PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 1
Now, therefore, (we will speak) of those who desire (to fulfil)
the duties of Sâlînas (dwellers in houses), Yâyâvaras (wanderers),
and Kakrakaras (circle-goers), who subsist by nine (different)
means of livelihood.
2. The term livelihood' (vritti) is used because they subsist
3. The word Sâlîna (is used) because they dwell in houses
4. To be a Yâyâvara (means that one) goes on by means of
a most excellent livelihood (vrittyâ varayâ yâti).
5. The term Kakrakara is derived from going by turns (to
the houses of rich men).
6. We will explain those (above-mentioned means of livelihood)
in their proper order.
7. They are nine, (viz.) Shannivartanî, Kauddâli, Dhruvâ,
Samprakshâlanî, Samûhâ, Pâlanî, Siloñkhâ, Kapotâ, and Siddhoñkhâ.
8. (In addition) to these there is a tenth way of living,
9. (If he desires to adopt) any of the nine ways of living,
10. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on
his body, and his nails to be cut, and besides gets ready (the
11. (Viz.) the skin of a black antelope, a water-pot, a staff,
a yoke for carrying burdens, (and) a sickle.
12. He desires to go forth, after having offered a Traidhâtavîya
(offering) or a Vaisvânarî (ishti).
13. Now on the (following) morning, after the sun has risen,
he makes the sacred fires burn brightly, melts butter on the
Gârhapatya fire, cleanses it (with Kusa grass), heats the (spoons
called) Sruk and Sruva, cleans (them), takes out four (spoonfuls
of butter) in the Sruk, and offers the Vâstoshpatîya (oblation)
in the Âhavanîya fire according to (the rules of his) Sûtra.
14. Having recited the Puronuvâkyâ (verse), 'O lord of the
dwelling, permit us,' &c., he offers (the oblation) with
the Yâgyâ verse, 'O lord of the dwelling, with thy kind company,' &c.
>15. Some (declare that) every person who has kindled
the sacred fires (shall offer these Homas).
16. Others (say that) a Yâyâvara alone (shall do it).
17. After departing (from his house), he stops at the extremity
of the village, or at the extremity of the boundary of the village,
builds there a hut or a cottage, and enters that.
18. Let him use the skin of the black antelope and the other
(objects) which he has prepared for the several purposes which
they are intended to serve.
19. Known (is) the (duty of) serving the fires; known (is)
the (duty of) offering the new and full moon sacrifices; known
(is) the successive performance of the five Mahâyagñas; it is
seen that the vegetables, which have been produced, are offered.
20. He hallows those (vegetables), either (reciting the text),'
I offer what is agreeable to all the gods,' or silently, and
cooks (them). 20
21. For such (a man the duty of) teaching, sacrificing for
others, accepting gifts, and (performing) other sacrifices (than
those mentioned) ceases.
22. (The use of) sacrificial food fit to be eaten during
the performance of a vow is seen;
23. That is as follows: (his food may be) mixed with clarified
butter or sour milk, (it must) not (contain) pungent condiments
or salt, nor meat, nor (be) stale.
24: (He shall remain) chaste, or approach (his wife) in season.
25. (It is necessary) to have the hair of his head, his beard,
the hair on his body, and his nails cut on each Parva day, and
the rules of purification (are obligatory on him).
26. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Two kinds
of purification, which the Sishtas reverentially practise, are
mentioned in the Veda,--external (purification), which consists
in the removal of impure stains and foul smells, and internal
(purification), which consists in the abstention from injuring
27. 'The body is purified by water, the understanding by
knowledge, the soul of beings by abstention from injuring, (and)
the internal organ by truth.'
1. Govinda says that Kakrakara is another name for Yâyâvara,
and that anukramakarana, 'going by turns,' means going successively
to the houses of Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas.
The terms left untranslated are fully explained in the next
p. 285 chapter. All the MSS. read kauntâlî
for kauddâlî, which occurs in the commentary alone.
The vîvadha, 'a yoke for carrying burdens,' consists usually
of a bamboo pole, to the ends of which two ropes are attached
for fastening the loads. Kuthahârî, 'a sickle,' seems to be
the name of a particular kind of sickle, since Govinda explains
it by vâsavasâsanadâtram. He adds that the term includes 'a
spade' (kuddâla) and other implements.
The meaning is that on the evening before his departure from
the old home he is to offer the Traidhâtavîya-homa. According
to the Srauta-sûtras (see the Petersb. Dict. s. v. traidhâtavî)
the latter offering always occurs at the end of a great sacrifice.
Hence it is appropriate for a person who wishes to begin a new
mode of life.
This is the leave-taking from the old dwelling.
The two verses occur Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, 10, I. It is
specially mentioned by Sâyana that the two verses have to be
recited by an Agnihotrin on departing from his home.
Matha, 'a cottage,' is, according to Govinda, a house resting
on many posts or pillars, while kutî is the simple shed with
four posts and a roof of leaves.
The last clause, probably, is meant to prescribe a simpler form
of the Vaisvadeva.
Govinda adds that the meaning is that the sacrificer shall eat
the boiled rice in silence.
Govinda adds that the obligation of performing other meritorious
deeds, such as digging wells and tanks (pûrta), also ceases.
Vasishtha III, 60.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 2
1. As regards (the mode of subsistence called) Shannivartanî,
(that) is (as follows):
2. He cultivates six Nivartanas (of) fallow (land); he gives
a share to the owner (of the soil), or solicits his permission
(to keep the whole produce).
3. Let him plough before breakfast with two bulls whose noses
have not been pierced, not striking (them) with the goad, (but)
frequently coaxing (them).
4. If he cultivates six Nivartanas in this manner (and subsists
thereby), that is (the mode of living called) Shannivartanî
(subsistence on six Nivartanas).
5. (As regards the mode of subsistence called) Kauddâlî,
he digs up (the soil) near a water(-course or tank) with a spade,
a ploughshare, or a pointed piece of wood, sows seed, (and)
grows bulbs, roots, fruit, pot-herbs, and vegetables.
6. (If he thus) cultivates (land) with a spade (and lives
on its produce), that is the (mode of life called) Kauddâlî
(subsistence by the spade).
7. He who lives by the (mode of subsistence called) Dhruvâ,
wraps up his head in a white dress (saying), 'For the sake of
welfare I wrap thee up, O head,' (and) takes the skin of a black
antelope (with the words), '(Thou art) spiritual pre-eminence,
(I take thee) for the sake of spiritual pre-eminence;' the Pavitra
(reciting) the Abliṅga texts; the water-pot (saying),
'Thou art strength, (I take) thee for
7 the sake of strength;' the yoke for
carrying burdens (saying), 'Thou art grain, (I take) thee for
the sake of prosperity;' the staff (saying), '(Thou art) a friend,
8. On leaving (his hut), he mutters the Vyâhritis, and (afterwards
the verse used for) hallowing the quarters of the horizon, 'May
the earth, the middle sphere, the sky, the constellations, and
all the quarters of the horizon, fire, air, and sun, (may all
these) deities protect me on my road.'
9. Because, after muttering the Mânastokîya (text) and entering
the village, he shows himself with the yoke (on his shoulder)
at the door of each house, they call it 'showing oneself.'
10. Because, if every (other) livelihood fails, he persistently
(dhruvam) supports himself by this (mode of living), it is called
Dhruvâ (the unchangeable).
11. (As regards the mode of life called) Samprakshâlanî,
(if, in order to show that) there is no waste of the vegetable
(substances) obtained nor
11 any hoarding, he turns the dishes,
after washing them, upside down, (that is the livelihood called)
Samprakshâlanî (living by washing).
12. As to the (mode of subsistence called) Samûhâ, (if) he
sweeps up (grain) with a broom in permitted places where (grain-bearing)
plants are found, either on a road or in fields the access to
which is not obstructed (by hedges), and lives on (what he has
thus obtained), that (livelihood is called) Samûhâ (living by
13. As to the (mode of life called) Pâlanî, it is also named
Ahimsakâ (not hurting), and the following (definition) is given.
(If) he tries to obtain from virtuous men husked rice or seeds,
and maintains (himself) thereby, that (is the mode of subsistence
called) Pâlanî. 13
14. As to the (mode of life called) Siloñkhâ, (if) he gleans
single ears in permitted places where (grain-bearing) plants
grow, on a road or in fields the access to which is not obstructed,
and supports himself by (these) gleanings, (collected) from
time to time, that (is the mode of subsistence called) Siloñkhâ
15. As to the (livelihood called) Kapotâ, (if) he picks up
with two fingers single grains in permitted places, where (grain-bearing)
plants grow, either on the road or in fields the access to which
is not obstructed, that (is called), because he acts like a
pigeon, Kapotâ (pigeon-life).
16. As to (the mode of life called) Siddhoñkhâ, (if) tired
with the (other) ways of subsistence, he asks, because he has
become old or diseased, virtuous men for cooked food, that (is
the livelihood called) Siddhoñkhâ (gleaning cooked food).
17. If (he adopts) the latter, he must reposit (the sacred
fires) in his soul and behave like an ascetic, except (in using)
the cloth for straining water and (wearing) a reddish-brown
18. If he subsists on the produce of the forest, (the fruits)
of trees, creepers. and lianas, and of grasses, such as wild
millet (syâmâka) and wild sesamum, that (is called) forest-life.
19. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Moving about
with the beasts, dwelling together with them, and maintaining
oneself in a manner similar to theirs, that is clearly the road
2. A Nivartana is a measure of 4000 square hastas, the ancient
equivalent of the modern Bîghâ.
Identical with II, 2, 4, 21.
Govinda says that according to some the following ceremonies
need only be performed when one goes out begging for the first
time, while others insist on their being performed daily.
The Mânastokîya, i.e. the text beginning 'mâ nas toke,'
p. 289 occurs repeatedly in the Taittirîya-veda,
e.g. Taitt. Samhitâ III, 4, 11, 2. Govinda adds that the beggar
must remain silent, and rot stop longer at each door than the
time required for milking a cow.
Both the text and the scanty commentary on this Sûtra are corrupt.
K. reads, vritter vrittair avârtâyâm tayaiva tasya dhruvam varttayatîti
dhruveti parikîrtitâ; D. vritte vrittair avârttâthâ, &c.;
M. vritte vritter avrittâyâm avrittâyâm tathaiva tasyâh ddhrivam
varttamânâd iti, &c.; C. I. vritter vritter âvartâyâm âvartâyâm
tathaiva tasyâm dhruvam vartanâd iti, &c. The Telugu copy
omits the text. From the commentary it is clear that Govinda
read at the beginning of the Sûtra vritter vritter,' and the
Telugu copy proves that 'tayaiva' is the correct reading. I
restore the Sûtra conjecturally; as follows, vritter vritter
avârttâyâm tayaiva tasya dhruvam vartanâd it dhruveti parikîrtitâ.
1 read, samprakshâlanîti | utpannânâm oshadhînâm prakshepanam
p. 290 nâstîti nikayo vâ bhâganâni samprakshâlya
nyubgayatîti samprakshâlanî || M. has nâsti nikayo vâ, and C.
I. reads also nikayo and omits 'vâ' The Dekhan MSS. have nâstîti
kayo vâ. The description is not very clear; but it seems that
a person who lives by the Samprakshâlanî vritti must obtain
grain and vegetables by begging in such quantities as will suffice
for one meal, and prove by the way in which he treats his dishes
that he has neither wasted his food nor any store remaining.
The translation of this Satin is merely tentative, as the two
MSS. of the commentary omit the text, and contain only a fragment
of Govinda's explanation. The latter seems to have differed
from my interpretation. The text, as given by the other MSS.,
runs as follows: pâlanîty [pâli°, MSS.] ahimsakety evedam uktam
bhavati [°tîti, M.] tushavihînâms tandulân ikkhati sagganebhyo
bîgâni vâ [kâ, D.] pâlayatîti pâlanî [phâla°, phâlani, M.; pâlinô,
Govinda mentions a varia lectio not found in our MSS., kapotavatsamdamsinî,
'because he pecks like a pigeon.'
Here as well as above, III, 1, 7, the Dekhan MSS. read siddhekkhâ,'
begging cooked food,' instead of", siddhoñkhâ.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 3
1. Now the hermits in the wood belong to two classes,
2. Those who cook (their food), and those who do not cook
3. Among them, those who cook (their food are divided) into
five subdivisions, (viz.) those who eat everything which the
forest contains, those who live on unhusked (wild-growing grain),
those who eat bulbs and roots, those who eat fruit, and those
who eat pot-herbs.
4. Those who eat everything which the forest produces are,
again, of two kinds: they either subsist on forest-produce generated
by Indra, or on that which has been generated from semen.
5. Among these, that which has been generated by Indra (is
the produce) of lianas, shrubs, creepers, and trees. Fetching
(that) and cooking it, they offer the Agnihotra in the evening
and in the morning, give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students,
and eat the remainder.
6. That which is generated from semen is the flesh (of animals)
slain by tigers, wolves, falcons, and other (carnivorous beasts),
or by one of them. Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer
the Agnihotra in the evening and in the morning, give (shares)
to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the remainder.
7. Those who eat unhusked grain only, fetch rice, avoiding
(husked) corn, boil it, offer the Agnihotra both in the evening
and in the morning, give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students,
and eat the remainder.
8. Those who eat bulbs and roots, or fruit, or pot-herbs,
(act) exactly in the same manner.
9. Those (hermits) who do not cook (their food are divided
into) five (classes), Unmaggakas, Pravrittâsins, Mukhenâdâyins,
Toyâhâras, and Vâyubhakshas.
10. Among these, the Unmaggakas (collect and prepare their
food), avoiding (the use of) iron and stone implements,
11. The Pravrittâsins take it with the hand,
12. The Mukhenâdâyins take it with the mouth (only, like
13. The Toyâhâras subsist on water only,
14. And the Vâyubhakshas (air-eaters) eat nothing.
15. In this manner ten (different) initiations are prescribed
for hermits who follow the rule of Vikhanas (vaikhânasa).
16. He who has agreed (to obey) the Institutes of his (order,
shall wear) a staff, (shall keep) rigid silence, and (shall)
abstain from rash acts.
17. Hermits following the rule of Vikhanas (vaikhânasa) are
purified (from sin), and (especially) those who abstain from
18. The sum of the rules applicable to all Brahma-Vaikhânasas
(is as follows): 18
19. 'Let him not injure (even) gadflies or gnats; let him
bear cold and perform austerities; let him constantly reside
in the forest, be contented, and delight in (dresses made of)
bark and skins, (and in carrying) water (in his pot).'
20. 'A devotee shall first honour the guests who have come
to his hermitage at (dinner) time; he shall be sedulous in (worshipping)
gods and Brâhmanas, in (offering) the Agnihotra, and in practising
21. "A Brâhmana who has taken to forest-life, and who
has adopted this difficult (but) pure mode of existence, which
keeps him apart from wicked men, which must never be given up,
which is similar to (that of the) beasts and birds, which allows
the collection of the necessaries of life for one day only,
and which necessitates the consumption of astringent and bitter
(food), never sinks low.'
22. 'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling together with
them, and maintaining oneself in a manner similar to theirs,
that is clearly the road to heaven.'
3. Compare for the whole Adhyâya, Âpastamba II, 9, 21, 20-23,
Pravrittâsin, i.e. he who eats food only which comes to him
These three Sûtras are omitted in the commentary, but found
in all the MSS. of the text.
Govinda proposes two explanations for the term brahmavaikhânasa;
he thinks that it may mean either brahmanâ drishtâ vaikhânasâh,
'hermits seen by Brahman,' i.e. whose duties have been revealed
by Brahman, or 'hermits who are Brâhmanas by caste.' The true
sense, however, is probably 'a hermit (who strives) to (become
one with) Brahman' (brahmârtham valikhânasa).
See above, III, 2, 19.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 4
1. Now if a student commits any act against his vow, eats
meat, or approaches a woman, whenever any evil befals him,
2. He heaps fuel on the fire in the interior of the house,
scatters (Kusa grass) around it, and performs the ceremonies
up to the end of the Agnimukha; then he offers oblations of
clarified butter, (reciting the following texts): 'It was done
by lust, lust does it, to lust (belongs) all this, to him who
draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by the internal organ, the
internal organ does it, to the internal organ (belongs) all
this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by passion,
passion does it, to passion (belongs) all this, to him who draws
me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by ignorance, ignorance does it,
to ignorance (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;'
'It was done by sin, sin does it, to sin (belongs) all this,
to him who draws me on, Svâhâ;' 'It was done by wrath, wrath
does it, to wrath (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on,
3. That which begins with the muttering (of the Vedic texts)
and ends with the gift of a fee (consisting of) a cow is known,
4. (Afterwards) he stays (during the night) behind (i. e.
to the west of) the fire, wrapping himself in the skin of a
black antelope, the neck of which is turned towards the east
and the hair of which is turned outside.
5. When the day dawns, he drags himself away from the hinder
part (of the skin), goes to a bathing-place, bathes (there)
in the manner which is known, (but) performs, while in the water,
sixteen suppressions of breath with the Aghamarshana hymn; next
he performs the known (ceremonies) up to the worship of the
sun, and afterwards goes to the house of his teacher.
6. Let him know for certain that that is equally (effective)
as bathing (with the priests) at the end of a horse-sacrifice.
4. The clause striyam vopeyât, 'or approaches a woman,' is omitted
by Govinda. The whole chapter is a supplement to the rules given
above, II, 1, 1, 30-35, where some of the Vedic passages mentioned
here have already been given.
Govinda says that this manner of crawling out of the skin is
symbolical of a new birth.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 5
1. Now we will explain the rule of the most holy Aghamarshana.
2. He goes to a bathing-place and bathes (there). Dressed
in a pure dress let him raise, close to the water, an altar,
and moistening his clothes by one (application of water), and
filling his hand once (with water), let him recite the Aghamarshana
hymn (in the manner of his daily) private recitation.
3. (Let him repeat it) one hundred times in the morning,
one hundred times at midday, and one hundred times or an unlimited
number of times in the afternoon.
4. When the stars have risen, let him partake of gruel prepared
of one handful of barley.
