The Baudhayana Dharma Sutra Part 2

by Georg Bühler

Contents

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 1, KANDIKÂ 1 Scroll Up

1. Now, therefore, the penances (will be described).

2. The murderer of a learned Brâhmana (shall practise the following vow) during twelve years: 2

3. Carrying a skull (instead of a dish) and the foot of a bedstead (instead of a staff), dressed in the hide of an ass, staying in the forest, making a dead man's skull his flag, he shall cause a hut to be built in a burial-ground and reside there; going to seven houses in order to beg food, while proclaiming his deed, he shall support life with what (he gets there), and shall fast if he obtains nothing;

4. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Gosava, or an Agnishtut 4

5. Or he may bathe (with the priests) on the completion of a horse-sacrifice (offered by somebody else). 5

6. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He who unintentionally slays a Brâhmana becomes sinful according to the sacred law. The sages declare that he may be purified (if he did it) unintentionally. But no expiation is found for a wilful murderer.' 6

7. He who has raised his hand (against a Brâhmana), shall perform a Krikkhra penance, an Atikrikkhra penance if he strikes, a Krikkhra and a Kândrâyana if blood flows. Therefore let him neither raise his hand nor cause blood to flow.' 7

8. (For killing) a Kshatriya (he shall keep the normal vow of continence) during nine years, 8

9. (For killing) a Vaisya during three (years),

10. (For killing) a Sûdra during one year,

11. Likewise for killing a woman. 11

12. (The penance for killing) a woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (is) the same (as that) for (the murder of) a Brâhmana. 12

13. He who has defiled the bed of a Guru shall place himself on a heated iron bed, 13

14. Or embrace a red hot image (of a woman),

15. Or cutting off his organ together with the testicles and holding them in his joined hands, he shall walk towards the south-west until he falls down (dead).

16. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying on his shoulder a club of Sindhraka wood (and say), 'Strike me with that.' (Then the king) shall strike him. 16

17. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'A thief shall go to the king carrying a club on his shoulder (and say to him), 'Punish me with that, O king, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas.' 17

'Whether he be punished or be pardoned, the thief is freed from his guilt. But if the king does not punish him, that guilt of the thief falls on him.'

18. If he has drunk (the spirituous liquor called) Surâ, he shall scald himself to death with hot (liquor of the) same (kind). 18

19. For unintentionally drinking (Surâ), he shall perform Krikkhra penances during three months and be initiated again, 19

20. And (on this second initiation) the cutting (of 20 the hair and nails), the vows, and (the observance of the) restrictive rules may be omitted.

21. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'A Brâhmana, Kshatriya, or Vaisya who has unintentionally drunk (the spirituous liquor called) Vârunî or has swallowed urine or faeces must be initiated a second time.' 21

22. 'But he who drinks water which has stood in a vessel, used for keeping Surâ, shall live six days on milk in which (leaves of) the Saṅkhapushpî plant have been boiled.' 22

23. If (a pupil) who is employed by his teacher (on some errand) meets with his death, (the teacher) shall perform three Krikkhra penances. 23

24. The same (penance) is prescribed for not finishing (the education of the pupil). 24

25. If a student assists at the burial of anybody except (at that of his) mother, of his father, or of his teacher, he must begin his vow afresh. 25

26. If a (student) is sick, he may, at his pleasure, eat all the fragments of his teacher's meal as medicine. 26

27. He may physic himself with any (medicine) which he may desire. 27

28. When he is unable to move, he may worship the sun, after he has risen, reciting this (Rik verse): A swan, dwelling in purity.' 28

29. When he has spent his manly strength in the day-time, let him thrice drink water that reaches his heart, reciting the verses which contain the word retas. 29

30. A student who approaches a woman (is called) an Avakîrnin, 30

31. Let him offer an ass (in the place of) a sacrificial animal.

32. The sacrificial meat-cake (purodâsa shall be offered) to Nirriti, or to the Râkshasas, or to Yama.

33. It is declared in the Veda, 'The piece to be eaten by the sacrificer (prâsitra, shall be taken) from the organ (of the animal); and the (other) portions shall be offered in water.' 33

34. 'Or he may also heap (fuel) on the fire in the night of the new moon, perform the preparatory rites required for the Darvîhoma, and offer two 34 oblations of clarified butter (reciting these two sacred texts): "O Lust, I have broken my vow; my vow have I broken, O Lust; to Lust Svâhâ;" "O Lust, I have done evil; evil have I done, O Lust; to Lust Svâhâ."'

35. 'After he has made the offering, he shall address the fire, closely joining his hands, turning sideways (with the following texts): "May the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may Brihaspati, may this fire grant me long life and strength, may it make me long-lived! "'

36. Now the relatives shall empty (the water-pot) of a (grievous offender) at a (solemn) meeting (and he shall confess), 'I N. N. am (the perpetrator of) such and such (a deed).' After (the outcast) has performed (his penance) the Brâhmanas shall ask him who has touched water, milk, clarified butter, honey, and salt, 'Hast thou performed (thy penance)?' The other (person) shall answer, 'Om' (yes)! They shall admit him who has performed (a penance) to all sacrificial rites, making no difference (between him and others). 36

37. If he unintentionally marries a female who belongs to his own family (gotra), he shall support her, (treating her) like his mother. 37

38. If (such a woman) has borne a child; he shall perform Krikkhra penances during three months and offer (two burnt oblations reciting) the two (Mantras), 'That which is the blemish of my soul' (and) 'Fire restored my sight.' 38

39. 'An elder brother whose younger brother marries first, the younger brother who marries first, the damsel wedded (by the latter), he who gives her away, and fifthly, he who sacrifices for them (at the wedding), all sink to a region of torment.' 39

40. The unmarried elder brother and the married younger brother, the giver (of the maiden) and the performer of the sacrifices become pure by undergoing a Krikkhra penance of twelve days, the female (who has been wedded to the younger brother) by (fasting during) three days.' 40

Footnotes Scroll Up

211:2-3. 1. Gautama XXII, 4-6; Vishnu L, I-3, 15. The expression 'staying in the forest' means that the sinner shall not stop in the village or the fields during the day-time, but live in some uncultivated tract in the neighbourhood.

211:4 Gautama XIX, 9-10. The Gosava sacrifice is an Ekâha see Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra XXII, 11, 3.

212:5 Gautama XXII, 9.

212:6 Manu XI, 90.

212:7 Yâgñavalkya III, 293. Regarding the penances named, see Vasishtha XXI, 20, XXIV, 1-2, XXIII, 45, and below, II, 1, 2, 38, IV, 5, 6.

212:8-10. Vasishtha XX, 31-33. The words 'shall keep the normal vow of continence' have been inserted in accordance with Govinda's explanation, which apparently is based on Gautama XXII, 14. But it is also possible that Baudhâyana, like Vishnu (L, 15) and others, may have intended murderers of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, &c., too, to perform the penance prescribed above, Sûtra 4, only for shorter periods.

212:11 Gautama XXII, 17. Govinda is of opinion that the word ka, 'likewise,' is intended to include 'worthless' Kshatriyas and Vaisyas.

212:12 Vasishtha XX, 34-35.

213:13-15. Gautama XXIII, 8-10; Vasishtha XX, 13, 14.

213:16 Vasishtha XX, 41. 'A thief,' i.e. one who has stolen gold from a Brâhmana.

213:17 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 4-5.

213:18 Vasishtha XX, 22. Surâ, i.e. the spirituous liquor extracted from rice, to drink which is considered a particularly heinous crime. Vasishtha XX, 19, and loc. cit.

213:19 Vasishtha XX, 19.

213:20 Vishnu LI, 5. The vows and restrictive rules, i.e. the Sâvitrya vow, begging, &c.

214:21 Vishnu LI, 2-4.

214:22 Vishnu LI, 23.

214:23 Vasishtha XXIII, 10.

214:24 'Finishing (the education of the pupil, samskritam), i.e. teaching him the rules of purification, of conduct, and so forth; failing (to do) that (is called) not finishing (the education of the pupil). For that (omission) the same (penance), i.e. three Krikkhras (are to be) performed.'--Govinda.

214:25 Vasishtha XXIII; 7-8. 'Assists at a burial (savakarma), i.e. lays out a corpse, and so forth (alamkaranâdi), or carries it out, and so forth.'--Govinda.

214:26 Vasishtha XXIII, 9, and note.

214:27 'The meaning is that he may cure himself even with such p. 215 (substances) which are forbidden even to his teacher, e.g. garlic, and so forth.' For a Smriti declares,' He shall protect himself by every means.'--Govinda.

215:28 'Unable to move,' i.e. sick. This is a penance to be performed by a sick. student when he is unable to fulfil the rules enjoining the morning and evening prayers, and the like; and it applies to other men also because there is no objection. Regarding the Mantra, see Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 8, 15, 2.

215:29 The rule refers to intercourse with a wife in the day-time; see Vishnu LIII, 4. The Retasyâs occur Taittirîya Âranyaka I, 30.

215:30 Vasishtha XXIII, 1.

215:33 Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra I, 1, 15.

215:34 Taitt. Âranyaka II, r 8. The Âranyaka has, more appropriately, pranîya, 'having taken out,' before upasamâdhâya, 'may heap (fuel) upon.' The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. insert the words 'amritam p. 216 vâ âgyam amritam evâtman dhatte,' which occur also in the Âranyaka, after the Mantra. According to Govinda parikeshtâ, 'preparatory rites,' refers to the consecration of the clarified butter, and so forth, The special rules regarding the Darvîhomas are given Kâtyâyana Srauta Sûtra VI, 10, 17 seq.

216:36 Vasishtha XV, 12-21. Govinda thinks that nirvisesham savanîyam kuryuh, 'they shall admit him to all sacrificial rites, making no difference,' may also be interpreted by 'they shall perform for him the sacraments just as for a new-born child.'

216:37 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCXL.

217:38 The Mantras are found, Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 2, 5, 4.

217:39 Vasishtha XX, 7-8. The MSS. read parivittih parivettâ yas kainâm [nam] parivindati. But it is absolutely necessary to adopt either the various reading given Manu III, 172, yayâ ka parividyate, or to read yâ kainam parivindati.

217:40 The MSS. all read at the end of the verse, tristrirâtrena or dvistrirâtrena. The correct reading appears, however, to be strî trirâtrena; for Govinda says, yayâ saha parivettâ bhûtas [bhûttasya C. L, bhûtassâstri C. T.] tasyâs trirâtrenopavâsena suddhih, 'the purification of that female with whom he has become a parivettri takes place through three days, i.e. through fasting (three days).'

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 1, KANDIKÂ 2 Scroll Up

1. Now (follow the offences) causing loss of caste (patanîya), 1

2. (Viz.) making voyages by sea, 2

3. Stealing the property of a Brâhmana or a deposit,

4. Giving false evidence regarding land,

5. Trading with merchandise of any description (whether forbidden or not),

6. Serving Sûdras,

7. Begetting a son on a female of the Sûdra caste, 7

8. And becoming thereby her son. 8

9. (For those who have) committed one of these (offences the following penance is prescribed); 9

10. 'They shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, bathe at the time of the three libations (morning, noon, and evening), passing (the day) standing and (the night) sitting. After the lapse of three years they throw off their guilt.' 10

11. 'A Brâhmana removes the sin which he committed by serving the black race during one day and one night, if he bathes during three years at every fourth meal-time.' 11

12. Now (follow) the minor offences, entailing loss of caste (upapâtaka), 12

13. (Viz.) intercourse with females who must not be approached (agamyâ, e.g.) cohabitation with the female friend of a female Guru, with the female friend of a male Guru, with an Apapâtra woman, and a female outcast, following the profession of medicine, sacrificing for many, living by (performances on) the stage, following the profession of a teacher of dancing, singing and acting, tending cows and buffalos, and similar (low occupations, as well as) fornication. 13

14. The expiation (prescribed) for these (offences is) to live as an outcast during two years. 14

15. Now (follow the offences) which make men impure (asukikara), 15

16. (Viz.) gambling, performing incantations, subsisting by gleaning corn though one does not perform an Agnihotra, subsisting by alms after one has finished one's studentship, living, after that has been finished, longer than four months in the house of one's teacher, and teaching such a (person who has finished his studentship), gaining one's livelihood by astrology and so forth. 16

17. But the expiation of these (offences is to perform penances) during twelve months, during twelve fortnights, during twelve times ten days, during twelve se’nnights, during twelve times three days, during twelve days, during six days, during three days, during a day and a night, during one day, in proportion to the offence committed. 17

18. Now outcasts shall live together and (together) fulfil their duties, sacrificing for each other, teaching each other, and marrying amongst each other. If they have begot sons, they shall say to them, 'Depart from among us; thus you will again reach the Âryas.' 18

19. For the organs do not become impure together with the man.

20. (The truth of) that may be learned from this (parallel case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son who has the full number of limbs.

21. Hârîta declares that this is wrong.

22. For wives may be (considered) similar to the vessel which contains the curds (for the sacrifice). If one makes impure milk curdle in a milk-vessel and stirs it, the Sishtas do not use the (curds thus produced) for sacred rites.

23. In like manner no intercourse can be held with that (offspring) which is produced from impure seed.

24. If they desire it, (they may perform) a penance,

25. (Viz. in the case of males) the third part (of the penance prescribed) for crimes causing loss of caste (patanîya); for females the third part (of that). 25

26. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'If he applies sesamum to any other purpose, but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born again as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.' 26

27. He who sells sesamum, forsooth, sells his ancestors; he who sells rice, forsooth, sells his life; he who gives away his daughter, making a bargain, forsooth, sells portions of his spiritual merit.

28. Grass and wood, in its natural state, may be sold. 28

29. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Animals that have teeth in one jaw only, as well as minerals excepting salt, and undyed thread, these, O Brâhmana, are the goods which thou art permitted to sell.' 29

30. (If he has committed) any offence excepting a 30 mortal sin (pâtaka) he may either give to a learned Brâhmana (anûkâna) a hairy cow of brown or red-dish colour, after sprinkling her with clarified butter and scattering black sesamum seeds over her;

31. Or (he may offer burnt oblations), reciting the Kûshmândas, during twelve days, 31

32. '(Thus) he will be freed. from the guilt (of any crime that is) less (heinous) than the murder of a learned Brâhmana.'

