1. (Brāhmanas) who neither study nor teach
the Veda nor keep sacred fires become equal to Sūdras; 1
2. And they quote a verse of Manu on this (subject),
'A twice-born man, who not having studied the Veda applies himself
to other (and worldly study), soon falls, even while living, to
the condition of a Sūdra, and his descendants after him.' 2
3. '(A twice-born man) who does not know the 3
Veda (can)not be (called) a Brāhmana, nor he who lives by
trade, nor he who (lives as) an actor, nor he who obeys a Sūdra's
commands, nor (he who like) a thief (takes the property of others),
nor he who makes his living by the practice of medicine.'
4. 'The king shall punish that village where Brāhmanas,
unobservant of their sacred duties and ignorant of the Veda, subsist
by begging; for it feeds robbers.'
5. 'Many thousands (of Brāhmanas) cannot form
a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if they have
not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with the Veda,
and subsist only by the name of their caste.' 5
6. 'That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignorance
and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare (to be duty) shall
fall, increased a hundredfold, on those who propound it.' 6
7. 'What four or (even) three (Brāhmanas) who
have completely studied the Vedas proclaim, that must be distinctly
recognised as the sacred law, not (the decision) of a thousand fools.' 7
8. 'Offerings to the gods and to the manes must always
be given to a Srotriya alone. For gifts bestowed on a man
unacquainted with the Veda, reach neither the ancestors nor the
9. 'If a fool lives even in one's house and a (Brāhmana)
deeply learned in the Veda lives at a great distance, the learned
man shall receive the gift. The sin of neglecting (a Brāhmana
is not incurred) in (the case of) a fool.' 9
10. 'The offence of neglecting a Brāhmana cannot
be committed against a twice-born man who is ignorant of the Veda.
For (in offering sacrifices) one does not pass by a brilliant fire
and throw the oblations into ashes.' 10
11. An elephant made of wood, an antelope made of
leather, and a Brāhmana ignorant of the Veda, those three
have nothing but the name (of their kind). 11
12. 'Those kingdoms, where ignorant men eat the food
of the learned, will be visited by drought; or (some other) great
evil will befall (them).'
13. If anybody finds treasure (the owner of) which
is not known, the king shall take it, giving one sixth to the finder. 13
14. If a Brāhmana who follows the six (lawful)
occupations, finds it, the king shall not take it.
15. They declare that the slayer commits no crime
by killing an assassin. 15
16. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'An
incendiary, likewise a poisoner, one who holds a weapon in his hand
(ready to kill), a robber, he who takes away land, and he who abducts
(another man's) wife, these six are called assassins (ātatāyin).'
17. 'He may slay an assassin who comes with the intention
of slaying, even though he knows the whole Veda together with the
Upanishads; by that (act) he (does) not (incur the guilt of) the
slayer of a Brāhmana.' 17
18. 'He who slays an assassin learned in the Veda
and belonging to a noble family, does not incur by that act the
guilt of the murderer of a learned Brāhmana.; (in) that (case)
fury recoils upon fury.'
19. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Trinākiketa,
one who keeps five fires, a Trisuparna, one who (knows the
texts required for) the four sacrifices (called Asvamedha,
Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and Pitrimedha), one who knows
the Vāgasaneyi-sākhā of the White Yagur-veda,
one who knows the six Angas, the son of a female married according
to the Brāhma-rite, one who knows the first part of the Sāma-veda
Samhitā, one who sings the Gyeshthasāman, one who
knows the Samhitā and the Brāhmana, one who studies
(the treatises on) the sacred law, one whose ancestors to the ninth
degree, both 19
on the mother's and on the father's side, are distinctly
known to have been Srotriyas, and learned men and Snātakas.
20. (Four students of) the four Vedas, one who knows
the Mīmāmsā, one who knows the Aṅgas, a teacher of
the sacred law, and three eminent men who are in three (different)
orders, (compose) a (legal) assembly consisting at least of ten
21. He who initiates (a pupil) and teaches him the
whole Veda is called the teacher (ākārya). 21
22. But he who (teaches) a portion (of the Veda only
is called) the sub-teacher (upādhyāya);
23. So is he who (teaches) the Aṅgas of the
24. A Brāhmana and a Vaisya may take
up arms in self-defence, and in (order to prevent) a confusion of
the castes. 24
25. But that (trade of arms) is the constant (duty)
of a Kshatriya, because he is appointed to protect (the people). 25
26. Having washed his feet and his hands up to 26
the wrist, and sitting with his face turned towards the east
or towards the north, he shall thrice sip water out of the Tīrtha
sacred to Brahman, (i.e.) the part of the hand above the root of
the thumb, without uttering any sound;
27. He shall twice wipe (his mouth with the root of
28. He shall touch the cavities (of the head) with
29. He shall pour water on his head and on the left
30. He shall not sip water while walking, standing.,
lying down or bending forward. 30
31. A Brāhmana (becomes pure) by (sipping)
water, free from bubbles and foam, that reaches his heart,
32. But a Kshatriya by (sipping water) that reaches
33. A Vaisya by (sipping water) that wets his
34. A woman and a Sūdra by merely touching
water (with the lips).
35. Water (for sipping may) even (be taken) out of
a hole in the ground, if it is fit to slake the thirst of cows. 35
36. (He shall not purify himself with water) which
has been defiled with colours, perfumes, or flavouring substances,
nor with such as is collected in unclean places. 36
37. Drops (of saliva) falling from the mouth, which
do not touch a limb of the body, do not make (a man) impure. 37
38. If, after having sipped water, he sleeps, eats,
sneezes, drinks, weeps or bathes, or puts on a dress, he must again
sip water, 38
39. Likewise, if he touches (that part of) the lips
on which no hair grows. 39
40. No defilement is caused by the hair of the moustache
(entering the mouth). 40
41. If (remnants of food) adhere to the teeth, (they
are pure) like the teeth, and he is purified by swallowing those
which (become detached) in the mouth. 41
42. He is not defiled by the drops which fall on his
feet, while somebody gives to others water for sipping; they are
stated to be equally (clean) as the ground. 42
43. If, while occupied with eatables, he touches any
impure substance, then he shall place that thing (which he holds
in his hand) on the ground, sip water and afterwards again use it. 43
44. Let him sprinkle with water all objects (the purity
of) which may be doubtful.