5. After seven (days and) nights he is freed from all minor
sins (upapâtaka), whether they have been committed intentionally
or unintentionally, after twelve (days and) nights (from all
other sins) excepting the murder of a learned Brâhmana, the
violation of a Guru's bed, stealing gold, and drinking Surâ.
6. After twenty-one (days and) nights he over-comes even
those (crimes) and conquers them.
7. He overcomes everything, he conquers all, he obtains the
reward of all sacrifices, he has bathed at all sacred bathing-places,
he has performed the vows required for (the study of) all the
Vedas, he becomes known to all the gods, he sanctifies a company
(of Brâhmanas) by merely looking (at them), and his undertakings
are successful. Thus speaks Baudhâyana.
5. Vasishtha XXVI, S.
Sthandila, 'an altar,' is a slightly raised mound of earth,
which, according to Govinda, in this case must have the shape
of the sun's disc. According to the same authority the hand
of the performer must remain filled with water as long as the
recitation lasts, and the perform, stands behind the altar facing
Regarding the prasritiyâvaka, '(subsisting on) gruel prepared
from a handful of barley,' see below, III, 6.
Govinda is of opinion that the words, 'thus speaks Baudhâyana,'
indicate that this part of the work has been composed by a pupil
or some other person.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 6
1. Now if a man feels his conscience charged with (evil)
actions committed by himself, let him boil for himself (alone),
when the stars have risen, a handful of barley, (and prepare)
gruel (with that). 1
2. Let him not perform the Vaisvadeva oblation with (a portion
3. Nor (shall) a Bali offering (be performed) on that (occasion).
4. Let him consecrate the barley before it is boiled, while
it is being boiled, and after it has been boiled, with the (following)
5. 'Thou art barley, thou art the king of grains, thou art
sacred to Varuna and mixed with honey, the sages have proclaimed
thee an expeller of all guilt and a means of purification.'
5 'Ye barley-grains
are clarified butter and honey, ye barley-grains are water and
ambrosia. May you remove my guilt and all my sins:'
'Those committed by words, by acts, and by evil thoughts;
ill-fortune and the night of all-destroying time,--all that
avert from me, ye barley-grains.'
'(From the sin of eating) food which had been worried by
dogs or pigs, or which had been defiled by crows and impure
men, from the sin of disobedience towards mother and father,--from
all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'
'From the dreadful (guilt of) mortal sins and of the crime
(of serving) a king, from the wrong done to infants or aged
men, from (the guilt) of stealing gold, of breaking my vows,
of sacrificing for an un-worthy man, of speaking evil of Brâhmanas,--from
all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'
'From (the sin of eating) the food of many men, of harlots
and of Sûdras, of (partaking of) funeral dinners and of (the
food given by) persons who are unclean on account of a death
or a birth, of that given by thieves, or at a funeral sacrifice
offered to one who lately died,--from all that purify me, ye
6. (While the barley) is being boiled, he must protect it
(and recite the text), 'Adoration to Rudra, the lord of created
beings; pacified is the sky;' the Anuvâka (beginning), 'Give
strength;' the five sentences (beginning), 'The gods who are
seated in front, led by Agni;' the two (texts), 'Do not hurt
6 our offspring,'
(and) 'The Brahman-priest among the gods.'
7. Having purified himself (by sipping water, &c.), he
shall eat a little of the boiled (mess), after pouring it into
8. Let him offer it as a sacrifice to the soul, (reciting
the text), 'May the gods, who are born from the internal organ
and joined to the internal organ, who are very strong, whose
father is Daksha, protect us (and) guard us; adoration to them,
to them Svâhâ.' 8
9. Let him who desires intelligence (subsist on such food
during three (days and) nights.
10. A sinner who drinks it during six (days and) nights becomes
11. He who drinks it during seven (days and) nights is purified
from (the guilt of) the murder of a learned Brâhmana, of violating
a Guru's bed, of stealing gold, and of drinking Surâ.
12. He who drinks it during eleven (days and) nights, removes
even the sins committed by his ancestors.
13. 'But he who during twenty-one days (drinks gruel made)
of barley-grains which have passed through a cow, sees the Ganas
and the lord of the Ganas, sees the goddess of learning and
the lord of learning.' Thus speaks the venerable Baudhâyana.
6. For the whole Adhyâya compare Vishnu XLVIII.
According to Govinda, Vâmadeva is the Rishi of these Mantras.
The phrase, 'Thou art sacred to Varuna,' is to be explained,
according to Govinda, by the fact that offerings presented to
Varuna frequently consist of barley. 'Honey' means, according
to some, 'sweet butter,' with which the dish is seasoned.
The Anuvâka meant is Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 14. The five sentences
are found, ibid. I, 8, 7, 1. Regarding the text mâ nastoke,
'do not hurt our offspring,' see above, III, 2, 9. The last
p. 299 Mantra occurs Taitt. Samhitâ III,
4, II, I. Govinda says that material protection, too, in the
shape of an iron platter or cover is to be given to the boiling
The text occurs Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 3, I. It consists of five
sentences, and is addressed to the five vital airs, to each
of which the eater offers one oblation.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 7
1. 'Let him who considers himself impure offer (burnt oblations),
reciting the Kûshmândas.'
2, 'He who has had forbidden intercourse, or has committed
a crime against nature, becomes even like a thief, even like
the slayer of a learned Brâhmana.'
3. 'He is freed from any sin which is less than the crime
of slaying a learned Brâhmana.'
4. If, after wasting his strength except in his sleep, he
desires to become free from the stain and holy,
5. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on
his body, and his nails to be cut on the day of the new moon
or of the full moon, and takes upon himself a vow according
to the rule prescribed for students,
6. (To be kept) during a year, or a month, or twenty-four
days, or twelve nights, or six or three nights.
7. Let him not eat meat, nor approach a woman, not sit on
(a couch or seat, and) beware of (speaking an) untruth.
8. To subsist on milk (alone is) the most excellent mode
of living; or, using barley-gruel (as his food), he may perform
a Krikkhra (penance) of twelve days, or he may (maintain himself
by) begging. 8
9. On such (occasions) a Kshatriya (shall subsist on) barley-gruel,
a Vaisya on curds of two-milk whey.
10. Having kindled the sacred fire in the morning according
to the rule for Pâkayagñas, having scattered (Kusa grass) around
it, and having performed (the preliminary ceremonies) up to
the end of the Agnimukha, he next offers in addition burnt oblations,
reciting the three Anuvâkas (beginning), 'What cause of anger
to the gods, ye gods,' 'The debts which I contracted,' (and)
'May worshipful Agni give thee by every means long life.'
11. Let him offer with each Rik-verse a portion of clarified
12. After having offered four oblations with (the spoon called)
Sruva, reciting (the texts), 'That strength which lies in the
lion, in the tiger, and in the panther,' &c., and the four
Abhyâvartinîs (i.e. the texts), 'Thou, O fire, who turnest back,' &c.,
'O Aṅgiras,' &c., 'Again with strength,' &c.,
(and) 'With wealth,' &c., after having taken his position,
with sacred fuel in his hands, in the place allotted to the
sacrificer, he worships (the fire) with the hymn which contains
twelve verses (and begins), 'To Vaisvânara we announce.'
13. Having placed the piece of sacred fuel (on the fire with
the text), 'Whatever sin I ever committed
13 by thoughts or words, from all
that free me (O fire, being duly) praised, for thou knowest
the truth, Svâhâ,' he gives a fee.
14. (The ceremonies) which begin with the muttering (of the
texts) and end with the gift of a cow as a fee are known.
15. One (person) only (shall) perform the service of the
16. Now (let him offer) at the Agnyâdheya full oblations
(pûrnâhuti, with the texts), 'Whatever cause of anger to the
gods, ye gods;' 'The debts which I contracted;" May worshipful
Agni give thee by every means long life.'
17. Having offered (it), he who is about to perform the Agnihotra,
(worships) with the Dasahotri (texts); having offered (it),
he who is about to perform the new and full moon sacrifices
(worships) with the Katurhotri (texts); having offered (it),
he who is about to offer the Kâturmâsya sacrifices (worships)
with the Pañkahotri (texts); having offered it, (he worships)
at an animal sacrifice with the Shaddhotri (texts), at a Soma-sacrifice
with the Saptahotri (texts).
18. And it is declared in the Veda, 'Let him sacrifice (with
the Kûshmânda texts) at the beginning of the rites; purified
(thereby) he gains the world of the gods.' Thus (speaks) the
7. Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 8, 1-3.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 5-6.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 7.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 8, 8. As the next Sûtra shows, these rules
refer to Brâhmanas. Regarding the Krikkhra, see below, IV, 57.
For the rule, see Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 4. The three Anuvâkas
mentioned are Taitt. Âranyaka II, 5.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 4. The first four texts occur Taitt.
Brâhmana II, 7, 7, 1-2, the next four Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 2,
1, 2-3, and the hymn Taitt. Âranyaka II, 6. The place of the
sacrificer to the south of the fire.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 6, 2 (13).
From this and the next Sûtras it must be understood that the
Kûshmândahoma is not only to be used as a penance, but may be
offered at the beginning of the great Srauta sacrifices, in
order to sanctify the performer and to secure special benefits.
