, anger, hatred, greed, and perplexity,
(conveying the food into his mouth) with all his fingers and
making no noise (during mastication).
5. As to the Tîrthas, see above, I, 5, 8, 15-16.
Manu IV, 201.
Vishnu LXIV, 1.
Vishnu LXIV, 2. I read the verse as follows: uddhritya vâpi
trîn pindân kuiyâd âpatsu no sadâ | niruddhâsu ka mritpindân
kûpât trîn abghatâmstatheti || The Dekhan MSS. read at the end
of the second half verse, kûpâmstrînavatâmstathâ; M. has kupâtrînabapatânstathâ
while C. I. gives kûpât trîn ghatâmstathâ. Nandapandita on Vishnu,
loc. cit., seems to have had the latter p.
239 reading, and to have changed it to 'kûpât to trin ghatâmstathâ,'
in order to save the metre. The sense remains the same.
Manu XI, 254. The text is found Rig-veda IX, 58. Govinda explains
bahupratigrâhya, 'one who is able to give presents to many,'
by bahubhrityabharanakshama, 'one who is able to support many
Vasishtha XII, 1.
Vasishtha XI, 3-9.
Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 19.
Vasishtha XI, 5. Govinda quotes a verse, according to which
an agrya, 'first portion,' is equal to sixteen mouthfuls, each
of the size of a peahen's egg.
Âpastamba II, 4, 9,10-11. 'Those who daily receive a portion'
(nityabhâktika), i.e. sons, wives, and so forth.--Govinda. But
see also Âpastamba, loc. cit.
Gautama V, 20-21, and notes. 'A good Brâhmana, i.e. one who
follows the rule of conduct.'--Govinda.
Gautama V, 22.
Vasishtha XII, 19-20; Vishnu LXVIII, 46. 'This is the rule for
him who makes an offering to Âtman (i.e. performs the Prânâgnihotra
at his meal).'--Govinda. See also below, II, 7, 12.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 3, KANDIKÂ 6
1. Let him not put back into the dish a remnant of food.
2. If he eats (food), containing meat, fish, or sesamum,
he shall (afterwards) wash and touch fire,
3. And bathe after sunset.
4. Let him avoid a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth,
and other (implements) made of Palâsa wood.
5. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap,
6. Nor on a chair,
7. He shall carry a staff, made of bamboo, and golden earrings.
8. Let him not rub one foot with the other while bathing,
nor place the one on the other while standing,
9. Let him not wear a visible garland.
10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or sets.
11. Let him not announce (the appearance of a rainbow) to
another (man, saying), 'There is Indra's bow.'
12. If he points it out, he shall call it 'the jewelled bow.'
13. Let him not pass between the prakîlaka and the beam,
at the town gate, 13
14. Nor let him pass between the two posts of a swing.
15. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied.
16. Let him not step on ashes, bones, hair, chaff, potsherds,
nor on a bathing-place (moist with) water.
17. Let him not announce it to another (man if) a cow suckles
(her calf). 17
18. Let him not say of (a cow which is) not a milch-cow,
'She is not a milch-cow.'
19. If he speaks (of such a one), let him say, 'It is one
which will become a milch-cow.'
20. Let him not make empty, ill-sounding, or harsh speeches.
21. Let him not go alone on a. journey,
22. Nor with outcasts, nor with a woman, nor with a Sûdra.
23. Let him not set out (on a journey) towards evening.
24. Let him not bathe (entirely) naked.
25. Let him not bathe at night.
26. Let him not cross a river swimming.
27. Let him not look down into a well.
28. Let him not look down into a pit.
29. Let him not sit down there, where another person may
order him to rise. 29
30. Way must be made for a Brâhmana, a cow, a king, a blind
man, an aged man, one who is suffering under a burden, a pregnant
woman, and a weak man.
31. A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where
fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and garlands are
plentiful, access to which is
31 easy, where many rich people dwell,
which abounds in industrious people, where Âryans form the majority,
and which is not easily entered by robbers.
32. 'A Brâhmana who, having wedded a wife of the Sûdra caste
and dwells during twelve years in a village where water (is
obtainable) from wells only, becomes equal to a Sûdra.'
33. (If you say that) he who lives in a town and whose body
is covered with the dust, (raised) by others, and whose eyes
and mouth are filled with it, will obtain salvation, if he restrains
himself, (I declare that) that is impossible.
34. 'The dust raised by carriages, horses, elephants, and
cows, and (that which comes) from grain is pure, blamed is (that
raised) by a broom, goats, sheep, donkeys, and garments.'
35. Let him honour those who are worthy of honour.
36. 'A Rishi, a learned man, a king, a bride-groom, a maternal
uncle, a father-in-law, and an officiating priest are mentioned
in the Smriti as worthy of the honey-mixture at certain times
and occasions.' 36
37. 'A Rishi, a learned man, and a king must be
37 honoured whenever
they come, a bridegroom and a priest at the beginning of the
religious rites, a maternal uncle and a father-in-law when a
year has elapsed since their last visit.'
38. 'Let him raise his right arm on (entering) the place
where the sacred fire is kept, in the midst of a herd of cows,
in the presence of Brâhmanas, at the daily recitation of the
Veda, and at dinner.'
39. 'An upper garment must be worn on the following five
occasions: during the daily study, during the evacuation (of
excrements), when one bestows gifts, at dinner, and while one
40. 'While one offers oblations in the fire, while one dines,
bestows gifts, offers (food to deities or Gurus), and accepts
presents, (the right hand) must be placed between the knees.'
41. 'The revealed texts declare, that the creatures depend
on food, food is life; therefore gifts of food must be made.
Food is the most excellent of sacrificial viands.'
42. 'Sin is removed by burnt offerings, burnt oblations are
surpassed by (gifts of) food, and gifts of food by kind speeches.
That (is declared) to us in the revealed texts.'
6. 'I.e. he shall take up as much food only as he can swallow
at one mouthful.'--Govinda.
The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., including K., add madhu, 'honey,'
This and the following six Sûtras are left out in M. and the
two copies of the commentary. If they have, nevertheless, been
received. into the text, the reason is that similar rules occur
in all Dharmasûtras, and that Sûtra 3 begins with astamite,
while astamaye occurs in Sûtra 10. It seems therefore probable
that the writer of the MS. from which M. and Govinda's copies
are derived, skipped over a line by mistake.
Vasishtha XII, 34-38.
Vishnu LXXI, 40.
Vasishtha XII, 39.
Vasishtha XII, 10.
Vasishtha XII, 32-33.
Govinda explains prakîlaka by 'a piece of wood fastened at the
town gate.' Etymologically it would mean 'a strong bolt.' Possibly
the rule may be equivalent to Âpastamba I, II, 31, 23, and mean
that a Snâtaka is not to creep through the small door which
is found in all Indian town gates, and left open after the gates
have been shut.
Âpastamba I, 11, 31, 16.
Vasishtha XII, 9.
Gautama IX, 15; Manu IV, 132.
Vishnu LXXI, 62.
Gautama IX, 19.
Manu IV, 177; Vishnu LXXI, 57, 72, 74.
Manu IV, 140.
Gautama IX, 61.
Vasishtha XII, 45.
E.g. in the palace of a king, whence the attendants may drive
Vasishtha XIII, 58.
Gautama IX, 65.
Âpastamba I, 32, 21.
Vasishtha XI, 1-2. A Rishi is, according to Govinda, a man who
knows not only the text of the Mantras, but also their sense.
But Baudhâyana, Grihya-sûtra I, 11, 4, says that a man who knows,
besides the Sâkhâ and its Aṅgas, the Kalpa also, is called
Rishikalpa, i.e. one almost a Rishi. See also Âpastamba I, 2,
5, 3. A learned man (vidvas) is probably a student who has finished
not only his vow, but learned the Veda, a so-called vidyâsnâtaka,
Âpastamba I, 11, 30, 3. Regarding the arghya or madhuparka,
the honey-mixture, see Âpastamba II, 4, 8, 7-9.
Gautama V, 27-30. I read kriyârambhe varartvigau. The
p. 245 meaning is that a bridegroom is
to receive the honey-mixture when he comes to his father-in-law's
house for his wedding, and an officiating priest when he comes
to perform a sacrifice.