45. 'Both wild animals killed by dogs, and fruit thrown
by birds (from the tree), what has been spoilt by children, and
what has been handled by women,' 45
46. 'A vendible commodity tendered for sale and what
is not dirtied by gnats and flies that have settled on it,' 46
47. 'Likewise water collected on the ground that quenches
the thirst of cows,--enumerating all these things, the Lord of created
beings has declared them to be pure.' 47
48. Anything defiled by unclean (substances) becomes
pure when the stains and the smell have been removed by water and
49. (Objects) made of metal must be scoured with ashes,
those made of clay should be thoroughly heated by fire, those made
of wood should be planed, and (cloth) made of thread should be washed. 49
50. Stones and gems (should be treated) like objects
made of metal, 50
51. Conch-shells and pearl-shells like gems,
52. (Objects made of) bone like wood, 52
53. Ropes, chips (of bamboo), and leather become pure
(if treated) like clothes, 53
54. (Objects) made of fruits, (if rubbed) with (a
brush of) cow hair, 54
55. Linen cloth, (if smeared) with a paste of yellow
mustard (and washed afterwards with water). 55
56. But land becomes pure, according to the degree
of defilement, by sweeping (the defiled spot), by smearing it with
cowdung, by scraping it, by sprinkling (water) or by heaping (pure
earth) on (it). 56
57. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Land
is purified by these four methods, by digging, burning, scraping,
being trodden on by cows, and fifthly by being smeared with cowdung.' 57
58. 'A woman is purified by her monthly discharge,
a river by its current, brass by (being scoured with) ashes, and
an earthen pot by another burning.' 58
59. 'But an earthen vessel which has been defiled
by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, phlegm, pus, tears, or blood
cannot be purified even by another burning.'
60. 'The body is purified by water, the internal organ
by truth, the soul by sacred learning and austerities, and the understanding
61. Gold is purified by water alone, 61
62. Likewise silver,
63. Copper is cleansed by acids. 63
64. The Tīrtha sacred to the Gods lies at the root
of the little finger, 64
65. That sacred to the Rishis in the middle
of the fingers,
66. That sacred to Men at the tips of the fingers,
67. That sacred to Agni (fire) in the middle of the
68. That sacred to the Manes between the forefinger
and the thumb.
69. He shall honour (his food at) the evening and
morning meals (saying), 'It pleases me,' 69
70. At meals in honour of the Manes (saying), I have
dined well,' 70
71. At (a dinner given on the occasion of) rites procuring
prosperity (saying), 'It is perfect: 71
1. The four castes are distinguished by their origin
and by particular sacraments. 1
2. There is also the following passage of the Veda,
'The Brāhmana was his mouth, the Kshatriya formed his arms,
the Vaisya his thighs; the Sūdra was born from his
3. It has been declared in (the following passage
of) the Veda that (a Sūdra) shall not receive the sacraments,
'He created the Brāhmana with the Gāyatrī (metre), the Kshatriya
with the Trishtubh, the Vaisya with the Gagatī,
the Sūdra without any metre.'
4. Truthfulness, suppression of anger, liberality,
abstention from injuring living beings, and the procreation of offspring
(are duties common to) all (castes). 4
5. The Mānava (Sūtra states), 'Only when he worships
the manes and the gods, or honours guests, he may certainly do injury
to animals.' 5
6. 'On offering a Madhuparka (to a guest), at a sacrifice,
and at the rites in honour of the manes, but on these occasions
only may an animal be slain; that (rule) Manu proclaimed.' 6
7. 'Meat can never be obtained without injuring living
beings, and to injure living beings does not procure heavenly bliss;
therefore the (sages declare) the slaughter (of beasts) at a sacrifice
not to be slaughter (in the ordinary sense of the word).' 7
8. 'Now he may also cook a full-grown ox or a full-grown
he-goat for a Brāhmana or Kshatriya guest; in this manner
they offer hospitality to such (a man).' 8
9. Libations of water (must be poured out) for all
(deceased relatives) who completed the second year and (their death
10. Some declare that (this rule applies also to children)
that died after teething.
11. After having burnt the body (of the deceased,
the relatives) enter the water without looking at (the place of
12. Facing the south, they shall pour out water with
both hands on (those days of the period of impurity) which are marked
by odd numbers. 12
13. The south, forsooth, is the region sacred to the
14. After they have gone home, they shall sit during
three days on mats, fasting. 14
15. If they are unable (to fast so long), they shall
subsist on food bought in the market or given unasked. 15
16. It is ordered that impurity caused by a death
shall last ten days in the case of Sapinda relations.
17. It has been declared in the Veda that Sapinda
relationship extends to the seventh person (in the ascending or
descending line). 17
18. It has been declared in the Veda that for married
females it extends to the third person (in the ascending or descending
19. Others (than the blood-relations) shall perform
(the obsequies) of married females, 19
20. (The rule regarding impurity) should be exactly
the same on the birth of a child for those men who desire complete
21. Or for the mother and the father (of the child
alone); some (declare that it applies) to the 21
mother (only), because she is the immediate cause of that
22. Now they quote also (the following verse): On
the birth (of a child) the male does not become impure if he does
not touch (the female); on that (occasion) the menstrual excretion
must be known to be impure, and that is not found in males.'
23. If during (a period of impurity) another (death
or birth) happens, (the relatives) shall be pure after (the expiration
of) the remainder of that (first period); 23
24. (But) if one night (and day only of the first
period of impurity) remain, (they shall be pure) after two (days
and nights); 24
25. (If the second death or birth happens) on the
morning (of the day on which the first period of impurity expires,
they shall be purified) after three (days and nights). 25
26. A Brāhmana is freed from impurity (caused
by a death or a birth) after ten days, 26
27. A Kshatriya after fifteen days,
28. A Vaisya after twenty days,
29. A Sūdra after a month. 29
30. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'But
(a twice-born man) who has eaten (the food) of a Sūdra during
impurity caused by a death or a birth, will suffer dreadful (punishment
in) hell and be born again in the womb of an animal.'
31. 'A twice-born man who eats by appointment in the
house of a stranger whose ten days of impurity, caused by a death,
have not expired, after death will become a worm and feed on the
ordure of that (man who fed him).'
32. It has been declared in the Veda, '(Such a sinner)
becomes pure by reciting the Samhitā of the Veda for twelve
months or for twelve half-months while fasting.' 32
33. On the death of a child of less than two years
or on a miscarriage, the impurity of the Sapindas lasts three
(days and) nights. 33
34. Gautama (declares that on the former occasion
they become) pure at once. 34
35. If (a person) dies in a foreign country and (his
Sapindas) hear (of his death) after ten days (or a longer
period), the impurity lasts for one (day and) night.
36. Gautama (declares that) if a person who has kindled
the sacred fire dies on a journey, (his Sapindas shall) again
celebrate his obsequies, (burning a dummy made of leaves or straw),
and remain impure (during ten days) as if (they had actually buried)
his corpse. 36
37. When he has touched a sacrificial post, a pyre,
a burial-ground, a menstruating or a lately confined woman, impure
men or (Kāndālas and so forth), he shall bathe, submerging
both his body and his head. 37
1. A woman is not independent, the males are her masters.
It has been declared in the Veda, 'A female who neither goes naked
nor is temporarily unclean is paradise.' 1
2. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Their
fathers protect them in childhood, their husbands protect them in
youth, and their sons protect them in age; a woman is never fit
for independence.' 2
3. The penance (to be performed) by a (wife) for being
unfaithful to her husband has been declared in the (section on)
secret penances. 3
4. For month by month the menstrual excretion takes
away her sins. 4
5. A woman in her courses is impure during three (days
and) nights. 5
6. (During that period) she shall not apply collyrium
to her eyes, nor anoint (her body), nor bathe in water; she shall
sleep on the ground; she shall not sleep in the day-time, nor touch
the fire, nor make a rope, nor clean her teeth, nor eat meat, nor
look at the planets, nor smile, nor busy herself with (house-hold
affairs), nor run; she shall drink out of a large vessel, or out
of her joined hands, or out of a copper vessel. 6
7. For it has been declared in the Veda, 'When Indra
had slain (Vritra) the three-headed son of Tvashtri,
he was seized by Sin, and he considered himself to be tainted with
exceedingly great guilt. All beings cried out against him (saying
to him), 7
' thou slayer of a learned Brāhmana! O thou slayer of a learned
Brāhmana!' He ran to the women for protection (and said to
them), 'Take upon yourselves the third part of this my guilt (caused
by) the murder of a learned Brāhmana.' They answered, ''What
shall we have (for doing thy wish)?' He replied, 'Choose a boon.'
