The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Part 1
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- The Hindu Dharmashastras, Subject Index
- A Brief Note on the Dharmashastras
- The Laws of Manu Chapter 1 to 6
- The Laws of Manu Chapters 7 to 12
- Introduction to the Apastamba
- The Apastamba - Prasna I
- The Apastamba - Prasna II
- Introduction to Gautama Sutras
- The Gautama Sutras, Chapters I to XIV
- The Gautama Sutras Chapters XV to XVIII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, introduction
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters I - VII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters V - XXII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters XIII - XXX
- Introduction to the Baudhayana DharmasShastra
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika 1-21)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaII (Kandika 1-18)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaIII, IV and V
1:1 1. The word 'now' serves, in this as in analogous cases, various purposes. It marks the beginning of the book, serves as an auspicious invocation (maṅgala), and indicates that something else, the initiation, must precede the study of the sacred law. 'Therefore' means 'because, after initiation, the neophyte is to be taught the prescribed rules regarding personal purification:--Krishnapandita. For the wording of the Sûtra compare the be-ginning of Gaimini's Mîmâmsâ-sûtras.
1:3-6. Gautama I, 1-4; XXVIII, 48.
1:7 The Sûtra contains a limitation of Sûtra 5. It indicates that the customs of the Sishtas, for which worldly motives are perceptible, have no authority, and are not to be followed. The principle enunciated is one inculcated by the Mîmâmsakas (P: M. S. p. 2 I, 3, 3-4). See also Âpastamba I, 1, 4, 5-10; I, 4, 12, 8; and Introduction, p. xxvii. Krishnapandita has misunderstood the Sûtra. He reads, against the MSS., agrihyamânakârano ’dharmah, 'unlawful acts are those for which no motive, i.e. no sacred source such as the Vedas, is perceptible.'
2:8 The region where the river Sarasvatî disappears is the Pattiâlâ district in the Pañgâb. The Pâripâtra mountains belong to the great Vindhya range, and are probably the hills in Mâlvâ. The position of the Kâlakavana or Black-forest is not accurately known. But it must probably be sought in Bihâr. All the MSS. as well as Krishnapandita read in this Sûtra prâgâdarsanât instead of prâgadarsanât, 'to the east of the region where the river Sarasvatî disappears.' This circumstance gains some importance by the fact that the Mahâbhâshya on Pânini II, 4, 10, quotes the same definition of the Âryâvarta, giving, however, instead of adarsanât prâgâdarsât, 'to the east of Âdarsa, i.e. the Âdarsa mountains.' It seems to me not improbable that our Sûtra, too, had originally prâgâdarsât, and that some Pandit who knew nothing about the Âdarsa hills, but remembered Manu II, as, and Baudhâyana I, 1, 25, where the word vinasanât, 'the disappearance of the Sarasvatî,' undoubtedly occurs, added the syllable na and forgot to correct the â, after prâg.
2:9 The translation follows Krishnapandita's commentary, which recommends itself on account of the analogous definition of Âryâvarta given by Manu II, 22.
2:11 My translation follows the text given by Krishnapandita and p. 3 B., and the explanation of the former, because it seems to me that the general sense which they give, is the correct one. I feel, however, not certain that the word. pratilomakadharmânâm, 'of those countries where opposite laws prevail,' is more than a care less correction. The majority of the MSS. read pratilomakakshadharmânah (kalpadharmânah), which by itself is difficult of explanation. But, as the text of the next Sûtra contains an apparently superfluous phrase, I fear, we shall have to admit that the text is here disfigured by corruptions, which with our present MSS. it is impossible to remove with certainty.
3:12 Krishnapandita reads this Sutra 'etad âryâvartam ityâkakshate gaṅgâyamunayor antaretyeke,' and takes it as one sentence, the subject of which is 'eke.' I feel no doubt that this explanation is utterly untenable, and that the first four words have nothing to do with this Sutra, the second part of which occurs also in the Baudhâyana Dharma-sûtra I, 1, 27. My opinion is that they originally belonged to Sûtra 11, though the state of the MSS. at my disposal does not allow me to say how Sûtra 11 has to be corrected. The general sense of Sûtra 12 is, however, perfectly certain.