Vishnu LXXI, 60. Govinda adds that the act is performed as a
See eg. Taittirîya Âranyaka VIII, 2.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 4, KANDIKÂ 7
1. Now, therefore, we will declare the rule for (performing)
the twilight devotions.
2. Going to a (sacred) bathing-place, he shall bathe, in
case he is impure; in case he is pure, he may, optionally, omit
the bath. (But in either case) he shall wash his feet and hands.
Sipping water and sprinkling himself, while he recites the (Rik-verses)
containing the word Surabhi, the Abliṅgas, those addressed
to Varuna, the Hiranyavarnas, the Pâvamânîs, the (sacred syllables
called) Vyâhritis, and other purificatory (texts), he becomes
pure (and fit to perform the twilight devotions).
3. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Submersion
in water (and) bathing are prescribed for all the (four) castes.
But sprinkling (water over the body), while Mantras (are being
recited), is the particular (duty) of the twice-born.'
4. He who sprinkles himself (with water) at the beginning
of any sacred rite,--before the time of the twilight devotions,--while
reciting that same collection of purificatory (texts), becomes
5. Now they quote also (the following rules): Seated, with
his face to the west, on Darbha grass and holding Darbha blades
in his (right) hand, which
5 is filled with water, he shall repeat
the Sâvitrî one thousand times;
6. Or (he may recite the verse) one hundred times, suppressing
his breath; 6
7. Or mentally ten times, adding the syllable Om at the beginning
and at the end and the seven Vyâhritis.
8. And if he is tired by three suppressions of his breath
(performed) with (the recitation of) the (Anuvâka called) Brahmahridaya
(the heart of Brahman, then let him repeat the Sâvitrî).
9. In the evening he worships (the sun) with the two (verses)
addressed to Varuna, 'Hear this my call, O Varuna,' and 'Therefore
I go to thee.' 9
10. The same (rules apply to the twilight devotion) in the
morning, (but the worshipper) shall face the east and stand
11. In the day-time he worships (the sun) with the two (verses)
addressed to Mitra, 'The glory of Mitra, who supports men,'
and 'Mitra causes men to join.'
12. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the
12 morning very early,
and finish it when the sun has risen.
13. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the evening,
when (the sun) has set, (and finish it) very soon after (the
appearance of the stars);
14. And the complete observance of the twilight devotions
(produces as its reward) an uninterrupted succession of days
and nights. 14
15. Now they quote with reference to this (subject) also
the following two verses, which have been proclaimed by the
Lord of created beings (Pragâpati) 'How can those twice-born
men be called Brâhmanas who do not perform their twilight devotions,
in the morning and in the evening at the proper time? At his
pleasure a righteous king may appoint those Brâhmanas who neglect
to daily perform the twilight devotions, both at morn and at
eve, to do the work of Sûdras.'
16. If the time for the (twilight devotion) is allowed to
pass in the evening, (the offender shall) fast during the night;
and if it is neglected in the morning, he shall fast during
the (next) day. 16
17. He obtains (thereby) the (same) reward as if he had remained
standing and sitting (in the twilight).
18. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Whatever
sin (a man) may have committed with his organ, with his feet,
with his arms, by thoughts or by speech, from (all) that he
is freed by performing the twilight devotion in the evening.'
19. (The worshipper) becomes also connected (thereby) with
the (next) night, and Varuna will not seize him.
20. In like manner he becomes free from the sin committed
during the night by worshipping in the morning.
21. He is also connected with the (next) day, Mitra protects
him and Âditya leads him up to heaven.
22. It is declared in the Veda, 'A Brâhmana who in this same
manner daily worships in the twilight, both at morn and at eve
and, being sanctified by the Brahman, becoming one with the
Brahman, and resplendent through the Brahman, follows the rules
of the Sâstra, gains the heaven of Brahman.'
7. 'A sacred bathing-place, i.e. a river or pond outside the
village.'--Govinda. The same author adds that the hands must
be washed as far as the wrist, that while sipping water the
worshipper is to repeat in the evening, Taittirîya Âranyaka
X, 31, and in the morning X, 32, and that if he bathes, Taittirîya
Âranyaka X, 1, 12, and other texts must be recited. The Rik
containing the word Surabhi is found Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 5,
11, 4, 7; the three Abliṅgas, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1,
11; the four verses addressed to Varuna, Taittirîya Samhitâ
III, 4, 11, 4, and Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 4, 4. By the term
Pâvamânîs the Pavamânânuvâka, Taittirîya Brâhmana I, 4, 8, is
The injunction to turn the face to the west refers to the evening
prayer; see also below, Sûtra 10.
Govinda states that prânâyâmasah, 'suppressing his breath,'
has in this Sûtra no technical meaning.
Govinda says that the order to be observed in this case is as
follows: First the syllable Om is to be recited, next the seven
Vyâhritis, beginning with Bhûh and ending with Satyam, then
the Sâvitrî, and finally again the syllable Om.
The Brahmahridaya is Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 28. This Anuvâka
may be repeated three times for each Prânâyâma (see Vasishtha
XXV, 13), or altogether nine times, and, if the worshipper is
then tired, he may go on repeating the Sâvitrî without suppressing
Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 1, 11, 6.
Gautama II. 11.
Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, II, 5.
Very early, i.e. when the stars are still visible; see also
Gautama II, 11, and note.
The day and night will not be cut off from his existence.
Vasishtha XX, 4-5.
Vasishtha XXVI, 2.
Vasishtha XXVI, 3.
Brahman means here the Veda, the Sâvitrî, and the universal
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 8
1. Now, after washing his hands, he shall take his waterpot
and a clod of earth, go to a (sacred) bathing-place and thrice
clean his feet (with earth and water) and thrice his body.
2. Now some say, 'One must not enter a burial-ground, water,
a temple, a cowpen, nor a place where Brâhmanas (sit) without
having cleaned one's feet.'
3. Then he enters the water, (reciting the following verse):
'I take refuge with gold-horned Varuna, give me at my request
(O Varuna) a purifying bathing-place. May Indra, Varuna, Brihaspati,
and Savitri again and again cleanse me from all sin which I
have committed by eating the food of unholy men, by receiving
gifts from the wicked, and from all evil which I have done by
thoughts, speeches, or deeds.'
4. Then he takes up water in his joined hands, (saying),
'May the waters and the herbs be propitious to us.'
5. (Next) he pours (the water) out in that direction in which
an enemy of his dwells, (saying), 'May they work woe to him
who hates us and whom we hate.'
6. Then he sips water, and thrice makes the water eddy around
himself turning from the left to the right (and saying), 'May
that which is hurtful, which is impure, and which is inauspicious
in the water be removed.'
7. After having submerged himself and having emerged from
the water, 7
8. (Acts of) personal purification, washing the clothes by
beating them on a stone and sipping
water are not (permitted to the worshipper) as long as he
is in the water.
9. If (the water used for bathing) has been (taken from a)
confined (place, such as a well), he worships it with the following
(Mantra): 'Adoration to Agni, the lord of the waters; adoration
to Indra; adoration to Varuna; adoration to Vârunî; adoration
to the waters.' 9
10. After having ascended the bank and having sipped water,
let him again sip water, though he has done so before, (and
recite the following Mantras) 'May water purify the earth, may
the purified earth purify me, may Brahmanaspati (and) Brahman
purify, may the purified (earth) purify me. May water purify
me, (taking away) all (the guilt which I incurred by eating)
remnants of food, and forbidden food, (by committing) evil deeds,
(by) receiving gifts from wicked men, Svâhâ!'
11. Making two Pavitras he rubs (his body) with water. Having
rubbed himself, (reciting the) three (verses), 'Ye waters are,' &c.,
the four (verses), 'The golden-coloured, pure, purifying,' &c.,
(and) the Anuvâka, 'He who purifies,' &c., he performs,
stepping back into the water, three Prânâyâmas with the Aghamarshana
(hymn); then he ascends the bank, squeezes (the water) out of
his dress, puts on garments which have been washed and dried
in the air and which are not the worse for wear, sips water,
sits down on Darbha grass, and, holding Darbha grass (in
his hands), recites, facing the east, the Gâyatrî one thousand
times, (or) one hundred times, or any number of times, or at
least twelve times.