They said, 'Let us obtain offspring (if our husbands approach us)
during the proper season, at pleasure let us dwell (with our husbands
until (our children) are born.' He answered, 'So be it.' (Then)
they took upon themselves (the third part of his guilt). That guilt
of Brāhmana-murder appears every month as the menstrual flow.
Therefore let him not eat the food of a woman in her courses; (for)
such a one has put on the shape of the guilt of Brāhmana-murder.
8. (Those who recite the Veda) proclaim the following
(rule): 'Collyrium and ointment must not be accepted from her; for
that is the food of women. Therefore they feel a loathing for her
(while she is) in that (condition, saying), "She shall not
9. 'Those (Brāhmanas in) whose (houses) menstruating
women sit, those who keep no sacred fire, 9
and those in whose family there is no Srotriya; all
these are equal to Sūdras.'
1. (To live according to) the rule of conduct is doubtlessly
the highest duty of all men. He whose soul is defiled by vile conduct
perishes in this world and in the next. 1
2. Neither austerities, nor (the study of) the Veda,
nor (the performance of) the Agnihotra, nor lavish liberality can
ever save him whose conduct is vile and who has strayed from this
(path of duty).
3. The Vedas do not purify him who is deficient in
good conduct, though he may have learnt them all together with the
six Aṅgas; the sacred texts depart from such a man at death,
even as birds, when full-fledged, leave their nest.
4. As the beauty of a wife causes no joy to a blind
man, even so all the four Vedas together with the six Aṅgas
and sacrifices give no happiness to him who is deficient in good
5. The sacred texts do not save from sin the deceitful
man who behaves deceitfully. But that Veda, two syllables of which
are studied in the right manner, purifies, just as the clouds (give
beneficent rain) in the month of Isha. 5
6. A man of bad conduct is blamed among men, evils
befal him constantly, he is afflicted with disease and short-lived. 6
7. Through good conduct man gains spiritual merit,
through good conduct he gains wealth, through good conduct he obtains
beauty, good conduct obviates the effect of evil marks. 7
8. A man who follows the rule of conduct established
among the virtuous, who has faith and is free from envy, lives a
hundred years, though he be destitute of all auspicious marks. 8
9. But a man who knows the sacred law shall perform
in secret all acts connected with eating, the natural evacuations
and dalliance with (his wife); business to be accomplished by speech
or intellect, likewise austerities, wealth, and age, must be most
10. And a man shall void both urine and fęces, facing
the north, in the day-time, but at night he shall do it turning
towards the south; for (if he acts) thus, his life will not be injured. 10
11: The intellect of that man perishes who voids urine
against a fire, the sun, a cow, a Brāhmana, the moon, water,
and the morning or evening twilights. 11
12. Let him not void urine in a river, nor on a path,
nor on ashes, nor on cowdung, nor on a ploughed field, nor on one
which has been sown, nor on a grass-plot, nor in the shade (of trees)
that afford protection (to travellers). 12
13. Standing in the shade (of houses, clouds, and
so forth), when it is quite dark, and when he fears for his life,
a Brāhmana may void urine, by day and by night, in any position
he pleases. 13
14. (Afterwards) he shall perform the necessary (purification)
with water fetched for the purpose (from a tank or river, and with
15. For a bath water not fetched for the purpose (may
also be used). 15
16. (For the purpose of purification) a Brāhmana
shall take earth that is mixed with gravel, from the bank (of a
17. Five kinds of earth must not be used, viz. such
as is covered by water, such as lies in a temple, on an ant-hill,
on a hillock thrown up by rats, and that which has been left by
one who cleaned himself.
18. The organ (must be cleaned by) one (application
of) earth, the (right) hand by three, but both (feet) by two, the
anus by five, the one (i.e. the left hand) by ten, and both (hands
and feet) by seven (applications of earth). 18
19. Such is the purification ordained for house-holders;
it is double for students, treble for hermits, but quadruple for
20. Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen
that of a hermit, but thirty-two that of a householder, and an unlimited
quantity that of a student. 20
21. An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student, those
three can do their work only if they eat (well); without eating
(much), they cannot do it.
22. (The above rule regarding limited allowances of
food holds good) in the case of penances, of self-imposed restraint,
of sacrifices, of the recitation of the Veda, and of (the performance
of other) sacred duties. 22
23. The qualities by which a (true) Brāhmana
may be recognised are, the concentration of the mind, austerities,
the subjugation of the senses, liberality, truthfulness, purity,
sacred learning, compassion, worldly learning, intelligence, and
the belief (in the existence of the deity and of a future life).
24. One may know that bearing grudges, envy, speaking
untruths, speaking evil of Brāhmanas, backbiting, and cruelty
are the characteristics of a Sūdra. 24
25. Those Brāhmanas can save (from evil) who are free from
passion, and patient of austerities, whose ears have been filled
with the texts of the Veda, who have subdued the organs of sensation
and action, who have ceased to injure animated beings, and who close
their hands when gifts are offered. 25
26. Some become worthy receptacles of gifts through
sacred learning, and some through the practice of austerities. But
that Brāhmana whose stomach does not contain the food of
a Sūdra, is even the worthiest receptacle of all. 26
27. if a Brāhmana dies with the food of a
Sūdra in his stomach, he will become a village pig (in his
next life) or be born, in the family of that (Sūdra).
28. For though a (Brāhmana) whose body is nourished
by the essence of a Sūdra's food may daily recite the Veda,
though he may offer (an Agnihotra) or mutter (prayers, nevertheless)
he will not find the path that leads upwards.
29. But if, after eating the food of a Sūdra,
he has conjugal intercourse, his sons will belong to the giver of
the food, and he shall not ascend to heaven.
30. They declare that he is worthy to receive gifts,
who (daily) rises to recite the Veda, who is of good family, and
perfectly free from, passion, who constantly offers. sacrifices
in the three sacred fires, who fears sin, and knows much, who is
beloved among the females (of his family), who is righteous, protects
cows, and reduces himself by austerities.