The Saptahotri' and the other texts mentioned occur Taitt, Âranyaka
III, 1-5. I understand the verb 'worship' on account of Lâtyâyana
X, 12, 50.
Taitt. Âranyaka II, 7, 5.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 8
1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the Kândrâyana
(lunar penance). 1
2. Let him fast on the fourteenth day of the bright half
of the month.
3. Having had the hair on his head, his beard, the hair on
his body, and his nails, or his beard alone, cut, let him enter,
dressed, in new clothes and speaking the truth, the place where
the sacrificial fire is preserved.
4. There a (common) fire, (which may be) fetched once (only,
shall serve) him; or (the fire) must be produced by friction
with the Aranis. 4
5. Let a student, who is a friend (of the performer), be
ready at hand to (carry out his) directions;
6. And sacrificial viands (shall be his) food during the
performance of the vow.
7. Having heaped fuel on the fire, scattered (Kusa grass)
around it, and performed (the ceremonies) up to the end of the
Agnimukha, he offers burnt oblations, (cutting off portions)
from the cooked food,
8. (The first) to Agni, (the second) to the lunar day whichever
it may be, (the third and the fourth)
8 to the lunar mansion together with
its guardian deity, the fifth to the moon (with the verse),
'Atrâha gor amanvata,' the sixth to the sky and the earth, the
seventh to day and night, the eighth to Rudra, the ninth to
the sun, the tenth to Varuna, the eleventh to Indra, and the
twelfth to all the gods.
9. Now they mention (the following) other (oblations which
are to be offered) to the points of the horizon and to their
(guardian) deities, to the wide middle sphere and to its (guardian)
10. Having offered (the oblation) to Agni Svishtakrit (with
the verse), 'Ever new,' &c., he then places the remainder
of the sacrificial viands into a goblet (kamsa) or a cup (kamasa),
pours seasoning, that is fit for sacrifices, over them, and
eats fifteen morsels of ordinary size,
11. The first (saying, 'I offer) thee to Prâna,' the second
(saying,' I offer) thee to Apâna,' the third (saying, 'I offer)
thee to Vyâna,' the fourth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Udâna,'
the fifth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Samâna.' If there are only
four (mouthfuls, he eats) the first reciting two (texts); if
there are three, (he eats) the first two reciting two (texts)
with each; if there are two, (he eats) the first reciting two
(texts and) the second reciting three texts; (if, there is only)
one, (he recites) all (the five texts) together.
12. Having drunk water (with the text), 'Thou
12 art water used
for moistening Soma,' &c., he then offers the (following)
additional oblations of clarified butter, with the seven Anuvâkas
(beginning), 'May my Prâna, Apâna, Vyâna, Udâna, and Samâna
be purified;' 'May my voice, mind, eye, ear,' &c.; 'May
my head, hands, feet;' 'May my skin;' 'May the sense of hearing,
touch;' 'May earth, water;' 'May that which consists of food.'
13. (The ceremonies) beginning with the muttering (of sacred
texts) and ending with the gift of a cow as a fee are known.
14. He worships the sun with (three verses) ad--dressed to
Sûrya and the moon with (three verses) addressed to Kandramas.
15. When he goes to rest, he mutters (the verse), 'O fire,
keep thou good watch,'
16. When he awakes (in the morning, the verse), 'O fire,
thou art the protector of vows.'
17. Let him not talk with women and Sûdras addressing them
first; let him not look at urine and ordure.
18. If he has seen any impure substance, he mutters (the
text), 'Unrestrained (was) the internal organ, wretched my eye;
the sun is the most 18
excellent among the lights of heaven; O initiation, mayest thou
not forsake me.'
19. On the first day of the latter half (of the month he
eats) fourteen mouthfuls.
20. Thus (he takes every day) one (mouthful) less up to the
day of the new moon.
21. On the day of the new moon there is not (even) one mouthful
(left to take).
22. On the first day of the first half (of the month) one
(mouthful may be eaten), on the second two.
23. Thus he daily increases (his meal) by one (mouthful)
up to the day of the full moon.
24. On the day of the full moon he offers a Sthâlîpâka to
Agni, to the lunar day whichever it may be, and to the lunar
mansions as well as to their (guardian) deities.
25. Having offered a burnt oblation to (the lunar mansion)
Abhigit (which stands) before Sronâ, and to its (guardian) deity,
he must give a cow to the Brâhmanas.
26. That is the ant-shaped lunar penance; (that which is
performed in the) inverted (order is called) the barleycorn-shaped
(lunar penance). 26
27. A sinner who has performed either of these two (penances)
becomes free from all mortal sins (pâtaka).
28. They declare that the (Kândrâyana) shall be performed
for the sake of the fulfilment of wishes of all kinds.
29. 'Thereby man obtains every wish which he may conceive.'
30. 'Thereby the sages formerly purified themselves and accomplished
their objects. That (rite) procures wealth, spiritual merit,
sons, cattle, long life, heavenly bliss, and fame; it secures
the fulfilment of all desires.'
31. 'He who studies this, becomes the companion of the lunar
constellations, of sun and moon, and dwells in their world.'
8. For this chapter compare Gautama XXVII.
The meaning of the Sûtra is that the fire which has been carried
into the âvasatha must be kept burning during the whole month
which the Kândrâyana lasts. For a burnt oblation has to be performed
at the end of the penance. Should it be extinguished, it must
be rekindled by friction.
The text quoted occurs Taitt. Brâhmana I, 5, 8, 1.
Taitt. Samhitâ II, 3, 5, 3.
This is an imitation of the Prânâgnihotra described above, II,
Taitt. Samhitâ III, 1, 8, 1. The seven Anuvâkas are Taitt. Âranyaka
X, 51-57. One oblation is to be offered with each Anuvâka.
Govinda here mentions that the whole of the ceremonies alluded
to are the uttaram dârvihomikam tantram.
As Govinda states, the former verses are 'ud vayam tamasas pari,'
Taitt. Samhitâ IV, I, 7, 4; 'ud u tyam gâtavedasam,' ibid. I,
1, 8, 4; 'kitram devânâm,' ibid. I, 4, 43, 1; while the verses
addressed to the moon are 'nano navo,' Ibid. II, 4, 14, 1; 'sa
kitrakitram,' Rig-veda VI, 6, 7; and 'atrâha gor,' Taitt. Brâhmana
1, 5, 8, 1.
Taitt. Samhitâ I, 2, 3, I.
Taitt. Samhitâ, loc. cit.
Taitt. Samhitâ III, I, 1, 2.
Vishnu XLVII, 3-5.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 9
1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the Anasnatpârâyana
(recitation of the whole Veda during a fast).
2. Let him wear a clean garment or a dress made of bark (or
3. Let him desire food, fit for a sacrifice, or water and
4. Going forth from the village in an easterly or northerly
direction, smearing a quadrangular sthandila, 'a bull's hide'
in size, with cowdung, sprinkling it, drawing the marks on it,
sprinkling it with water, heaping fuel on the fire and scattering
(Kusa grass) around it, he offers burnt oblations to the following
deities, to Agni Svâhâ, to Pragâpati
4Svâhâ, to Soma Svâhâ, to all the gods
Svâhâ, to Svayambhu, to the Rikas, to the Yagus, to the Sâmans,
to the Atharvans, to faith, to right knowledge, to wisdom, to
fortune, to modesty, to Savitri, to the Sâvitrî (verse), to
Sadasaspati, and to Anumati.
5. Having offered (these oblations), he must begin with the
beginning of the Veda and continuously recite (it).
6. Let him not interrupt (the recitation) by talking, nor
by stopping, 6
7. Now if he converses in between or stops, let him thrice
suppress his breath, and begin just there where he left off.
8. If he has forgotten (a passage), he shall recite for as
long a time as he does not recollect it, what (he may know,
Rik-verses) for Rik-verses, (Yagus-formulas) for Yagus-formulas,
(Sâmans) for Sâmans.
9. He may (also) recite the Brâhmana of that (forgotten passage)
or (the passage from the Anukramanî regarding) its metre and
10. Let him recite the Samhitâ of (his) Veda twelve (times).
He thereby removes (faults committed by) studying on forbidden
(days, by) angering his teacher, (and through) improper acts.
His (knowledge of the) Veda is sanctified, is purified.
11. (If he reads) more than that, a cumulation (of rewards
will be the result).
12. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve
(times), he gains thereby the world of Usanas.
13. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve
(times), he gains thereby the world of Brihaspati.
14. If he recites the Samhitâ of the Veda another twelve
(times), he gains thereby the world of Pragâpati.
15. If, fasting, he recites the Samhitâ one thou-sand (times),
he becomes one with Brahman, resplendent like Brahman (and)
16. If he subsists during a year on food obtained by begging,
he gains (the power of) supernatural vision.
17. If during six months he subsists on barley-gruel, during
four months on water and barley-flour, during two months on
fruit, (and) during one month on water, or performs Krikkhra
penances of twelve days, he (obtains the power of) suddenly
disappearing, and sanctifies seven descendants, seven ancestors,
and himself as the fifteenth, and (any) company (of Brâhmanas)
which he may enter.
18. They call that the ladder of the gods.
19. By means of that the gods reached their divine station
and the sages the position of Rishis.