12. Then he worships the sun (reciting the following Mantras):
'Out of darkness we,' &c., 'Up that bright,' &c., That
eye which is beneficial to the gods,' &c., (and) 'He who
rose,' &c. 12
13. Now they quote also (the following maxim): 'The syllable
Om,, the Vyâhritis, and the Sâvitrî, these five Veda-offerings
daily cleanse the Brâhmana from guilt.'
14. Being purified by the five Veda-offerings, he next satiates
the gods (with water, saying),
8. Vishnu LXIV, 18. This Adhyâya contains the rules for bathing,
and the subject is introduced, as Govinda observes, because
in the preceding chapter II, 4, 7, 2, it has been said that
an impure person must bathe before he performs the twilight
devotions. Govinda also states that the word ka, 'and,' which
stands after mritpindam, 'a clod,' indicates that gomaya, 'cowdung,'
must also be employed.
The verse is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12,
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 11.
Taittirîya Âranyaka, loc. cit. This and the following Sutras,
down to II, 6, 11, 15, are wanting in the Gugarât and Dekhan
MSS. except in K.
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 13.
Govinda points out that the completion of this Sûtra is to be
found in Sûtra to. He adds that Baudhâyana inserted Sutras 8-9
in the middle, because he was afraid to forget the rules contained
Vishnu LXIV, 10, 11.
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12.
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 23. Govinda says that the rule is intended
to indicate also that a person who recites sacred texts while
sipping water, must do so only after having taken water once
before. K. inserts before this Mantra, also Anuvâka 22.
Vishnu LXIV, 13-14; 18-19. The Vedic passages intended
p. 252 are found Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 1,
5, r; V, 6, 1, r; and Taitt. Brâhmana I, 4, 8. Pavitras, i.e.
blades of Kusa grass. 'He performs three Prânâyâmas with the
Aghamarshana hymn (Rig-veda X, 190),' i.e. he thrice suppresses
his breath (prânâyâma) and recites during each suppression the
Aghamarshana three times, just as on other occasions the Gâyatrî
is recited three times.
The first Mantra is found Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 1, 7, 4; the third
and the fourth Taitt. Âranyaka IV, 42, 32-33.
Vishnu XLIV, 24. The ceremony is the so-called Tarpana, which
is usually described in the Grihya-sûtras, e.g. Sâṅkhâyana
IV, 9-10, and the quotations in Professor Oldenberg's notes,
Indische Studien XV, 152.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 9
1. 'I satiate the deities of the eastern gate, Agni, Pragâpati,
Soma, Rudra, Aditi, Brihaspati, together with the lunar mansions,
with the planets, with the days and nights, and with the Muhûrtas;
Om, I also satiate the Vasus;
2. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the southern gate, the Pitris,
Yama, Bhaga, Savitri, Tvashtri, Vâyu, Indrâgnî, together with
the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the days and nights,
and with the Muhûrtas; Om, I also satiate the Rudras.
3. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the western gate, Mitra,
Indra, the Mahâpitris, the Waters, all the gods, Brahman, Vishnu,
together with the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the
days and nights, and with the Muhûrtas; Om, I also satiate the
4. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the northern gate, the Vasus,
Varuna, Aga-ekapâd, Ahibudhnya, Ushas, the two Asvins, Yama,
together with . . . . . .
5. 'Om, I satiate all the gods; the Sâdhyas; Brahman; Pragâpati;
the four-faced god; Hiranyagarbha; Svayambhû; the male attendants
of Brahman; Parameshthin; the female attendants of Brahman;
Agni; Vâyu; Varuna; Sûrya; the moon; the lunar mansions; Sadyogâta;
Bhûh-purusha; Bhuvah-purusha; Suvah-purusha; Bhûh; Bhuvah; Suvah;
Mahah; Ganah; Tapah; Satya.
6. 'Om, I satiate the god Bhava; Sarva; Îsâna; Pasupati;
Rudra; Ugra; Bhîmadeva; Mahâdeva; the wife of the god Bhava;
of the god Sarva; of the god Îsâna; of the god Pasupati; of
the god Rudra; of the god Ugra; of Bhîmadeva; of Mahâdeva; the
son of Bhava; of Sarva; of Îsâna; of Pasupati; of
Rudra; of Ugra; of Bhîmadeva; of Mahâdeva; Om, I also satiate
the Rudras, the attendants of Rudra.
7. 'Om, I satiate Vighna; Vinâyaka; Vîra; Sthûla; Varada;
Hastimukha; Vakratunda; Ekadanta; Lambodara; the male attendants
of Vighna; the female attendants of Vighna.
8. 'Om, I satiate Sanatkumâra; Skanda; Indra; Shashthî; Shanmukha;
Visâkha; Mahâsena; Subrahmanya; the male attendants of Skanda;
the female attendants of Skanda.
9. 'Om, I satiate Âditya; Soma; Aṅgâraka; Budha; Brihaspati;
Sukra; Sanaiskara; Râhu; Ketu.
To. 'Om, I satiate Kesava; Nârâyana; Mâdhava; Govinda; Vishnu;
Madhusûdana; Trivikrama; Vâmana; Srîdhara; Hrishîkesa; Padmanâbha;
Dâmodara; the goddess Srî; the goddess Sarasvatî; Pushti; Tushti;
Vishnu; Garutmat; the male attendants of Vishnu; the female
attendants of Vishnu.
11. 'Om, I satiate Yama; Yamarâga; Dharma; Dharmarâga; Kâla;
Nîla; Mrityu; Mrityuñgaya; Vaivasvata; Kitragupta; Audumbara;
the male attendants of Vaivasvata; the female attendants of
12. 'Om, I satiate the gods of the earth; Kâsyapa; Antariksha;
Vidyâ; Dhanvantari; the male attendants of Dhanvantari; the
female attendants of Dhanvantari.'
13. Next, passing the sacrificial thread round the neck,
(he offers the following libations):
14. 'Om, I satiate the Rishis; the great Rishis; the best
Rishis; the Brahmarshis; the divine Rishis; the royal Rishis;
the Srutarshis; the Seven Rishis; the Rishis of the Kândas (of
the Yagur-veda); the Rishikas; the wives of the Rishis; the
sons of the Rishis; Kanva Baudhâyana; Âpastamba, the author
of the Sûtra; Satyâshâdha Hiranyakesin; Vâgasaneyin Yâgñavalkya;
Âsvalâyana Saunaka; Vyâsa; the syllable Om; the Vyâhritis; the
Sâvitrî; the Gâyatrî; the Khandas; the Rig-vela; the Yagur-veda;
the Sâma-veda; the Atharvâṅgirasa; the Itihâsa and Purâna;
all the Vedas; the servants of all gods; all beings.'
15. Then, passing the sacrificial string over the right shoulder,
(he offers the following libations):
9. This and the next Kandikâs are given in full by K. only.
M. gives the first and last words of both, the commentary the
p. 253 beginning of 9 and the end of 10
only. The text of K. is probably interpolated, as it seems impossible
that Baudhâyana could have mentioned his successors, Âpastamba
and Satyâshâdha Hiranyakesin, whose names occur below, II, 5,
9, 14. On the other hand, it is not doubtful that the number
of Mantras must nevertheless have been very large, as the numeration
in M. shows that they filled two entire Kandikâs.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 10
1. Om, I satiate the fathers, Svadhâ, adoration! the grandfathers;
the great-grandfathers; the mothers; the grandmothers; the great-grandmothers;
the maternal grandfathers; the maternal grandmother; the mother's
grandmother; the mother's great-grandmother.
2. 'Om, I satiate the teacher (âkârya), Svadhâ, adoration!
the wife of the teacher; the friends; the wives of the friends;
the relatives; the wives of the relatives; the inmates of the
house (amâtya); the wives of the inmates of the house; all;
the wives of all.'
3. He pours the water out from the several Tîrthas (of the
hand sacred to the several deities).
4. (He recites at the end of the rite the following
Mantra): '(Ye waters), who bring food, ambrosia, clarified
butter, milk, and barley-gruel, are food for the manes; satiate
my ancestors! May you be satiated, may you be satiated!'
5. Let him not perform ceremonies in honour of the gods while
his clothes are wet, or while he is dressed in one garment only,.
6. Nor those connected with the manes. That is the opinion)
of some (teachers).