31. Just as milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and
honey poured. into an unburnt earthen vessel, perish, owing to the
weakness of the vessel, and neither the vessel nor those liquids
32. Even so a man destitute of sacred learning, who
accepts cows or gold, clothes, a horse, land, (or) sesamum, becomes
ashes, as (if he were dry) wood. 32
33. He shall not make his joints or his nails crack, 33
34. Nor shall he make a vessel ring with his nails.
35. Let him not drink water out of his joined hands. 35
36. Let him not strike the water with his foot or
37. Nor (pour) water into (other) water.
38. Let him not gather fruit by throwing brickbats,
39. Nor by throwing another fruit at it.
40. He shall not become a hypocrite or deceitful. 40
41. Let him not learn a language spoken by barbarians.
42. Now they quote' also (the following verses): 'The
opinion of the Sishtas is, that a man shall not be
uselessly active, neither with his hands and his feet, nor with
his eyes, nor with his tongues and his body.' 42
43. 'Those Brāhmanas, in whose families the
study of the Veda and of its supplements is hereditary, and who
are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the revealed
texts, must be known to be Sishtas.' 43
44. 'He is a (true) Brāhmana regarding whom
no one knows if he be good or bad, if he be ignorant or deeply learned,
if he be of good or of bad conduct.'
1. There are four orders, 1
2. Viz. (that of) the student, (that of) the house-holder,
(that of) the hermit, and (that of) the ascetic.
3. A man who has studied one, two, or three Vedas
without violating the rules of studentship, may enter any of these
(orders), whichsoever he pleases. 3
4. A (professed) student shall serve his teacher until
5. And in case the teacher dies, he shall serve the
sacred fire. 5
6. For it has been declared in the Veda, 'The fire
is thy teacher:' 6
7. (A student, whether professed or temporary), shall
bridle his tongue; 7
8. He shall eat in the fourth, sixth, or eighth hour
of the day. 8
9. He shall go out in order to beg. 9
10. He shall obey his teacher. 10
11. He either (may wear all his hair) tied in a knot
or (keep merely) a lock on the crown of his head tied in a knot,
(shaving the other parts of the head.) 11
12. If the teacher walks, he shall attend him walking
after him; if the teacher is seated, standing; if the teacher lies
down, seated. 12
13. He shall study after having been called (by the
teacher, and not request the latter to begin the lesson). 13
14. Let him announce (to the teacher) all that he
has received (when begging), and eat after permission (has been
given to him). 14
15. Let him avoid to sleep on a cot, to clean his
teeth, to wash (his body for pleasure), to apply collyrium (to his
eyes),. to anoint (his body), and to wear shoes or a parasol. 15
16. (While reciting his prayers) he shall stand in
the day-time and sit down at night. 16
17. Let him bathe three times a day. 17
Suggested Further Reading
1. The word 'now' serves, in this as in analogous cases,
various purposes. It marks the beginning of the book, serves
as an auspicious invocation (maṅgala), and indicates that
something else, the initiation, must precede the study of the
sacred law. 'Therefore' means 'because, after initiation, the
neophyte is to be taught the prescribed rules regarding personal
purification:--Krishnapandita. For the
wording of the Sūtra compare the be-ginning of Gaimini's
Gautama I, 1-4; XXVIII, 48.
Sūtra contains a limitation of Sūtra 5. It indicates that the
customs of the Sishtas, for which worldly motives
are perceptible, have no authority, and are not to be followed.
The principle enunciated is one inculcated by the Mīmāmsakas
(P: M. S. p. 2
I, 3, 3-4). See also Āpastamba I, 1, 4, 5-10; I, 4, 12, 8; and
Introduction, p. xxvii. Krishnapandita
has misunderstood the Sūtra. He reads, against the MSS., agrihyamānakārano
dharmah, 'unlawful acts are those for which no motive,
i.e. no sacred source such as the Vedas, is perceptible.'
region where the river Sarasvatī disappears is the Pattiālā
district in the Pańgāb. The Pāripātra mountains belong
to the great Vindhya range, and are probably the hills in Mālvā.
The position of the Kālakavana or Black-forest is not accurately
known. But it must probably be sought in Bihār. All the MSS.
as well as Krishnapandita read in this
Sūtra prāgādarsanāt instead of prāgadarsanāt,
'to the east of the region where the river Sarasvatī disappears.'
This circumstance gains some importance by the fact that the
Mahābhāshya on Pānini II, 4, 10, quotes the same definition
of the Āryāvarta, giving, however, instead of adarsanāt
prāgādarsāt, 'to the east of Ādarsa, i.e. the
Ādarsa mountains.' It seems to me not improbable that
our Sūtra, too, had originally prāgādarsāt, and that
some Pandit who knew nothing about the Ādarsa
hills, but remembered Manu II, as, and Baudhāyana I, 1, 25,
where the word vinasanāt, 'the disappearance of the Sarasvatī,'
undoubtedly occurs, added the syllable na and forgot to correct
the ā, after prāg.
translation follows Krishnapandita's commentary,
which recommends itself on account of the analogous definition
of Āryāvarta given by Manu II, 22.
My translation follows the text given by Krishnapandita
and p. 3
B., and the explanation of the former, because it seems to me
that the general sense which they give, is the correct one.
I feel, however, not certain that the word. pratilomakadharmānām,
'of those countries where opposite laws prevail,' is more than
a care less correction. The majority of the MSS. read pratilomakakshadharmānah
(kalpadharmānah), which by itself is difficult
of explanation. But, as the text of the next Sūtra contains
an apparently superfluous phrase, I fear, we shall have to admit
that the text is here disfigured by corruptions, which with
our present MSS. it is impossible to remove with certainty.
Krishnapandita reads this Sutra 'etad āryāvartam
ityākakshate gaṅgāyamunayor antaretyeke,' and takes
it as one sentence, the subject of which is 'eke.' I feel no
doubt that this explanation is utterly untenable, and that the
first four words have nothing to do with this Sutra, the second
part of which occurs also in the Baudhāyana Dharma-sūtra I,
1, 27. My opinion is that they originally belonged to Sūtra
11, though the state of the MSS. at my disposal does not allow
me to say how Sūtra 11 has to be corrected. The general sense
of Sūtra 12 is, however, perfectly certain.
Manu II, 23; Yāgńavalkya I, 2. It deserves to be noted
that the black antelope (black-buck), Oryx cervicapra, selects
for its home the well-cultivated, rich plains of India only,
and is entirely wanting in the sandy, mountainous or forest
districts, which are now, just as in ancient times, the portion
of the aboriginal tribes.
Regarding the Bhāllavins, see Max Müller, History of Ancient
Sanskrit Literature, pp. 193, 364. Krishnapandita
thinks that Nidāna means desanirnaya, 'the disquisition
on the countries,' which is the title of a section which occurs
in most modern compilations on law. But it will be safer to
take it as the name of a Vedic work, identical with or similar
to that quoted in Saunaka's Brihaddevatā, Weber,
Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 81.
Sindhur vidhāranī or vidharanī, as B. reads, cannot
be p. 4
taken with Krishnapandita, as 'the ocean,'
because in the latter sense sindhu is a masculine. It must be
a boundary-river, probably the Sarasvatī. By sūryasyodana, 'the
region where the sun rises,' the udayagiri or 'mountain of the
east' may possibly be meant.