33. If one is accused of a mortal sin (pâtaka), a Krikkhra (penance must be performed by the accused). 33

34. The accuser (shall perform) that (Krikkhra penance during) a year. 34

35. 'He who during a year associates with an outcast, becomes (likewise) an outcast; not by sacrificing for him, by teaching him or by (forming) a matrimonial (alliance with him), but by using the same carriage or seat.' 35

36. The penance for eating impure substances is to fast until the entrails are empty. That is attained in seven (days and) nights. 36

37. (Subsisting on) water, milk, clarified butter, (and) fasting,--each for three days,--(and taking the three fluids) hot, that is a Taptakrikkhra penance. 37

38. (Eating) during three days in the morning only, during the (next) three days in the evening only, (subsisting) during (another) three days (on) food given unasked, and fasting during three days, (that is) a Krikkhra penance. 38

39. (If the period of twelve days is divided into) three (periods of) four days, that is the Krikkhra penance of, women, children, and aged men. 39

40. If (observing the rule given) above one eats (at each meal) so much only as one can take at one (mouthful), that is an Atikrikkhra penance. 40

41. (If one) subsists on water only, that is a Krikkhrâtikrikkhra, the third (in the order of the Krikkhra penances). 41

42. During a Krikkhra penance (the following rules must be followed, viz.) to bathe at morn, noon, and evening, 42

43. To sleep on the ground,

44. To wear one garment only, to shave the hair of the head, of the beard, and of the body, and to clip the nails.

45. The same (rules apply) to women except (that referring to) shaving the head.

Footnotes Scroll Up

217:1 2. Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 7-11.

217:2 Govinda explains samudrasamyânam, 'making voyages by sea,' by 'voyaging by means of ships to another continent (dvîpa).'

218:7 The MSS. from Gugarât and the Dekhan read instead of-this and the next Sûtras, yaska sûdrâyâm abhipragâyate tadapatyam ka bhavati, 'and he who begets (offspring) on a Sûdra female, and thereby becomes her son.'

218:8 Govinda explains the Sûtra as a prohibition against allowing oneself to be adopted by a Sûdra (sûdraputrabhâvah | tavâham putro ’smîty upagîvanam).

218:9 The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. again have a different reading, teshâm to nisveshah, 'but the atonement of these offences (is as follows).'

218:10 Âpastamba I, 9, 25, 10. All the MSS. read in the last pâda 'tribhir varshais tad apahanti pâpam.' The correct reading is that given by Âpastamba loc. cit., 'tribhir varshair apa pâpam nudante.'

218:11 Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 11. Govinda explains the Sûtra as referring to cohabitation with a female of the 'black race.' By the latter term he understands a Kândâlî, adding that others believe p. 219 a Sûdra female to be intended. It is, however, more probable that Baudhâyana took the verse to forbid twice-born men to serve Sûdras.

219:12 Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 9.

219:13 Gautama XXI, is. In explanation of the term agamyâ, a female who must not be approached,' Govinda quotes Nârada XII, 73-74, and he takes the four classes of females, who are specially mentioned, not as examples illustrating the term agamyâ, but as not included in and additional to the latter. Physicians and the other professional men enumerated are usually not mentioned among the upapâtakins, but occur in the lists of those whose gifts must not be accepted, and of those who defile the, company at a funeral dinner, eg. Vasishtha III, 3; XIV, 2, 3, 11. The expression 'sacrificing for many' (grâmayâganam) appears to be a description of the so-called 'Yagamâna Vritti, by which the modern Bhattagîs, or priests who officiate for hire, subsist. In explanation of the term nâtyâkâryatâ, 'following the profession of teaching dancing, music, and acting,' Govinda says that 'instruction in the works of Bharata, Visâkhila, and others' is intended. Baudhâyana no doubt intends to forbid the instruction of professional dancers and actors in actual works on their art, such as the nâtya-sûtras mentioned by Pânini.

219:14 'To live as an outcast, i.e. to subsist by begging.'--Govinda.

220:15 Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 12-19; I, 10, 29, 15.

220:16 Govinda is probably right in asserting that the word ka, 'and (so forth),' is intended to include other not-named offences.

220:17 Âpastamba I, 10, 29, 17-18.

220:18-23. Âpastamba I, 10, 29, 8-14.

221:25 I.e. males shall live, according to the rules given above in Sûtras 10-11, during one year, and females during four months.

221:26 Vasishtha II, 30.

221:28 Âpastamba I, 7, 21, 2.

221:29 The permission to sell 'stones' or minerals contradicts Vasishtha II, 24.

221:30 Regarding the definition of the term 'anûkâna,' see above, I, 11, 21, 13.

222:31 Regarding the efficacy of the Kûshmânda texts, see eg. Gautama XIX, 12; XXII, 36.

222:33 Vasishtha XXIII, 37-38.

222:34 Vasishtha XXIII, 39.

222:35 Vasishtha I, 22.

222:36 Âpastamba I, 9, 27, 3-4; Vasishtha XXIII, 30. I follow here the Gugarât and Dekhan MSS., which read amedhyaprâsane prâyaskittir naishpurîshyam tat saptarâtrenâvâpyate. M. and the two MSS. of the commentary give amedhyaprâsane prâyaskittam and leave the remainder out. The commentary states that the penance intended is the Taptakrikkhra, described in the next Sutra. The parallel passages of Âpastamba and others leave no doubt that the northern MSS. in this case have preserved the older form of the text.

223:37 Vasishtha XXI, 21.

223:38 Vasishtha XXI, 20. M. and the two MSS. of the commentary omit the word 'krikkhrah' at the end of the Sûtra.

223:39 Vasishtha XXIII, 43.

223:40 Vasishtha XXIV, 2.

223:41 Vasishtha XXIV, 3. Govinda gives another explanation of the word tritîyah, 'the third,' according to which it is to refer to the third tryahah, or 'period of three days.'

223:42-44. Vasishtha XXIV, 4-5.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 2, KANDIKÂ 3 Scroll Up

1. A Brâhmana who always carries water (in his pot), who always wears the sacred thread, who daily recites the Veda, who avoids the food of Sûdras, who approaches (his wife) in the proper season, and offers sacrifices in accordance with the rules (of the Veda, after death) never falls from Brahman's heaven. 1

2. The Veda (says), 'Manu divided his estate among his sons.' 2

3. (A father may, therefore, divide his property) equally among all, without (making any) difference; 3

4. Or the eldest may receive the most excellent chattel. 4

5. (For) the Veda says, 'Therefore, they distinguish the eldest by (an additional share of the) property. 5

6. Or the eldest may receive (in excess) one part out of ten; 6

7. (And) the other (sons) shall receive equal shares. 7

8. While the father lives, the division of the estate takes place (only) with the permission of the father. 8

9. The (additional) share of the eldest is, (according to the order) of the four castes, a cow, a horse, a goat, and a sheep. 9

10. If there are sons born of wives of different castes (varna), they should make ten portions of the ancestral property and take four (shares), three, two, (and) one, according to the order (of the castes). 10

11. But if a legitimate son of the body (aurasa) is born, the (other) sons of equal caste shall obtain one third share (of the estate). 11

12. If there is a son of equal caste and a son of 12 a wife of the next lower caste, the son born of the wife of the next lower caste may take the share of the eldest, provided he be endowed with good qualities.

13. (A son) who possesses good qualities becomes the protector of the rest. 13

14. One must know a son begotten by (the husband) himself on a wedded wife of equal caste (to be) a legitimate son of the body (aurasa). 14

Now they quote also (the following verse): 'From the several limbs (of my body) art thou produced, from my heart art thou born; thou art "self" called a son; mayest thou live a hundred autumns.' 15

15. The (male child) born of a daughter, after an agreement has been made, (one must know to be) the son of an appointed daughter (putrikâputra); any other (male offspring of a daughter they call) a daughter's son (dauhitra).

16. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'The son of an appointed daughter should offer the first funeral cake to his mother, the second to her father, and the third to his father's father.'

17. He who is begotten, by another man, on the wife of a deceased man, of a eunuch, or of one (incurably) diseased, after permission (has been given), is called the son begotten on a wife (kshetraga). 17

18. Such a (son begotten on a wife) has two fathers and belongs to two families; he has a right to perform the funeral oblations, and to inherit the property of (his) two (fathers). 18

19. Now they quote also (the following verse): The son of two fathers shall give the funeral cakes (to his two fathers, and pronounce) two names with each oblation, and three cakes shall serve for six persons; he who acts thus will not err.'

20. He (is called) an adopted son (datta) who, being given by his father and his mother, or by either of the two, is received in the place of a child. 20

21. He (is called) a son made (kritrima) whom (a mail) himself makes (his son), with the (adoptee's) consent (only), and who belongs to the same caste (as the adopter). 21

22. He is called a son born secretly (gûdhagga) who is secretly born in the house and whose (origin is) afterwards (only) recognised. 22

23. He is called a son cast off (apaviddha) who, being, cast off by his father and his mother, or by either (of them), is received in the place of a child. 23

24. If anybody approaches an unmarried girl without the permission (of her father or guardian), the son born by such (a woman is called) the son of an unmarried damsel (kânîna). 24

25. If one marries either knowingly or unknowingly a pregnant bride, the child which is born of her is called (a son) taken with the bride (sahodha). 25

26. He (is called a son) bought (krîta) who, being purchased from his father and his mother, or from either of them, is received in the place of a child. 26

27. He (is called the son) of a twice-married woman (paunarbhava) who is born of a re-married female, (i.e.) of one who, having left an impotent man, has taken a second husband. 27

28. He (is called) a self-given (son, svayamdatta) who, abandoned by his father and his mother, gives himself (to a stranger). 28

29. He who is begotten by (a man of) the first twice-born (caste) on a female of the Sûdra caste (is called) a Nishâda.

30. (He who was begotten by the same parents) through lust (is called) a Pârasava. Thus (the various kinds of) sons (have been enumerated). 30

31. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'They declare the legitimate son, the son of an appointed daughter, the son begotten on a wife, the adopted son and the son made, the son born secretly and the son cast off, (to be entitled) to share the inheritance.' 31

32. 'They declare the son of an unmarried damsel and the son received with the bride, the son bought, 32 likewise the son of a twice-married female, the son self-given and the Nishâda, to be members of the family.'

33. Aupagandhani (declares that) the first among them alone (is entitled to inherit, and a member of his father's family). 33

34. 'Now, O Ganaka, I jealously watch my wives, (though I did) not (do it) formerly; for they have declared in Yama's court that the son belongs to the begetter. The giver of the seed carries off the son, after death, in Yama's hall, Therefore they carefully protect their wives, fearing the seed of strangers.'

35. 'Carefully watch (the procreation of your) offspring, lest strange seed fall on your soil. After death the son belongs to the begetter; through carelessness a husband makes (the procreation of) a son useless.'

36. Let them carefully protect the shares of 36 those who are minors, as well as the increments (thereon).

37. Granting food, clothes, (and shelter), they shall support those who are incapable of transacting legal business, 37

38. (Viz.) the blind, idiots, those immersed in vice, the incurably diseased, and so forth, 38

39. Those who neglect their duties and occupations; 39

40. But not the outcast nor his offspring. 40

41. Intercourse with outcasts shall not take place.

42. But he shall support an outcast mother, without speaking to her.

43. The daughters shall obtain the ornaments of their mother, (as many as are) presented according to the custom (of the caste), or anything else (that may be given according to custom). 43

44. Women do not possess independence. 44

45. Now they quote also (the following verse): Their father protects (them) in childhood, their husband protects (them) in youth, and their sons protect (them) in old age a woman is never fit for independence.' 45

46. The Veda declares, 'Therefore women are considered to be destitute of strength and of a portion.' 46

47. Those (women) who strive (to do what is) agreeable to their husbands will gain heaven. 47

48. But for a violation (of their duty towards the husband) a Krikkhra penance (must be performed). 48

49. (For violating it) with a Sûdra (a woman) shall perform a lunar penance (kândrâyana);

50. (For violating it) against the order of the castes with a Vaisya and so forth, she shall perform a Krikkhra or an (Atikrikkhra) penance.

51. For male (offenders, i.e.) Brâhmanas and so forth, a year's chastity (is prescribed). 51

52. Let him burn a Sûdra (who commits adultery with an Âryan) in a straw-fire. 52

53. Now they quote also (the following verses):

Footnotes Scroll Up

224:1 3. Vasishtha VIII, 17.

224:2 Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 1, 9, 4.

224:3 Colebrooke V, Dig. XL. Govinda points out that this rule refers to sons equal by caste, origin, and virtue.

224:4 Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Vishnu XVIII, 37.

224:5 Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 5, 2, 7. See also the discussion on this text, Âpastamba II, 6, 14, 10-13.

224:6 Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Vasishtha XVII, 43.

224:7 Colebrooke, loc. cit.; Gautama XXVIII, 8.

224:8 Colebrooke V, Dig. XXII; Dâyabhâga II, 8. In C.'s Digest p. 225 the first clause is omitted and connected with the following Sûtra. Govinda agrees with Gîmûtavâhana.

225:9 Colebrooke V, Dig. XLIX. The rule is an explanation of the term varam rûpam, 'the most excellent chattel,' in Sûtra 4. The meaning probably is, as the Digest states, that among Brâhmanas it is usual to give to the eldest a bull, among Kshatriyas a horse, and so forth.

225:10 Vasishtha XVII, 48-50; Vishnu XVIII, 2-40 where the several cases that can arise have been fully worked out.

225:11 I translate according to the reading of K., M., and the two MSS. of the commentary, aurase tûtpanne savarnâs [°nas, M., K.] trittyâmsaharâh [°yâmsam haret, K.] The other MSS. omit the last two words of the Sûtra. The sense of the Sûtra seems to be, that subsidiary sons of equal caste obtain a third of the estate when a legitimate son of the body is born to their father; see also Kâtyâyana V, Dig. CCXVIII. Govinda gives the following explanation: aurasah savarnaputrâs ka vakshyante | aurasah savarnâyâm samskritâyâm svayam utpâditah [Sûtra 14] | tasminnutpanne savarnâs tritîyâmsaharâ bhaveyuh | sarvam dhanagâtam tredhâ vibhagya teshâm ekam shodasa sampâdya trîn dvâvekam iti kalpayet || 'The legitimate son and the sons of equal caste will be described (below). He is called a legitimate son who is begotten by the husband himself on a wedded wife of equal caste. When such a one is born, the (other) sons of equal caste shall obtain one third share. Dividing the whole property into three parts, and making one of them sixteen (?), he shall give three, two, one.'--Govinda.

225:12 Colebrooke V, Dig. CLVII; Dâyabhâga IX, 15.

226:13 Colebrooke, loc. cit.

226:14 Colebrooke V, Dig. CXCVI; Vasishtha XVII, 13. The verse is found in the Mahâbhârata and elsewhere.

226:15 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXIII; Vasishtha XVII, 15-17.

226:17 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXXXVII; Dâyabhâga II, 60; Vasishtha XVII, 14.