I.e. the water must be poured out in accordance with the rule
Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ II, 34. The translation of the Mantra follows
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 6, KANDIKÂ 11
1. Now these five great sacrifices, which are also called
the great sacrificial sessions, are the sacrifice to be offered
to the gods, the sacrifice to be offered to the manes, the sacrifice
to be offered to all beings, the sacrifice to be offered to
men, (and) the sacrifice to be offered to Brahman,
2. Let him daily offer (something to the gods with the exclamation)
Svâhâ, be it only a piece of fuel. Thereby he performs that
sacrifice to the gods.
3. Let him daily offer (something to the manes with the exclamation)
Svadhâ, be it only a vessel filled with water. Thereby he performs
that sacrifice to the manes.
4. Let him daily pay reverence to (all beings) endowed with
life. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the beings.
5. Let him daily give food to Brâhmanas, be it only roots,
fruit, or vegetables. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to
6. Let him daily recite the Veda privately, be it only the
syllable Om or the Vyâhritis. Thereby he performs that sacrifice
to be offered to Brahman.
7. 'The private recitation of the Veda is, indeed, the sacrifice
to Brahman. At that sacrifice to Brahman speech, forsooth, (takes
the place of) the Guhû, the internal organ (that of) the Upabhrit,
the eye (that of) the Dhruvâ, the understanding (that of) the
Sruva, truth (that of) the final bath, heaven (is) the conclusion
of the sacrifice. He who, knowing this, daily recites the Veda
to himself, gains as much heavenly bliss as, and more than,
he who gives away this whole earth that is filled with wealth,
and imperishable (beatitude), and conquers death. Therefore
the Veda should be recited in private. Thus speaks the Brâhmana.'
8. Now they quote also (the following passage): 'If, well
anointed, well fed, and lying on a comfortable couch, one recites
(the portion of the Veda referring to) any sacrifice, one has
offered it thereby.'
9. Some (teachers) declare (that there is a text) which teaches
a fourfold division of these sacred duties. (But) as no (other
meaning is) perceptible, (the text) 'Four paths,' &c., refers
to sacrificial rites.
10. (Viz.) to Ishtis, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices,
11. The following (Rik) declares that, 'Four paths, leading
to the world of. the gods, go severally from the earth to heaven.
All ye gods, place us on that among them which will gain us
12. The student, the householder, the hermit in the woods,
the ascetic (constitute the four orders).
13. A student (shall) obey his teacher until death.
14. A hermit is he who regulates his conduct entirely according
to the Institutes proclaimed by Vikhanas.
15. A Vaikhânasa (shall live) in the forest, subsisting on
roots and fruit, practising austerities and bathing at morn,
noon, and eve; he shall kindle a fire according to the Srâmanaka
(rule); he shall eat wild-growing (vegetables and grain) only;
he shall worship gods, manes, Bhûtas, men, and Rishis; he shall
receive hospitably (men of) all (castes) except those (with
whom intercourse is) forbidden; he may even use the flesh of
animals killed by carnivorous beasts; he shall not step on ploughed
(land); and he shall not enter a village; he shall wear his
hair in braids, and dress in (garments made of) bark or skins;
he shall not eat anything that has been hoarded for more than
a year. 15
16. An ascetic shall leave his relatives and, not attended
by any one nor procuring any property, depart (from his house
performing the customary ceremony) according to the rule.
17. He shall go into the forest (and live there).
18. He shall shave his hair excepting the top-lock.
19. He shall wear a cloth to cover his nakedness.
20. He shall reside in one place during the rainy season.
21. He shall wear a dress dyed yellowish-red.
22. He shall go to beg when the pestle lies motionless, when
the embers have been extinguished, and when the cleaning of
the dishes has been finished.
23. With the three means of punishment, (viz.) words, thoughts,
and acts, he shall not injure created beings.
24. He shall carry a cloth for straining water for the sake
of purification. 24
25. He shall perform the necessary purifications with water
which has been taken out (of a well or tank) and has been strained.
26. (Ascetics shall) say, 'Renouncing the works taught in
the Veda, cut off from both (worlds), we attach ourselves to
the central sphere (Brahman).'
27. But the venerable teacher (declares) that there is one
order only, because the others do not beget offspring.
28. With reference to this matter they quote also (the following
passage): 'There was, forsooth, an Âsura, Kapila by name, the
son of Prahlâda. Striving with the gods, he made these divisions.
A wise man should not take heed of them.'
29. Because no (other meaning is) perceptible, (the text)
'Four paths,' &c., refers to sacrificial rites, (viz.) to
Ishtis, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices, Darvîhomas.
30. With respect to this (question the following verse also)
is quoted: 'That eternal greatness of the Brâhmana is neither
increased by works, nor diminished. The soul knows the nature
of that (greatness); knowing that, he is not stained by evil
31. If he says that, (let him reflect on the following verse):
'He who knows not the Veda, does not at death think of that
great, all-perceiving soul, through which the sun, resplendent
with brilliancy, gives warmth, and the father has a father through
the son at his birth from the womb.'
32. (Moreover), 'Those who, being neither true Brâhmanas
nor performers of Soma sacrifices, work not for that which is
near, nor for that which is far, take hold of the word and with
sinful (speech) ignorantly perform the rites.'
33. There are innumerable (passages in the Veda) which refer
to the debts (to be paid by a Brâhmana), such as, 'May I obtain,
O Agni, immortality 33
through offspring;' 'A Brâhmana on being born, (owes) a son
to his ancestors,' &c.
34. 'Those dwell with us, who fulfil the following (duties),
the study of the three Vedas, the studentship, the procreation
of offspring, faith, austerity, sacrificing, and giving gifts;
he who praises other (duties) becomes dust and perishes.'
11. This and the next four Sûtras agree almost literally with
Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 1. See also Taitt. Âranyaka II,
10; Âpastamba I, 4, 12, 15-13, 1.
Govinda says that the Mantra is to be 'bhûtebhyo namah, adoration
to all beings,' and adds that some consider the first three
p. 257 Mahâyagñas to be performed by the
Vaisvadeva and the Bali-offering, while others enjoin their
Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, z. See also Taitt. Âranyaka II,
17. K. reads dhritir dhruvâ, 'the firm resolve (takes the place
of) the Dhruvâ,' which is apparently a correction made according
to the Âranyaka. According to the commentary the text of the
last portion of the quotation runs thus, 'yâvantam ha vâ imâm
vittasya purnâm dadat svargam lokam gayati tâvantam lokam gayati
bhûyâmsam kâkshayyam kâpa mrityum gayati ya evam vidvân,' &c.
M. and K. do not give the whole passage. The published text
of the Satapatha-brâhmana slightly differs from Govinda's version.
Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 7, 3-4.
I read the text as follows, 'tasya ha vâ etasya dharmasya katurdhâ
bhedam eka âhuh.' M. has bhedakam, the I. O. copy of the commentary
bhedasaṅkâm, and K. tasya ha vâ etasya yagñasyâkaturdhâ
bhûtam eka âhuh. Below in the commentary on Sûtra 27, Govinda
repeats the latter part of this Sûtra in the form which I have
adopted. The discussion which begins here is the same as that
which occurs Âpastamba II, 9, 23, 3-24, 15.
Taittirîya Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 3.
K. omits this Sûtra. After it M. and K. have the following passage:
'brahmakârino ’tyantam âtmânam upasamgrihya ’kâryân bruvate
vane srâmyantyeke [yâmtyete, K.] savaneshvapa upasprisanto vanyenânnenaikâgnim
[nyenânnena naikâgnim, K.; vânyenaikânañ, M.] guhvânâh [guhvâs,
M.] satyasyaike karmâni [karmani, M.] anagnayo ’niketanâh [tvâh
kam, K.] kaupînâkkhâdanâ varshâsv ekasthâ uddhritaparipûtâbhir
adbhih kâryam [apakâryam, M.] kurvânâh [kurvânâs tatrodâharanti,
K.] sannamusale vyaṅgâre nivrittasarâvasampâte bhikshantah
sarvatah parimoksham [parimeke, M.] apavidhya vaidikâni karmâny
abhayatah parikkhinnâ madhyamam padam upaslishyâmaha iti vadanto,'
The commentary gives a few portions of this passage further
on. Irrespective of minor corruptions, it gives no sense in
the place where it stands, and it seems probable that we have
to deal with a confused and badly corrupted text, which Govinda
arranged either as seemed good to him, or on the authority of
This passage, which Govinda gives as one Sûtra, agrees word
for word with Gautama III, 26-35, except in the beginning, where
Gautama omits 'bathing at morn, noon, and eve.' The MSS. all
read bhaiksham, 'begged food,' instead of baishkam, 'the flesh
of animals slain by carnivorous beasts.' But Govinda's explanation
leaves no doubt as to the correctness of the latter reading.