This verse, too, is marked as a quotation by the concluding
word iti, though it is not necessary that it should be taken
as a quotation from the Nidāna. Here, and in the sequel verses
ending in iti are marked as quotations by hyphens.
Manu VII, 203; VIII, 41; Gautama XI, 20. Gāti,' castes,'
which sometimes, and perhaps as appropriately, has been translated
by 'tribes,' denotes in my opinion those numerous subdivisions
of the four great varnas, which we now find all over
India, and which can be shown to have existed for a very long
time. Usually the word 'caste' is also applied to them.
Krishnapandita explains vīrahā, 'he who
extinguishes the sacred fires,' by 'the destroyer of his sons
or of his spiritual clients'
p. 5 (yagamāna);
but the rules given below, XX, 11, and XXI, 27, in the section
on penances, confirm the explanation given above.
Vishnu XXXV, 1-2. Guru means here the father, see below,
Vishnu XXXV, 3-5. Spiritual connexion, i.e. becoming
the teacher or priest of an outcast, or his pupil or spiritual
Identical with Manu XI, 181. It must be understood that spiritual
or matrimonial connexion with an outcast causes immediate degradation,
as Vishnu states expressly.
Vishnu XXXVII, 6, 31; Gautama XXI, 11. Regarding the
precise meaning of pratigahnuyāt, 'offends,' see below,
Manu III, 13; Yāgńavalkya I, 57; Pāraskara Grihya-sūtra
I, 4, 8-11.
Manu III, 14-19.
Āpastamba II, 5, II, 17-20.
Vishnu XXIV, 19; Āsvalāyana Grihya-sūtra
I, 6, 1.
Vishnu XXIV, 20; Āsvalāyana Grihya.-sūtra
I, 6, 2,
Vishnu XXIV, 21; Āsvalāyana Grihya-sūtra
I, 6, 3.
Vishnu XXIV, 23; Āsvalāyana Grihya-sūtra
I, 6, 5.
Vishnu XXIV, 25; Āsvalāyana Grihya-sūtra
I, 6, 8.
Vishnu XXIV, 24; Āsvalāyana Grihya-sūtra
I, 6, 6.
Sāṅkhāyana Grihya-sūtra I, 14; Pāraskara
Grihya-sūtra I, 8, 18; Āpastamba II, 6, 13, 12. Though
Vasishtha's quotation is less complete than Āpastamba's,
still the following Sūtras show that he knew the conclusion
of the passage, and does not take it as an authority for the
sale of a daughter.
Krishnapandita makes a mistake by connecting
the word 'kāturmāsyeshu' with the next Sūtra. He is right
in saying that 'the Kāturmāsyas' is the name of a book.
It is, however, not a separate work, but the kānda or
section of a Vedic work treating of the Kāturmāsya sacrifices
(see Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 355). The particular
work from which our quotation has been taken, is either the
Maitrāyānīya Samhitā, or the Kāthaka. For,
as Dr. von Schroeder informs me, Maitrāyānīya Samhitā
I, 10, 11 reads 'anritam vā eshā karoti yā patyuh
krītā satyathānyais karati,' and the title of
the kānda is Kāturmāsyāni. Professor Weber, Ind.
Stud. V, 407, has found the same words in the Kāturmāsya
section of the Kāthaka XXXVI, 5. In the translation I
have added the beginning of the passage which Vasishtha
omits, according to the Maitrāyānīya Samhitā.
Gautama XI, 25-27.
Vishnu III, 22-25. Though the ambiguous word dhana, 'wealth,'
is used in the text, it seems not doubtful that Vasishtha
alludes to the land-tax, which generally consists of one sixth
of the produce.
Vishnu III, 26.
Vishnu III, 27--28. Pūrta, 'the merit gained by charitable
works,' i.e. by planting trees, digging wells, and so forth.
The words 'iti ha,' placed at the end of the Sūtra, indicate
that it is a quotation, and that vigńāyate, 'it is declared
in the Veda,' has to be understood from Sūtra 46. Gautama XI,
11, too, alleges that the rule is based on a Vedic passage.
Satapatha-brāhmana V, 4, 2, 3. Krishnapandita's
division of the quotation into several Sūtras is unnecessary.
His explanation of anādya, which he takes to mean 'the first
of all,' is wrong. He asserts that the Brāhmana is said
'to make the Veda rich,' because by sacrificing and so forth
he fulfils its object and protects it. But the phrase is probably
corrupt. If it is said that Soma is the king of the Brāhmanas,
the object is to indicate that an earthly king is not their
master, see Gautama XI, 1.
II. Vishnu II, 1-2; Manu X, 4.
with Manu II, 169a, 170a, and Vishnu
XXVIII, 37-38. The Sāvitrī or the verse addressed to Savitri
is found Rig-veda III, 62, 10.
I, 10; Manu II, 171.
reading tathāpyudāharanti, which several of my MSS. give, seems
to me preferable to Krishnapandita's udāharati.
Krishnapandita explains sādhu karoti, 'makes
them holy,' by adhyātmam upadisati,' teaches them transcendental
Vishnu XXVIII, 40. Instead of Krishnapandita's
'yāvadvedo na gāyate,' 'yāvadvede na gāyate,'
which occurs in several MSS. and in the parallel passages of
Manu II, 172 and other Smritis, must be read.
Gautama II, 5. The rites referred to are the funeral rites.
Vishnu XXIX, 9-10, and introduction, p. xxiii; Nirukta
Vishnu XXX, 47.
Krishnapandita wrongly connects the word
brāhmanasya with the next Sūtra. For this and the next
seven Sūtras, compare Vishnu II, 4-14.
Krishnapandita by mistake leaves out the
I read 'teshām parikaryā,' with the majority of the MSS.,
instead of Krishnapandita's 'teshām
In illustration of this Sūtra Krishnapandita
quotes a verse of Laugākshi, which states that Brāhmanas
belonging to the Vasishtha family wore the top-lock on
the right side of the head, and the members of the Atri family
allowed it to hang down on
p. 12 both sides, while
the Bhrigus shaved their heads, and the Āṅgirasas
wore five locks (kūdā) on the crown of the head.
Cf. Max Müller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 53.
Vishnu II, 15.
For this and the following four Sūtras, see Gautama VII, 8-21.
Rasāh, 'substances used for flavouring,' i.e. 'molasses,
sugar-cane, sugar, and the like.'--Krishnapandita.
See also note on Gautama VII, 9.
Identical with Manu X, 92.
Vishnu LIV, 18; Āpastamba I, 7, 20, 13. Krishnapandita
wrongly connects this Sūtra with the preceding one.
Manu X, 91.
Manu X, 90.
Vāgasaneyi-samhitā XII, 71. The translation follows
the explanation given in the next Sūtra as closely as possible,
though the latter is without doubt erroneous. The purpose for
which Vasishtha introduces it, is to show that a Vedic
text permits agriculture to a Brāhmana who offers Soma-sacrifices.