3:13 Manu II, 23; Yâgñavalkya I, 2. It deserves to be noted that the black antelope (black-buck), Oryx cervicapra, selects for its home the well-cultivated, rich plains of India only, and is entirely wanting in the sandy, mountainous or forest districts, which are now, just as in ancient times, the portion of the aboriginal tribes.
3:14 Regarding the Bhâllavins, see Max Müller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 193, 364. Krishnapandita thinks that Nidâna means desanirnaya, 'the disquisition on the countries,' which is the title of a section which occurs in most modern compilations on law. But it will be safer to take it as the name of a Vedic work, identical with or similar to that quoted in Saunaka's Brihaddevatâ, Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 81.
3:15 Sindhur vidhâranî or vidharanî, as B. reads, cannot be p. 4 taken with Krishnapandita, as 'the ocean,' because in the latter sense sindhu is a masculine. It must be a boundary-river, probably the Sarasvatî. By sûryasyodana, 'the region where the sun rises,' the udayagiri or 'mountain of the east' may possibly be meant.
4:16 This verse, too, is marked as a quotation by the concluding word iti, though it is not necessary that it should be taken as a quotation from the Nidâna. Here, and in the sequel verses ending in iti are marked as quotations by hyphens.
4:17 Manu VII, 203; VIII, 41; Gautama XI, 20. Gâti,' castes,' which sometimes, and perhaps as appropriately, has been translated by 'tribes,' denotes in my opinion those numerous subdivisions of the four great varnas, which we now find all over India, and which can be shown to have existed for a very long time. Usually the word 'caste' is also applied to them.
4:18 Krishnapandita explains vîrahâ, 'he who extinguishes the sacred fires,' by 'the destroyer of his sons or of his spiritual clients' p. 5 (yagamâna); but the rules given below, XX, 11, and XXI, 27, in the section on penances, confirm the explanation given above.
5:20 Vishnu XXXV, 1-2. Guru means here the father, see below, XX, 15.
5:21 Vishnu XXXV, 3-5. Spiritual connexion, i.e. becoming the teacher or priest of an outcast, or his pupil or spiritual client (yagamâna).
5:22 Identical with Manu XI, 181. It must be understood that spiritual or matrimonial connexion with an outcast causes immediate degradation, as Vishnu states expressly.
5:23 Vishnu XXXVII, 6, 31; Gautama XXI, 11. Regarding the precise meaning of pratigahnuyât, 'offends,' see below, XXI, 27.
5:24-25. Manu III, 13; Yâgñavalkya I, 57; Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra I, 4, 8-11.
6:26-27. Manu III, 14-19.
6:28 Âpastamba II, 5, II, 17-20.
6:30 Vishnu XXIV, 19; Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 6, 1.
6:31 Vishnu XXIV, 20; Âsvalâyana Grihya.-sûtra I, 6, 2,
6:32 Vishnu XXIV, 21; Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 6, 3.
6:33 Vishnu XXIV, 23; Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 6, 5.
6:34 Vishnu XXIV, 25; Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 6, 8.
6:35 Vishnu XXIV, 24; Âsvalâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 6, 6.
7:36 Sâṅkhâyana Grihya-sûtra I, 14; Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra I, 8, 18; Âpastamba II, 6, 13, 12. Though Vasishtha's quotation is less complete than Âpastamba's, still the following Sûtras show that he knew the conclusion of the passage, and does not take it as an authority for the sale of a daughter.
7:37 Krishnapandita makes a mistake by connecting the word 'kâturmâsyeshu' with the next Sûtra. He is right in saying that 'the Kâturmâsyas' is the name of a book. It is, however, not a separate work, but the kânda or section of a Vedic work treating of the Kâturmâsya sacrifices (see Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 355). The particular work from which our quotation has been taken, is either the Maitrâyânîya Samhitâ, or the Kâthaka. For, as Dr. von Schroeder informs me, Maitrâyânîya Samhitâ I, 10, 11 reads 'anritam vâ eshâ karoti yâ patyuh krîtâ satyathânyais karati,' and the title of the kânda is Kâturmâsyâni. Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 407, has found the same words in the Kâturmâsya section of the Kâthaka XXXVI, 5. In the translation I have added the beginning of the passage which Vasishtha omits, according to the Maitrâyânîya Samhitâ.
7:39-41. Gautama XI, 25-27.
8:42 Vishnu III, 22-25. Though the ambiguous word dhana, 'wealth,' is used in the text, it seems not doubtful that Vasishtha alludes to the land-tax, which generally consists of one sixth of the produce.