The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., including K., read agrâmyabhogî
I adopt the readings of the Dekhan MSS., aparigrahah (for apratigrahah)
and pravraget (for parivraget). The rule for the ceremony is
given below, II, 10, 17.
This is Govinda's explanation of sikhâmundah, the reading of
and 22. These two Sûtras are omitted in K. and M., which give
them in the passage following Sûtra 12, as well as in the Dekhan
and Gugarât MSS.
See below, II, 10, 17, 11. Govinda explains pavitra, 'a cloth
for straining water,' by 'a bunch of Kusa grass for removing
insects from the road.'
According to Govinda such water is to be used for washing off
the stains of urine &c., not for drinking.
This Sûtra is again omitted in the MSS, of the text. M. and
K. give it in the passage following Sûtra 12.
Gautama III, 36.
Taitt. Brâhmana III, 12, 9, 7.
Rig-veda X, 71, 9. My rendering of the difficult verse is merely
tentative, and I have left out the word sirîh, for which I am
as little able as other Sanskritists to offer a safe explanation,
The general meaning of the verse, I think, has been rightly
understood by Sâyana and Govinda, who both say that it contains
a reproach, addressed to those Brâhmanas who, contented with
the letter of the Veda, do not master its meaning.
The commentary omits these two Sûtras, which, however, seem
necessary for the completion of the discussion. The
p. 262 second occurs also Âpastamba II,
9, 24, 8. Though Baudhâyana does not express himself as clearly
as Âpastamba, he disapproves, as it would seem, like the latter,
of the opinion of those who gave an undue preference to asceticism
at the expense of married life, the order of the householders.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 7, KANDIKÂ 12
1. Now we will explain the oblations (offered) to the vital
air (prâna) by Sâlînas (householders) and Yâyâvaras (vagrants),
who sacrifice to the soul.
2. At the end of all the necessary (daily rites), let him
sit down, facing the east, in a place that has been well cleaned
and smeared with cowdung; next let him worship that prepared
(food) which is being brought. (saying), 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah,
Om,' (and then) remain silent.
3. (Next) he pours water round the food which has been placed
(before him), turning his right hand towards it, and reciting
the Mahâvyâhritis; (afterwards), continuing to hold (the dish)
with his left hand, he first drinks water, (saying), 'Thou art
a substratum for ambrosia,' and (finally) offers five oblations
of food to the vital airs, (reciting the
texts), 'Full of reverence, I offer ambrosia to Prâna; mayest
thou propitiously enter me, not in order to burn me. To Prâna,
4. After offering the five oblations of food to the vital
airs, let him finish his meal silently. Meditating in his heart
on the lord of created beings, let him not emit speech while
5. If he emits speech, he shall mutter 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah,
Om,' and afterwards continue to eat.
6. Now they quote also (the following rule): 'If he sees
(bits of) skin, hair, nail-(parings), insects, or the dung of
rats (in his food), 'he shall take out a lump, sprinkle that
spot with water, scatter ashes on it, again sprinkle it with
water, and use (the remainder of the food), after it has been
declared fit (for use).'
7. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He shall eat,
seated with his face towards the east, silent, not despising
his food, not scattering (fragments on the ground), and solely
attend (to his dinner); and, after he has eaten, he shall touch
8. He shall not cut off with his teeth (pieces from) eatables
(that must be swallowed) entire, (such as) cakes, bulbs, roots,
fruit, and flesh.
9. (Let him) not (eat) to repletion.
10. After (dinner) he shall drink water, (reciting the text),
'Thou art 'a covering for ambrosia,' and stroke (the region
of) the heart, (saying), 'Thou art the bond that connects the
vital airs; (thou art)
[paragraph continues] Rudra and Death; enter me; mayest
thou grow through this food.'
11. After sipping water a second time, he allows (the drops
from) the hand to flow on the big toe of his right foot (and
recites the following text): 'May the male be pleased, he who
is of the size of a thumb, who occupies (a space of the size
of) a thumb, who is the lord of the whole world, masterful,
and the enjoyer of the universe.'
12. Let him perform the subsequent consecration (anumantrana)
of the (food which has been) offered, with raised arms, (and
let him recite) the five (texts beginning), 'With faith, worshipping
Prâna, (I have) offered ambrosia; mayest thou increase Prâna
through this food,' 12
13. (And let him address the soul with the last text of the
Anuvâka), '(May) my soul (gain) immortality in the universal
14. And let him (meditate on his) soul (as) united with the
imperishable (syllable Om).
15. He who sacrifices to the soul, surpasses him who offers
12. The Prânâgnihotra is alluded to by Âpastamba II, 7, 17,
16, Regarding the terms Sâlîna and Yâyâvara, see below, III,
The Mahâvyâhritis are the Mantras given Taittirîya Âranyaka
X. 2. The second Mantra is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 32,
and p. 263 the third ibid. X, 34. The translation
of the Mantras follows Govinda, who somewhat differs from Sâyana.
Vasishtha XIV, 23.
Vishnu LXVIII, 40-43.
Vishnu LXVIII, 47.
The first text is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 35, and the second
ibid. X, 37. I translate the first according to Govinda.
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 38. The individual soul which re-sides,
in the heart is here identified with the universal soul; see
also Kâthaka Upanishad IV, 12.
Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 36.
The syllable Om is Brahman, the universal soul.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 7, KANDIKÂ 13
1. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'As cotton
and reeds, thrown into a fire, blaze up, even so all the guilt
of him who sacrifices to the soul is consumed;'
2. (Moreover), 'He who eats merely (in order to satisfy his
own hunger) reaps only guilt. In vain (the fool) takes food.'
3. Let him daily, both in the morning and in the evening,
sacrifice in this manner;
4, Or (he may offer) water in the evening.
5. Now they quote also (the following verses): Let him first
feed his guests, next the pregnant women, then the infants and
the aged, thereafter the distressed and particularly the diseased.
But he who eats first, without having given (food) to those
(persons) according to the rule, does not know that he is being
eaten. He does not eat, (but) he is eaten.'
6. 'Let him eat silently what remains, (after he has given
their portions) to the manes, the gods, the servants, his parents,
and his Gurus; that is declared to be the rule of the sacred
7. Nov they quote also (the following verses): Eight mouthfuls
are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit in the
woods, thirty-two that of a householder, and an unlimited (quantity)
that of a student.'
8. 'An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and, a student, those three
can do their work only if they eat (much); without eating (much)
they cannot do it.'
9. 'A householder, or a student who practises
austerity by fasting, becomes an Avakîrnin through the omission
of the sacrifice to the vital airs;'
10. Except when he performs a penance. In the case of a penance
that (fasting) is the rule.
11. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He who never
eats between the morning and the evening meals, (obtains the
same reward as he who) constantly fasts.'
12. 'As in case one obtains no materials (for the sacrifice),
one must mutter the sacred texts to be recited at the Agnihotra,
offered in the three fires, even so one should mutter the texts
to be recited at the Prânâgnihotra, when one is prevented from
13. 'He who acts thus, will become one with Brahman.' Thus
spake Pragâpati (the lord of created beings).
13. Rig-veda X, 117, 6, and Taittirîya Brâhmana II, 8, 8, 3.
The words have been transposed.
Vasishtha XI, 6-8; Manu III, 114-115. I write, with the Dekhan
and Gugarât MSS., na sa bhuṅkte, sa bhugyate, instead
of the senseless reading of M. and the commentary, na sa bhuṅkte
Vasishtha XI, 11. 7-8. Âpastamba II, 4, 9, 13.