Gautama VII, 16-21.
Manu X, 117. Krishnapandita reads with
MS. B., vārdhushim na dadyātām, and explains it by vriddhim
naiva prayogayetām, 'they shall not take interest.' I
read with the other MSS. vārdhushī, and translate that term
by 'usurers.' Below, Sūtra 42, vārdhushi is used likewise in
this its usual sense.
Manu X, 117.
Vishnu VI, 11-17; Colebrooke I, Dig. LXVI, where 'silver
and gems' have been added after gold, and rasāh, 'flavouring
substances,' been translated by 'fluids.' The translation differs
also in other respects, because there the Sūtras stand by themselves,
while here the nouns in Sūtras 44 and 47 are governed by the
preceding dadyātām, 'they may lend.' They, i.e. a Brāhmana
and a Kshatriya. The rule, of course, refers to other castes
also, and to those cases where no periodical interest is taken,
but the loan returned in kind.
The Ratnākara quoted by Colebrooke loc. cit. takes 'what is
sold by weight' to be 'camphor and the like.' Krishnapandita
thinks that 'clarified butter, honey, spirituous liquor, oil,
molasses, and salt' are meant. But most of these substances
fall under the term rasāh, 'flavouring substances.' The
proper explanation of the words seems to be, 'any other substance
not included among those mentioned previously, which is sold
Vishnu VI, 2, and especially Manu VIII, 142. The lowest
rate of interest is to be taken from the highest caste, and
it becomes greater with decreasing respectability. According
to Krishnapandita and the commentators
on the parallel passage of Vishnu, Manu, and other Smritis,
this rule applies only to loans for which no security is given--a
statement which is doubtlessly correct.
Both the reading and the sense of this verse, which in some
MSS. is wanting, are somewhat doubtful. I read with my best
rāgā to mritabhāvena dravyavriddhim
dravyamūlam ka vardhate ||
and consider that it gives a rule, ordering all
money transactions to be stopped during the period which intervenes
between the death of a king and the coronation of his successor.
I am, however, unable to point out any parallel passages confirming
this p. 16
view. Krishnapandita's text shows two important
various readings, 'bhritibhāvena' and 'rāgābhīshikena,'
which I think are merely conjectures, unsupported by the authority
of MSS. He explains the verse as follows: 'The king shall destroy,
i.e. himself not take, the interest on money by giving [it away]
as a salary. But, after thus giving away interest received,
he may increase his capital by [an extra tax imposed on] the
cultivators, i.e. take from them the highest rate, consisting
of one-fourth of the produce.'
Gautama XII, 29; Colebrooke I, Dig. XXIV. The rule given in
this Sūtra refers, as Krishnapandita correctly
states, to loans, for which security is given. The rate is 1¼
per cent for the month, or 15 per annum; see the note to Gautama
loc. cit. Manu, VIII, 140, especially mentions that this rate
is prescribed by Vasishtha.
III. I read Sūdrasadharmānah, 'equal
to Sūdras,' instead of sūdrakarmānah,
which occurs in MS. B. only. Krishnapandita
explains the latter reading by sūdravatkarma yeshu te
'shall be treated like Sūdras.' But the verses quoted
in the following Sūtras show that the former reading is the
Identical with Manu II, 168.
This and the following nine verses are, as the word 'iti,' which
the best MSS. give at the end of Sūra 12, quotations.
Anrik, 'who does not know the Veda,' means, literally,
'unacquainted with the Rig-veda.'
This verse, which is identical with Manu XII, 114, and the next
two are intended to show that a Brāhmana who, neglects
the study of the Veda, is unfit to decide points of the sacred
law, which are not settled either by the Smriti or the
Sruti, and become a member of a parishad or' Pańk.'
The verse contains a better version of Manu XII, 115.
Regarding the term Vedapāraga, see Gautama V, 20, note. Itareshām,
'fools,' means literally, 'different from (those who have mastered
Regarding the crime of 'neglecting a Brāhmana,' see Manu
VIII, 392-393, where fines are prescribed for neglecting to
invite to dinner worthy neighbours and Srotriyas.
A learned Brāhmana resembles a sacrificial fire, see
e.g. below, XXX, 2-3; Āpastamba I, 1, 3, 44.
Manu II, 157. Krishnapandita and MS. B.
give the ungrammatical construction which occurs in Manu and
other Dharmasāstras, while the other MSS. read more correctly,
'yaska kāshthamayo h. yaska karmamayo
This rule agrees exactly with Gautama X, 45; see also Vishnu
III, 56-61. The matter is introduced here in order to show the
prerogative of a learned Brāhmana. Regarding the six
lawful occupations, see-above, II, 13-14.
Vishnu V, 189-192. The connexion of this subject with
the main topic consists therein that it furnishes an instance
where learning does not protect a Brāhmana.
I read with the majority of the MSS., 'api vedāntapāragam,'
instead of 'vedāntagam rane,' as Krishnapandita
For the explanations of the terms left untranslated, see the
note on Āpastamba II, 8, 17, 22; Gautama XV, 28; and the notes
on Vishnu LXXXIII, 2-21. Regarding the meaning of
Khandoga, 'one who knows the first part of the Sāma-veda
Samhitā,' see Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 63, note 59.
'One who knows the Samhitā and the Brāhmana, i.e.
of the Rig-veda.'--Krishnapandita. Regarding
the various classes of Snātakas, see Āpastamba I, 11, 30, 1-3.
Manu XII, 111. Krishnapandita reads
kāturvidyas trikalpī ka, 'one who knows the four
Vedas and one who knows three different Kalpa-sūtras.' My translation,
follows the reading of the MSS., kāturvidyam vikalpī
ka, which is corroborated by the parallel passage of
Baudhāyana I, 1, 8, 'kāturvaidyam vikalpī ka.'
The explanation of the latter word is derived from Govindasvāmin.
'Men who are in three orders, i.e. a student, a householder,
and ascetic,' see Gautama XXVIII, 49.
Vishnu XXIX, 1-2.
Gautama VII, 25.
Vishnu II, 6.
Vishnu LXII, 1-9.
Krishnapandita is probably right in thinking
that the word vā, 'or,' inserted before 'bending forward,' is
intended to forbid other improper acts, gestures or postures,
which are reprehended in other Smritis.
Vishnu XXIII, 43; Manu V, 128.
'Collected in unclean places, e.g. in a burial-ground.'--Krishnapandita.
Gautama I, 41.
Gautama I, 37.
Āpastamba I, 5, 16, 10.
Āpastamba I, 5, 16, 11.
Gautama I, 38-40.
Manu V, 142.
Vishnu XXIII, 55. 'Occupied with eatables,' i.e. 'eating.'--Krishnapandita.
Vishnu XXIII, 50. This and the following two Sūtras are
a quotation, as appears from the use of the particle iti at
the end of Sūtra 47.
Manu V, 129.
Vishnu XXIII, 43
Gautama I, 42. For the explanation of the term amedhya, 'unclean
substances,' see Manu V, 135, and the passage from Devala translated
in Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu XXIII, 38.