227:18 Colebrooke Dig., loc. cit.

227:20 Vasishtha XVII, 28.

227:21 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXXXIV; Gautama XXVIII, 32.

227:22 Vasishtha XVII, 24.

227:23 Vishnu XV, 24-25.

227:24 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXI; Vasishtha XVII, 21-23. It must be understood that the father must belong to the same caste as the girl.

228:25 Vasishtha XVII, 27.

228:26 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCLXXXI; Vasishtha XVII, 30-32.

228:27 Vasishtha XVII, 18-20.

228:28 Vasishtha XVII, 33-35.

228:30 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCXCIII. Govinda points out that the Pârasava is, according to Baudhâyana, the offspring of a Sûdrâ concubine, not of a Sûdrâ wife. But see also above, I, 9, 17, 4.

228:31 Colebrooke V, Dig. CLXXX; Vasishtha XVII, 25.

228:32 Colebrooke V, Dig. CLXXIX; Vasishtha XVII, 26.

229:33-34. Aupagandhani is one of the ancient teachers of the White Yagur-veda, mentioned in the lists incorporated in the Satapatha-brâhmana XIV, 5, 5, 21; 7, 3, 26. The legends of the White Yagur-veda frequently mention king Ganaka of Videha, and assert that that philosopher king had frequent and intimate intercourse with Yâgñavalkya and other teachers of the Veda which Âditya revealed. It seems to me, therefore, highly probable that Govinda is right in taking the vocative ganaka in Sûtra 34 as a proper name, and in asserting that the verse belongs to a conversation between Aupagandhani and Ganaka. This explanation, which possibly may be based on an ancient tradition of Baudhâyana's school, is certainly preferable to Haradatta's statement on Âpastamba II, 6, 13, 7, that these verses express the sentiments of a husband who had neglected to watch his wives, and later learned that he would not derive any spiritual benefit from their offspring. In the text of Sûtra 34 I read with the Dekhan MSS. and Âpastamba, loc. cit., îrshyâmi, instead of ishyâmi, which M. and the commentary give.

229:36 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCLII; Vasishtha XVI, 8, 9. 'The p. 230 increments, i.e. the proper interest. Thus the money of minors shall bear interest,'--Govinda.

230:37 Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCXXVIII; Dâyabhâga V, 12; Vyavahâramayûkha IV, 11, so; Vasishtha XVII, 52-54.

230:38 Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit. 'The expression "and so forth" includes hunchbacks and other (disabled) persons.'--Govinda. Vyasanin, 'immersed in vice,' may also mean 'afflicted by calamities,' and is perhaps intended to be taken both ways.

230:39 Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit. Akarminas, 'those who neglect their duties and occupations,' I.e. those who though able (to fulfil their duties are) indolent.--Govinda.

230:40 Colebrooke and Mayûkha, loc. cit.; Burnell, Dâyabhâga 49. 42, Gautama XXI, 15, and note.

230:43 Colebrooke V, Dig. CXXX; Vasishtha XVII, 46. 'Sâmpradâyikam (literally "customary") qualifies (the word) ornaments; sâmpradâyikam (means) what is obtained according to custom; what is given to their mother by the maternal grandfather and grandmother, that (is called) sâmpradâyikam. "Or anything else," (viz.) presented according to custom, (e.g.) a bedstead and the p. 231 like, a couch, and an outer garment, and the like. So much and nothing else shall the daughters receive.'--Govinda.

231:44 Vasishtha V, s. All the MSS. of the text read na strîsvâtantryam vidyate, while the text given by the two copies of the commentary has na strî svâtantryam vindate. Govinda asserts that the Sûtra is intended to forbid the independent action of women with respect to things inherited. The correct view probably is that with this Sûtra the topic of the duties and rights of women begins, and that the rule contains a general maxim.

231:45 Vasishtha V, 2.

231:46 Colebrooke V, Dig. CXXXI. The text is in great confusion. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., except K., read, na dâyam nirindriyâ hyadâyâs ka striyo matâ iti srutih; K. has, tasmât[n]nirindriyâ hy. st. m. i. sru. || tasmât striyo nirindriyâ adâyâdîr api pâpât; while M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary have, tasmânnirindriyâ adâyâs ka striyo matâ iti srutih [sûtih, M.] The Telugu copy is mutilated, and reads nâdayantiriti srutih. Though the reading of the Dekhan MSS. is supported by Mitramisra Vîramitrodaya, fol. 209, p. I, 1. 3, it is certainly not the original one, for there is no verb by which the accusative 'dâyam' is governed. Mitramisra's attempt to make it depend on 'arhati' in the verse quoted in Sûtra 45 is futile, because, according to the usage of the Sûtrakâras, a Sûtra may be completed by a verb taken frost another original aphorism of the author, but cannot be connecter with a portion of a quotation taken from some other work. This same principle, of course, applies not only to Sûtras, but to the writings of all other authors, whether Indian or European. The reading of K., M., and of the I. O. copy of the commentary is not open to the objection just mentioned, and therefore preferable. But it seems to me highly probable that, nevertheless, it is not p. 232 quite genuine; for the word 'tasmât,' with which it begins, is not required, because its sense is already expressed by the following hi,' and because the Sûtra apparently contains half an Anushtubh Sloka, which the insertion of tasmât destroys. It is also easy to see how it came to be inserted. Every Yagurvedî who read the passage would be reminded of the analogous passage of the Taittirîya Samhitâ VI, 5, 8, 2, 'tasmât striyo nirindriyâ adâyâdîr api pâpât pumsah upastitaram,' which in K. has actually been inserted after our Sûtra. In the Vedic Mantra 'tasmât' is required, and is certainly the genuine reading. Hence it seems to have been transferred into Baudhâyana's text, possibly by the mistake of some scribe who, according to the habit of his kind, took a marginal reference to the beginning of the Vedic passage for a correction of the text. In my opinion it must be thrown out. The sense of the half verse remains exactly the same. It corresponds to Manu IX, 18. According to Govindasvâmin and others its object is to show that women are incapable of inheriting, and the word dâya, 'portion,' must be taken in the sense of 'a share of the inheritance.' For a full discussion of this point, I refer to the Introductory Note on Book I, Chapter II, Sect. 14 of West and Miller's Digest of H. L. C., third edition.

232:47 Vishnu XXV, 15, 17; Vasishtha XXI, 14.

232:48-50. Vasishtha XXI, 6-13.

232:51 Govinda points out that this rule refers to adultery with women of equal caste, and thinks that the word 'chastity' indicates that Krikkhra penances are to be performed; Vasishtha XXI, 16, 17; Vishnu LIII, 2. But see Gautama XXII, 29.

233:52 Vasishtha XXI, 1, 5.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 2, KANDIKÂ 4 Scroll Up

1. 'Anybody but a Brâhmana shall suffer corporal punishment for adultery.' 1

2. 'The wives (of men) of all castes must be guarded more carefully than wealth.' 2

3. 'But corporal punishment (shall) not (be inflicted) for (adultery with) the wives of minstrels and with those who appear on the stage. For (the husbands) carry them (to other men), or, lying concealed (at home), permit them to hold culpable intercourse.' 3

4. 'Women (possess) an unrivalled means of purification; they never become (entirely) foul. For month by month their temporary uncleanness removes their sins.' 4

5. 'Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva their melodious voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs); therefore women are free from stains.' 5

6. 'Let him abandon a barren (wife) in the tenth year, one who bears daughters (only) in the twelfth, one whose children (all) die in the fifteenth, but her who is quarrelsome without delay.' 6

7. A widow shall avoid during a year (the use of) honey, meat, spirituous liquor, and salt, and sleep on the ground. 7

8. Maudgalya (declares that she shall do so) during six months.

9. After (the expiration of) that (time) she may, with the permission of her Gurus, bear a son to her brother-in-law, in case she has no son. 9

10. Now they quote also (the following verse): One whose appointment can have no result, (viz.) a barren woman, one who has borne sons, one who is past child-bearing, one whose children are (all) dead, and one who is unwilling must not be appointed.' 10

11. The sister of a maternal uncle and of the father, a sister, a sister's daughter, a daughter-in-law, a maternal uncle's wife, and the wife of a 11

friend are females who must never be approached (agamyâ).

12. For intercourse with females who must not be approached (agamyâ), a Krikkhra and an Atikrikkhra (and) a Kândrâyana are the penances prescribed for all.

13. Thereby (the rule regarding) intercourse with a female of the Kandâla caste has been declared. 13

14. Now they quote also (the following verses): A Brâhmana who unintentionally approaches a female of the Kandâla caste, eats (food given by a Kandâla) or receives (presents from him), becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he becomes equal (to a Kandâla). 14

15. 'He who approaches his father's, his teacher's, or a king's wife, is guilty of the crime of violating a Guru's bed; the penance ordained for him has been declared above.' 15

16. (A Brâhmana) who is unable (to subsist) by teaching, sacrificing for others, or the acceptance of gifts, shall maintain himself by following the duties of Kshatriyas, because that is the next following (caste). 16

17. Gautama (declares that one shall) not (act thus). For the duties of Kshatriyas are too cruel for a Brâhmana. 17

18. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Out of regard for the sacred law a Brâhmana and a Vaisya may take up arms for (the protection of) cows or Brâhmanas, or when a confusion of the castes (threatens to take place). 18

19. (Or) the livelihood of a Vaisya should be adopted, because that is the one following (next): 19

20. (If he lives by agriculture) he shall plough before breakfast, 20

21. With two bulls whose noses have not been pierced, not striking them with the goad, (but) frequently coaxing them.

22. The (sacred domestic) fire (shall be kindled) at the wedding; the religious ceremonies up to the Agnyâdheya (shall be) performed in that. 22

23. Now, beginning with the Agnyâdheya, follow these (rites in an) uninterrupted (series), as, for instance, the Agnyâdheya, the Agnihotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the Âgraya.a at the winter and summer solstices, the animal sacrifice, the Kâturmâsyas at the beginning of each season, the Shaddhotri in spring, the Agnishtoma. Thus the attainment of bliss (is secured). 23

24. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Neither he who is accustomed to sleep in the day-time, nor he who eats the food of anybody, nor he who falls from a height to which he has climbed, can reach heaven as he desires.' 24

25. Let him avoid meanness, hard-heartedness, and crookedness. 25

26. Now they quote also with reference to this (subject the following) verse in the dialogue between the daughters of Usanas and Vrishaparvan: 'Thou, forsooth, art the daughter of one who praises (others), who begs and accepts (gifts); but I am the child of one who is praised, who gives gifts and does not accept them.' 26

Footnotes Scroll Up

233:1 4. Âpastamba II, 10, 26, 20; 10, 27, 11. Govinda thinks that non-Brâhmanical offenders should be burned, in accordance with Vasishtha XXI, 2-3. But mutilation may also be intended. Samgrahana, 'adultery,' probably includes all those acts mentioned Manu VIII, 354-358.

233:2 Manu VIII, 359.

233:3 Manu VIII, 362. I read conjecturally, 'samsargayanti tâ hyetâ niguptâs kâlayantyapi,' basing my emendations on Manu's text. The MSS. and Govinda have, samsargayanti tâ hyetân niguptâms kâlayanty api, which gives no good sense. Govinda explains kâranadârâh, 'the wives of minstrels,' by devadâsyah, 'temple-slaves.'

233:4 Vasishtha XXVIII, 4.

233:5 Vasishtha XXVIII, 6.

234:6 Manu IX, 81.

234:7-8. Vasishtha XVII, 55. The word madya, 'spirituous liquor,' occurs in M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary. The MSS. from the Dekhan and Gugarât, including K., read maggana or maddâna, the compound letter being very indistinct.

234:9 Vasishtha XVII, 56, where the term 'Gurus' is fully explained.

234:10 Vasishtha XVII, 57-59. M. and the two copies of the commentary read pisâkotpannaputrâ ka instead of vasâ kotpannaputrâ ka, 'a barren woman and one who has borne sons.' I follow the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., which undoubtedly give the genuine reading. Perhaps the term avasâm, Vasishtha XVII, 57, should be corrected to vasâm.

234:11-12. These two Sûtras are additions to II, 1, 2, 13. See also Nârada XII, 73-74; Vasishtha XXI, 16.

235:13 Vasishtha XXIII, 41; Vishnu LIII, 5-6.

235:14 Manu XI, 176.

235:15 Govinda thinks that the penance intended is that mentioned in Sûtra 12. Probably a severer one is meant. The verse is interesting, as it clearly is a quotation from some metrical work on law, not merely of traditional detached slokas.

235:16 Vasishtha II, 22. The Sûtra 'adhyâpanayâganapratigrahair asaktah kshatradharmena gîvet pratyanantaratvât' occurs in the two copies of the commentary only. The I. O. copy of the commentary has, however, before it the following words: [dharmya] svâdhyâyapravakane evety adhikânâm [kâram] darsayati pratigrihîtâ tâdrik pratigrahîtâram gridhnuvanti [târa ridhnu°] ritvigyagamânâ yâginau p. 236[°gane] tadasaktau kshatradharmau. M. reads, dharmanasvâdhyâyapravakana [ne] ityadhikâran darsayati pratigrahîtâdrik pratigrahîtâra ridhnuvanti ritvigyagamâna yâganau tadasaktau svâdhyâyadhyâ [°yâdhya] panayagñayâganapratigrahair asaktama [tah] kshatradharmmena gîvet. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. read, dhârmye svâdhyâyapravakane ityadhikâram darsayati | pratigrahe dâtâ pratigrahîtâ[ra] ridhnuvanti | ritvigyagamânâ yâgane | tadasaktau kshatradharmena gîvayet, or have corruptions of this passage. I cannot come to any other conclusion than that the passage which precedes the words translated by me are a very ancient interpolation, caused by the embodiment of a portion of an old Bhâshya with the text, and that all our MSS., however much they may differ, go back to one codex archetypus.

236:17 Gautama Introduction, p. lii.

236:18 Gautama VII, 25.

236:19 Vasishtha II, 24.

236:20-21. Vasishtha II, 32.

236:22 Vasishtha VIII, 3. The religious ceremonies to be performed with the sacred domestic fire, which, according to Baudhâyana, p. 237 should be kindled at the wedding, not on the division of the paternal estate (Gautama V, q), are the so-called Grihya ceremonies (Gautama V, 8-9).

237:23 Vasishtha XI, 46. The sacrifices enumerated in this Sûtra require three fires, and belong to the srauta or vaitânika yagñas. The Shaddhotri mentioned here seems to be the animal sacrifice mentioned in the commentary on Kâtyâyana Srauta-sûtra VI, 1, 36.