Âpastamba II, 4, 9, 12, and note on II, 1, 1, 2.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 8, KANDIKÂ 14
1. The offering to the manes secures long life and heaven,
is worthy of praise and a rite ensuring prosperity.
2. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Trimadhu, a Trinâkiketa,
a Trisuparna, one who keeps five fires, and one who knows the
six Aṅgas, one who performs the vow called Siras, one
who knows the Gyeshthasâman, (and) a Snâtaka;
3. On failure of these, one who knows the (texts called)
4. The Rik-verses, the Yagus-formulas, and the Sâmans (give)
lustre to a funeral offering. Therefore he may feed (on that
occasion) even a Sapinda relation who (knows) those (texts).
5. Let him who feeds (Brâhmanas at a funeral sacrifice) cause
them to hear successively the Rakshoghna Sâmans, the Yagus-formulas
(called) Svadhâvat, the Rik-verses (called) Madhu, and the (texts
called) Pavitras. 5
6. Having invited on the day before (the Srâddha), or just
in the morning, virtuous, pure (men), such as Trimadhus, who
know the Vedâṅgas and the sacred texts, who are not related
by marriage, nor members of the same family, nor connected through
the Veda, at least three, (but always) an odd number, the (sacrificer)
makes them sit down on prepared seats, covered with Darbha grass,
facing the east or the north.
7. Then he offers to them water mixed with sesamum seed,
adorns them with scents and garlands (and says), 'I wish to
offer oblations in the fire.'
When he has received permission (to do so), he heaps fuel
on the sacred fire, scatters Kusa grass around it, performs
(all the ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, and offers
three burnt oblations of food only, (reciting the following
texts): 'To Soma, accompanied by the manes, Svâhâ!' 'To Yama,
accompanied by the Angiras and by the manes, Svâhâ!' 'To Agni,
who carries the offerings to the manes, who causes sacrifices
to be well performed, Svâhâ!'
8. He shall make these three oblations with food only which
has been sprinkled with the remainder of the (clarified butter).
9. Let him give a cake of food to the birds.
10. For it is declared in the Veda, 'The manes roam about
in the shape of birds.'
11. Next he touches the (other food) with his hand and with
12. (And recites the following texts): 'Fire sees thee, who
art co-extensive with the earth, the Rik-verses are thy greatness,
lest the gift be in vain; the earth is the vessel for thee,
the sky the cover; I offer thee in the mouth of Brahman, I offer
thee in the Prâna and the Apâna of learned Brâhmanas; thou art
imperishable, mayest thou never fail to (the manes of our) fathers
yonder, in the other world.' 'Air hears thee, who art co-extensive
with the middle sphere,
the Yagus-formulas are thy greatness, lest the gift be in
vain; the earth is the vessel for thee, the sky the cover; .
. . mayest thou never fail to the (manes of our) grandfathers
yonder, in the other world.' 'The sun reveals thee, who art
co-extensive with the sky, the Sâmans are thy greatness, lest
the gift be in vain; . . . . mayest thou never fail to the (manes
of our) great-grandfathers yonder, in the other world.'
14. Âpastamba II, 7, 16, 1-2.
Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 22; Vasishtha III, 19. Govinda states that
the Atharvavedins know the vow called Siras; see also Vasishtha
XXVI, 12, and note.
Govinda says that persons acquainted with the Rahasyas or
p. 267 Âranyakas are preferable to those
mentioned in the preceding Sûtra, and thus the order must be
Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 5.
The texts on which the Rakshoghna Sâmans are based occur Sâma-veda
I, 1, 1, 3, 4--6; the Svadhâvat Yagus, Taitt. Brâhmana I, 3,
10, 2; the Madhu Rikas, Rig-veda I, 90, 6; and the three Pavitras,
Taitt. Brâhmana I, q, 8, 2.
Âpastamba II, 7, 14, 5. All the MSS., including those of the
commentary, read yonigotramantrasambandhân instead of yonigotramantrâsambandhân.
But the explanation of gotrasambandhâh by asagotrâh shows still
a faint trace of the former existence of the reading which I
have restored conjecturally and translated. Its correctness
is proved by the parallel passage of Âpastamba.
Vishnu LXXIII, 12--13; Manu III, 208-211. The Agnimukha
p. 268 is a term denoting all the preliminaries
which precede the Pradhânahoma of a ceremony. The Dekhan and
Gugarât MSS. read âgyasya instead of annasyaiva.
Clarified butter is necessary for the rites included in the
The Mantras are addressed to the food which is to be offered.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 8, KANDIKÂ 15
1. Now indeed (that) happens (also which the following verses
2. 'Let him sprinkle that food with the remainder of the
burnt oblations. But what is given without (touching it with)
the thumb does not gladden the manes.'
3. 'The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity (to snatch
away) that food intended for the manes, which is not supported
with both hands.' 3
4. 'The Yâtudhânas and Pisâkas, who receive no share, steal
the food if sesamum grains are not scattered (on the seats of
the guests), and the Asuras (take it) if (the host) is under
the sway of anger.' 4
5. 'If a person dressed in reddish clothes mutters prayers,
offers burnt oblations, or receives gifts, the sacrificial viands,
offered at sacrifices to the gods or to the manes, do not reach
the deities.' 5
6. 'If gifts are given or received without (touching them
with) the thumb and, if one sips water standing, (the performer
of the act) is not benefited thereby.'
7. At the beginning and at the end (of a Srâddha) water must
be giver. (to the guests).
8. In every case the muttering (of sacred texts) and the
other (necessary acts must be performed) according to the rule.
9. The remaining (rules) have been prescribed (in the section)
on the burnt oblations on Ashtakâ (days).
10. 'He shall feed two (Brâhmanas) at the offering to the
gods and three at the offering to the manes, or a single man
on either occasion. Even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious
(to entertain) a large company.'
11. 'A large company destroys these five (advantages), the
respectful treatment (of the invited guests, the propriety of)
time and place, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brâhmana
(guests); therefore he shall not invite (a large number).'
12. 'In front (feed) the fathers of the (sacrificer), to
the left the grandfathers, to the right the great-grandfathers,
and at the back those who pare off (portions) from the cakes.'
15. Manu III, 215. See also above, II, 8, 14, 10.
Vasishtha XI, 25.
Vishnu LXXIII, x a; Manu III, 229.
Govinda states that the rule is intended to teach that the sacrificer
and the guests at a Srâddha must be dressed in white,
p. 270 and that ascetics are not to be
invited. But see Vasishtha XI, 17, 34.
Vishnu LXXIII, 12, 27, and above, II, 8, 14, 6.
Baudhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 17, 18.
Vasishtha XI, 27-28.
In the beginning of the verse I read with M. and the I. O. copy
of the commentary urastah pitaras tasya, and in the end with
the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. pindatakshakâh. M. reads pindatarkyâ,
and the copies of the commentary pindodakâh. Both these
p. 271 readings are clearly corrupt, and
so is the var. lect. of the Grihya-samgraha, quoted in the Petersburg
Dictionary, pindatarkukâh. Pindatakshakâh, 'the cutters or parers
of the cakes,' is appropriate, because the remoter ancestors,
who, as Govinda too declares, are meant by the term, obtain
the fragments of the funeral cakes.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 9, KANDIKÂ 16
1. (Now follows some) advice for him who is desirous of offspring.
2. The two Asvins have declared, that fame is gained by the
procreation (of sons);
3. 'Performing acts which tend to prolong life and austerities,
intent on the performance of the private recitation and of sacrifices,
and keeping his organs in subjection, let him carefully beget
offspring in his own caste.'
4. 'From his birth a Brâhmana is loaded with three debts;
these let him pay. A prudent man is free from doubts regarding
the sacred law.'
5. 'If he worships the sages through the study of the Veda,
Indra with Soma sacrifices, and the manes of his ancestors through
(the procreation of) children, he will rejoice in heaven, free
6. 'Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a grandson
he obtains immortality, but through his son's grandson he ascends
to the (highest) heaven.' (All that) has been declared in the
7. The Veda shows the existence of the three debts in the
following (passage): 'A Brâhmana is born loaded with three debts;
(he owes) the studentship to the sages, sacrifices to the gods,
and a son to the manes;'
8. Through the procreation of a virtuous son he saves himself.
9. He who obtains a virtuous son saves from the fear of sin
seven in the descending line and seven in the ascending line,
(viz.) six others (in each), himself being the seventh.