8:43 Vishnu III, 26.
8:44 Vishnu III, 27--28. Pûrta, 'the merit gained by charitable works,' i.e. by planting trees, digging wells, and so forth. The words 'iti ha,' placed at the end of the Sûtra, indicate that it is a quotation, and that vigñâyate, 'it is declared in the Veda,' has to be understood from Sûtra 46. Gautama XI, 11, too, alleges that the rule is based on a Vedic passage.
8:45 Satapatha-brâhmana V, 4, 2, 3. Krishnapandita's division of the quotation into several Sûtras is unnecessary. His explanation of anâdya, which he takes to mean 'the first of all,' is wrong. He asserts that the Brâhmana is said 'to make the Veda rich,' because by sacrificing and so forth he fulfils its object and protects it. But the phrase is probably corrupt. If it is said that Soma is the king of the Brâhmanas, the object is to indicate that an earthly king is not their master, see Gautama XI, 1.
9:1-2. II. Vishnu II, 1-2; Manu X, 4.
9:3 Identical with Manu II, 169a, 170a, and Vishnu XXVIII, 37-38. The Sâvitrî or the verse addressed to Savitri is found Rig-veda III, 62, 10.
9:4 Gautama I, 10; Manu II, 171.
9:5 The reading tathâpyudâharanti, which several of my MSS. give, seems to me preferable to Krishnapandita's udâharati. Krishnapandita explains sâdhu karoti, 'makes them holy,' by adhyâtmam upadisati,' teaches them transcendental knowledge.'
10:6 Vishnu XXVIII, 40. Instead of Krishnapandita's 'yâvadvedo na gâyate,' 'yâvadvede na gâyate,' which occurs in several MSS. and in the parallel passages of Manu II, 172 and other Smritis, must be read.
10:7 Gautama II, 5. The rites referred to are the funeral rites.
10:8-9. Vishnu XXIX, 9-10, and introduction, p. xxiii; Nirukta II, 4.
10:10 Vishnu XXX, 47.
11:13 Krishnapandita wrongly connects the word brâhmanasya with the next Sûtra. For this and the next seven Sûtras, compare Vishnu II, 4-14.
11:14 Krishnapandita by mistake leaves out the word 'dânam.'
11:20 I read 'teshâm parikaryâ,' with the majority of the MSS., instead of Krishnapandita's 'teshâm ka parikaryâ.'
11:21 In illustration of this Sûtra Krishnapandita quotes a verse of Laugâkshi, which states that Brâhmanas belonging to the Vasishtha family wore the top-lock on the right side of the head, and the members of the Atri family allowed it to hang down on p. 12 both sides, while the Bhrigus shaved their heads, and the Âṅgirasas wore five locks (kûdâ) on the crown of the head. Cf. Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 53.
12:22 Vishnu II, 15.
12:24 For this and the following four Sûtras, see Gautama VII, 8-21.
12:26 Rasâh, 'substances used for flavouring,' i.e. 'molasses, sugar-cane, sugar, and the like.'--Krishnapandita. See also note on Gautama VII, 9.
12:27 Identical with Manu X, 92.
12:29 Vishnu LIV, 18; Âpastamba I, 7, 20, 13. Krishnapandita wrongly connects this Sûtra with the preceding one.
13:30 Manu X, 91.
13:31 Manu X, 90.
13:34 Vâgasaneyi-samhitâ XII, 71. The translation follows the explanation given in the next Sûtra as closely as possible, though the latter is without doubt erroneous. The purpose for which Vasishtha introduces it, is to show that a Vedic text permits agriculture to a Brâhmana who offers Soma-sacrifices.
14:37-39. Gautama VII, 16-21.
14:40 Manu X, 117. Krishnapandita reads with MS. B., vârdhushim na dadyâtâm, and explains it by vriddhim naiva prayogayetâm, 'they shall not take interest.' I read with the other MSS. vârdhushî, and translate that term by 'usurers.' Below, Sûtra 42, vârdhushi is used likewise in this its usual sense.
14:43 Manu X, 117.