237:24 An ârûdhapatita, 'he who falls from a height to which he has climbed,' is, according to Govinda, an ascetic who slides back into civil life.

237:25 Vasishtha VI, 40; X, 30. Govinda explains sâthyam, 'hard-heartedness,' by saktau satyâm api paropakârâkaranam, 'not doing a kindness to others though one is able to do so.'

237:26 The dialogue mentioned is that between Sarmishthâ and p. 238 Devayânî, which occurs Mahâbhârata I, 78. The verse quoted is the tenth of that Adhyâya, and agrees with ours, except that sutâham is read for athâham in the beginning of the second half verse.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 3, KANDIKÂ 5 Scroll Up

1. Bathing is suitable for (the practice of) austerity.

2. The libation to the manes (is offered) after the gods have been satisfied (with water),

3. They pour out water which gives strength, from one Tîrtha after the other. 3

4. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'With flowing, unconfined water twice-born men of the three castes shall satisfy the gods, Rishis, and manes, when they have risen in the morning.'

5. 'They shall not offer (libations of water) con-fined (in tanks and wells), (If they do it), he who made the embankment; will obtain a share (of the merit of their devotion).' 5

6. 'Therefore let him avoid embankments (around tanks) and wells made by others.' 6

7. Nov they quote also (the following verse): 'Or, in times of distress--not as a rule--he may bathe in (water) confined (in tanks), after taking out three lumps (of earth); from a well (let him take three) lumps of clay and three jars of water.' 7

8. If he has accepted presents from one who is able to give presents to many, or from one whose presents ought not to be accepted, or if he has sacrificed for one for whom he ought not to have sacrificed, or if he has eaten food (given by a person) whose food must not be eaten, he shall mutter the Taratsamandîya. 8

9. Now they quote also (the following verse): Those who improperly associate with (an outcast) teacher, those who improperly associate with (outcast) pupils, and those who improperly associate (with outcasts) by (accepting their) food or by (reciting) Mantras (for them), enter into deep darkness.'

10. Now (follow) the duties of a Snâtaka. 10

11. After offering at the morning and at the evening (meals) with (a portion of) the food which he may have, the Vaisvadeva and the Bali-offerings, he shall honour, according to his ability, Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras (who may come to his house as) guests. 11

12. If he cannot (afford to give food) to many, let him give (something) to one who possesses good qualities,

13. Or to him who has come first.

14, If a Sûdra (has come as) a guest, he shall order him (to do some) work, (and feed him afterwards); 14

15. Or (if he cannot spare much), he may give a first portion (agrya) to a Srotriya. 15

16. It is prescribed that the division (of the food) shall be made without detriment to (the interests of) those who daily receive a portion. 16

17. But he shall never eat without having given away (some small portion of the food).

18. Now they quote also two verses which have been proclaimed by (the goddess of) food: 'Him who, without giving me to the gods, the manes, his servants, his guests and friends, consumes what has been prepared and (thus), in his exceeding folly, swallows poison, I consume, and I am his death. But for him who, offering the Agnihotra, performing the Vaisvadeva, and honouring guests, eats, full of contentment, purity, and faith, what remains after feeding those whom he must support, I become ambrosia, and he (really) enjoys me.'

19. Presents of money must be given, according to one's ability, to good Brâhmanas, Srotriyas, and Vedapâragas, when they beg outside the Vedi, for the sake of Gurus, in order to defray (the expenses of) their marriages, or of medicine, or when they are distressed for a livelihood, or desirous to offer a sacrifice, or engaged in studying, or on a journey, or have performed a Visvagit sacrifice. 19

20. Cooked food (must be given) to other (beggars). 20

21. Let him eat (seated) in a pure, enclosed place, after having well washed his hands and feet and after having sipped water, respectfully receiving the food which is brought to him, keeping himself free from lust, anger, hatred, greed, and perplexity, (conveying the food into his mouth) with all his fingers and making no noise (during mastication). 21

Footnotes Scroll Up

238:3 5. As to the Tîrthas, see above, I, 5, 8, 15-16.

238:5 Manu IV, 201.

238:6 Vishnu LXIV, 1.

238:7 Vishnu LXIV, 2. I read the verse as follows: uddhritya vâpi trîn pindân kuiyâd âpatsu no sadâ | niruddhâsu ka mritpindân kûpât trîn abghatâmstatheti || The Dekhan MSS. read at the end of the second half verse, kûpâmstrînavatâmstathâ; M. has kupâtrînabapatânstathâ while C. I. gives kûpât trîn ghatâmstathâ. Nandapandita on Vishnu, loc. cit., seems to have had the latter p. 239 reading, and to have changed it to 'kûpât to trin ghatâmstathâ,' in order to save the metre. The sense remains the same.

239:8 Manu XI, 254. The text is found Rig-veda IX, 58. Govinda explains bahupratigrâhya, 'one who is able to give presents to many,' by bahubhrityabharanakshama, 'one who is able to support many servants.'

239:10 Vasishtha XII, 1.

239:11 Vasishtha XI, 3-9.

239:14 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 19.

240:15 Vasishtha XI, 5. Govinda quotes a verse, according to which an agrya, 'first portion,' is equal to sixteen mouthfuls, each of the size of a peahen's egg.

240:16 Âpastamba II, 4, 9,10-11. 'Those who daily receive a portion' (nityabhâktika), i.e. sons, wives, and so forth.--Govinda. But see also Âpastamba, loc. cit.

240:19 Gautama V, 20-21, and notes. 'A good Brâhmana, i.e. one who follows the rule of conduct.'--Govinda.

241:20 Gautama V, 22.

241:21 Vasishtha XII, 19-20; Vishnu LXVIII, 46. 'This is the rule for him who makes an offering to Âtman (i.e. performs the Prânâgnihotra at his meal).'--Govinda. See also below, II, 7, 12.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 3, KANDIKÂ 6 Scroll Up

1. Let him not put back into the dish a remnant of food. 1

2. If he eats (food), containing meat, fish, or sesamum, he shall (afterwards) wash and touch fire, 2

3. And bathe after sunset. 3

4. Let him avoid a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, and other (implements) made of Palâsa wood. 4

5. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap,

6. Nor on a chair,

7. He shall carry a staff, made of bamboo, and golden earrings.

8. Let him not rub one foot with the other while bathing, nor place the one on the other while standing, 8

9. Let him not wear a visible garland. 9

10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or sets. 10

11. Let him not announce (the appearance of a rainbow) to another (man, saying), 'There is Indra's bow.' 11

12. If he points it out, he shall call it 'the jewelled bow.'

13. Let him not pass between the prakîlaka and the beam, at the town gate, 13

14. Nor let him pass between the two posts of a swing. 14

15. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied. 15

16. Let him not step on ashes, bones, hair, chaff, potsherds, nor on a bathing-place (moist with) water. 16

17. Let him not announce it to another (man if) a cow suckles (her calf). 17

18. Let him not say of (a cow which is) not a milch-cow, 'She is not a milch-cow.' 18

19. If he speaks (of such a one), let him say, 'It is one which will become a milch-cow.'

20. Let him not make empty, ill-sounding, or harsh speeches. 20

21. Let him not go alone on a. journey, 21

22. Nor with outcasts, nor with a woman, nor with a Sûdra.

23. Let him not set out (on a journey) towards evening.

24. Let him not bathe (entirely) naked. 24

25. Let him not bathe at night.

26. Let him not cross a river swimming. 26

27. Let him not look down into a well.

28. Let him not look down into a pit.

29. Let him not sit down there, where another person may order him to rise. 29

30. Way must be made for a Brâhmana, a cow, a king, a blind man, an aged man, one who is suffering under a burden, a pregnant woman, and a weak man. 30

31. A righteous man shall seek to dwell in a village where fuel, water, fodder, sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and garlands are plentiful, access to which is 31 easy, where many rich people dwell, which abounds in industrious people, where Âryans form the majority, and which is not easily entered by robbers.

32. 'A Brâhmana who, having wedded a wife of the Sûdra caste and dwells during twelve years in a village where water (is obtainable) from wells only, becomes equal to a Sûdra.'

33. (If you say that) he who lives in a town and whose body is covered with the dust, (raised) by others, and whose eyes and mouth are filled with it, will obtain salvation, if he restrains himself, (I declare that) that is impossible. 33

34. 'The dust raised by carriages, horses, elephants, and cows, and (that which comes) from grain is pure, blamed is (that raised) by a broom, goats, sheep, donkeys, and garments.'

35. Let him honour those who are worthy of honour.

36. 'A Rishi, a learned man, a king, a bride-groom, a maternal uncle, a father-in-law, and an officiating priest are mentioned in the Smriti as worthy of the honey-mixture at certain times and occasions.' 36

37. 'A Rishi, a learned man, and a king must be 37 honoured whenever they come, a bridegroom and a priest at the beginning of the religious rites, a maternal uncle and a father-in-law when a year has elapsed since their last visit.'

38. 'Let him raise his right arm on (entering) the place where the sacred fire is kept, in the midst of a herd of cows, in the presence of Brâhmanas, at the daily recitation of the Veda, and at dinner.' 38

39. 'An upper garment must be worn on the following five occasions: during the daily study, during the evacuation (of excrements), when one bestows gifts, at dinner, and while one sips water.'

40. 'While one offers oblations in the fire, while one dines, bestows gifts, offers (food to deities or Gurus), and accepts presents, (the right hand) must be placed between the knees.'

41. 'The revealed texts declare, that the creatures depend on food, food is life; therefore gifts of food must be made. Food is the most excellent of sacrificial viands.' 41

42. 'Sin is removed by burnt offerings, burnt oblations are surpassed by (gifts of) food, and gifts of food by kind speeches. That (is declared) to us in the revealed texts.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

241:1 6. 'I.e. he shall take up as much food only as he can swallow at one mouthful.'--Govinda.

241:2 The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., including K., add madhu, 'honey,' after sesamum.

241:3 This and the following six Sûtras are left out in M. and the two copies of the commentary. If they have, nevertheless, been received. into the text, the reason is that similar rules occur in all Dharmasûtras, and that Sûtra 3 begins with astamite, while astamaye occurs in Sûtra 10. It seems therefore probable that the writer of the MS. from which M. and Govinda's copies are derived, skipped over a line by mistake.

241:4-7. Vasishtha XII, 34-38.

242:8 Vishnu LXXI, 40.

242:9 Vasishtha XII, 39.

242:10 Vasishtha XII, 10.

242:11-12. Vasishtha XII, 32-33.

242:13 Govinda explains prakîlaka by 'a piece of wood fastened at the town gate.' Etymologically it would mean 'a strong bolt.' Possibly the rule may be equivalent to Âpastamba I, II, 31, 23, and mean that a Snâtaka is not to creep through the small door which is found in all Indian town gates, and left open after the gates have been shut.

242:14 Âpastamba I, 11, 31, 16.

242:15 Vasishtha XII, 9.

242:16 Gautama IX, 15; Manu IV, 132.

243:17 Vishnu LXXI, 62.

243:18-19. Gautama IX, 19.

243:20 Manu IV, 177; Vishnu LXXI, 57, 72, 74.

243:21-23. Manu IV, 140.

243:24 Gautama IX, 61.

243:26 Vasishtha XII, 45.

243:29 E.g. in the palace of a king, whence the attendants may drive him.

243:30 Vasishtha XIII, 58.

243:31 Gautama IX, 65.

244:33 Âpastamba I, 32, 21.

244:36 Vasishtha XI, 1-2. A Rishi is, according to Govinda, a man who knows not only the text of the Mantras, but also their sense. But Baudhâyana, Grihya-sûtra I, 11, 4, says that a man who knows, besides the Sâkhâ and its Aṅgas, the Kalpa also, is called Rishikalpa, i.e. one almost a Rishi. See also Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 3. A learned man (vidvas) is probably a student who has finished not only his vow, but learned the Veda, a so-called vidyâsnâtaka, Âpastamba I, 11, 30, 3. Regarding the arghya or madhuparka, the honey-mixture, see Âpastamba II, 4, 8, 7-9.

244:37 Gautama V, 27-30. I read kriyârambhe varartvigau. The p. 245 meaning is that a bridegroom is to receive the honey-mixture when he comes to his father-in-law's house for his wedding, and an officiating priest when he comes to perform a sacrifice.

245:38 Vishnu LXXI, 60. Govinda adds that the act is performed as a salutation.

245:41 See eg. Taittirîya Âranyaka VIII, 2.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 4, KANDIKÂ 7 Scroll Up

1. Now, therefore, we will declare the rule for (performing) the twilight devotions.

2. Going to a (sacred) bathing-place, he shall bathe, in case he is impure; in case he is pure, he may, optionally, omit the bath. (But in either case) he shall wash his feet and hands. Sipping water and sprinkling himself, while he recites the (Rik-verses) containing the word Surabhi, the Abliṅgas, those addressed to Varuna, the Hiranyavarnas, the Pâvamânîs, the (sacred syllables called) Vyâhritis, and other purificatory (texts), he becomes pure (and fit to perform the twilight devotions). 2

3. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Submersion in water (and) bathing are prescribed for all the (four) castes. But sprinkling (water over the body), while Mantras (are being recited), is the particular (duty) of the twice-born.'

4. He who sprinkles himself (with water) at the beginning of any sacred rite,--before the time of the twilight devotions,--while reciting that same collection of purificatory (texts), becomes pure.

5. Now they quote also (the following rules): Seated, with his face to the west, on Darbha grass and holding Darbha blades in his (right) hand, which 5 is filled with water, he shall repeat the Sâvitrî one thousand times;

6. Or (he may recite the verse) one hundred times, suppressing his breath; 6

7. Or mentally ten times, adding the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end and the seven Vyâhritis. 7

8. And if he is tired by three suppressions of his breath (performed) with (the recitation of) the (Anuvâka called) Brahmahridaya (the heart of Brahman, then let him repeat the Sâvitrî). 8

9. In the evening he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Varuna, 'Hear this my call, O Varuna,' and 'Therefore I go to thee.' 9

10. The same (rules apply to the twilight devotion) in the morning, (but the worshipper) shall face the east and stand upright. 10

11. In the day-time he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Mitra, 'The glory of Mitra, who supports men,' and 'Mitra causes men to join.' 11

12. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the 12 morning very early, and finish it when the sun has risen.

13. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the evening, when (the sun) has set, (and finish it) very soon after (the appearance of the stars);

14. And the complete observance of the twilight devotions (produces as its reward) an uninterrupted succession of days and nights. 14

15. Now they quote with reference to this (subject) also the following two verses, which have been proclaimed by the Lord of created beings (Pragâpati) 'How can those twice-born men be called Brâhmanas who do not perform their twilight devotions, in the morning and in the evening at the proper time? At his pleasure a righteous king may appoint those Brâhmanas who neglect to daily perform the twilight devotions, both at morn and at eve, to do the work of Sûdras.'