Gautama I, 29; Vishnu XXIII, 26, 33, 27, 18.
Gautama I, 30.
Gautama I, 31 and note; Vishnu XXIII, 4.
Gautama I, 33.
Vishnu XXIII, 28. Cups and bottles made of the shell
of the cocoa-nut or of the Bilva (Bel) fruit and of bottle-gourds
Vishnu XXIII, 22.
Vishnu XXIII, 56-57. Krishnapandita
takes upakarana, 'heaping (pure earth) on (the
defiled spot),' to mean 'lighting a fire on it' or 'digging
it up.' The translation given above rests on the parallel passages
of Gautama I, 32, and of Baudhāyana I, 5, 52, bhūmes tu sammārganaprokshanopalepanāvastaranopalekhanairyathāsthānam
doshaviseshāt prāyatyam, 'land becomes pure, according
to the degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled) spot,
by sprinkling it, by smearing it with cowdung, by scattering
(pure earth) on it, or by scraping it.' Bhūmi, 'land,' includes
also the mud-floor of a house or of a verandah.
Some MSS. have instead of gharshāt, 'by scraping,' varshāt,
'by rain;' see also note on Gautama I, 32.
Vishnu XXII, 91. 59. Vishnu XXIII, 5. 60. Identical
with Manu V, 109, and Vishnu XXII, 92.
Vishnu XXIII, 7. Krishnapandita
points out that these
p. 25 two rules and
that given in the next Sūtra refer to cases in which gold, silver,
and copper have not been stained by impure substances.
Vishnu XXIII, 25.
Vishnu LXII, I-4; Āpastamba II, 2, 3, II.
Vishnu LXVIII, 42. The Sūtra is also intended to prescribe
that the number of the daily meals is two, only.
Manu III, 251.
The rites referred to are, according to Krishnapandita,
marriages, feeding Brāhmanas, Nāndīsrāddhas, and
IV. Manu I, 87.
Rig-veda X, 90, 12.
Vishnu II, 17.
Mānavam, 'the Mānava (Sūtra),' means literally 'a work proclaimed
by Manu' (manunā proktam). It is probable that the work referred
to by Vasishtha is the lost Dharma-sūtra of the Mānava
Sākhā, which is a subdivision of the Maitrāyanīyas,
and on which the famous metrical Mānava Dharmasāstra
is based. The words of the Sūtra may either be a direct quotation
or a summary of the opinion given in the Mānava-sūtra. I think
the former supposition the more probable one, and believe that
not only Sūtra 5, but also Sūtras 6-8 have been taken bodily
from the ancient Dharma-sūtra. For Sūtra 6 agrees literally
with a verse of the metrical Manusmriti, and at the end
of Sūtra 8 several MSS. have the word iti, the characteristic
mark that a quotation is finished, while the language of Sūtra
8 is more antiquated than Vasishtha's usual style. If
my view is correct, it follows that the lost Mānava Dharma-sūtra
consisted, like nearly all the known works of this class, partly
of prose and partly of verse.
Identical with Manu V, 41; Vishnu LI, 64; and Sāṅkhāyana
Grihya-sūtra II, 16, 1. I take pitridaivata, against
Kullūka's and Krishnapandita's view, as
a bahuvrīhi compound, and dissolve it by pitaro daivatam
yasmimstat, literally 'such (a rite) where the
manes are the deities,' The other explanation, '(rites)
to the manes or to the gods,' which is also grammatically correct,
recommends itself less, because the rites to the gods are already
included by the word yagńe, 'at a sacrifice.' As to the
Madhuparka, see Āpastamba II, 4, 8, 8-9, and below XI, 1.
Manu V, 48, and Vishnu LI, 71, where, however, the conclusion
of the verse has been altered to suit the ahimsā-doctrines
of the compilers of the metrical Smritis. The reason
why slaughter at a sacrifice is not slaughter in the ordinary
sense may be gathered from Vishnu LI, 61, 63.
Satapatha-brāhmana III, 4, I, 2; Yāgńavalkya
I, 109. 9-10. Vishnu XIX, 7; Manu V, 58. Regarding the
length of the period of impurity, see below, Sūtras 16, 26-29.
Vishnu XIX, 6.
Vishnu XIX, 7; Gautama XIV, 40. 'On those days of the
period of impurity which are marked by odd numbers,' i.e. 'on
the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, as has been declared
Vishnu XIX, 16; Gautama XIV, 37.
Vishnu XIX, 14.
Vishnu XXII, 5.
Gautama XIV, 36; Pāraskara Grihya-sūtra III, xo, 42.
Others than the blood-relations,' i.e. 'the husband and his
relatives.' The MSS. have another Sūtra following this, which
Krishnapandita leaves out. Tāska
teshām, 'and they (the married females shall perform the obsequies)
of those (i.e. their husbands and his Sapindas).' It
seems to me very probable that the passage is genuine, especially
as Pāraskara, Grihya-sūtra III, 10, 43, has the same
Vishnu XXII, 1.
Gautama XIV, 15-16, The Sūtra ought to have been divided into
Vishnu XXII, 35.
Vishnu XXII, 36.
Vishnu. XXII, 37. Krishnapandita
explains prabhāte, 'on the morning (of the day on which the
first period of impurity expires),' in accordance with Nandapandita's
explanation of Vishnu's text by 'during the last watch
(of the last night of the period of impurity).' See also the
slightly different explanation of the identical swords by Haradatta,
Gautama XIV, 8.
Vishnu XXII, 1.
Vishnu XXII, 4.
Regarding the penance prescribed here, the so-called anasnatpārāyana,
see below XX, 46, and Baudhāyana III, 9.
Vishnu XXII, 27-30.
Gautama XIV, 44, and introduction to Gautama, p. liii.
Introduction to Gautama, pp. liii and liv.
Vishnu XXII, 69. Krishnapandita
and MS. B. read pūya,
p. 31 'pus,' instead
of yūpa, 'a sacrificial post.' The reading is, however, wrong,
because the parallel passages of most Smritis enjoin
that a man who has touched a sacrificial post shall bathe. The
cause of the mistake is probably a mere clerical error. The
MSS. repeat the last word of this chapter, apa ityapah.
The reason is not, as Krishnapandita imagines,
that the author wishes to indicate the necessity of bathing
when one touches a person who has touched some impure thing
or person. It is the universal practice of the ancient authors
to repeat the last word of a chapter in order to mark its end,
see eg. Gautama note on I, 61. If it is neglected in
the earlier chapters of the Vāsishtha Dharma-sūtra, the
badness of the MSS. is the cause.
V. Vishnu XXV, 12. The second clause ought to
have been given as a separate Sūtra. 'A female who no longer
goes naked,' i.e. one who has reached the age of puberty. Amritam,
'is paradise,' i.e. procures bliss in this life and heaven after
death through her children.
Vishnu XXV, 13. Identical with Manu IX, 3.
'The penance which has been ordained in case a wife is unfaithful
to her husband, i.e. goes to a lover and so forth, must be performed
in secret, i.e. in solitary places.'--Krishnapandita.