14:44-47. Vishnu VI, 11-17; Colebrooke I, Dig. LXVI, where 'silver and gems' have been added after gold, and rasâh, 'flavouring substances,' been translated by 'fluids.' The translation differs also in other respects, because there the Sûtras stand by themselves, while here the nouns in Sûtras 44 and 47 are governed by the preceding dadyâtâm, 'they may lend.' They, i.e. a Brâhmana p. 15 and a Kshatriya. The rule, of course, refers to other castes also, and to those cases where no periodical interest is taken, but the loan returned in kind.
15:47 The Ratnâkara quoted by Colebrooke loc. cit. takes 'what is sold by weight' to be 'camphor and the like.' Krishnapandita thinks that 'clarified butter, honey, spirituous liquor, oil, molasses, and salt' are meant. But most of these substances fall under the term rasâh, 'flavouring substances.' The proper explanation of the words seems to be, 'any other substance not included among those mentioned previously, which is sold by weight.'
15:48 Vishnu VI, 2, and especially Manu VIII, 142. The lowest rate of interest is to be taken from the highest caste, and it becomes greater with decreasing respectability. According to Krishnapandita and the commentators on the parallel passage of Vishnu, Manu, and other Smritis, this rule applies only to loans for which no security is given--a statement which is doubtlessly correct.
15:49-50. Both the reading and the sense of this verse, which in some MSS. is wanting, are somewhat doubtful. I read with my best MSS.,
râgâ to mritabhâvena dravyavriddhim vinâsayet |
punâ râgâbhishekena dravyamûlam ka vardhate ||
and consider that it gives a rule, ordering all money transactions to be stopped during the period which intervenes between the death of a king and the coronation of his successor. I am, however, unable to point out any parallel passages confirming this p. 16 view. Krishnapandita's text shows two important various readings, 'bhritibhâvena' and 'râgâbhîshikena,' which I think are merely conjectures, unsupported by the authority of MSS. He explains the verse as follows: 'The king shall destroy, i.e. himself not take, the interest on money by giving [it away] as a salary. But, after thus giving away interest received, he may increase his capital by [an extra tax imposed on] the cultivators, i.e. take from them the highest rate, consisting of one-fourth of the produce.'
16:51 Gautama XII, 29; Colebrooke I, Dig. XXIV. The rule given in this Sûtra refers, as Krishnapandita correctly states, to loans, for which security is given. The rate is 1¼ per cent for the month, or 15 per annum; see the note to Gautama loc. cit. Manu, VIII, 140, especially mentions that this rate is prescribed by Vasishtha.
16:1 III. I read Sûdrasadharmânah, 'equal to Sûdras,' instead of sûdrakarmânah, which occurs in MS. B. only. Krishnapandita explains the latter reading by sûdravatkarma yeshu te sûdravatteshvâkaranîyamityarthah, 'shall be treated like Sûdras.' But the verses quoted in the following Sûtras show that the former reading is the better one.
16:2 Identical with Manu II, 168.
16:3 This and the following nine verses are, as the word 'iti,' which the best MSS. give at the end of Sûra 12, quotations. p. 17 Anrik, 'who does not know the Veda,' means, literally, 'unacquainted with the Rig-veda.'
17:5 This verse, which is identical with Manu XII, 114, and the next two are intended to show that a Brâhmana who, neglects the study of the Veda, is unfit to decide points of the sacred law, which are not settled either by the Smriti or the Sruti, and become a member of a parishad or' Pañk.'
17:6 The verse contains a better version of Manu XII, 115.
17:7 Regarding the term Vedapâraga, see Gautama V, 20, note. Itareshâm, 'fools,' means literally, 'different from (those who have mastered the Vedas).'
18:9-10. Regarding the crime of 'neglecting a Brâhmana,' see Manu VIII, 392-393, where fines are prescribed for neglecting to invite to dinner worthy neighbours and Srotriyas.
18:10 A learned Brâhmana resembles a sacrificial fire, see e.g. below, XXX, 2-3; Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 44.
18:11 Manu II, 157. Krishnapandita and MS. B. give the ungrammatical construction which occurs in Manu and other Dharmasâstras, while the other MSS. read more correctly, 'yaska kâshthamayo h. yaska karmamayo m.' &c.
18:13-14. This rule agrees exactly with Gautama X, 45; see also Vishnu III, 56-61. The matter is introduced here in order to show the prerogative of a learned Brâhmana. Regarding the six lawful occupations, see-above, II, 13-14.
19:15 Vishnu V, 189-192. The connexion of this subject with the main topic consists therein that it furnishes an instance where learning does not protect a Brâhmana.