16. If the time for the (twilight devotion) is allowed to pass in the evening, (the offender shall) fast during the night; and if it is neglected in the morning, he shall fast during the (next) day. 16

17. He obtains (thereby) the (same) reward as if he had remained standing and sitting (in the twilight).

18. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Whatever sin (a man) may have committed with his organ, with his feet, with his arms, by thoughts or by speech, from (all) that he is freed by performing the twilight devotion in the evening.' 18

19. (The worshipper) becomes also connected (thereby) with the (next) night, and Varuna will not seize him.

20. In like manner he becomes free from the sin committed during the night by worshipping in the morning. 20

21. He is also connected with the (next) day, Mitra protects him and Âditya leads him up to heaven.

22. It is declared in the Veda, 'A Brâhmana who in this same manner daily worships in the twilight, both at morn and at eve and, being sanctified by the Brahman, becoming one with the Brahman, and resplendent through the Brahman, follows the rules of the Sâstra, gains the heaven of Brahman.' 22

Footnotes Scroll Up

246:2 7. 'A sacred bathing-place, i.e. a river or pond outside the village.'--Govinda. The same author adds that the hands must be washed as far as the wrist, that while sipping water the worshipper is to repeat in the evening, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 31, and in the morning X, 32, and that if he bathes, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12, and other texts must be recited. The Rik containing the word Surabhi is found Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 5, 11, 4, 7; the three Abliṅgas, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 11; the four verses addressed to Varuna, Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, 11, 4, and Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 4, 4. By the term Pâvamânîs the Pavamânânuvâka, Taittirîya Brâhmana I, 4, 8, is meant.

246:5 The injunction to turn the face to the west refers to the evening prayer; see also below, Sûtra 10.

247:6 Govinda states that prânâyâmasah, 'suppressing his breath,' has in this Sûtra no technical meaning.

247:7 Govinda says that the order to be observed in this case is as follows: First the syllable Om is to be recited, next the seven Vyâhritis, beginning with Bhûh and ending with Satyam, then the Sâvitrî, and finally again the syllable Om.

247:8 The Brahmahridaya is Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 28. This Anuvâka may be repeated three times for each Prânâyâma (see Vasishtha XXV, 13), or altogether nine times, and, if the worshipper is then tired, he may go on repeating the Sâvitrî without suppressing his breath.

247:9 Taittirîya Samhitâ II, 1, 11, 6.

247:10 Gautama II. 11.

247:11 Taittirîya Samhitâ III, 4, II, 5.

247:12 Very early, i.e. when the stars are still visible; see also Gautama II, 11, and note.

248:14 The day and night will not be cut off from his existence.

248:16 Vasishtha XX, 4-5.

248:18 Vasishtha XXVI, 2.

249:20 Vasishtha XXVI, 3.

249:22 Brahman means here the Veda, the Sâvitrî, and the universal soul.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 8 Scroll Up

1. Now, after washing his hands, he shall take his waterpot and a clod of earth, go to a (sacred) bathing-place and thrice clean his feet (with earth and water) and thrice his body. 1

2. Now some say, 'One must not enter a burial-ground, water, a temple, a cowpen, nor a place where Brâhmanas (sit) without having cleaned one's feet.'

3. Then he enters the water, (reciting the following verse): 'I take refuge with gold-horned Varuna, give me at my request (O Varuna) a purifying bathing-place. May Indra, Varuna, Brihaspati, and Savitri again and again cleanse me from all sin which I have committed by eating the food of unholy men, by receiving gifts from the wicked, and from all evil which I have done by thoughts, speeches, or deeds.' 3

4. Then he takes up water in his joined hands, (saying), 'May the waters and the herbs be propitious to us.' 4

5. (Next) he pours (the water) out in that direction in which an enemy of his dwells, (saying), 'May they work woe to him who hates us and whom we hate.' 5

6. Then he sips water, and thrice makes the water eddy around himself turning from the left to the right (and saying), 'May that which is hurtful, which is impure, and which is inauspicious in the water be removed.' 6

7. After having submerged himself and having emerged from the water, 7

8. (Acts of) personal purification, washing the clothes by beating them on a stone and sipping 8 water are not (permitted to the worshipper) as long as he is in the water.

9. If (the water used for bathing) has been (taken from a) confined (place, such as a well), he worships it with the following (Mantra): 'Adoration to Agni, the lord of the waters; adoration to Indra; adoration to Varuna; adoration to Vârunî; adoration to the waters.' 9

10. After having ascended the bank and having sipped water, let him again sip water, though he has done so before, (and recite the following Mantras) 'May water purify the earth, may the purified earth purify me, may Brahmanaspati (and) Brahman purify, may the purified (earth) purify me. May water purify me, (taking away) all (the guilt which I incurred by eating) remnants of food, and forbidden food, (by committing) evil deeds, (by) receiving gifts from wicked men, Svâhâ!' 10

11. Making two Pavitras he rubs (his body) with water. Having rubbed himself, (reciting the) three (verses), 'Ye waters are,' &c., the four (verses), 'The golden-coloured, pure, purifying,' &c., (and) the Anuvâka, 'He who purifies,' &c., he performs, stepping back into the water, three Prânâyâmas with the Aghamarshana (hymn); then he ascends the bank, squeezes (the water) out of his dress, puts on garments which have been washed and dried in the air and which are not the worse for wear, sips water, 11 sits down on Darbha grass, and, holding Darbha grass (in his hands), recites, facing the east, the Gâyatrî one thousand times, (or) one hundred times, or any number of times, or at least twelve times.

12. Then he worships the sun (reciting the following Mantras): 'Out of darkness we,' &c., 'Up that bright,' &c., That eye which is beneficial to the gods,' &c., (and) 'He who rose,' &c. 12

13. Now they quote also (the following maxim): 'The syllable Om,, the Vyâhritis, and the Sâvitrî, these five Veda-offerings daily cleanse the Brâhmana from guilt.'

14. Being purified by the five Veda-offerings, he next satiates the gods (with water, saying), 14

Footnotes Scroll Up

249:1 8. Vishnu LXIV, 18. This Adhyâya contains the rules for bathing, and the subject is introduced, as Govinda observes, because in the preceding chapter II, 4, 7, 2, it has been said that an impure person must bathe before he performs the twilight devotions. Govinda also states that the word ka, 'and,' which stands after mritpindam, 'a clod,' indicates that gomaya, 'cowdung,' must also be employed.

250:3 The verse is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12,

250:4 Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 11.

250:5 Taittirîya Âranyaka, loc. cit. This and the following Sutras, down to II, 6, 11, 15, are wanting in the Gugarât and Dekhan MSS. except in K.

250:6 Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 13.

250:7 Govinda points out that the completion of this Sûtra is to be found in Sûtra to. He adds that Baudhâyana inserted Sutras 8-9 in the middle, because he was afraid to forget the rules contained in them.

250:8 Vishnu LXIV, 10, 11.

251:9 Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 12.

251:10 Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 23. Govinda says that the rule is intended to indicate also that a person who recites sacred texts while sipping water, must do so only after having taken water once before. K. inserts before this Mantra, also Anuvâka 22.

251:11 Vishnu LXIV, 13-14; 18-19. The Vedic passages intended p. 252 are found Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 1, 5, r; V, 6, 1, r; and Taitt. Brâhmana I, 4, 8. Pavitras, i.e. blades of Kusa grass. 'He performs three Prânâyâmas with the Aghamarshana hymn (Rig-veda X, 190),' i.e. he thrice suppresses his breath (prânâyâma) and recites during each suppression the Aghamarshana three times, just as on other occasions the Gâyatrî is recited three times.

252:12 The first Mantra is found Taitt. Samhitâ IV, 1, 7, 4; the third and the fourth Taitt. Âranyaka IV, 42, 32-33.

252:14 Vishnu XLIV, 24. The ceremony is the so-called Tarpana, which is usually described in the Grihya-sûtras, e.g. Sâṅkhâyana IV, 9-10, and the quotations in Professor Oldenberg's notes, Indische Studien XV, 152.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 9 Scroll Up

1. 'I satiate the deities of the eastern gate, Agni, Pragâpati, Soma, Rudra, Aditi, Brihaspati, together with the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the days and nights, and with the Muhûrtas; Om, I also satiate the Vasus; 1

2. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the southern gate, the Pitris, Yama, Bhaga, Savitri, Tvashtri, Vâyu, Indrâgnî, together with the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the days and nights, and with the Muhûrtas; Om, I also satiate the Rudras.

3. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the western gate, Mitra, Indra, the Mahâpitris, the Waters, all the gods, Brahman, Vishnu, together with the lunar mansions, with the planets, with the days and nights, and with the Muhûrtas; Om, I also satiate the Âdityas.

4. 'Om, I satiate the deities of the northern gate, the Vasus, Varuna, Aga-ekapâd, Ahibudhnya, Ushas, the two Asvins, Yama, together with . . . . . .

5. 'Om, I satiate all the gods; the Sâdhyas; Brahman; Pragâpati; the four-faced god; Hiranyagarbha; Svayambhû; the male attendants of Brahman; Parameshthin; the female attendants of Brahman; Agni; Vâyu; Varuna; Sûrya; the moon; the lunar mansions; Sadyogâta; Bhûh-purusha; Bhuvah-purusha; Suvah-purusha; Bhûh; Bhuvah; Suvah; Mahah; Ganah; Tapah; Satya.

6. 'Om, I satiate the god Bhava; Sarva; Îsâna; Pasupati; Rudra; Ugra; Bhîmadeva; Mahâdeva; the wife of the god Bhava; of the god Sarva; of the god Îsâna; of the god Pasupati; of the god Rudra; of the god Ugra; of Bhîmadeva; of Mahâdeva; the son of Bhava; of Sarva; of Îsâna; of Pasupati; of

Rudra; of Ugra; of Bhîmadeva; of Mahâdeva; Om, I also satiate the Rudras, the attendants of Rudra.

7. 'Om, I satiate Vighna; Vinâyaka; Vîra; Sthûla; Varada; Hastimukha; Vakratunda; Ekadanta; Lambodara; the male attendants of Vighna; the female attendants of Vighna.

8. 'Om, I satiate Sanatkumâra; Skanda; Indra; Shashthî; Shanmukha; Visâkha; Mahâsena; Subrahmanya; the male attendants of Skanda; the female attendants of Skanda.

9. 'Om, I satiate Âditya; Soma; Aṅgâraka; Budha; Brihaspati; Sukra; Sanaiskara; Râhu; Ketu.

To. 'Om, I satiate Kesava; Nârâyana; Mâdhava; Govinda; Vishnu; Madhusûdana; Trivikrama; Vâmana; Srîdhara; Hrishîkesa; Padmanâbha; Dâmodara; the goddess Srî; the goddess Sarasvatî; Pushti; Tushti; Vishnu; Garutmat; the male attendants of Vishnu; the female attendants of Vishnu.

11. 'Om, I satiate Yama; Yamarâga; Dharma; Dharmarâga; Kâla; Nîla; Mrityu; Mrityuñgaya; Vaivasvata; Kitragupta; Audumbara; the male attendants of Vaivasvata; the female attendants of Vaivasvata.

12. 'Om, I satiate the gods of the earth; Kâsyapa; Antariksha; Vidyâ; Dhanvantari; the male attendants of Dhanvantari; the female attendants of Dhanvantari.'

13. Next, passing the sacrificial thread round the neck, (he offers the following libations):

14. 'Om, I satiate the Rishis; the great Rishis; the best Rishis; the Brahmarshis; the divine Rishis; the royal Rishis; the Srutarshis; the Seven Rishis; the Rishis of the Kândas (of the Yagur-veda); the Rishikas; the wives of the Rishis; the sons of the Rishis; Kanva Baudhâyana; Âpastamba, the author of the Sûtra; Satyâshâdha Hiranyakesin; Vâgasaneyin Yâgñavalkya; Âsvalâyana Saunaka; Vyâsa; the syllable Om; the Vyâhritis; the Sâvitrî; the Gâyatrî; the Khandas; the Rig-vela; the Yagur-veda; the Sâma-veda; the Atharvâṅgirasa; the Itihâsa and Purâna; all the Vedas; the servants of all gods; all beings.'

15. Then, passing the sacrificial string over the right shoulder, (he offers the following libations):

Footnotes Scroll Up

252:1 9. This and the next Kandikâs are given in full by K. only. M. gives the first and last words of both, the commentary the p. 253 beginning of 9 and the end of 10 only. The text of K. is probably interpolated, as it seems impossible that Baudhâyana could have mentioned his successors, Âpastamba and Satyâshâdha Hiranyakesin, whose names occur below, II, 5, 9, 14. On the other hand, it is not doubtful that the number of Mantras must nevertheless have been very large, as the numeration in M. shows that they filled two entire Kandikâs.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 5, KANDIKÂ 10 Scroll Up

1. Om, I satiate the fathers, Svadhâ, adoration! the grandfathers; the great-grandfathers; the mothers; the grandmothers; the great-grandmothers; the maternal grandfathers; the maternal grandmother; the mother's grandmother; the mother's great-grandmother.

2. 'Om, I satiate the teacher (âkârya), Svadhâ, adoration! the wife of the teacher; the friends; the wives of the friends; the relatives; the wives of the relatives; the inmates of the house (amâtya); the wives of the inmates of the house; all; the wives of all.'

3. He pours the water out from the several Tîrthas (of the hand sacred to the several deities). 3

4. (He recites at the end of the rite the following 4 Mantra): '(Ye waters), who bring food, ambrosia, clarified butter, milk, and barley-gruel, are food for the manes; satiate my ancestors! May you be satiated, may you be satiated!'

5. Let him not perform ceremonies in honour of the gods while his clothes are wet, or while he is dressed in one garment only,.

6. Nor those connected with the manes. That is the opinion) of some (teachers).

Footnotes Scroll Up

255:3 I.e. the water must be poured out in accordance with the rule given above.

255:4 Vâgasaneyi Samhitâ II, 34. The translation of the Mantra follows Govinda's explanation.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 6, KANDIKÂ 11 Scroll Up

1. Now these five great sacrifices, which are also called the great sacrificial sessions, are the sacrifice to be offered to the gods, the sacrifice to be offered to the manes, the sacrifice to be offered to all beings, the sacrifice to be offered to men, (and) the sacrifice to be offered to Brahman, 1

2. Let him daily offer (something to the gods with the exclamation) Svâhâ, be it only a piece of fuel. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the gods.