The explanation is clearly erroneous. Rahasyeshu cannot mean
'in secret' or 'in secret places.' It might refer either to
a. work or works called Rahasyāni or to the rahasyāni prāyaskittāni.
As p. 32
the next Sūtra contains a half-verse taken from the section
on secret penances, XXVIII, 4, it is evident that Vasishtha
here makes a cross-reference. Similar cross-references occur
Yāgńavalkya I, 72, and below, XXVIII, 4.
Vishnu XXII, 72.
Taitt. Samh. II, 5, I, 6-7. I read with the majority
of the MSS., grahānna nirīksheta instead of grihān na
niriksheta, which latter phrase Krishnapandita
renders by 'she shall not look out of the house.' My reading
is confirmed by his quotation from the Smritimańgarī,
where grahānām nirīkshanam, 'looking at
the planets, i.e. the sun, moon,' &c., is forbidden. 'A
large vessel,' i.e. an earthen jar.--Krishnapandita.
Taitt. Sarah. II, 5, I, 2-5. The name 'slayer of a learned Brāhmana'
is applied to Indra, because Vritra is said to have been
deeply versed in the Vedas. Regarding the 'proper season of
women,' see Manu III, 46-48. In the clause 'That guilt of Brāhmana-murder
appears,' &c., I read āvir bhavati with the majority of
the MSS. For the prohibition to accept food from a-ragasvalā,
see Vishnu LI, 16-17.
Taitt. Sarah. II, 5, 1, 6. I read the text of this Sūtra as
follows: 'Tadāhuh--ańganābhyańganam evāsyā
na pratigrāhyam taddhi striyā annam iti--tasmāt tasyai
ka tatra ka bībhatsante meyam upāgād iti.' The
MSS. give the following readings in the second clause: tasmāt
tasmai ka (B. Bh. E. F,), tatra na (F.), medhamupāgād
(Bh. F.), medha upāgād (E.), seyamupāgād (B.) Krishnapandita
follows as usually MS. B. His explanation of the whole Sūtra
is erroneous. 'That is the food of women,' i.e. that is as necessary
to women as their food, because to beautify themselves is one
of their duties.
The meaning of the Sūtra is that a Brāhmanical beggar must not
accept any alms from Brāhmanas whose wives are in their
courses, who keep no sacred fire, and do not attend to the duty
of Veda-study. Regarding sinners of the latter two kinds, see
also Āpastamba I, 6, 18, 32-33.
VI. Manu IV, 155. The word ākāra, which has been
variously translated by 'conduct,' 'rule of conduct,' and 'good
conduct,' includes the observance of all the various rules for
every-day life, taught in the Smritis, and the performance
of the prescribed ceremonies and rites.
I read with MSS. Bh. and E., shadaṅgāstvakhilāh
sayagńāh. The reading of MS. B., which: Krishnapandita
adopts, shadaṅgāh sakhilāh means, 'together
with the six Aṅgas, (and) the Khila (spurious) portions
of the Veda.'
Isha is another name for Āsvina, the month September-October.
Though the rainy season, properly so called, is over in September,
still heavy rain falls in many parts of India, chiefly under
the influence of the beginning north-east monsoon, and is particularly
important for the Rabi or winter crops. I think, therefore,
that it is not advisable to take, as Krishnapandita
does, yathā ishe bdāh both with the first and the second
halves of the verse, and to translate, As the clouds (in general
remain barren) in the month of Isha, even so the texts of the
Veda do not save from evil the deceitful man who behaves deceitfully.
But that Veda, two syllables of which have been studied in the
right manner, sanctifies, just as the clouds in the month of
Isha, (which shed a few drops of rain on the day of the Svāti
conjunction, produce pearls)." 'In the right manner,' i,
e, with the due observance of the rules of studentship.
Identical with Manu IV, 157.
Manu IV, 156. By the inauspicious marks' mentioned in this verse,
and the 'auspicious marks' occurring in the next, the various
lines on the hands and feet &c. are meant, the explanation
of which forms the subject of the Sāmudrika Sāstra.
Identical with Manu IV, 158; Vishnu LXXI, 92.
Vishnu LX, 2. I read with the majority of the MSS., na
Identical with Manu IV, 52.
Vishnu LX, 3-22.
Identical with Manu IV, 51.
Vishnu LX, 24.
I.e. one may bathe also in a tank or river.
Vishnu LX, 25.
Identical with Vishnu LX, 26, and Manu V, 137.
Identical with Āpastamba II, 5, 9, 13, and S. 21, with Sāṅkhāyana,
Grihya-sūtra II, 16, 5.
'Penances (vrata), i.e. the Krikkhras and the rest; self-imposed
restraint (niyama), i.e. eating certain food in accordance with
a vow, and so forth, during a month or any other fixed period
. . . . sacred duties (dharma), i.e. giving gifts and the like.'--Krishnapandita.
Krishnapandita connects brāhmanadūshanam,
translated above by 'speaking evil of Brāhmanas,' with
sūdralakshanam, and renders the two words thus,
'the characteristics of a Sūdra which degrade a Brāhmana.'
'Close their hands,' i.e. are reluctant to accept.
Krishnapandita takes kimkit, translated
by 'some,' to mean 'somewhat,' 'to a certain degree,' i.e. neither
very distinguished nor very despicable.
Manu IV, 188. Read in the text 'evam gā vā' instead of
Gautama IX, 51.
Gautama IX, 9.
Manu IV, 177.
Manu IV, 177; Gautama IX, 50-51.
Manu XII, 109.
VII. Gautama III, 2.
Gautama III, 1.
Vishnu XXVIII, 43.
Vishnu XXVIII, 46. I agree with Krishnapandita
in thinking that the apparently purposeless particle 'and,'
which is used in
p. 41 this Sūtra, indicates
Vasishtha's approval of the rules given in other Smritis,
according to which the student, on the death of the teacher,
shall serve the teacher's son, a fellow-student, or the teacher's
wife, and the service of the sacred fire is the last resource
only. See Vishnu XXVIII, 44-45; Gautama III, 7-8.
These words form part of one of the Mantras which the teacher
recites at the initiation of the student; see e.g. Sāṅkhāyana
Gautama II, 13, 22.
According to Krishnapandita to a kāla,
'hour,' is the eighth part of a day.
Vishnu XXVIII, 9.
Vishnu XXVIII, 7.
Gautama I, 27; Vishnu XXVIII, 41.
Vishnu XXVIII, 18-22.
Vishnu XXVIII, 6.
Vishnu XXVIII, 10; Āpastamba I, 1, 3, 25.
Gautama II, 13.
Vishnu XXVIII, 2-3. The prayers intended are, the so
walled Sandhyās, which are recited at daybreak and in the evening.
Gautama II, 8. 'Three times a day,' i.e. morning, noon, and
evening. Krishnapandita thinks that he
shall perform three ablutions at midday.
|Source: The Sacred Laws
of the Āryas translated by Georg Bühler Part I: Āpastamba
and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) .
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