19:17 I read with the majority of the MSS., 'api vedântapâragam,' instead of 'vedântagam rane,' as Krishnapandita has.
19:19 For the explanations of the terms left untranslated, see the p. 20 note on Âpastamba II, 8, 17, 22; Gautama XV, 28; and the notes on Vishnu LXXXIII, 2-21. Regarding the meaning of Khandoga, 'one who knows the first part of the Sâma-veda Samhitâ,' see Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 63, note 59. 'One who knows the Samhitâ and the Brâhmana, i.e. of the Rig-veda.'--Krishnapandita. Regarding the various classes of Snâtakas, see Âpastamba I, 11, 30, 1-3.
20:20 Manu XII, 111. Krishnapandita reads kâturvidyas trikalpî ka, 'one who knows the four Vedas and one who knows three different Kalpa-sûtras.' My translation, follows the reading of the MSS., kâturvidyam vikalpî ka, which is corroborated by the parallel passage of Baudhâyana I, 1, 8, 'kâturvaidyam vikalpî ka.' The explanation of the latter word is derived from Govindasvâmin. 'Men who are in three orders, i.e. a student, a householder, and ascetic,' see Gautama XXVIII, 49.
20:21-23. Vishnu XXIX, 1-2.
20:24 Gautama VII, 25.
20:25 Vishnu II, 6.
20:26-34. Vishnu LXII, 1-9.
21:30 Krishnapandita is probably right in thinking that the word vâ, 'or,' inserted before 'bending forward,' is intended to forbid other improper acts, gestures or postures, which are reprehended in other Smritis.
21:35 Vishnu XXIII, 43; Manu V, 128.
21:36 'Collected in unclean places, e.g. in a burial-ground.'--Krishnapandita.
22:37 Gautama I, 41.
22:38 Gautama I, 37.
22:39 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 10.
22:40 Âpastamba I, 5, 16, 11.
22:41 Gautama I, 38-40.
22:42 Manu V, 142.
22:43 Vishnu XXIII, 55. 'Occupied with eatables,' i.e. 'eating.'--Krishnapandita.
22:45 Vishnu XXIII, 50. This and the following two Sûtras are a quotation, as appears from the use of the particle iti at the end of Sûtra 47.
23:46 Manu V, 129.
23:47 Vishnu XXIII, 43
23:48 Gautama I, 42. For the explanation of the term amedhya, 'unclean substances,' see Manu V, 135, and the passage from Devala translated in Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu XXIII, 38.
23:49 Gautama I, 29; Vishnu XXIII, 26, 33, 27, 18.
23:50-51. Gautama I, 30.
23:52 Gautama I, 31 and note; Vishnu XXIII, 4.
23:53 Gautama I, 33.
23:54 Vishnu XXIII, 28. Cups and bottles made of the shell of the cocoa-nut or of the Bilva (Bel) fruit and of bottle-gourds are meant.
23:55 Vishnu XXIII, 22.
24:56 Vishnu XXIII, 56-57. Krishnapandita takes upakarana, 'heaping (pure earth) on (the defiled spot),' to mean 'lighting a fire on it' or 'digging it up.' The translation given above rests on the parallel passages of Gautama I, 32, and of Baudhâyana I, 5, 52, bhûmes tu sammârganaprokshanopalepanâvastaranopalekhanairyathâsthânam doshaviseshât prâyatyam, 'land becomes pure, according to the degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled) spot, by sprinkling it, by smearing it with cowdung, by scattering (pure earth) on it, or by scraping it.' Bhûmi, 'land,' includes also the mud-floor of a house or of a verandah.
24:57 Some MSS. have instead of gharshât, 'by scraping,' varshât, 'by rain;' see also note on Gautama I, 32.
24:58 Vishnu XXII, 91. 59. Vishnu XXIII, 5. 60. Identical with Manu V, 109, and Vishnu XXII, 92.
24:61-62. Vishnu XXIII, 7. Krishnapandita points out that these p. 25 two rules and that given in the next Sûtra refer to cases in which gold, silver, and copper have not been stained by impure substances.
25:63 Vishnu XXIII, 25.
25:64-68. Vishnu LXII, I-4; Âpastamba II, 2, 3, II.
25:69 Vishnu LXVIII, 42. The Sûtra is also intended to prescribe that the number of the daily meals is two, only.