3. Let him daily offer (something to the manes with the exclamation) Svadhâ, be it only a vessel filled with water. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the manes.

4. Let him daily pay reverence to (all beings) endowed with life. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to the beings. 4

5. Let him daily give food to Brâhmanas, be it only roots, fruit, or vegetables. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to men.

6. Let him daily recite the Veda privately, be it only the syllable Om or the Vyâhritis. Thereby he performs that sacrifice to be offered to Brahman.

7. 'The private recitation of the Veda is, indeed, the sacrifice to Brahman. At that sacrifice to Brahman speech, forsooth, (takes the place of) the Guhû, the internal organ (that of) the Upabhrit, the eye (that of) the Dhruvâ, the understanding (that of) the Sruva, truth (that of) the final bath, heaven (is) the conclusion of the sacrifice. He who, knowing this, daily recites the Veda to himself, gains as much heavenly bliss as, and more than, he who gives away this whole earth that is filled with wealth, and imperishable (beatitude), and conquers death. Therefore the Veda should be recited in private. Thus speaks the Brâhmana.' 7

8. Now they quote also (the following passage): 'If, well anointed, well fed, and lying on a comfortable couch, one recites (the portion of the Veda referring to) any sacrifice, one has offered it thereby.' 8

9. Some (teachers) declare (that there is a text) which teaches a fourfold division of these sacred duties. (But) as no (other meaning is) perceptible, (the text) 'Four paths,' &c., refers to sacrificial rites. 9

10. (Viz.) to Ishtis, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices, and Darvîhomas.

11. The following (Rik) declares that, 'Four paths, leading to the world of. the gods, go severally from the earth to heaven. All ye gods, place us on that among them which will gain us undecaying prosperity.' 11

12. The student, the householder, the hermit in the woods, the ascetic (constitute the four orders). 12

13. A student (shall) obey his teacher until death.

14. A hermit is he who regulates his conduct entirely according to the Institutes proclaimed by Vikhanas.

15. A Vaikhânasa (shall live) in the forest, subsisting on roots and fruit, practising austerities and bathing at morn, noon, and eve; he shall kindle a fire according to the Srâmanaka (rule); he shall eat wild-growing (vegetables and grain) only; he shall worship gods, manes, Bhûtas, men, and Rishis; he shall receive hospitably (men of) all (castes) except those (with whom intercourse is) forbidden; he may even use the flesh of animals killed by carnivorous beasts; he shall not step on ploughed (land); and he shall not enter a village; he shall wear his hair in braids, and dress in (garments made of) bark or skins; he shall not eat anything that has been hoarded for more than a year. 15

16. An ascetic shall leave his relatives and, not attended by any one nor procuring any property, depart (from his house performing the customary ceremony) according to the rule. 16

17. He shall go into the forest (and live there).

18. He shall shave his hair excepting the top-lock. 18

19. He shall wear a cloth to cover his nakedness.

20. He shall reside in one place during the rainy season. 20

21. He shall wear a dress dyed yellowish-red.

22. He shall go to beg when the pestle lies motionless, when the embers have been extinguished, and when the cleaning of the dishes has been finished.

23. With the three means of punishment, (viz.) words, thoughts, and acts, he shall not injure created beings.

24. He shall carry a cloth for straining water for the sake of purification. 24

25. He shall perform the necessary purifications with water which has been taken out (of a well or tank) and has been strained. 25

26. (Ascetics shall) say, 'Renouncing the works taught in the Veda, cut off from both (worlds), we attach ourselves to the central sphere (Brahman).' 26

27. But the venerable teacher (declares) that there is one order only, because the others do not beget offspring. 27

28. With reference to this matter they quote also (the following passage): 'There was, forsooth, an Âsura, Kapila by name, the son of Prahlâda. Striving with the gods, he made these divisions. A wise man should not take heed of them.'

29. Because no (other meaning is) perceptible, (the text) 'Four paths,' &c., refers to sacrificial rites, (viz.) to Ishtis, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices, Darvîhomas.

30. With respect to this (question the following verse also) is quoted: 'That eternal greatness of the Brâhmana is neither increased by works, nor diminished. The soul knows the nature of that (greatness); knowing that, he is not stained by evil deeds.' 30

31. If he says that, (let him reflect on the following verse): 'He who knows not the Veda, does not at death think of that great, all-perceiving soul, through which the sun, resplendent with brilliancy, gives warmth, and the father has a father through the son at his birth from the womb.'

32. (Moreover), 'Those who, being neither true Brâhmanas nor performers of Soma sacrifices, work not for that which is near, nor for that which is far, take hold of the word and with sinful (speech) ignorantly perform the rites.' 32

33. There are innumerable (passages in the Veda) which refer to the debts (to be paid by a Brâhmana), such as, 'May I obtain, O Agni, immortality 33 through offspring;' 'A Brâhmana on being born, (owes) a son to his ancestors,' &c.

34. 'Those dwell with us, who fulfil the following (duties), the study of the three Vedas, the studentship, the procreation of offspring, faith, austerity, sacrificing, and giving gifts; he who praises other (duties) becomes dust and perishes.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

256:1 11. This and the next four Sûtras agree almost literally with Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, 1. See also Taitt. Âranyaka II, 10; Âpastamba I, 4, 12, 15-13, 1.

256:4 Govinda says that the Mantra is to be 'bhûtebhyo namah, adoration to all beings,' and adds that some consider the first three p. 257 Mahâyagñas to be performed by the Vaisvadeva and the Bali-offering, while others enjoin their separate performance.

257:7 Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 6, z. See also Taitt. Âranyaka II, 17. K. reads dhritir dhruvâ, 'the firm resolve (takes the place of) the Dhruvâ,' which is apparently a correction made according to the Âranyaka. According to the commentary the text of the last portion of the quotation runs thus, 'yâvantam ha vâ imâm vittasya purnâm dadat svargam lokam gayati tâvantam lokam gayati bhûyâmsam kâkshayyam kâpa mrityum gayati ya evam vidvân,' &c. M. and K. do not give the whole passage. The published text of the Satapatha-brâhmana slightly differs from Govinda's version.

257:8 Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 5, 7, 3-4.

258:9 I read the text as follows, 'tasya ha vâ etasya dharmasya katurdhâ bhedam eka âhuh.' M. has bhedakam, the I. O. copy of the commentary bhedasaṅkâm, and K. tasya ha vâ etasya yagñasyâkaturdhâ bhûtam eka âhuh. Below in the commentary on Sûtra 27, Govinda repeats the latter part of this Sûtra in the form which I have adopted. The discussion which begins here is the same as that which occurs Âpastamba II, 9, 23, 3-24, 15.

258:11 Taittirîya Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 3.

258:12 K. omits this Sûtra. After it M. and K. have the following passage: 'brahmakârino ’tyantam âtmânam upasamgrihya ’kâryân bruvate vane srâmyantyeke [yâmtyete, K.] savaneshvapa upasprisanto vanyenânnenaikâgnim [nyenânnena naikâgnim, K.; vânyenaikânañ, M.] guhvânâh [guhvâs, M.] satyasyaike karmâni [karmani, M.] anagnayo ’niketanâh [tvâh kam, K.] kaupînâkkhâdanâ varshâsv ekasthâ uddhritaparipûtâbhir adbhih kâryam [apakâryam, M.] kurvânâh [kurvânâs tatrodâharanti, K.] sannamusale vyaṅgâre nivrittasarâvasampâte bhikshantah sarvatah parimoksham [parimeke, M.] apavidhya vaidikâni karmâny abhayatah parikkhinnâ madhyamam padam upaslishyâmaha iti vadanto,' The commentary gives a few portions of this passage further on. Irrespective of minor corruptions, it gives no sense in the place where it stands, and it seems probable that we have to deal with a confused and badly corrupted text, which Govinda arranged either as seemed good to him, or on the authority of better MSS.

259:15 This passage, which Govinda gives as one Sûtra, agrees word for word with Gautama III, 26-35, except in the beginning, where Gautama omits 'bathing at morn, noon, and eve.' The MSS. all read bhaiksham, 'begged food,' instead of baishkam, 'the flesh of animals slain by carnivorous beasts.' But Govinda's explanation leaves no doubt as to the correctness of the latter reading. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., including K., read agrâmyabhogî || agrâmyabhogî.

259:16 I adopt the readings of the Dekhan MSS., aparigrahah (for apratigrahah) and pravraget (for parivraget). The rule for the ceremony is given below, II, 10, 17.

259:18 This is Govinda's explanation of sikhâmundah, the reading of all MSS.

260:20 and 22. These two Sûtras are omitted in K. and M., which give them in the passage following Sûtra 12, as well as in the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS.

260:24 See below, II, 10, 17, 11. Govinda explains pavitra, 'a cloth for straining water,' by 'a bunch of Kusa grass for removing insects from the road.'

260:25 According to Govinda such water is to be used for washing off the stains of urine &c., not for drinking.

260:26 This Sûtra is again omitted in the MSS, of the text. M. and K. give it in the passage following Sûtra 12.

260:27 Gautama III, 36.

261:30-31. Taitt. Brâhmana III, 12, 9, 7.

261:32 Rig-veda X, 71, 9. My rendering of the difficult verse is merely tentative, and I have left out the word sirîh, for which I am as little able as other Sanskritists to offer a safe explanation, The general meaning of the verse, I think, has been rightly understood by Sâyana and Govinda, who both say that it contains a reproach, addressed to those Brâhmanas who, contented with the letter of the Veda, do not master its meaning.

261:33-34. The commentary omits these two Sûtras, which, however, seem necessary for the completion of the discussion. The p. 262 second occurs also Âpastamba II, 9, 24, 8. Though Baudhâyana does not express himself as clearly as Âpastamba, he disapproves, as it would seem, like the latter, of the opinion of those who gave an undue preference to asceticism at the expense of married life, the order of the householders.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 7, KANDIKÂ 12 Scroll Up

1. Now we will explain the oblations (offered) to the vital air (prâna) by Sâlînas (householders) and Yâyâvaras (vagrants), who sacrifice to the soul. 1

2. At the end of all the necessary (daily rites), let him sit down, facing the east, in a place that has been well cleaned and smeared with cowdung; next let him worship that prepared (food) which is being brought. (saying), 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, Om,' (and then) remain silent.

3. (Next) he pours water round the food which has been placed (before him), turning his right hand towards it, and reciting the Mahâvyâhritis; (afterwards), continuing to hold (the dish) with his left hand, he first drinks water, (saying), 'Thou art a substratum for ambrosia,' and (finally) offers five oblations of food to the vital airs, (reciting the 3 texts), 'Full of reverence, I offer ambrosia to Prâna; mayest thou propitiously enter me, not in order to burn me. To Prâna, Svâhâ!' &c.

4. After offering the five oblations of food to the vital airs, let him finish his meal silently. Meditating in his heart on the lord of created beings, let him not emit speech while (eating),

5. If he emits speech, he shall mutter 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, Om,' and afterwards continue to eat.

6. Now they quote also (the following rule): 'If he sees (bits of) skin, hair, nail-(parings), insects, or the dung of rats (in his food), 'he shall take out a lump, sprinkle that spot with water, scatter ashes on it, again sprinkle it with water, and use (the remainder of the food), after it has been declared fit (for use).' 6

7. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He shall eat, seated with his face towards the east, silent, not despising his food, not scattering (fragments on the ground), and solely attend (to his dinner); and, after he has eaten, he shall touch fire.' 7

8. He shall not cut off with his teeth (pieces from) eatables (that must be swallowed) entire, (such as) cakes, bulbs, roots, fruit, and flesh.

9. (Let him) not (eat) to repletion. 9

10. After (dinner) he shall drink water, (reciting the text), 'Thou art 'a covering for ambrosia,' and stroke (the region of) the heart, (saying), 'Thou art the bond that connects the vital airs; (thou art) 10 [paragraph continues] Rudra and Death; enter me; mayest thou grow through this food.'

11. After sipping water a second time, he allows (the drops from) the hand to flow on the big toe of his right foot (and recites the following text): 'May the male be pleased, he who is of the size of a thumb, who occupies (a space of the size of) a thumb, who is the lord of the whole world, masterful, and the enjoyer of the universe.' 11

12. Let him perform the subsequent consecration (anumantrana) of the (food which has been) offered, with raised arms, (and let him recite) the five (texts beginning), 'With faith, worshipping Prâna, (I have) offered ambrosia; mayest thou increase Prâna through this food,' 12

13. (And let him address the soul with the last text of the Anuvâka), '(May) my soul (gain) immortality in the universal soul.'

14. And let him (meditate on his) soul (as) united with the imperishable (syllable Om). 14

15. He who sacrifices to the soul, surpasses him who offers all sacrifices.

Footnotes Scroll Up

262:1 12. The Prânâgnihotra is alluded to by Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 16, Regarding the terms Sâlîna and Yâyâvara, see below, III, 1, 3-4.

262:3 The Mahâvyâhritis are the Mantras given Taittirîya Âranyaka X. 2. The second Mantra is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 32, and p. 263 the third ibid. X, 34. The translation of the Mantras follows Govinda, who somewhat differs from Sâyana.

263:6 Vasishtha XIV, 23.

263:7 Vishnu LXVIII, 40-43.

263:9 Vishnu LXVIII, 47.

263:10 The first text is found Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 35, and the second ibid. X, 37. I translate the first according to Govinda.

264:11 Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 38. The individual soul which re-sides, in the heart is here identified with the universal soul; see also Kâthaka Upanishad IV, 12.

264:12-13. Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 36.

264:14 The syllable Om is Brahman, the universal soul.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 7, KANDIKÂ 13 Scroll Up

1. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'As cotton and reeds, thrown into a fire, blaze up, even so all the guilt of him who sacrifices to the soul is consumed;'

2. (Moreover), 'He who eats merely (in order to satisfy his own hunger) reaps only guilt. In vain (the fool) takes food.' 2

3. Let him daily, both in the morning and in the evening, sacrifice in this manner;

4, Or (he may offer) water in the evening.

5. Now they quote also (the following verses): Let him first feed his guests, next the pregnant women, then the infants and the aged, thereafter the distressed and particularly the diseased. But he who eats first, without having given (food) to those (persons) according to the rule, does not know that he is being eaten. He does not eat, (but) he is eaten.' 5

6. 'Let him eat silently what remains, (after he has given their portions) to the manes, the gods, the servants, his parents, and his Gurus; that is declared to be the rule of the sacred law.' 6

7. Nov they quote also (the following verses): Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two that of a householder, and an unlimited (quantity) that of a student.'

8. 'An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and, a student, those three can do their work only if they eat (much); without eating (much) they cannot do it.'