10. Therefore he obtains a reward if he begets issue.
11. Therefore he should sedulously beget offspring,
12. Through the application of medicines and sacred texts.
13. The advice to him (who is intent on the procreation of
children) is given in agreement with the revealed texts.
14. For it produces results in the case of all the castes.
Vasishtha XVII, 5.
Vasishtha XI, 48. After this Sûtra the MSS. of the text
p. 272 insert the following corrupt passage:
bandham rinamoksham pragâyâs kâyattam pitrînâm kânukarshasabdas
ka pragâyâm darsayati | anutsannah pragâvân bhavati | yâ vad
enam pragânugrihnîte tâvad akshayam lokam gayati. The commentary
does not notice it, and it seems to me that it needlessly interrupts
M. and K. add to this Sûtra, âtmanah phalalâbhâya, 'in order
to gain a reward for himself.' The same two MSS., further, insert
the following Sûtras: tasmât putram kotpâdyâtmânam evotpâdayatîti
| vigñâyate kâtmâ vai putranâmâsîti | evam dvitîya âtmâ gîvatâ
drashtavyo yah putram utpâdayati | sa tathâ bhavati | tasmân
nâtmâ kvakid akshetra utsrashtavyah | âtmânam avamanyate hi
| yathâtmânam utpâdayati sa tathâ bhavati | tasmâd âdita eva
kshetram anvikkhet sarvavarne samskritam upadesena | tasmin
dârasamyoge pragâm utpâdayed || 'Therefore (they say) that he
who begets a son produces even his own self; and it is declared
in the Veda, "Thou art self, called a son." Thus he
who begets a son will see, during his lifetime, a second self.
He becomes like him. Therefore one's own self must not be begotten
on an unworthy female. For (he who does that) despises himself.
He becomes even so, as he produces himself. Therefore (every
man), each in his own caste, should first look out for a female
who has been sanctified according to the injunction (of the
sacred texts). Taking her to be his wedded wife, he shall beget
a son.' It is possible that this passage really belongs to Baudhâyana,
for it is written in the usual style of our Sûtra, and the last
word of this passage as well as of Sûtra 11, as given in the
Dekhan MSS., is utpâdayet. But it is not absolutely required
by the context, and the commentary too omits it.
I read with M., whose reading is confirmed by the explanation
given in the commentary, tasyopadesah srutisâmânyenopadisyate.
The other MS. reads tasyopadesena, and in the text of the commentary
the first word is left out.
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 10, KANDIKÂ 17
1. Now we will explain the rule for entering the order of
2. Some (teachers say), 'He who has finished his studentship
may become an ascetic immediately on (the completion of) that.'
3. But (according to others, asceticism is befitting) for
Sâlînas and Yâyâvaras who are childless;
4. Or a widower (may become an ascetic).
5. (In general) they prescribe the profession of asceticism
after the completion of the seventieth year and after the children
have been firmly settled in (the performance of) their sacred
6. Or a hermit in the woods (may become an
ascetic) on finishing the (special) ceremonies (prescribed
7. 'That eternal greatness of the Brâhmana is neither increased
nor diminished by works. The soul knows the nature of that (greatness).
He who knows that, is not stained by evil deeds.'
8. 'It leads to the cessation of births.'
9. 'The eternal one leads (him) to glory.' The greatness
(of asceticism is declared by these passages).
10. After having caused the hair of his head, his beard,
the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, he prepares
11. Sticks, a rope, a cloth for straining water, a water
vessel, and an alms-bowl.
12. Taking these (implements, let him go) to the extremity
of the village, or to- the extremity of the boundary (of the
village), or to the house where the sacred fires are kept, partake
of a threefold (mixture of) clarified butter, milk, (and) sour
milk, and (afterwards) fast;
13. Or (he may partake of) water.
14. (Saying), 'Om, Bhûh, I enter the Sâvitrî, tat savitur
varenyam; Om, Bhuvah, I enter the Sâvitrî, bhargo devasya dhîmahi;
Om, I enter the Sâvitrî, dhiyo yo nah pr.akodayât;' (he shall
recite the Sâvitrî) foot by foot, half-verse by half-verse,
(and finish by repeating) the whole or the parts (of the verse).
15. It is declared in the Veda, 'Entering order after order,
(man) becomes (one with) Brahman.'
16. Now they quote also (the following verse) 'He who has
passed from order to order, has offered burnt oblations and
kept his organs in subjection, becomes afterwards, tired with
(giving) alms and (making) offerings, an ascetic.'
17. Such an ascetic (becomes one with) the infinite (Brahman).
18. Before the sun sets, he heaps fuel on the Gârhapatya
fire, brings the Anvâhâryapakana fire (to the spot), takes the
flaming Âhavanîya. fire out (of the Gârhapatya), melts butter
on the Gârhapatya fire, cleanses it (with Kusa grass), takes
four times (portions of it) in the sacrificial spoon (called
Sruk), and offers in the Âhavanîya fire on which sacred fuel
has been heaped, (four times) a full oblation, (saying), 'Om,
19. It is declared in the Veda that this (offering is) the
Brahmânvâdhâna (putting fuel on the sacred fires for the sake
of the universal soul).
20. Now in the evening, after the Agnihotra has been offered,
he scatters grass to the north of the Gârhapatya fire, places
the sacrificial vessels in pairs, the upper part turned downwards,
on it, strews Darbha grass to the south of the Âhavanîya fire
on the seat destined for the Brahman priest, covers it with
the skin of a black antelope, and remains awake during that
21. A Brâhmana who, knowing this, dies after fasting during
the night of Brahman and repositing within himself the sacred
fires, conquers all guilt, even (that of) killing a Brâhmana.
22. Then he rises in the muhûrta sacred to Brahman, and offers
the early Agnihotra just at the (appointed) time.
23. Next, after covering the (part of the altar called) Prishthyâ
and bringing water, he prepares (an offering) to (Agni) Vaisvânara
(which is cooked) in twelve potsherds. That (well-)known Ishti
is the last (which he performs).
24. Afterwards he throws the sacrificial vessels, which are
neither made of earth nor of stone, into the Âhavanîya fire,
25. (And) throwing the two Aranis into the Gârhapatya fire
(with the words), 'May ye be of one mind with us,' he reposits
the sacred fires in himself.
26. (Reciting the sacred text), 'O Fire, that body of thine,
which is fit for the sacrifice,' he inhales the smell of (the
smoke of) each fire thrice three times.
27. Then, standing within the sacrificial enclosure, (he
says) thrice in a low voice and thrice aloud, 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah,
Svah, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have entered the
order of ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics,'
28. It is declared in the Veda, 'The gods are trebly true.'
29. (Finally) he pours out as much water as will fill his
joined hands, (saying), 'I promise not to injure any living
30. Now they quote also (the following verse) An ascetic
who roams about after having given a promise of safety to all
living beings, is not threatened with danger by any creature.'
31. (Henceforth) he must restrain his speech.
32. He grasps his staff, (saying), '(Thou art my) friend,
33. He takes the rope, (reciting the verse), 'The brilliant
light,' &c. 33
34. He takes the cloth for straining water, (reciting the
text), 'With which means of purification the gods,' &c.
35. He takes the waterpot, (reciting the verse), Through
that light, by which the gods rose on high,' &c.
36. He takes the alms-bowl, (reciting the Vyâhritis).
37. Taking with him the staves, the rope, the
37 cloth for straining
water, the waterpot, (and) the alms-bowl, he goes where water
(is to be obtained), bathes, sips water, (and) washes himself,
(reciting the verses called) Surabhimatî, Abliṅgâs, Vârunîs,
Hiranyavarnâs, and Pâvamânîs. Entering the water, he performs
sixteen suppressions of the breath, (mentally repeating) the
Aghamarshana hymn, ascends the bank, wrings out his dress, puts
on another pure dress, sips water, takes the cloth for straining,
(saying), 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah,' and performs the Tarpana
(with the following texts), 'Om, Bhûh, I satiate,' 'Om, Bhuvah
--, Om, Svah --, Om, Mahah --, Om, Ganah --, Om, Tapah --, Om,
38. He takes up as much water as his joined hands will hold
for the manes, (and satiates them
with it) exactly in the same manner as the gods, (saying),
'Om, Bhûh Svadhâ, Om, Bhuvah Svadhâ,' &c.