25:70 Manu III, 251.
25:71 The rites referred to are, according to Krishnapandita, marriages, feeding Brâhmanas, Nândîsrâddhas, and the like.
25:1 IV. Manu I, 87.
25:2 Rig-veda X, 90, 12.
26:4 Vishnu II, 17.
26:5 Mânavam, 'the Mânava (Sûtra),' means literally 'a work proclaimed by Manu' (manunâ proktam). It is probable that the work referred to by Vasishtha is the lost Dharma-sûtra of the Mânava Sâkhâ, which is a subdivision of the Maitrâyanîyas, and on which the famous metrical Mânava Dharmasâstra is based. The words of the Sûtra may either be a direct quotation or a summary of the opinion given in the Mânava-sûtra. I think the former supposition the more probable one, and believe that not only Sûtra 5, but also Sûtras 6-8 have been taken bodily from the ancient Dharma-sûtra. For Sûtra 6 agrees literally with a verse of the metrical Manusmriti, and at the end of Sûtra 8 several MSS. have the word iti, the characteristic mark that a quotation is finished, while the language of Sûtra 8 is more antiquated than Vasishtha's usual style. If my view is correct, it follows that the lost Mânava Dharma-sûtra consisted, like nearly all the known works of this class, partly of prose and partly of verse.
26:6 Identical with Manu V, 41; Vishnu LI, 64; and Sâṅkhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 16, 1. I take pitridaivata, against Kullûka's and Krishnapandita's view, as a bahuvrîhi compound, and dissolve it by pitaro daivatam yasmimstat, literally 'such (a rite) where the manes are the deities,' The other explanation, '(rites) p. 27 to the manes or to the gods,' which is also grammatically correct, recommends itself less, because the rites to the gods are already included by the word yagñe, 'at a sacrifice.' As to the Madhuparka, see Âpastamba II, 4, 8, 8-9, and below XI, 1.
27:7 Manu V, 48, and Vishnu LI, 71, where, however, the conclusion of the verse has been altered to suit the ahimsâ-doctrines of the compilers of the metrical Smritis. The reason why slaughter at a sacrifice is not slaughter in the ordinary sense may be gathered from Vishnu LI, 61, 63.
27:8 Satapatha-brâhmana III, 4, I, 2; Yâgñavalkya I, 109. 9-10. Vishnu XIX, 7; Manu V, 58. Regarding the length of the period of impurity, see below, Sûtras 16, 26-29.
27:11 Vishnu XIX, 6.
27:12 Vishnu XIX, 7; Gautama XIV, 40. 'On those days of the period of impurity which are marked by odd numbers,' i.e. 'on the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, as has been declared by Gautama.'--Krishnapandita.
28:14 Vishnu XIX, 16; Gautama XIV, 37.
28:15 Vishnu XIX, 14.
28:17 Vishnu XXII, 5.
28:19 Gautama XIV, 36; Pâraskara Grihya-sûtra III, xo, 42. Others than the blood-relations,' i.e. 'the husband and his relatives.' The MSS. have another Sûtra following this, which Krishnapandita leaves out. Tâska teshâm, 'and they (the married females shall perform the obsequies) of those (i.e. their husbands and his Sapindas).' It seems to me very probable that the passage is genuine, especially as Pâraskara, Grihya-sûtra III, 10, 43, has the same words.
28:20 Vishnu XXII, 1.
28:21 Gautama XIV, 15-16, The Sûtra ought to have been divided into two.
29:23 Vishnu XXII, 35.
29:24 Vishnu XXII, 36.
29:25 Vishnu. XXII, 37. Krishnapandita explains prabhâte, 'on the morning (of the day on which the first period of impurity expires),' in accordance with Nandapandita's explanation of Vishnu's text by 'during the last watch (of the last night of the period of impurity).' See also the slightly different explanation of the identical swords by Haradatta, Gautama XIV, 8.
29:26 Vishnu XXII, 1.
29:29 Vishnu XXII, 4.
30:32 Regarding the penance prescribed here, the so-called anasnatpârâyana, see below XX, 46, and Baudhâyana III, 9.
30:33 Vishnu XXII, 27-30.
30:34 Gautama XIV, 44, and introduction to Gautama, p. liii.
30:36 Introduction to Gautama, pp. liii and liv.