20. The periods for beginning this sacrifice, forsooth, are
three, the time of the morning libation, the time of the midday
libation, and the last part of the night, (the Muhûrta) sacred
21. Pragâpati, forsooth, proclaimed this (rite) to the seven
Rishis, the seven Rishis to Mahâgagñu, and Mahâgagñu to the
9. M. and the MSS. of the commentary read kiravâsâh instead
of kîravâsâh,' clad with a garment of bark or grass,' and Govinda
explains the var. lect. by 'dressed in old clothes.'
This rule refers to the case only where the performer of the
vow is unable to bear the prolonged fasting.
A sthandila is the raised mound, four fingers high, which is
used as the altar for the Grihya ceremonies. Regarding the term,
'a bull's hide,' see Vishnu XCII, 2. The marks (lakshana) are
the lines which must be drawn on the altar; see e.g. Âsvalâyana
Grihya-sûtra I, 3, 1.
'By talking, i.e. by uttering words not connected with the Veda.'--Govinda.
Govinda explains nihsrenîm, 'the ladder,' by nihsreyasahetum,
'a cause of supreme bliss.'
The name of the Rishi who proclaimed it to the Brâhmans is not
certain. The Dekhan MSS. read Mahâgagru and Mahâgagnu, M. Mahâgagñu,
the I. O. copy of the commentary Mahâyagñu and Mahâgagñu, and
the Telugu copy Mahâgagñu.
PRASNA III, ADHYÂYA 10
1. The law of castes and of orders has been declared.
2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted) by a vile
action or acts wrongly, (e.g.) sacrifices for men. unworthy
to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents from those whose gifts
ought not to be accepted, eats the food of those whose food
ought not to be eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden.
3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance for such
(a deed) or if he shall not do it.
4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because the deed
does not perish.
5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform (a penance).
6. It is declared in the Veda, 'Let him offer a Punastoma;
(those who offer it, may) again come to (partake of) the libations
of Soma.' 6
7. He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin, he effaces
the guilt of the murder of a Brâhmana.'
8. Moreover, 'He who is being accused (of a heinous crime)
shall perform an Agnishtut sacrifice.'
9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, giving
gifts are the means for expiating such (a blamable act).
10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads, the initial
(verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the Vedas (vedântas), the
Samhitâs of all the Vedas, (the Anuvâkas called) Madhu, (the
hymn of) Aghamarshana, the Atharvasiras, (the Anuvâkas called
the) Rudras, the Purusha hymn, the two Sâmans (called) Râgina
and Rauhineya, the Brihat (Sâman) and the Rathantara, the Purushagati
(Sâman), the Mahânâmnîs, the Mahâvairâga (Sâman), the Mahâdivâkîrtya
(Sâman), any of the Gyeshtha Sâmans, the Bahishpavamâna Sâman,
the Kûshmândîs, the Pâvamânîs, and the Sâvitrî.
11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, to eat
vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on) gruel prepared
of a handful of barley-grains, to eat gold, to eat clarified
butter (are the modes of subsistence) which purify.
12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing-places,
the dwellings of Rishis, cowpens, (holy) plains and temples
of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin)
13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness,
abstention from theft (or unrighteously appropriating anything),
bathing in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, obedience
towards Gurus, continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing
in one garment only, and abstaining from food (are the various
kinds of) austerity.
14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, clarified
butter, and food (are) the gifts.
15. A year, six months, four (months), three (months), two
(months), one (month), twenty-four days, twelve days, six days,
three days, a day and a night, (and) one day are the periods
16. These (acts) may be optionally performed if no (particular
penance) has been prescribed,
17. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and for
trivial faults easy ones.
18. The Krikkhra and the Atikrikkhra, as well as the Kândrâyana,
are penances for all (offences).
10. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p.
li this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore
adopted the same division of the Sûtras as in the translation
of the latter work.
I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayam purusho
yâpyena karmanâ mithyâ vâkaraty ayâgyam vâ yâgayaty apratigrâhyasya
vâ pratigrihnâty anâsyânnasya vânnam asnâty akaranîyena vâkarati.
M. reads yâgayitvâ, and the Dekhan MSS. yâgayitvâ and pratigrihya.
The Dekhan MSS. read kûryâd ity eva, M. kûryâd eva, and Govinda
kuryât tv eva.
All the MSS. of the text omit the word vigñâyate, 'it is declared
in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda.
All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sûtra
p. 311 athâpy udâharanti, 'now they quote
also,' which Govinda omits, and which is inappropriate, because
the following passages are taken from the Veda.
The word vedâdayah, which occurs also in some MSS. of Vasishtha
(XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy of karmâdi,
the beginning of the sacrifices' (Sâyana on Taitt. Âr. II, 7,
5), by 'the initial verses of the Vedas.' The Pâvamânîs are
added on the authority of Govinda alone.
'Kshetra, (holy) plains, e.g. the Kurukshetra.'--Govinda.
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 1
1. We will separately explain the various penances for the
several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.
2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for each (case),--heavier
(penances) for great (crimes) and easier ones for trivial (faults).
3. Let him perform the penances according to the rule given
in the Institutes (of the Sacred Law in cases) where an offence
has been committed with the organ or with the feet (and) the
arms, through 3 thoughts
or speech, through the ear, the skin, the nose or the eye.
4. Or, in (the case of) transgressions committed through
the organ of vision, of hearing, of sensation, of smelling,
and through thoughts, he also becomes pure by three suppressions
of the breath.
5. In case (he commits the offences) of eating the food of
a Sûdra or of cohabiting with a Sûdra female, severally, he
must perform, during seven days, seven suppressions of the breath
on each day. 5
6. For partaking of food unfit for eating or drinking, and
for selling forbidden merchandise, excepting honey, meat, clarified
butter, oil, pungent condiments and bad food, and for similar
(offences), he must perform, during twelve days, twelve suppressions
of the breath on each day.
7. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins (pâtaka),
crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya), and the minor faults
(called upapâtaka), he must perform, during half a month, twelve
suppressions of the breath on each day.
8. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins
8 and crimes causing
loss of caste, he must perform, during twelve periods of twelve
days, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day.
9. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins he must
perform, during twelve half-months, twelve suppressions of the
breath on each day. 9
10. But for mortal sins he must perform, during a year, twelve
suppressions of the breath on each day.
11. Let him give his daughter, while she still goes naked,
to a man who has not broken the vow of chastity and who possesses
good qualities, or even to one destitute of good qualities;
let him not keep (the maiden) in (his house) after she has reached
the age of puberty. 11
12. He who does not give away a marriageable daughter during
three years doubtlessly contracts a guilt equal to (that of)
destroying an embryo.
13. Such will be the case if anybody asks her in marriage,
and also if nobody demands her. Manu has declared that at each
appearance of the menses (the father incurs the guilt of) a
14. Three years let a marriageable damsel wait for the order
of her father. But after (that) time let her choose for herself
in the fourth year a husband (of) equal (rank). If no man (of)
equal (rank) be found, she may take even one destitute of good
15. If a damsel has been abducted by force, and has not been
wedded with sacred texts, she may lawfully be given to another
man; she is even like a maiden.
16. If, after (a damsel) has been given away, or even after
(the nuptial sacrifices) have been offered, the husband dies,
she who (thus) has left (her father's house) and has returned,
may be again wedded according to the rule applicable to second
weddings, provided the marriage had not been consummated.
17. He who does not approach, during three years, a wife
who is marriageable, incurs, without doubt, a guilt equal to
that of destroying an embryo.
18. But the ancestors of that man who does not approach his
wife who bathed after her temporary uncleanness, though he dwells
near her, lie during that month in the menstrual excretions
(of the wife).
19. They declare that the guilt of the husband who does not
approach his wife in due season, of him who approaches her during
her temporary uncleanness, and of him who commits an unnatural
crime (with her), is equally (great).
20. Let him proclaim in the village a wife who, being obdurate
against her husband, makes herself sterile, as one who destroys
embryos, and drive her from his house.
21. But for the transgression of that husband who does not
approach a wife who bathed after temporary uncleanness, (the
performance of) one hundred suppressions of the breath is prescribed
(as a penance). 21
22. Seated with Kusa grass in his hands, let him repeatedly
suppress his breath, and again and again recite purificatory
texts, the Vyâhritis, the syllable Om, and the daily portion
of the Veda. 22
23. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him again
and again suppress his breath. (Thus) he performs the highest
austerity up to the ends of his hair and up to the ends of his
24. Through the obstruction (of the respiration) air is generated,
through air fire is produced, then through heat water is formed;
hence he is internally purified by (those) three.
25. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge is obtained,
Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, all good qualities are gained
through Yoga; therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice
of Yoga. 25
26. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable Om, and they
end with the syllable Om. The syllable Om and the Vyâhritis
are the eternal, everlasting Brahman.
27. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting) the syllable
Om, the seven Vyâhritis, and the three-footed Gâyatrî, no danger
exists anywhere. 27
28. If, restraining his breath, he thrice recites the Gâyatrî
together with the syllable Om and with the (text called) Siras,
that is called one suppression of breath.
29. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied
29 by (the recitation
of) the Vyâhritis and of the syllable Om, repeated daily, purify
after a month even the slayer of a learned Brâhmana.