39. Then he worships the sun, (reciting) the two verses (which
begin), 'Ud u tyam kitram,' &c.
40. (Saying), 'Om, this (syllable Om), forsooth, is Brahman;
this (syllable) which sheds warmth is light; this which gives
warmth is the Veda; this must be known as that which sheds warmth;'
he thus satiates the soul (and afterwards) worships the soul
(with these texts), 'The soul (is) Brahman, (is) light.'
41. Let him repeat the Sâvitrî one thousand times, or one
hundred times, or an unlimited number of times.
42. (Saying), 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Suvah,' he takes up the cloth
for straining, (and) fetches water.
43. Let him not, (at any period) after that (moment), sip
water which has not been drawn up (from a well and the like),
which has not been strained, and which has not been completely
44. Let him not wear any longer a white dress.
45. (He may carry) one staff or three staves.
17. Gautama III, 1.
Regarding the two terms Sâlîna and Yâyâvara, see below, III,
Vidhura, translated, according to Govinda's explanation, by
'widower,' perhaps includes all persons who have been separated
from their families.
Regarding the ceremonies to be performed by hermits in the wood,
see above, II, 6, 11, 15, and below, III, 3.
See above, II, 6, 11, 30.
Yâgñavalkya III, 58-60.
This part of the ceremony is called Sâvitrîpravesa, 'entering
the Sâvitrî: According to the Dharmasindhu, fol. 84 a, 1. 8,
the last Mantra is 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, I enter the Sâvitrî;
we meditate on that adorable light of divine Savitri, who may
impel our thoughts.'
Manu VI, 34.
Anvâhâryapakana is another name of the so-called Dakshinâgni,
in which the sacrificial viands are cooked. The cleansing of
the butter (utpavana) is performed by taking hold of the ends
of blades of Kusa grass and dipping the bent middle part into
the melted butter and then drawing it upwards. A full burnt
oblation (pûrnâhuti) consists of a whole spoonful. As four spoonfuls
are to be taken out, it follows that four oblations are to be
The night during which the ascetic keeps watch near the fires
is called 'the night of Brahman.'
The Aranis are the two pieces of wood used for producing fire
by friction, Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 3, 7, 1-2.
Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 18, 6.
All gifts must be confirmed by a libation of water, which ii
other cases is poured into the hand of the recipient. The ceremony
proves more clearly even than the numerous other passages of
the Smritis, in which ascetic, are exhorted to abstain from
injuring living beings, that the so-called ahimsâ doctrine is
not of Buddhistic, but of Brâhmanical origin.
Vasishtha X, 1-2.
Gautama III, 27.
Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 7, 8, 1.
Taittirîya Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 2,
The Surabhimatî occurs Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 9, 7, 5. For
the other texts named, see above, II, 4, 7, 2. The Tarpana has
been fully described above, II, 5, 9-20.
'In he same manner as the gods,' i.e. without passing the sacred
string over the right shoulder.--Govinda.
The Gugarât and Dekhan MSS., including K., place after the first
Om two additional Mantras, 'Brahman (is) Om; this universe (is)
Om.' The object of the Mantras given in the Madras MSS. is to
identify the Pranava with the Brahman, the sun, and the Veda.
Manu VI, 46. Aparipûtâbhih, 'which has not been completely cleansed,'
probably refers to the so-called drishtyâ paripavana, 'carefully
looking at it in order to see if any living being remains in
PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 10, KANDIKÂ 18
1. Now the following vows are (to be kept by an ascetic):
2. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness,
abstention from appropriating the property of others, continence,
(and) liberality. 2
3. There are five minor vows, (viz.) abstention from anger,
obedience towards the Guru, avoidance of rashness, cleanliness
and purity in eating.
4. Now (follows the rule for) begging. Let him
ask Brâhmanas, both those who have houses (sâlîna) and those
who lead a wandering life (yâyâvara), for alms, when the Vaisvadeva
offering has been finished.
5. Let him ask (for it), prefacing (his request with the
6. Let him stand begging no longer than the time required
for milking a cow.
7. When he returns from begging, he lays (the alms) down
in a pure place, washes his hands and feet, and announces (what
he obtained) to the sun, (reciting the text), 'Ud u tyam kitram,' &c.
He (also) announces it to Brahman (with the text), 'The first-born
Brahman,' &c. 7
8. It is declared in the Veda, 'After the Brahmâdhâna the
sacrificer himself (contains) the sacrificial fires. His respiration
(prâna, represents) the Gârhapatya fire, the air that goes downwards
(apâna, represents) the Anvâhâryapakana (or Dakshina) fire,
the circulation in the body (vyâna, represents) the Âhavanîya
fire, the cerebral circulation (udâna) and the abdominal circulation
(samâna, represent) the Sabhya and Âvasathya fires. These five
fires are abiding in 'the soul. He (therefore) offers (the oblations)
in the soul alone.' 8
9. 'This sacrifice, offered in the soul, which is located
in and based on the soul, leads the soul to happiness.'
10. Giving, compassionately, portions (of his food) to the
living beings, and sprinkling the remainder with water, he shall
eat it as if it were a medicine.
11. After he has eaten and sipped water, he mutters (the
texts), 'Out of darkness we,' &c., (and), My speech resides
in the mouth,' &c., and worships the sun with the (verse
12. Let him eat food, given without asking, regarding which
nothing has been settled before-hand and which has reached him
accidentally, so much only as is sufficient to sustain life.
13. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Eight mouthfuls
(make) the meal of an ascetic, sixteen (that) of a hermit in
the woods, thirty-two (that) of a householder, an unlimited
(quantity that) of a student.'
14. 'Alms (may) either (be obtained) from (men
of) the three castes, or the food (given) by a single Brâhmana
(may be eaten); or (he may obtain food) from (men of) all castes,
and not (eat) that given by a single Brâhmana.'
15. Now they quote (the following special rules) for the
case that the teachers explain (the doctrine) of the Upanishads:
'Diligently standing (in the day-time), keeping silence, sitting
(at night) with crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and
eating at the fourth, sixth, or eighth (meal-time only), he
shall subsist entirely on (rice) grains, oil-cake, food prepared
from barley, sour milk, (and) milk.'
16. It is declared in the Veda, On that (occasion) he shall
rigidly keep silence; pressing the teeth together he may converse,
without opening his mouth, as much as is necessary with teachers
deeply versed in the three Vedas (and) with ascetics possessing
a great knowledge of the scriptures, not with women, nor when
he would break (his vow).'
17. (Let him keep) only one of (the rules which enjoin) standing
(in the day-time), rigid silence, and sitting (at night) with
crossed legs; let him not keep all three together.
18. It is declared in the Veda, And he who has gone there
may eat, in times of distress, a small quantity of the food
prescribed by his vow after (having partaken of other dishes),
provided he does not break (his vow).'
19. 'Eight (things) do not cause him who is intent on standing
(in the day-time), keeping rigid silence, sitting (at night)
with crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and (eating) at
the fourth, sixth, or eighth meal-time only, to break his vow,
(viz.) water, roots, clarified butter, milk, sacrificial food,
the wish of a Brâhmana, an order of his teacher, and medicine.'
20. Let him mutter the (Mantras which must be recited at
the) Agnihotra, in the evening and in the morning,
21. After performing his evening devotions by (reciting the
verses called) Vârunîs, and his morning devotions by (reciting
the verses called) Maitrîs.
22. An ascetic shall keep no fire, have no house, no home,
and no protector. He may enter a village in order to collect
alms, and emit speech at the private recitation of the Veda.'
23. It is declared in the Veda,' Limited in number are the
Rik-verses, limited in number are the Sâmans, limited is the
answer (of the Adhvaryu priest):
24. 'Thus (an ascetic) shall not give up the Veda, (but live),
until he is liberated from the body, at the root of the tree.'
25. 'The tree (is) the Veda; the syllable Om is its root;
the syllable Om is the essence of the Veda.'
26. 'Meditating on the syllable Om, he becomes fit (to be
united with) Brahman.' Thus spake the lord of created beings.
27. Let him cleanse the vessel of Brahman with the seven