30:37 Vishnu XXII, 69. Krishnapandita and MS. B. read pûya, p. 31 'pus,' instead of yûpa, 'a sacrificial post.' The reading is, however, wrong, because the parallel passages of most Smritis enjoin that a man who has touched a sacrificial post shall bathe. The cause of the mistake is probably a mere clerical error. The MSS. repeat the last word of this chapter, apa ityapah. The reason is not, as Krishnapandita imagines, that the author wishes to indicate the necessity of bathing when one touches a person who has touched some impure thing or person. It is the universal practice of the ancient authors to repeat the last word of a chapter in order to mark its end, see eg. Gautama note on I, 61. If it is neglected in the earlier chapters of the Vâsishtha Dharma-sûtra, the badness of the MSS. is the cause.
31:1 V. Vishnu XXV, 12. The second clause ought to have been given as a separate Sûtra. 'A female who no longer goes naked,' i.e. one who has reached the age of puberty. Amritam, 'is paradise,' i.e. procures bliss in this life and heaven after death through her children.
31:2 Vishnu XXV, 13. Identical with Manu IX, 3.
31:3 'The penance which has been ordained in case a wife is unfaithful to her husband, i.e. goes to a lover and so forth, must be performed in secret, i.e. in solitary places.'--Krishnapandita. The explanation is clearly erroneous. Rahasyeshu cannot mean 'in secret' or 'in secret places.' It might refer either to a. work or works called Rahasyâni or to the rahasyâni prâyaskittâni. As p. 32 the next Sûtra contains a half-verse taken from the section on secret penances, XXVIII, 4, it is evident that Vasishtha here makes a cross-reference. Similar cross-references occur further on.
32:4 Yâgñavalkya I, 72, and below, XXVIII, 4.
32:5 Vishnu XXII, 72.
32:6 Taitt. Samh. II, 5, I, 6-7. I read with the majority of the MSS., grahânna nirîksheta instead of grihân na niriksheta, which latter phrase Krishnapandita renders by 'she shall not look out of the house.' My reading is confirmed by his quotation from the Smritimañgarî, where grahânâm nirîkshanam, 'looking at the planets, i.e. the sun, moon,' &c., is forbidden. 'A large vessel,' i.e. an earthen jar.--Krishnapandita.
32:7 Taitt. Sarah. II, 5, I, 2-5. The name 'slayer of a learned Brâhmana' is applied to Indra, because Vritra is said to have been deeply versed in the Vedas. Regarding the 'proper season of women,' see Manu III, 46-48. In the clause 'That guilt of Brâhmana-murder appears,' &c., I read âvir bhavati with the majority of the MSS. For the prohibition to accept food from a-ragasvalâ, see Vishnu LI, 16-17.
33:8 Taitt. Sarah. II, 5, 1, 6. I read the text of this Sûtra as follows: 'Tadâhuh--añganâbhyañganam evâsyâ na pratigrâhyam taddhi striyâ annam iti--tasmât tasyai ka tatra ka bîbhatsante meyam upâgâd iti.' The MSS. give the following readings in the second clause: tasmât tasmai ka (B. Bh. E. F,), tatra na (F.), medhamupâgâd (Bh. F.), medha upâgâd (E.), seyamupâgâd (B.) Krishnapandita follows as usually MS. B. His explanation of the whole Sûtra is erroneous. 'That is the food of women,' i.e. that is as necessary to women as their food, because to beautify themselves is one of their duties.
33:9 The meaning of the Sûtra is that a Brâhmanical beggar must not accept any alms from Brâhmanas whose wives are in their p. 34 courses, who keep no sacred fire, and do not attend to the duty of Veda-study. Regarding sinners of the latter two kinds, see also Âpastamba I, 6, 18, 32-33.
34:1 VI. Manu IV, 155. The word âkâra, which has been variously translated by 'conduct,' 'rule of conduct,' and 'good conduct,' includes the observance of all the various rules for every-day life, taught in the Smritis, and the performance of the prescribed ceremonies and rites.
34:4 I read with MSS. Bh. and E., shadaṅgâstvakhilâh sayagñâh. The reading of MS. B., which: Krishnapandita adopts, shadaṅgâh sakhilâh means, 'together with the six Aṅgas, (and) the Khila (spurious) portions of the Veda.'