30. That is the highest austerity, that is the best description
of the sacred law. That, indeed, is the best means of removing
The construction is certainly elliptical. I understand tatra
with the first half-verse. Govinda separates the two half-verses,
yad upasthakritam papam, &c., from the first, and reads
at the end p. 313 of the half-verse prânâyâmân
samâkaret, 'one should perform suppressions of the breath (in
even or equal numbers).'
Govinda tries to reconcile this rule with the one given above,
I, I, 2, 7, by assuming that the word Sûdra denotes here a Brâhmana
who lives like a Sûdra and neglects his sacred duties.
I read, conjecturally, dvâdasâham, 'twelve days.' The MSS. of
the text have dvâdasa dvâdasâham, or corruptions pointing to
this reading, and C. I. reads ardhamâsam. Regarding avarânna,
'bad food,' see note on Âpastamba II, 6, 15, 16.
I read, conjecturally, ardhamâsam, 'half a month;' D. has ardhamâsân;
K. dvâdasâham; M. dvâdasârdhamâsam; C. I. dvâdasârdhamâsân,
which is explained by shanmâsân.
I read with M. dvâdasa dvâdasâhân. D. K. have dvâdasâham. The
commentary omits the Sûtra altogether.
I read with D., K., and M., dvâdasârdhamâsân. The commentary
omits also this Sûtra.
Vasishtha XVII, 67-71, and above.
Vasishtha XVII, 73.
Vasishtha XVII, 74.
The MSS. of the text read, ritusnâtâm to yo bhâryâm niyatâm
brahmakârinîm | niyamâtikrame tasya prânâyâmasatam smritam.
The commentary omits the first half of the verse altogether.
The latter, as read in the MSS., gives no sense. It seems to
me that p. 316 either its end must have
been samnidhau nopagakkhati (as in Sûtra 17), or that a whole
half-verse has been lost.
Vasishtha XXV, 4-6.
Vasishtha XXV, 8.
Vasishtha XXV, 10.
Vasishtha XXV, 9.
Vasishtha XXV, 13.
Vasishtha XXVI, 4.
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 2
1. We will separately explain the various penances for the
several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.
2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for each (case),--heavier
penances for great (crimes), and lighter ones for trivial (faults).
3. Let him perform the penances according to the rule given
in the Institutes of the Sacred Law.
4. He who is about to accept gifts, or he who has accepted
gifts, must repeatedly recite the four Rik-verses (called) Taratsamandîs.
5. But in case one has eaten any kind of forbidden food;
or that given by a person whose food must not be eaten, the
means of removing the guilt is to sprinkle water (over one's
head) while one recites the Taratsamandî Rikas.
6. But we will, hereafter, declare another rule for (the
expiation of) the murder of a learned Brâhmana, whereby (men)
are freed also from mortal sins of all (kinds).
7. Let him (perform), during twelve nights, suppressions
of the breath (and) mutter purificatory texts, the Vyâhritis,
the syllable Om, (and) the Aghamarshana hymn, (living) on milk;
8. Or (he becomes) pure if he bathes, and during three (days
and) nights subsists on air and (remains dressed) in wet clothes.
9. But if he has repeatedly committed forbidden acts of all
kinds, and has (afterwards) worshipped reciting the Vârunî (texts),
he is freed from all sin.
10. Now a student who has broken his vow (avakîrnin) shall
heap fuel on the fire on the night of the new moon, perform
the preparatory ceremonies required for a Darvîhoma, and offer
two oblations of clarified butter (reciting the following texts):
'O Lust, I have broken my vow, my vow I have broken, O Lust,
to. Lust Svâhâ;' 'O Lust, I have done evil, I have done evil,
O Lust, to Lust Svâhâ.'
11. After he has made the offering, he shall address the
fire, closely joining his hands and turning sideways, (with
the following texts): 'May the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may
Brihaspati,, may this fire grant me long life and strength,
make me long-lived.' The Maruts, forsooth, give back to him
the vital airs, Indra gives back to him strength, Brihaspati
the lustre of Brahman, Fire all the remainder. (Thus) his body
is made whole, and he attains the full length of life. Let him
next address (the gods) with three (repetitions of the texts).
For the gods are trebly true. (All that) has been declared in
12. He who considers himself defiled by minor offences (upapâtaka),
will be freed from all guilt if he offers burnt oblations according
to this same rule; 12
13. Or if he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to
be drunk or of forbidden food, and if he has committed sinful
acts or performed sinful rites either unintentionally or intentionally,
and if he has had connexion with a female of the Sûdra caste
or committed an unnatural crime, he becomes pure by bathing
(and reciting) the Abliṅga (verses) and (those called)
14. Now they quote also (the following verse): If he has
partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to be drunk, or of forbidden
food, and if he has committed forbidden acts or performed forbidden
rites, he will, nevertheless, be freed from (crimes) committed
intentionally which are similar to mortal sins, nay, even from
mortal sins (pâtaka).'
15. Or let him fast during three (days and) nights, bathe
thrice a day, and, suppressing his breath, thrice recite the
Aghamarshana. Manu has declared that that is equal (in efficacy)
to the final bath at a horse-sacrifice.
16. And it is declared in the Veda, '(That is) the ancient
purificatory rite, which is widely known (in the Institutes
of the Sacred Law); purified thereby man conquers sin. May we,
sanctified by this holy means of purification, conquer our enemy,
Gautama XXIV, 2. The gift is, of course, one which ought not
to be accepted.
Rig-veda IX, 58. Mârganam, literally 'rubbing,' means sprinkling
the head with a handful of water.--Govinda.
'Upasthâna, "worshipping," i.e. sprinkling one's head
with a handful of water.'--Govinda.
A repetition of the rule given above, II, 1, I, 34; see also
Gautama XXV, 6.
Govinda gives, like Haradatta on Gautama XXV, 7, as an instance
of a doshavat karma, 'a sinful rite,' the abhikâra or 'magic
rite in order to harm enemies.' The expression has, however,
in our Sûtra, a wider sense.
I.e. if he performs the penance prescribed in the preceding
Vasishtha XXVI, 8; Gautama XXIV, 10.
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 3
1. We will explain the (secret) penances which are not prescribed
(by others, but by the offender himself, and) particularly what
shall be done in (case) faults (have been committed) by men
who, with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the performance
of their duties). 1
2. (Such a man) may sip water, (in order to atone) for all
mortal sins, reciting the syllable Om and all the Vyâhritis.
3. When he sips water the first time, he gladdens the Rig-veda,
the second time the Yagur-veda, the third time the Sâma-veda.
4. When he wipes (his lips) the first time, he gladdens the
Atharva-veda, the second time the Itihâsas and Purânas.
5. When he sprinkles water on the right hand, the feet, the
head, the heart, the nostrils, the eyes, the ears, and the navel,
he gladdens the trees and herbs and all deities. Therefore he
is freed from all sin by sipping water.
6. Or let him offer in the fire eight pieces of sacred fuel,
reciting (the following) eight (texts): 'Thou art the expiation
of sin committed by the gods, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation
of sin committed by men, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation of
sin committed by the manes, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation
of sin committed by myself, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation
of the sift which we have committed either by day or by night,
Svâhâ;" Thou art the expiation of the sin which we have
committed either sleeping or waking, Svâhâ;' 'Thou art the expiation
of the sin which we have committed either intentionally or unintentionally,
Svâhâ;' Thou art the expiation of every sin, Svâhâ.'
7. When he has offered (these eight oblations) he will be
freed from all guilt.
8. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The Aghamarshana,
the Devakrita, the Suddhavatîs, the Taratsamâs, the Kûshmândîs,
the Pâvamânîs, the Virâgâs, the Mrityulâṅgala, the Durgâ
(Sâvitrî), the Vyâhritis, and the Rudras (are texts) which are
very efficacious for effacing sin.'
3. Vasishtha XXV, 1-2. The whole Adhyâya is left out in the
Dekhan MSS., including K. The omission may have been caused
by the circumstance that the initial verses of Adhyâyas 3 and
Gautama XXV, 9; Vasishtha XXV, 4.
See the rules for sipping water, given above, I, 5, 8, 19-26.
Gautama XXV, 10. The Mantras occur Taitt. Âranyaka X, 59.
Vishnu LVI, 3, and note; Vasishtha XXVIII, 10-15.
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 4
1. We will explain the (secret) penances which are not prescribed
(by others, but by the offender himself, and) particularly what
shall be done in (case) faults (have been committed) by men
who, with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the performance
of their duties).
2. He who, standing in water, thrice recites that (hymn of)
Aghamarshana (which begins), 'Both right and truth,' will be
freed from all guilt.
3. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'This
spotted bull,' &c., will be freed from all guilt;
4. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'Freed
from the post as it were,' will be freed from all guilt.
5. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the verse, 'A
swan dwelling in purity,' will be freed from all guilt;
6. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the Sâvitrî,
foot by foot, half verse by half verse, and afterwards entire,
will be freed from all guilt;
7. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the Vyâhritis,
both separately and altogether, will be freed from all guilt;
8. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the syllable
Om alone, will be freed from all guilt.