9. 'A householder, or a student who practises 9 austerity by fasting, becomes an Avakîrnin through the omission of the sacrifice to the vital airs;'

10. Except when he performs a penance. In the case of a penance that (fasting) is the rule.

11. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'He who never eats between the morning and the evening meals, (obtains the same reward as he who) constantly fasts.'

12. 'As in case one obtains no materials (for the sacrifice), one must mutter the sacred texts to be recited at the Agnihotra, offered in the three fires, even so one should mutter the texts to be recited at the Prânâgnihotra, when one is prevented from dining.'

13. 'He who acts thus, will become one with Brahman.' Thus spake Pragâpati (the lord of created beings).

Footnotes Scroll Up

265:2 13. Rig-veda X, 117, 6, and Taittirîya Brâhmana II, 8, 8, 3. The words have been transposed.

265:5 Vasishtha XI, 6-8; Manu III, 114-115. I write, with the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS., na sa bhuṅkte, sa bhugyate, instead of the senseless reading of M. and the commentary, na sa bhuṅkte na bhugyate.

265:6 Vasishtha XI, 11. 7-8. Âpastamba II, 4, 9, 13.

265:9-10. Âpastamba II, 4, 9, 12, and note on II, 1, 1, 2.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 8, KANDIKÂ 14 Scroll Up

1. The offering to the manes secures long life and heaven, is worthy of praise and a rite ensuring prosperity. 1

2. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Trimadhu, a Trinâkiketa, a Trisuparna, one who keeps five fires, and one who knows the six Aṅgas, one who performs the vow called Siras, one who knows the Gyeshthasâman, (and) a Snâtaka; 2

3. On failure of these, one who knows the (texts called) Rahasya. 3

4. The Rik-verses, the Yagus-formulas, and the Sâmans (give) lustre to a funeral offering. Therefore he may feed (on that occasion) even a Sapinda relation who (knows) those (texts). 4

5. Let him who feeds (Brâhmanas at a funeral sacrifice) cause them to hear successively the Rakshoghna Sâmans, the Yagus-formulas (called) Svadhâvat, the Rik-verses (called) Madhu, and the (texts called) Pavitras. 5

6. Having invited on the day before (the Srâddha), or just in the morning, virtuous, pure (men), such as Trimadhus, who know the Vedâṅgas and the sacred texts, who are not related by marriage, nor members of the same family, nor connected through the Veda, at least three, (but always) an odd number, the (sacrificer) makes them sit down on prepared seats, covered with Darbha grass, facing the east or the north. 6

7. Then he offers to them water mixed with sesamum seed, adorns them with scents and garlands (and says), 'I wish to offer oblations in the fire.' 7 When he has received permission (to do so), he heaps fuel on the sacred fire, scatters Kusa grass around it, performs (all the ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, and offers three burnt oblations of food only, (reciting the following texts): 'To Soma, accompanied by the manes, Svâhâ!' 'To Yama, accompanied by the Angiras and by the manes, Svâhâ!' 'To Agni, who carries the offerings to the manes, who causes sacrifices to be well performed, Svâhâ!'

8. He shall make these three oblations with food only which has been sprinkled with the remainder of the (clarified butter). 8

9. Let him give a cake of food to the birds.

10. For it is declared in the Veda, 'The manes roam about in the shape of birds.'

11. Next he touches the (other food) with his hand and with the thumb,

12. (And recites the following texts): 'Fire sees thee, who art co-extensive with the earth, the Rik-verses are thy greatness, lest the gift be in vain; the earth is the vessel for thee, the sky the cover; I offer thee in the mouth of Brahman, I offer thee in the Prâna and the Apâna of learned Brâhmanas; thou art imperishable, mayest thou never fail to (the manes of our) fathers yonder, in the other world.' 'Air hears thee, who art co-extensive with the middle sphere, 12 the Yagus-formulas are thy greatness, lest the gift be in vain; the earth is the vessel for thee, the sky the cover; . . . mayest thou never fail to the (manes of our) grandfathers yonder, in the other world.' 'The sun reveals thee, who art co-extensive with the sky, the Sâmans are thy greatness, lest the gift be in vain; . . . . mayest thou never fail to the (manes of our) great-grandfathers yonder, in the other world.'

Footnotes Scroll Up

266:1 14. Âpastamba II, 7, 16, 1-2.

266:2 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 22; Vasishtha III, 19. Govinda states that the Atharvavedins know the vow called Siras; see also Vasishtha XXVI, 12, and note.

266:3 Govinda says that persons acquainted with the Rahasyas or p. 267 Âranyakas are preferable to those mentioned in the preceding Sûtra, and thus the order must be reversed.

267:4 Âpastamba II, 7, 17, 5.

267:5 The texts on which the Rakshoghna Sâmans are based occur Sâma-veda I, 1, 1, 3, 4--6; the Svadhâvat Yagus, Taitt. Brâhmana I, 3, 10, 2; the Madhu Rikas, Rig-veda I, 90, 6; and the three Pavitras, Taitt. Brâhmana I, q, 8, 2.

267:6 Âpastamba II, 7, 14, 5. All the MSS., including those of the commentary, read yonigotramantrasambandhân instead of yonigotramantrâsambandhân. But the explanation of gotrasambandhâh by asagotrâh shows still a faint trace of the former existence of the reading which I have restored conjecturally and translated. Its correctness is proved by the parallel passage of Âpastamba.

267:7 Vishnu LXXIII, 12--13; Manu III, 208-211. The Agnimukha p. 268 is a term denoting all the preliminaries which precede the Pradhânahoma of a ceremony. The Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. read âgyasya instead of annasyaiva.

268:8 Clarified butter is necessary for the rites included in the Agnimukha.

268:12 The Mantras are addressed to the food which is to be offered.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 8, KANDIKÂ 15 Scroll Up

1. Now indeed (that) happens (also which the following verses teach):

2. 'Let him sprinkle that food with the remainder of the burnt oblations. But what is given without (touching it with) the thumb does not gladden the manes.' 2

3. 'The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity (to snatch away) that food intended for the manes, which is not supported with both hands.' 3

4. 'The Yâtudhânas and Pisâkas, who receive no share, steal the food if sesamum grains are not scattered (on the seats of the guests), and the Asuras (take it) if (the host) is under the sway of anger.' 4

5. 'If a person dressed in reddish clothes mutters prayers, offers burnt oblations, or receives gifts, the sacrificial viands, offered at sacrifices to the gods or to the manes, do not reach the deities.' 5

6. 'If gifts are given or received without (touching them with) the thumb and, if one sips water standing, (the performer of the act) is not benefited thereby.'

7. At the beginning and at the end (of a Srâddha) water must be giver. (to the guests). 7

8. In every case the muttering (of sacred texts) and the other (necessary acts must be performed) according to the rule.

9. The remaining (rules) have been prescribed (in the section) on the burnt oblations on Ashtakâ (days). 9

10. 'He shall feed two (Brâhmanas) at the offering to the gods and three at the offering to the manes, or a single man on either occasion. Even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.' 10

11. 'A large company destroys these five (advantages), the respectful treatment (of the invited guests, the propriety of) time and place, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brâhmana (guests); therefore he shall not invite (a large number).'

12. 'In front (feed) the fathers of the (sacrificer), to the left the grandfathers, to the right the great-grandfathers, and at the back those who pare off (portions) from the cakes.' 12

Footnotes Scroll Up

269:2 15. Manu III, 215. See also above, II, 8, 14, 10.

269:3 Vasishtha XI, 25.

269:4 Vishnu LXXIII, x a; Manu III, 229.

269:5 Govinda states that the rule is intended to teach that the sacrificer and the guests at a Srâddha must be dressed in white, p. 270 and that ascetics are not to be invited. But see Vasishtha XI, 17, 34.

270:7 Vishnu LXXIII, 12, 27, and above, II, 8, 14, 6.

270:9 Baudhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 17, 18.

270:10-11. Vasishtha XI, 27-28.

270:12 In the beginning of the verse I read with M. and the I. O. copy of the commentary urastah pitaras tasya, and in the end with the Dekhan and Gugarât MSS. pindatakshakâh. M. reads pindatarkyâ, and the copies of the commentary pindodakâh. Both these p. 271 readings are clearly corrupt, and so is the var. lect. of the Grihya-samgraha, quoted in the Petersburg Dictionary, pindatarkukâh. Pindatakshakâh, 'the cutters or parers of the cakes,' is appropriate, because the remoter ancestors, who, as Govinda too declares, are meant by the term, obtain the fragments of the funeral cakes.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 9, KANDIKÂ 16 Scroll Up

1. (Now follows some) advice for him who is desirous of offspring.

2. The two Asvins have declared, that fame is gained by the procreation (of sons);

3. 'Performing acts which tend to prolong life and austerities, intent on the performance of the private recitation and of sacrifices, and keeping his organs in subjection, let him carefully beget offspring in his own caste.'

4. 'From his birth a Brâhmana is loaded with three debts; these let him pay. A prudent man is free from doubts regarding the sacred law.'

5. 'If he worships the sages through the study of the Veda, Indra with Soma sacrifices, and the manes of his ancestors through (the procreation of) children, he will rejoice in heaven, free from debt.'

6. 'Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a grandson he obtains immortality, but through his son's grandson he ascends to the (highest) heaven.' (All that) has been declared in the Veda. 6

7. The Veda shows the existence of the three debts in the following (passage): 'A Brâhmana is born loaded with three debts; (he owes) the studentship to the sages, sacrifices to the gods, and a son to the manes;' 7

8. Through the procreation of a virtuous son he saves himself.

9. He who obtains a virtuous son saves from the fear of sin seven in the descending line and seven in the ascending line, (viz.) six others (in each), himself being the seventh.

10. Therefore he obtains a reward if he begets issue.

11. Therefore he should sedulously beget offspring, 11

12. Through the application of medicines and sacred texts.

13. The advice to him (who is intent on the procreation of children) is given in agreement with the revealed texts. 13

14. For it produces results in the case of all the castes.

Footnotes Scroll Up

271:6 Vasishtha XVII, 5.

271:7 Vasishtha XI, 48. After this Sûtra the MSS. of the text p. 272 insert the following corrupt passage: bandham rinamoksham pragâyâs kâyattam pitrînâm kânukarshasabdas ka pragâyâm darsayati | anutsannah pragâvân bhavati | yâ vad enam pragânugrihnîte tâvad akshayam lokam gayati. The commentary does not notice it, and it seems to me that it needlessly interrupts the context.

272:11 M. and K. add to this Sûtra, âtmanah phalalâbhâya, 'in order to gain a reward for himself.' The same two MSS., further, insert the following Sûtras: tasmât putram kotpâdyâtmânam evotpâdayatîti | vigñâyate kâtmâ vai putranâmâsîti | evam dvitîya âtmâ gîvatâ drashtavyo yah putram utpâdayati | sa tathâ bhavati | tasmân nâtmâ kvakid akshetra utsrashtavyah | âtmânam avamanyate hi | yathâtmânam utpâdayati sa tathâ bhavati | tasmâd âdita eva kshetram anvikkhet sarvavarne samskritam upadesena | tasmin dârasamyoge pragâm utpâdayed || 'Therefore (they say) that he who begets a son produces even his own self; and it is declared in the Veda, "Thou art self, called a son." Thus he who begets a son will see, during his lifetime, a second self. He becomes like him. Therefore one's own self must not be begotten on an unworthy female. For (he who does that) despises himself. He becomes even so, as he produces himself. Therefore (every man), each in his own caste, should first look out for a female who has been sanctified according to the injunction (of the sacred texts). Taking her to be his wedded wife, he shall beget a son.' It is possible that this passage really belongs to Baudhâyana, for it is written in the usual style of our Sûtra, and the last word of this passage as well as of Sûtra 11, as given in the Dekhan MSS., is utpâdayet. But it is not absolutely required by the context, and the commentary too omits it.

273:13 I read with M., whose reading is confirmed by the explanation given in the commentary, tasyopadesah srutisâmânyenopadisyate. The other MS. reads tasyopadesena, and in the text of the commentary the first word is left out.

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 10, KANDIKÂ 17 Scroll Up

1. Now we will explain the rule for entering the order of ascetics (samnyâsa).

2. Some (teachers say), 'He who has finished his studentship may become an ascetic immediately on (the completion of) that.' 2

3. But (according to others, asceticism is befitting) for Sâlînas and Yâyâvaras who are childless; 3

4. Or a widower (may become an ascetic). 4

5. (In general) they prescribe the profession of asceticism after the completion of the seventieth year and after the children have been firmly settled in (the performance of) their sacred duties.

6. Or a hermit in the woods (may become an 6 ascetic) on finishing the (special) ceremonies (prescribed for him).

7. 'That eternal greatness of the Brâhmana is neither increased nor diminished by works. The soul knows the nature of that (greatness). He who knows that, is not stained by evil deeds.' 7

8. 'It leads to the cessation of births.'

9. 'The eternal one leads (him) to glory.' The greatness (of asceticism is declared by these passages).

10. After having caused the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, he prepares

11. Sticks, a rope, a cloth for straining water, a water vessel, and an alms-bowl. 11

12. Taking these (implements, let him go) to the extremity of the village, or to- the extremity of the boundary (of the village), or to the house where the sacred fires are kept, partake of a threefold (mixture of) clarified butter, milk, (and) sour milk, and (afterwards) fast;

13. Or (he may partake of) water.

14. (Saying), 'Om, Bhûh, I enter the Sâvitrî, tat savitur varenyam; Om, Bhuvah, I enter the Sâvitrî, bhargo devasya dhîmahi; Om, I enter the Sâvitrî, dhiyo yo nah pr.akodayât;' (he shall recite the Sâvitrî) foot by foot, half-verse by half-verse, (and finish by repeating) the whole or the parts (of the verse). 14

15. It is declared in the Veda, 'Entering order after order, (man) becomes (one with) Brahman.'

16. Now they quote also (the following verse) 'He who has passed from order to order, has offered burnt oblations and kept his organs in subjection, becomes afterwards, tired with (giving) alms and (making) offerings, an ascetic.' 16

17. Such an ascetic (becomes one with) the infinite (Brahman).

18. Before the sun sets, he heaps fuel on the Gârhapatya fire, brings the Anvâhâryapakana fire (to the spot), takes the flaming Âhavanîya. fire out (of the Gârhapatya), melts butter on the Gârhapatya fire, cleanses it (with Kusa grass), takes four times (portions of it) in the sacrificial spoon (called Sruk), and offers in the Âhavanîya fire on which sacred fuel has been heaped, (four times) a full oblation, (saying), 'Om, Svâhâ!' 18

19. It is declared in the Veda that this (offering is) the Brahmânvâdhâna (putting fuel on the sacred fires for the sake of the universal soul).