35:5 Isha is another name for Âsvina, the month September-October. Though the rainy season, properly so called, is over in September, still heavy rain falls in many parts of India, chiefly under the influence of the beginning north-east monsoon, and is particularly important for the Rabi or winter crops. I think, therefore, that it is not advisable to take, as Krishnapandita does, yathâ ishe ’bdâh both with the first and the second halves of the verse, and to translate, As the clouds (in general remain barren) in the month of Isha, even so the texts of the Veda do not save from evil the deceitful man who behaves deceitfully. But that Veda, two syllables of which have been studied in the right manner, sanctifies, just as the clouds in the month of Isha, (which shed a few drops of rain on the day of the Svâti conjunction, produce pearls)." 'In the right manner,' i, e, with the due observance of the rules of studentship.
35:6 Identical with Manu IV, 157.
35:7 Manu IV, 156. By the inauspicious marks' mentioned in this verse, and the 'auspicious marks' occurring in the next, the various lines on the hands and feet &c. are meant, the explanation of which forms the subject of the Sâmudrika Sâstra.
35:8 Identical with Manu IV, 158; Vishnu LXXI, 92.
36:10 Vishnu LX, 2. I read with the majority of the MSS., na rishyati.
36:11 Identical with Manu IV, 52.
36:12 Vishnu LX, 3-22.
36:13 Identical with Manu IV, 51.
36:14 Vishnu LX, 24.
36:15 I.e. one may bathe also in a tank or river.
37:18 Vishnu LX, 25.
37:19 Identical with Vishnu LX, 26, and Manu V, 137.
37:20-21. Identical with Âpastamba II, 5, 9, 13, and S. 21, with Sâṅkhâyana, Grihya-sûtra II, 16, 5.
37:22 'Penances (vrata), i.e. the Krikkhras and the rest; self-imposed restraint (niyama), i.e. eating certain food in accordance with a vow, and so forth, during a month or any other fixed period . . . . sacred duties (dharma), i.e. giving gifts and the like.'--Krishnapandita.
38:24 Krishnapandita connects brâhmanadûshanam, translated above by 'speaking evil of Brâhmanas,' with sûdralakshanam, and renders the two words thus, 'the characteristics of a Sûdra which degrade a Brâhmana.'
38:25 'Close their hands,' i.e. are reluctant to accept.
38:26 Krishnapandita takes kimkit, translated by 'some,' to mean 'somewhat,' 'to a certain degree,' i.e. neither very distinguished nor very despicable.
39:32 Manu IV, 188. Read in the text 'evam gâ vâ' instead of 'evam gâvo.'
39:33 Gautama IX, 51.
39:35 Gautama IX, 9.
39:40 Manu IV, 177.
40:42 Manu IV, 177; Gautama IX, 50-51.
40:43 Manu XII, 109.
40:1-2. VII. Gautama III, 2.
40:3 Gautama III, 1.
40:4 Vishnu XXVIII, 43.
40:5 Vishnu XXVIII, 46. I agree with Krishnapandita in thinking that the apparently purposeless particle 'and,' which is used in p. 41 this Sûtra, indicates Vasishtha's approval of the rules given in other Smritis, according to which the student, on the death of the teacher, shall serve the teacher's son, a fellow-student, or the teacher's wife, and the service of the sacred fire is the last resource only. See Vishnu XXVIII, 44-45; Gautama III, 7-8.
41:6 These words form part of one of the Mantras which the teacher recites at the initiation of the student; see e.g. Sâṅkhâyana Grihya-sûtra.
41:7 Gautama II, 13, 22.
41:8 According to Krishnapandita to a kâla, 'hour,' is the eighth part of a day.
41:9 Vishnu XXVIII, 9.
41:10 Vishnu XXVIII, 7.
41:11 Gautama I, 27; Vishnu XXVIII, 41.
41:12 Vishnu XXVIII, 18-22.
41:13 Vishnu XXVIII, 6.
41:14 Vishnu XXVIII, 10; Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 25.
42:15 Gautama II, 13.
42:16 Vishnu XXVIII, 2-3. The prayers intended are, the so walled Sandhyâs, which are recited at daybreak and in the evening.
42:17 Gautama II, 8. 'Three times a day,' i.e. morning, noon, and evening. Krishnapandita thinks that he shall perform three ablutions at midday.
Source: The Sacred Laws of the Âryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) . The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.
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