9. Let him not teach these Institutes of the Sacred Law to
one who is neither his son nor his pupil, nor has resided (in
his house) less than a year.
10. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (panas, or)
ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher.
4. Taitt. Âranyaka X, 1, 13.
Taitt. Âranyaka I, 5, 3, I.
Taitt. Brâhmana II, 4, 4, 9.
Taitt. Samhitâ I, 8, 15, 2.
Vasishtha XXIV, 6-7.
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 5
1. Now, therefore, I will proclaim by what rites, connected
with the Sâman, Rik, Yagus, and Atharva-vedas,
1 (man) quickly attains
the wishes of his heart.
2. Having purified his body by muttered prayers, burnt oblations,
Ishtis, restraints, and the like, he will accomplish all his
objects. He will not attain success in any other way.
3. A Brâhmana, who is going to mutter prayers, to offer burnt
oblations or Ishtis, or to practise restraints, shall, first,
during the bright half of the month, on a lucky day and under
a lucky constellation, cause his hair and beard to be cut.
4. Let him bathe in the morning, at noon, and in the evening;
let him beware of anger and untruth; let him not address women
and Sûdras; let him be continent, and subsist solely on food
fit for offerings.
5. Avoiding to sleep in the day-time, let him worship cows,
Brâhmanas, manes, and gods. As long as he is engaged in muttering
prayers, offering Homas and Ishtis, and practising restraints,
let him stand during the day and sit during the night.
6. The Krikkhra (penance) revealed by Pragâpati lasts twelve
days, (which are divided into four separate) periods of three
days; (during the first period of three days he eats) in the
day-time (only, during the second) at night (only, during the
third he subsists on) food given without asking, (and during
the fourth) finally (he lives on) air.
7. (If one eats on) one (day in) the morning (only), and
(on the following day) at night (only, on the next day food)
given without asking, (and on the fourth day) subsists on air,
and repeats this three times, that is called the Krikkhra (penance)
of children. 7
8. (If) one eats one mouthful only at each (meal), following,
during (three) periods of three days, the rules given above,
and subsists during another period of three days on air, that
is called the Atikrikkhra penance.
9. (If) during those (first) three periods of three days
one partakes of water only, and subsists afterwards (during
three days) on air, that third (variety) must be known to be
the most efficacious Krikkhrâtikrikkhra penance.
10. If one drinks hot milk, (hot) clarified butter, (and
a hot) decoction of Kusa grass, each during three days, and
fasts during another three days, that is called the Taptakrikkhra.
11. (If one lives during one day) on cow's urine, (during
one day) on cowdung, (during one day) on milk, (during one day)
on sour milk, (during one day) on clarified butter, (during
one day) on a decoction of Kusa grass, and during one (day and)
night on air, that is called the Sâmtâpana Krikkhra.
12. Let him take the cow's urine, reciting the Gâyatrî; the
cowdung, (reciting the text), 'Gandhadvârâm;'
12 the milk, (reciting
the verse), 'Âpyâyasva;' the sour milk, reciting (the verse),
'Dadhikrâvnâ;' the clarified butter, (saying), 'Sukram asi;'
the decoction of Kusa grass (with the text), 'Devasya tvâ;'
13. (And mix together) one part of cow's urine, half as much
.cowdung, three parts of milk, two of sour milk, one part of
clarified butter, and one part of water boiled with Kusa grass;'
a Sâmtâpana Krikkhra (performed) in this manner will purify
even a Svapâka. 13
14. He who subsists during five (days and) nights on cow's
urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clarified butter will be
purified by (that) Pañkagavya (the five products of the cow).
15. If, self-restrained and attentive, he fasts during twelve
days, that is called a Parâka Krikkhra, which destroys all sin.
16. If he subsists on cow's urine and the other (substances
named above), one day on each, and continues (this mode of life)
during thrice seven days, the theologians call that a Mahâsâmtâpana
17. If he daily adds to his food one mouthful during the
bright (half of the month) and diminishes it daily by one mouthful
during the dark (half of the month), and keeps two fasts in
the two halves of the month, that is called a Kândrâyana.
18. If, with concentrated mind, a Brâhmana eats four mouthfuls
in the morning and four mouthfuls when the sun has set, he will
perform the Kândrâyana of children.
19. If, self-restrained, he daily eats, during a month, at
midday eight mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacrifice, he will
perform the Kândrâyana of ascetics.
20. But a Brâhmana who eats anyhow, during a month, thrice
eighty mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacrifice, goes to the world
of the moon. 20
21. As the rising moon frees the world from the fear of darkness,
even so a Brâhmana who performs a Kândrâyana removes the fear
22. He who lives one day on (rice)-grains, three days on
oil-cakes, 'five days on buttermilk mixed with water, seven
days on water, and (one day) on air, (performs) the guilt-destroying
23. Living on barley-gruel (yâvaka) removes the guilt of
corporeal beings after seven days, and so does a fast of seven
days; that has been recognised by wise men.
24. By dressing in wet clothes, by living in the open air,
and by exposing himself to the sun during the light halves of
the months Pausha (December-January), Bhâdrapada (August-September),
and Gyeshtha (May-June), a Brâhmana is freed from (all) sin
excepting crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya).
25. (If one swallows) cows' urine, cowdung, milk,
25 sour milk, clarified
butter, and a decoction of Kusa grass, mixed with barley gruel,
that is the most sanctifying Brahmakûrka.
26. He who fasts on the new moon day and eats sesamum grains
on the full moon day, will be freed in the course of a year
from the sins which he committed in the bright and the dark
halves of the month.
27. He who lives on alms obtained from Agnihotrins is purified
in one month; (he who obtains his food) from a Yâyâvara. in
ten days; he who receives it from a hermit in the forest, in
28. (He who lives) on food given by a person who has a store
sufficient for one day only, will be purified in one day; he
who drinks water given by a person subsisting by the Kapota-vritti
(pigeon-life), is purified in three (days).
29. If one recites the whole Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sâma-veda,
or thrice reads one of these Vedas and fasts, (that is) a most
efficient means of purification.
30. Now if one is in haste to finish, one may live on air
during a day, and pass the night standing in water, that is
equal (in efficacy) to a Prâgâpatya (Krikkhra).
31. He who at sunrise mutters the Gâyatrî one thousand and
eight times, is free from all sin, provided he has not slain
a learned Brâhmana.
32. He who distributes food, speaks the truth, and has compassion
on all living beings, is more (holy) than all those who have
been purified by the restraints mentioned above.
5. All the Dekhan MSS., including K., have been copied from
p. 323 a MS. the leaves of which were out
of order. After the first words of ver. 1, they have kshîram
dadhisarpih kusodakam, which belongs to ver. 26, and they go
on with the text down to IV, 7, 7, after which the end of IV,
5, 1 and 2-25 given.--'Yantra, "restraints," i.e.
Krikkhras and the like, (which are called so) on account of
the restraint of the senses (required for them).'--Govinda.
Vasishtha XXIV, 5.
Vasishtha XXI, 20. Repeated, see above, II, 1, 2, 38.
Vasishtha XXIII, 43; see above, II, 1, 2, 39.
Vasishtha XXIV, 2-3; see above, II, 1, 2, 40.
See above, II, 1, 2, 41.
See above, II, 1, 2, 37.
Vasishtha XXVII, 13; Vishnu XLVI, 19.
The texts quoted are found, Taitt. Âranyaka X, 10; III, 17;
Taitt. Samhitâ I, 5, 11,4, 7; I, 1, 10, 3; VII, 1, 11, 1.
Vasishtha XXVII, 13.
Vasishtha XXVII, 14.
Vishnu XLVI, 18.
Vishnu XLVI, 20.
Vasishtha XXVII, 21; see above, III, 8.
Vishnu XLVII, 8.
Vishnu XLVII, 7.
Vishnu XLVII, 9. Govinda places this verse before Sûtra 19.
Vishnu XLVII, 22.
The meaning is that the performer is to stand in wet clothes
during the first half of the month Pausha, in the cold season;
to live in the open air during the first half of Bhâdrapada,
in the rainy season; and to allow himself to be broiled by the
sun in Gyeshtha, the hottest time of the hot season.
I doubt if the reading of Govinda, yavâkâmena (explained
p. 327 by yavâgûh) samyuktam, 'mixed with
barley-gruel,' is correct. All the MSS. of the text have yavânâm
ekasamyukto, which I do not understand. Govinda has Brahmakrikkhrah
instead of Brahmakûrkah. But see the Petersb. Diet. s. v. brahmakûrka.
Regarding the Kapota-vritti, see above, III, 2, 15.
Vasishtha XXVII, 17. Govinda adds after kartum, 'to finish,"
the rites connected with the Vedas' (Sûtra 1).
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 6
1. The (eleven Anuvâkas called) Rudras together with (the
ten hymns) seen by Madhukkhandas, the Gâyatrî with the syllable
Om, and likewise the seven Vyâhritis (are the texts) which should
be muttered (and) which remove guilt.
2. The Mrigâreshti, the Pavitreshti, the Trihavis, the Pâvamânî
are the Ishtis which efface sin, if they are (each) combined
with the Vaisvânara (Dvâdasakapâla).