20. Now in the evening, after the Agnihotra has been offered, he scatters grass to the north of the Gârhapatya fire, places the sacrificial vessels in pairs, the upper part turned downwards, on it, strews Darbha grass to the south of the Âhavanîya fire on the seat destined for the Brahman priest, covers it with the skin of a black antelope, and remains awake during that night.

21. A Brâhmana who, knowing this, dies after fasting during the night of Brahman and repositing within himself the sacred fires, conquers all guilt, even (that of) killing a Brâhmana. 21

22. Then he rises in the muhûrta sacred to Brahman, and offers the early Agnihotra just at the (appointed) time.

23. Next, after covering the (part of the altar called) Prishthyâ and bringing water, he prepares (an offering) to (Agni) Vaisvânara (which is cooked) in twelve potsherds. That (well-)known Ishti is the last (which he performs).

24. Afterwards he throws the sacrificial vessels, which are neither made of earth nor of stone, into the Âhavanîya fire,

25. (And) throwing the two Aranis into the Gârhapatya fire (with the words), 'May ye be of one mind with us,' he reposits the sacred fires in himself. 25

26. (Reciting the sacred text), 'O Fire, that body of thine, which is fit for the sacrifice,' he inhales the smell of (the smoke of) each fire thrice three times.

27. Then, standing within the sacrificial enclosure, (he says) thrice in a low voice and thrice aloud, 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics,'

28. It is declared in the Veda, 'The gods are trebly true.' 28

29. (Finally) he pours out as much water as will fill his joined hands, (saying), 'I promise not to injure any living being.' 29

30. Now they quote also (the following verse) An ascetic who roams about after having given a promise of safety to all living beings, is not threatened with danger by any creature.' 30

31. (Henceforth) he must restrain his speech. 31

32. He grasps his staff, (saying), '(Thou art my) friend, protect me.'

33. He takes the rope, (reciting the verse), 'The brilliant light,' &c. 33

34. He takes the cloth for straining water, (reciting the text), 'With which means of purification the gods,' &c.

35. He takes the waterpot, (reciting the verse), Through that light, by which the gods rose on high,' &c. 35

36. He takes the alms-bowl, (reciting the Vyâhritis).

37. Taking with him the staves, the rope, the 37 cloth for straining water, the waterpot, (and) the alms-bowl, he goes where water (is to be obtained), bathes, sips water, (and) washes himself, (reciting the verses called) Surabhimatî, Abliṅgâs, Vârunîs, Hiranyavarnâs, and Pâvamânîs. Entering the water, he performs sixteen suppressions of the breath, (mentally repeating) the Aghamarshana hymn, ascends the bank, wrings out his dress, puts on another pure dress, sips water, takes the cloth for straining, (saying), 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah,' and performs the Tarpana (with the following texts), 'Om, Bhûh, I satiate,' 'Om, Bhuvah --, Om, Svah --, Om, Mahah --, Om, Ganah --, Om, Tapah --, Om, Satyam --.'

38. He takes up as much water as his joined hands will hold for the manes, (and satiates them 38

with it) exactly in the same manner as the gods, (saying), 'Om, Bhûh Svadhâ, Om, Bhuvah Svadhâ,' &c.

39. Then he worships the sun, (reciting) the two verses (which begin), 'Ud u tyam kitram,' &c. 40

40. (Saying), 'Om, this (syllable Om), forsooth, is Brahman; this (syllable) which sheds warmth is light; this which gives warmth is the Veda; this must be known as that which sheds warmth;' he thus satiates the soul (and afterwards) worships the soul (with these texts), 'The soul (is) Brahman, (is) light.'

41. Let him repeat the Sâvitrî one thousand times, or one hundred times, or an unlimited number of times.

42. (Saying), 'Bhûh, Bhuvah, Suvah,' he takes up the cloth for straining, (and) fetches water.

43. Let him not, (at any period) after that (moment), sip water which has not been drawn up (from a well and the like), which has not been strained, and which has not been completely cleansed. 43

44. Let him not wear any longer a white dress.

45. (He may carry) one staff or three staves.

Footnotes Scroll Up

273:2 17. Gautama III, 1.

273:3 Regarding the two terms Sâlîna and Yâyâvara, see below, III, I, 3.4.

273:4 Vidhura, translated, according to Govinda's explanation, by 'widower,' perhaps includes all persons who have been separated from their families.

273:6 Regarding the ceremonies to be performed by hermits in the wood, see above, II, 6, 11, 15, and below, III, 3.

274:7 See above, II, 6, 11, 30.

274:11 Yâgñavalkya III, 58-60.

274:14 This part of the ceremony is called Sâvitrîpravesa, 'entering the Sâvitrî: According to the Dharmasindhu, fol. 84 a, 1. 8, the last Mantra is 'Om, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah, I enter the Sâvitrî; we meditate on that adorable light of divine Savitri, who may impel our thoughts.'

275:16 Manu VI, 34.

275:18 Anvâhâryapakana is another name of the so-called Dakshinâgni, in which the sacrificial viands are cooked. The cleansing of the butter (utpavana) is performed by taking hold of the ends of blades of Kusa grass and dipping the bent middle part into the melted butter and then drawing it upwards. A full burnt oblation (pûrnâhuti) consists of a whole spoonful. As four spoonfuls are to be taken out, it follows that four oblations are to be offered.

276:21 The night during which the ascetic keeps watch near the fires is called 'the night of Brahman.'

276:25 The Aranis are the two pieces of wood used for producing fire by friction, Taittirîya Samhitâ I, 3, 7, 1-2.

277:28 Taittirîya Âranyaka II, 18, 6.

277:29 All gifts must be confirmed by a libation of water, which ii other cases is poured into the hand of the recipient. The ceremony proves more clearly even than the numerous other passages of the Smritis, in which ascetic, are exhorted to abstain from injuring living beings, that the so-called ahimsâ doctrine is not of Buddhistic, but of Brâhmanical origin.

277:30 Vasishtha X, 1-2.

277:31 Gautama III, 27.

277:33 Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 7, 8, 1.

277:35 Taittirîya Samhitâ V, 7, 2, 2,

277:37 The Surabhimatî occurs Taittirîya Brâhmana III, 9, 7, 5. For the other texts named, see above, II, 4, 7, 2. The Tarpana has been fully described above, II, 5, 9-20.

278:38 'In he same manner as the gods,' i.e. without passing the sacred string over the right shoulder.--Govinda.

278:40 The Gugarât and Dekhan MSS., including K., place after the first Om two additional Mantras, 'Brahman (is) Om; this universe (is) Om.' The object of the Mantras given in the Madras MSS. is to identify the Pranava with the Brahman, the sun, and the Veda.

279:43 Manu VI, 46. Aparipûtâbhih, 'which has not been completely cleansed,' probably refers to the so-called drishtyâ paripavana, 'carefully looking at it in order to see if any living being remains in it.'

PRASNA II, ADHYÂYA 10, KANDIKÂ 18 Scroll Up

1. Now the following vows are (to be kept by an ascetic):

2. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness, abstention from appropriating the property of others, continence, (and) liberality. 2

3. There are five minor vows, (viz.) abstention from anger, obedience towards the Guru, avoidance of rashness, cleanliness and purity in eating. 3

4. Now (follows the rule for) begging. Let him 4 ask Brâhmanas, both those who have houses (sâlîna) and those who lead a wandering life (yâyâvara), for alms, when the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished.

5. Let him ask (for it), prefacing (his request with the word) Bhavat.

6. Let him stand begging no longer than the time required for milking a cow.

7. When he returns from begging, he lays (the alms) down in a pure place, washes his hands and feet, and announces (what he obtained) to the sun, (reciting the text), 'Ud u tyam kitram,' &c. He (also) announces it to Brahman (with the text), 'The first-born Brahman,' &c. 7

8. It is declared in the Veda, 'After the Brahmâdhâna the sacrificer himself (contains) the sacrificial fires. His respiration (prâna, represents) the Gârhapatya fire, the air that goes downwards (apâna, represents) the Anvâhâryapakana (or Dakshina) fire, the circulation in the body (vyâna, represents) the Âhavanîya fire, the cerebral circulation (udâna) and the abdominal circulation (samâna, represent) the Sabhya and Âvasathya fires. These five fires are abiding in 'the soul. He (therefore) offers (the oblations) in the soul alone.' 8

9. 'This sacrifice, offered in the soul, which is located in and based on the soul, leads the soul to happiness.'

10. Giving, compassionately, portions (of his food) to the living beings, and sprinkling the remainder with water, he shall eat it as if it were a medicine.

11. After he has eaten and sipped water, he mutters (the texts), 'Out of darkness we,' &c., (and), My speech resides in the mouth,' &c., and worships the sun with the (verse called) Gyotishmatî. 11

12. Let him eat food, given without asking, regarding which nothing has been settled before-hand and which has reached him accidentally, so much only as is sufficient to sustain life. 12

13. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Eight mouthfuls (make) the meal of an ascetic, sixteen (that) of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two (that) of a householder, an unlimited (quantity that) of a student.' 13

14. 'Alms (may) either (be obtained) from (men

of) the three castes, or the food (given) by a single Brâhmana (may be eaten); or (he may obtain food) from (men of) all castes, and not (eat) that given by a single Brâhmana.'

15. Now they quote (the following special rules) for the case that the teachers explain (the doctrine) of the Upanishads: 'Diligently standing (in the day-time), keeping silence, sitting (at night) with crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and eating at the fourth, sixth, or eighth (meal-time only), he shall subsist entirely on (rice) grains, oil-cake, food prepared from barley, sour milk, (and) milk.'

16. It is declared in the Veda, On that (occasion) he shall rigidly keep silence; pressing the teeth together he may converse, without opening his mouth, as much as is necessary with teachers deeply versed in the three Vedas (and) with ascetics possessing a great knowledge of the scriptures, not with women, nor when he would break (his vow).'

17. (Let him keep) only one of (the rules which enjoin) standing (in the day-time), rigid silence, and sitting (at night) with crossed legs; let him not keep all three together.

18. It is declared in the Veda, And he who has gone there may eat, in times of distress, a small quantity of the food prescribed by his vow after (having partaken of other dishes), provided he does not break (his vow).' 18

19. 'Eight (things) do not cause him who is intent on standing (in the day-time), keeping rigid silence, sitting (at night) with crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and (eating) at the fourth, sixth, or eighth meal-time only, to break his vow, (viz.) water, roots, clarified butter, milk, sacrificial food, the wish of a Brâhmana, an order of his teacher, and medicine.' 19

20. Let him mutter the (Mantras which must be recited at the) Agnihotra, in the evening and in the morning,

21. After performing his evening devotions by (reciting the verses called) Vârunîs, and his morning devotions by (reciting the verses called) Maitrîs. 21

22. An ascetic shall keep no fire, have no house, no home, and no protector. He may enter a village in order to collect alms, and emit speech at the private recitation of the Veda.' 22

23. It is declared in the Veda,' Limited in number are the Rik-verses, limited in number are the Sâmans, limited is the answer (of the Adhvaryu priest): 23

24. 'Thus (an ascetic) shall not give up the Veda, (but live), until he is liberated from the body, at the root of the tree.' 24

25. 'The tree (is) the Veda; the syllable Om is its root; the syllable Om is the essence of the Veda.'

26. 'Meditating on the syllable Om, he becomes fit (to be united with) Brahman.' Thus spake the lord of created beings.

27. Let him cleanse the vessel of Brahman with the seven Vyâhritis. 27

Suggestions for Further Reading

Footnotes Scroll Up

279:2 18. The five vows (vratas) named here are the principal ones. As to the vow of 'liberality' Govinda remarks that though the ascetic possesses no 'store' and no property in the ordinary sense of the word, still he can have books and give those away.

279:3 'Avoidance of rashness,' i.e. committing any act which might destroy life.

279:4 'When the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished,' i.e. when people. have had their dinner; see also Vasishtha X, 7.

280:7 The second text occurs repeatedly in the Taittirîya-veda, eg. Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 1, 10.

280:8 Regarding the Brahmâdhâna, see above, II, 10, 17, 19.

281:11 The first text occurs frequently in the Taittirîya-veda, e.g. Taittirîya Samhitâ IV, i, 7, 4; the second, Taittirîya Âranyaka X, 72. The Gyotishmatî is, according to Govinda, the first of the two Mantras quoted.

281:12 According to Govinda this verse gives the opinion of 'some' teachers, not the author's. Asamkliptam, 'regarding which nothing has been settled beforehand,' indicates, according to Govinda, that the ascetic must not even mentally determine what he is going to eat.

281:13 See above, II, 7, 13, 7.

282:18 'The meaning is, that in times of distress, having partaken at his pleasure (of other food), he may afterwards eat of one (of the substances mentioned above, viz.) rice-grains and the rest.'--Govinda.

282:19 All the MSS. except M. have snâna, 'bathing,' instead of sthâna, 'standing (in the day-time),' though the reading is clearly wrong.

283:21 The Maitrîs occur Taitt. Samhitâ III, 4, 11, 5, and the Vârunîs follow them immediately.

283:22 Âpastamba II, 9, 21, 10.

283:23 This and the next Sûtras are intended to teach that ascetics may limit their private recitation to the repetition of the, pranava, the syllable Om: According to Govinda the passage of the Veda quoted refers originally to the Katurhotârah, which the Taittirîya Brâhmana II, 2, I, 4, and III, 12, 5, I identifies with. the Brahman, and where the pratigara, the answer of the Adhvaryu priest, is 'Om hotah' (Aitareya Brâhmana V, 25).

283:24 I have taken vrikshamûlikovedasamnyâsî to stand for vrikshamûliko avedasamnyasî. For the vedasamnyâsa, 'giving up the Veda,' is not permitted to an ascetic; see e.g. Vasishtha X, 4. But even without the negative particle vedasamnyâsî may convey a sense not opposed to the general teaching of the Smritis. For it may be taken to mean 'abandoning (the recitation of other portions of) the Veda.'

284:27 Govinda is uncertain if the term brahmabhâgana, 'the vessel of Brahman,' refers to the alms-bowl or to the body of the ascetic. Probably both are meant, and the Sûtra is intended to prescribe the frequent recitation of the Vyâhritis in addition to the syllable Om.

Source: The Sacred Laws Of The Âryas As Taught In The Schools Of Âpastamba, Guatama, Vâsishtha, And Baudhayana Translated By Georg Bühler Part II, Vâsishtha And Baudhâyana Sacred Books Of The East, Vol. 2: Oxford: The Clarendon Press [1882]. The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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