3-4. Learn, also, the following most excellent secret; he
will be freed from all sins of all kinds who sprinkles himself
with water, reciting the Pavitras, who mutters the eleven (Anuvâkas
called) Rudras, who offers burnt oblations of butter, reciting
the Pavitras, and gives gold, a cow, and sesamum (to Brâhmanas).
5. He who partakes of boiled barley-gruel, mixed with cow's
urine, liquid cowdung, sour milk, milk, and butter, is quickly
freed from sin. 5
6. Both he who has begotten a child on a Sûdra woman and
he who has had connexion with a female,
6 intercourse with whom is forbidden
(agamyâ), are purified (if they live) according to this rule
during seven days.
7. (That is likewise) the remedy when one has swallowed semen,
ordure, and urine, or eaten the food of persons whose food must
not be eaten, (and also) when a younger brother has kindled
the sacred fire, has offered a Srauta sacrifice, or taken a
wife before the elder.
8. He who has committed even a great number of (wicked) actions,
excepting mortal sins, will be freed (by that rule) from all
guilt. That is the statement of the virtuous.
9. But (this) ordinance, which is based on the authority
of the sacred texts, is stated (to be that) through which Bharadvâga
and others became equal to Brahman,
10. Through the performance of these rites a Brâhmana, whose
heart is full of peace, obtains whatever desires he may have
in his heart.
6. The hymns are Rig-veda I, 1-10.
Regarding the Mrigâreshti, see Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 7, 15. In
explanation of the term Trihavis, Govinda adds the word Savaneshti.
Yâvaka, translated, as usually, by barley-gruel, can also denote,
as Govinda points out, other dishes made of barley.
See above, II, 1, 2, 7, 10, 13-14.
See above, II, 2, 1, 21, 39-40. I follow the reading of M. and
of the commentary, paryâdhânegyayor etat parivitte ka bheshagam.
The reading of the Dekhan MSS. is etat patite kaiva bhoganam,
'that food must be eaten and when one has become an outcast.'
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 7
1. The wishes of a Brâhmana who has left off evil deeds and
is (ever) engaged in holy works are fulfilled even without (the
practice of) restraints.
2. Upright Brâhmanas quickly accomplish whatever they wish
in their hearts, if they are purified by honest actions.
3. Thus a wise man should practise those restraints until
he has purified his bodily frame.
4. He who has been purified by those restraints should, after
fasting three (days and) nights, begin the performance of that
sacred rite through which he wishes to gain the fulfilment of
5. (Reciting) the Kshâpavitra, the Sahasrâksha, the Mrigâra,
the two Ganas (called) Amhomuk, the Pâvamanîs, the Kûshmândîs,
and the Rikas, addressed to Vaisvânara,
6. (And) offering with (each of) these (Mantras) boiled rice
and clarified butter during seven days, in the morning, at midday,
and in the evening, keeping a rigid silence, living on food
fit for a sacrifice, restraining his senses and his actions,
7. He is freed from all crimes, even mortal sins, after looking
on a cross-road at a pot filled with water, (and reciting the
text), 'Simhe me manyuh.'
8. He is freed from the multitude of sins, committed unintentionally
in old age, in youth, and in infancy, and even from those belonging
to former births;
9. After feeding at the end (of the seven days) Brâhmanas
with milk and rice, well. mixed with butter, and distributing
to them after their dinner cows, land, sesamum, and gold,
10. A Brâhmana becomes internally pure, his guilt being consumed
like fuel, and fit for the performance of rites which secure
the fulfilment of wishes and of rites like the kindling of the
7. Yantrâni, 'restraints,' i.e. Krikkhras, the fasts, and other
practices described in the preceding chapters.
According to Govinda the Kshâpavitra, or as the Dekhan MSS.
read, Kshmâpavitra, occurs in the Sûtrapâtha of the Taittirîyas,
consists of six verses, and begins 'Agne naya.' The text meant
must be similar to Taitt. Samhitâ I, t, 14, 3. The Sahasrâksha
is the Purushasûkta. The Mrigâra consists of the Yâgyânuvâkyâs
of the Mrigâreshti, Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 7, t5. The two Ganas
called Amhomuk are found Taitt. Samhitâ II, 3, 13, 1, 'yâ vâm
indrâvarunau' and 'yo vâm indrâvarunau: The verses addressed
to Agni Vaisvânara are the first eight of Taitt. Samhitâ I,
PRASNA IV, ADHYÂYA 8
1. He who, through excessive greed or carelessness, performs
this rite for others, is tainted by sin, and perishes like one
who has swallowed poison.
2. A Brâhmana who performs this rite for his teacher, his
father, his mother, or for himself is resplendent like the sun.
Therefore this rite may be performed for those (persons).
3. Ka (Pragâpati) purified by means of this rite the god
with a thousand eyes (Sahasrâksha), Fire, Wind, the Sun, Soma,
Yama, and other lords of the gods.
4. Whatever there is in these three worlds, famed as possessing
a holy name, Brâhmanas and the rest, (all) that was produced
by Ka through this rite of sanctification.
5. This sin-destroying secret of Pragâpati was first produced;
thereafter thousands of purificatory rites .came into existence.
6. He who performs those eight Ganahomas on the (first) day
of the year, of a half-year, of a season, or of a fortnight,
sanctifies ten ancestors and ten descendants of his line;
7. And, while still on earth, he is known to the gods in
heaven as a holy man, and (after death) that virtuous man rejoices
for a very long time in heaven like a god.
8. If a Brâhmana is unable to offer those eight Ganahomas,
let him offer one; thereby his guilt is effaced.
9. He, also, whose sons or pupils offer those eight Ganahomas,
is freed from his sin which is bought off by his having instructed
10. Through a desire of removing one's guilt one even may
cause (these oblations) to be offered by men who have been engaged
for money, in case oneself is unable (to do it); a man need
not torment himself.
11. Even among the virtuous a distribution of wealth is made
(for the success) of holy rites; some-times a man who is free
from debt is (thereby) freed from guilt.
12, Liberated according to this rule from the ocean of guilt
and debt, he considers himself pure and able to successfully
perform the sacred rites.
13. But in the case of that pure mortal who, freed from all
sin and debts, begins the sacred rites, they will succeed without
14. Let him daily (study and) teach this holy (rule) of Pragâpati,
which the sage has proclaimed, let him remember it or hear it.
(By doing that) he is freed from all guilt and will be exalted
in Brahman's world.
15. Let him mutter during twelve days those sacred texts
through which he wishes to accomplish (his desires), eating
once (a day) at night boiled rice with clarified butter, with
milk, or with sour milk.
16. (Let him offer) ten times a burnt oblation and sprinkle
clarified butter. (That is) the preliminary worship (which must
be performed) when one desires to accomplish one's objects through
those sacred texts.
8. I.e. those mentioned V, 7, 5.
The meaning is that in case a wealthy man is unable to bear
'the restraints,' he may hire others to perform the Homas. Though
the hired performer will be guilty of a serious offence (Sûtra
1), the person who causes them to be performed will derive benefit
PRASNA VII, ADHYÂYA 5
1. We will explain the rule for the adoption of a son.
2. Man, formed of virile seed and uterine blood, proceeds
from his mother and father (as an effect) from its cause.
3. (Therefore) the father and the mother have power to give,
to abandon, or to sell their (son).
4. But let him not give nor receive (in adoption) an only
5. For he (must remain) to continue the line of the ancestors.
6. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son except with
the permission of her husband.
7. He who is desirous of adopting (a son) procures two garments,
two earrings, and a finger-ring; a spiritual guide who has studied
the whole Veda; a layer of Kusa grass and fuel of Palâsa wood
and so forth. 7
8. Then he convenes his relations, informs the king (of his
intention to adopt) in (their) presence, feeds the (invited)
Brâhmanas in the assembly or in (his) dwelling, and makes them
wish him 'an auspicious day,' 'hail,' (and) 'prosperity.'
9. Then he performs the ceremonies which begin with the drawing
of the lines on the altar and end with the placing of the water-vessels,
goes to the giver (of the child) and should address (this) request
(to him), 'Give me (thy) son.'
10. The other answers, 'I give (him).'
11. He receives (the child with these words), 'I take thee
for the fulfilment of (my) religious duties; I take thee to
continue the line (of my ancestors).'
12. Then he adorns him with the (above-mentioned) two garments,
the two earrings, and the finger-ring, performs the rites which
begin with the placing of the (pieces of wood called) paridhis
(fences round the altar) and end with the Agnimukha, and offers
(a portion) of the cooked (food) in the fire.
13. Having recited the Puronuvâkyâ (verse), 'He who thinking
of thee with a discerning mind,' &c., he offers an oblation,
reciting the Yâgyâ (verse), 'To which performer of good deeds,
thou, O Gâtavedas,' &c.
14. Then he offers (oblations, reciting) the Vyâhritis;--(the
ceremonies) which begin the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit and
end with the presentation
14 of a cow as a fee (to the officiating
priest are) known;--
15. And presents (to the spiritual guide) as a sacrificial
fee those two dresses, those two earrings, and that finger-ring
(with which he had adorned the child).
16. If after the performance of these (rites) a legitimate
son of his own body is born (to the adopter, then the adopted
son) receives a fourth (of the legitimate son's) share. Thus
says Baudhâyana. 16